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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial


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  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother


Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)







A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

as shown in Fig. wide and 2 ft. It is held in this curve until dry. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. Fig. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. 2 -. E. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. as shown in Fig. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. Ontario. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . grasp it and hold the same as a club. --Contributed by J. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. Noble. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. 1.Fig. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. The pieces are then dressed round. with the hollow side away from you. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. Toronto. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. distant. until it is bound as shown in Fig. 2. To throw a boomerang. apart. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. A piece of plank 12 in. 1. 2. long will make six boomerangs. 1. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. away. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in.

A very light. 6 in. one inside of the circle and the other outside. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. and with a movable bottom. but about 12 in. long. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. First. thick. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. A wall. made of 6-in. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. however. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. the block will drop out. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. blocks . The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. forcing it down closely. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. which makes the building simpler and easier. or rather no bottom at all. high and 4 or 5 in. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. dry snow will not pack easily. minus the top. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. it is not essential to the support of the walls. and it may be necessary to use a little water. If the snow is of the right consistency. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall.

long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. 1. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. which is about 1 ft. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. A little experience will enable one to do this work well.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. Fig. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. There is no outward thrust. long and 1 in. which can be made of wood. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. 2. Ore. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. 2. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . Union. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. Fig. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. --Contributed by Geo. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. 3. above the ground. Goodbrod. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. and the young architect can imitate them. 3 -. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. A nail. is 6 or 8 in. C. a. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. The piece of wood. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. wide. or an old safe dial will do. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. Fig. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. D. It also keeps them out. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. 1. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up.

he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. one pair of special hinges. Merrill. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. the box locked . I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. If ordinary butts are used. Syracuse. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. New York. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts.When taking hot dishes from the stove. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. S. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. as the weight always draws them back to place. says the Sphinx. --Contributed by R. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes.

2. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. When the sieve is shaken. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. Place the piece in a vise. proceed as follows: First. draw one-half of it. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. If they do not. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. 3. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. about 1-32 of an inch. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. All . Fig. If the measuring has been done properly. as shown in Fig. Ga. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. as shown in Fig. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel.and the performer steps out in view. Alberta Norrell. Augusta. smooth surface. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. as shown. It remains to bend the flaps. To make a design similar to the one shown. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. With the metal shears. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. allowing each coat time to dry. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. one for each corner. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. 1. on drawing paper. -Contributed by L.

the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. used for insulation. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. in passing through the lamp.the edges should be left smooth. 25 German-silver wire. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. The common cork. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. and in the positions shown in the sketch. After this has dried. In boring through rubber corks. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. To keep the metal from tarnishing. from the back end. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. which is about 6 in. in diameter. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. long. of No. If a touch of color is desired. R. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. about 6 in. B. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. 25 gauge German-silver wire. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. Colo. H. heats the strip of German-silver wire. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. The current. A resistance. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. C. as shown at AA. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. if rolled under the shoe sole. should be in the line. Galbreath. --Contributed by R. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. When the current is turned off. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. causing it to expand. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. is fitted tightly in the third hole. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. Denver. A piece of porcelain tube.

bottom ring. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. Fig. with thin strips of wood. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. --Contributed by David Brown. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. between them as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. leaving a space of 4 in. Mo. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. 2. 1. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. . Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. 3. Kansas City. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. Purchase two long book straps.

The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. The string is then tied. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. The folds are made over the string. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. --Contributed by James M. are mounted on the outside of the box. --Contributed by Katharine D. and tack smoothly. long. which is the right weight for family use. 1. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. N. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. Doylestown. 3. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. Pa. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. Two strips of brass. and one weighing 25 lb. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. 2. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. as . These are shown in Fig. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. just the right weight for a woman to use. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. 4. C. Y. 1. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package.. Fig. having a gong 2-1/2 in. to form a handle. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. Kane.An ordinary electric bell. Syracuse. one weighing 15 lb. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. Fig. 36 in. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. When the aeroplane tips. 1. Morse.. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. and a pocket battery. Fig. in diameter. A.

Frame Made of a Rod . and many fancy knick-knacks. 2. machine screws. two 1/8 -in. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. 2. Day. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. --Contributed by Louis J. Y. Floral Park. 1. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. in diameter. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. long. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. bent as shown in Fig. if once used. four washers and four square nuts. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. N. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. such as brackets. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. AA. The saw. 3/32 or 1/4 in.

How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. An Austrian Top [12] . it has the correct strength. File these edges. using a swab and an old stiff brush. of course. therefore. In the design shown. A. allowing each time to dry. Rub off the highlights. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. copper. of water. Drying will cause this to change to purple.. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. though almost any color may be obtained. treat it with color. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. be covered the same as the back. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. Of the leathers. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. green and browns are the most popular. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. --Contributed by W.may be made of either brass. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. Silver is the most desirable but. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. For etching. Watch Fob For coloring silver. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. or silver. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. after breaking up. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. of water in which dissolve. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. If it colors the metal red. The buckle is to be purchased. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. as well as brass and copper. as well as the depth of etching desired. if copper or brass. Apply two coats. 1 part sulphuric acid. use them in place of the outside nuts. Michigan. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. the most expensive.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. 1 part nitric acid. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. Detroit. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. Scranton. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath.

pass one end through the 1/16-in. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. thick. allowing only 1-1/4 in. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. Tholl. 5-1/4 in. in diameter. Michigan. long. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. A 1/16-in. starting at the bottom and winding upward. 1-1/4 in. When the shank is covered. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. wide and 3/4 in.F. set the top in the 3/4 -in. The handle is a piece of pine. long. --Contributed by J. is formed on one end. . hole. Ypsilanti. Parts of the Top To spin the top. A handle. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. hole in this end for the top. Bore a 3/4-in. 3/4 in. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand.

tarts or similar pastry. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. For black leathers. Northville. The baking surface.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. . Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. Houghton. Alberta Norrell. A. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. Augusta. --Contributed by Miss L. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. Ga. Mich. --A. having no sides. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven.

It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. the same as shown in the illustration. says Studio Light. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. then solder cover and socket together. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . glass fruit jar. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. Centralia. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. two turns will remove the jar. Mo. When you desire to work by white light. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. Stringing Wires [13] A. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper.

By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. as shown in the cross-section sketch. 4 Vertical pieces. 4 Braces. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. 1-1/4 in. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out.for loading and development. They are fastened. square by 12 in. Janesville. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. 16 Horizontal bars. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. . and not tip over. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. square by 62 in. so it can be folded up. 1-1/4 in. Wis.

Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. --Contributed by Dr. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. Cincinnati. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. and a loop made in the end. If the loop is tied at the proper place. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. H. after filling the pail with water. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. C. from scrap material. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. New York. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. -Contributed by Charles Stem. The whole. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. After rounding the ends of the studs. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. O. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. Phillipsburg. Rosenthal. The front can be covered .

2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. The results will be poor. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. by all rules of the game. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. FIG. If the gate is raised slightly.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. --Contributed by Gilbert A. Wehr. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. principally mayonnaise dressing. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. if you try to tone them afterward. and. the color will be an undesirable. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. Md. By using the following method. the mouth of which rests against a. 1 FIG. sickly one. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. Develop them into strong prints. The . In my own practice. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. thoroughly fix. you are. either for contact printing or enlargements. Baltimore. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper.

three times. in this solution........ San Francisco...... Put one on each corner of the blotting paper. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes. 16 oz. When the desired reduction has taken place.. but. A good final washing completes the process.bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison. transfer it to a tray of water.. Water .. long to admit the angle support. This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print... stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table... --Contributed by T.. etc. 5 by 15 in.. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects.. as it will appear clean much longer than the white. preferably the colored kind. where it will continue to bleach.. 2 oz.. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper.... thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses... Gray.. 2. It will bleach slowly and evenly. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder....... The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished. The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone. wide and 4 in. 20 gr. in size.." Cyanide of potassium ... to make it 5 by 5 in..... Cal. L. without previous wetting. when it starts to bleach..... Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete.... With a little practice.... Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig... as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away.... Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper.. Iodide of potassium . this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain. Place the dry print... The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper.. 1 and again as in Fig.. The blotting paper can . An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in.

Make a design similar to that shown. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. Wilson Aldred Toronto. Wisconsin.J. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. 3. and a length of 5 in. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. 20 gauge. --Contributed by L. having a width of 2-1/4 in. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. Oshkosh. wide below the . Monahan. the head of which is 2 in. --Contributed by J. wide. the shaft 1 in. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. Corners complete are shown in Fig.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. Canada. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate.

For coloring olive green. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. as shown in Fig. after folding along the center line. 1. Apply with a small brush. 1 Fig. deep. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. With files. With the metal shears. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. which gives the outline of the design Fig. Fig. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. then coloring. After this has dried. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. Allow this to dry. then trace the other half in the usual way. Do not put the hands in the solution. being held perpendicular to the work. 2. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. .FIG. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. but use a swab on a stick. using turpentine. using a small metal saw. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. freehand. 1 part nitric acid. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. 3. Trace the design on the metal. using carbon paper. Make one-half of the design. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. The metal must be held firmly. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. 1 part sulphuric acid. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. 4. After the sawing. Pierce a hole with a small drill. then put on a second coat. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching.

This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. After the stain has dried. New York. Carl Cramer. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. Conn. When this is cold. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. Syracuse. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. on a chopping board. it does the work rapidly. thick. Morse. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. attach brass handles. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. --Contributed by H. East Hartford. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. . which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. then stain it a mahogany color. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. Burnett. Richmond. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. --Contributed by Katharine D. --Contributed by M. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. as shown.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. Ii is an ordinary staple. M. Cal. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared.

one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. brass. A. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. square. Cal. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots.. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. also locate the drill holes. about 3/16 in. 1/4 in. --Contributed by W. . thick and 4 in. Richmond. H. as shown at A. --Contributed by Mrs. two enameled. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. holes. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. in width at the shank. as shown in Fig. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. not over 1/4 in. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. some pieces of brass. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. WARNECKE Procure some brass. thick. Jaquythe. Florida. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. indicating the depth of the slots. one shaft. machine screws. 1. and several 1/8-in. saucers or pans. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. L. Atwell. or tin. Fig. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. 53 steel pens. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. Kissimmee. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. 4. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades.

each about 1 in. Fig. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. long by 3/4 in. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. These are connected to a 3/8-in. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. about 1/32 in. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. with a 3/8-in. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. The shaft hole may also be filed square. If metal dishes. wide and bend as shown in Fig. as shown. 2. with 1/8-in. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. Fig. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. 1. 3. and the ends filed round for the bearings. 3. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. thick. 5. lead should be run into the segments. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. hole in the center. wide. in diameter and 1/32 in. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. hole. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. using two nuts on each screw. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. machine screws. into the hole. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. can be procured. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. There should be a space of 1/16 in. 7. supply pipe. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. long and 5/16 in. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. thick. as shown in Fig. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. 6. Fig. and pins inserted. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. a square shaft used. Bend as shown in Fig.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust.. machine screws and nuts. as in Fig. If the shaft is square. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. with the face of the disk. hole is drilled to run off the water. brass and bolted to the casing. A 3/4-in. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. 2.

The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. Hamilton. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. Fasten with 3/4-in. deep over all. using four to each leg. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. Canada. The lower part. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. Stain the wood before putting in the .the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. long. The four legs are each 3/4-in. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. deep and 1-1/4 in. Be sure to have the cover. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. La Salle. three of which are in the basket. or more in diameter. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. Ill. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. V. With a string or tape measure. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. Now you will have the box in two pieces. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. square and 30-1/2 in. we will call the basket. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. When assembling. to make the bottom. --Contributed by S. from the bottom end of the legs. --Contributed by F. Cooke. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. from the top of the box. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. make these seams come between the two back legs. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. 8-1/2 in. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. Smith. screws. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. high and 15 in.

Packard.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. Sew on to the covered cardboards. 1. --also the lower edge when necessary. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. wide. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. you can. Md. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. -Contributed by Stanley H. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. and gather it at that point. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. Fig. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. sewing on the back side. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. Baltimore. Mass. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. Cover them with the cretonne. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. as shown in the sketch. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. Boston. When making the display. If all the parts are well sandpapered.lining.2 Fig. The side. The folded part in the center is pasted together. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. 2. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. wide and four strips 10 in.

It is not difficult to . and. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. 3. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. When through using the pad. Orlando Taylor. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. Mo. --Contributed by H. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. L. Gloversville. --Contributed by B. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. with slight modifications. N. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. Crockett. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. Cross Timbers. saving all the solid part. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. It is cleanly. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. Fig. Y.

and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. or if desired. After this is done. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. --Contributed by Edith E. S. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. El Paso. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. After stirring. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. Mass. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. Lowell. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. If a file is used. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . across the face. Bourne. remove the contents. and scrape out the rough parts. are shown in the diagram. -Contributed by C. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. Texas. Lane.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. Both of these methods are wasteful. and secure it in place with glue or paste. it should be new and sharp. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete.

He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. --Contributed by Marion P. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. Greenleaf. Oregon. After several hours' drying. He captured several pounds in a few hours. circled over the funnel and disappeared. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. The process works well and needs no watching. Those having houses . The insects came to the light. Canton. Wheeler. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. Turl. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. Ill. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. A Postcard Rack [25]. --Contributed by Geo. Des Moines. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. The illustration shows a rack for postcards.cooking utensil. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. Iowa. Oak Park. Ill. --Contributed by Loren Ward. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. F. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. As these were single-faced disk records. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask.

The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. plane and pocket knife. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. one on each side of what will be the . yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. and as they are simple in design. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. material. Conn. and both exactly alike. Lay the floor next. 6 in. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. not even with the boards themselves. Glenbrook. Dobbins. the best material to use being matched boards.. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. the bottom being 3/8 in. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. --Contributed by Wm. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. Mass. --Contributed by Thomas E.. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. boards are preferable. and the second one for the developing bench. but for cheapness 3/4 in. The single boards can then be fixed. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. thick. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. Both sides can be put together in this way. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. by 2 ft. Rosenberg. will do as well. Only three pieces are required. 6 in. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. Worcester. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch.

11. and in the middle an opening. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. 9 by 11 in. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. the closing side as at B. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. which is fixed on as shown . and the top as at C in the same drawing.. wide. as shown in Figs. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. 2 in section.. of the top of the door for the same reason. below which is fixed the sink. so that it will fit inside the sink. The developing bench is 18 in. 10). nailing them to each other at the ridge. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. 9). etc. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces.doorway. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. Fig. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. In hinging the door. 6 and 9. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. 6. At the top of the doorway. 3 and 4. The roof boards may next be put on. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. 5. 6. by screwing to the floor. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. hinged to it. and should be zinc lined. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. It is shown in detail in Fig. and act as a trap for the light. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. and to the outside board of the sides. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. brown wrapping paper. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. 8. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. so that the water will drain off into the sink. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. 7. is cut. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs..

Details of the Dark Rook .

14. Erie. The handle should be at least 12 in. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. 16. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. if desired. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. four coats at first is not too many. 19. For beating up an egg in a glass. --Contributed by W. though this is hardly advisable. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig.in Fig. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. Fig. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. and a tank stand on it. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. Karl Hilbrich. 13. or the room may be made with a flat roof. as at M. preferably maple or ash. mixing flour and water. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. 1. screwing them each way into the boards. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. Fig. The house will be much strengthened if strips. but not the red glass and frame. 16. as shown in Fig. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. 18. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. are fastened in the corners inside. which makes it possible to have white light. or red light as at K. 17. these being shown in Fig. as shown in the sections. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. Fig. A circular piece about 2 in. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. as in Fig. Fig. In use. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. it is better than anything on the market. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. as at I. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . 2. after lining with brown paper. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. 20. 15. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. 6. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. Pennsylvania. 13. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. hole bored in the center for a handle. and a 3/8-in. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands.

Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. Eureka Springs. about 3/8 in. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. as shown in the sketch. Mitchell. which. when put together properly is a puzzle. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. --Contributed by Wm. Mo. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. Yonkers. -Contributed by E. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. D. L. --Contributed by L. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. Ark. Smith. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . long. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint.copper should be. Kansas City. New York. G. To operate. for a handle. Schweiger. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading.

it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. The design shown in Fig. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. The corks in use are shown in Fig. 1. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. especially for filling-in purposes. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. to make it set level. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. A number of 1/2-in. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. If the sill is inclined. as well as improve its appearance. as is usually the case. 3. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. After the box is trimmed. for the moment. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. the rustic work should be varnished. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. the box will require a greater height in front. . 2. as shown in Fig. need them. which binds them together. as shown in Fig. in order to thoroughly preserve it. Each cork is cut as in Fig. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. Having completed the bare box. holes should be drilled in the bottom. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. 3.

. can't use poison. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. 4. When the corn is gone cucumbers. cabbages. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. it's easy. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. etc. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. drilled at right angles. The coiled rod is 3/16 in.. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. and observe results. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. Each long projection represents a leg. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. F. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. But I have solved the difficulty. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. being partly eaten into. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. too dangerous. life in the summer time is a vexation. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. 3. 1. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. share the same fate. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. as shown in Fig. 2. Traps do no good.

-. cut some of it off and try again. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. strips. About 9-1/2 ft. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. If. the coil does not heat sufficiently. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. Iowa. . to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. The solution can be used over and over again. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. of No. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. by trial. and made up and kept in large bottles. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. cut in 1/2-in. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. long. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid.

The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. C. forks. of whiting and 1/2 oz. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. it falls to stop G. --Contributed by James M. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. . In cleaning silver. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. hot-water pot. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. and a strip. Pa. Kane. is a good size--in this compound. to cause the door to swing shut. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. of gasoline. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. Doylestown. --Contributed by Katharine D. N. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. 1) removed. Stir and mix thoroughly. Knives. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. Dallas. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. but with unsatisfactory results. Fig 2. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. Y. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. Morse. D. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. as shown in the sketch. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. of oleic acid with 1 gal. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. Syracuse. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. Texas. Do not wash them.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. coffee pot. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame.

of course. negatives. --Contributed by Theodore L. which is. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. Waverly. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. but unfixed. Fisher. New Orleans. --Contributed by Oliver S. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. Pa. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. using the paper dry. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. .Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. Ill. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. Harrisburg. La. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . later fixed and washed as usual. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. Sprout. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film.

is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. a harmonograph is a good prescription. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. The harmonograph. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. then . A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. 1. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. To obviate this difficulty. metal. In this uncertainty lies the charm. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. Fig.

J. as long as the other. ceiling. one-fourth. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. of about 30 or 40 lb. 1-3/4 by 2 in. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. Ingham. is attached as shown at H. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. Arizona.. A pedestal. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. or the lines will overlap and blur. A length of 7 ft. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. as shown in Fig. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge.. what is most important. A small table or platform. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. etc. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. G. one-fifth. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. 1. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. to prevent any side motion. such as a shoe buttoner. in the center of the circle to be cut. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. that is. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. R. Gaffney. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. The length of the short pendulum H. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. --Contributed by James T. Chicago. provides a means of support for the stylus. which can be regulated. and unless the shorter pendulum is. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. Holes up to 3 in. as shown in the lower part of Fig. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. A weight. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. is about right for a 10-ft. exactly one-third. 1. in diameter. for instance.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. with a nail set or punch. --Contributed by Wm. K. Punch a hole. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. A small weight. Rosemont. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. Another weight of about 10 lb. makes respectively 3.

2. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. Chicago. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. The two key cards are made alike.J. then put 2 at the top. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. Morey. Cruger. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. then 3 as in Fig. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. 4. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. one for the sender and one for the receiver. 5. and proceed as before. 6. 3. --Contributed by J. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. N.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. Cape May City. dividing them into quarters. -Contributed by W. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. and 4 as in Fig.J. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. a correspondent of . Fig. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. The capacity of the vise. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife.H. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. Fig. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. of course. 1. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. distributing them over the whole card. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory.

After preparing the base and uprights. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. 6 gauge wires shown. says Popular Electricity. 30 gr. Augusta. from the top and bottom. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. acetic acid and 4 oz. of water. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. of 18-per-cent No. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. respectively. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. the portion of the base under the coil. 1/4 in. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. To assemble. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. Ga. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. Wind the successive turns of . sheet of well made asbestos paper. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. Cut through the center. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. long. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. drill 15 holes. of ferricyanide of potash. --Contributed by L. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. After securing the tint desired. deep. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. Asbestos board is to be preferred. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. citrate of iron and ammonia. Alberta Norrell.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. 1/2 oz. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. 22 gauge German-silver wire. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. wood-screws. If constructed of the former. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. remove the prints. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. of the uprights.

The case may be made of 1/2-in. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. Ampere.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. etc. Y. as they are usually thrown away when empty. rivets. 16 gauge copper wire. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. square. N. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench.. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. then fasten the upright in place. cut and dressed 1/2 in. if one is not a smoker. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. screws. Labels of some kind are needed. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. 14 gauge. which. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. but these are not necessary. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. Ward. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. Small knobs may be added if desired. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. --Contributed by Frederick E.

gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. Larson. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. tin. then to the joint to be soldered. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. tinner's acid. Jaquythe. galvanized iron. and one made of poplar finished black. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. S. it must be ground or filed to a point. California. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. D. and rub the point of the copper on it. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. E and F. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. Kenosha." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. In soldering galvanized iron. --Contributed by A. and labeled "Poison. Eureka Springs. brass. This is considerable annoyance. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again.14 oz. Richmond.. Ark. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. . a piece of solder. --Contributed by W. the pure muriatic acid should be used. Heat it until hot (not red hot). Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. of water. of glycerine to 16 oz. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. or has become corroded. B. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. sandpaper or steel wool. --C. Copper. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. Wis. being careful about the heat. as shown in the sketch. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. G. C. lead. zinc. The material can be of any wood. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. particularly so when the iron has once been used. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. The parts are put together with dowel pins. A. especially if a large tub is used. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. If the soldering copper is an old one.

Y. Fig. The covers of the magazines are removed. The dimensions shown in Fig. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. in diameter. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. round iron. Apart from this. This completes the die. -Contributed by H. B. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. Six issues make a well proportioned book. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. The disk will come out pan shaped. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. wide. 7/8 in. and drill out the threads. which gives two bound volumes each year. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. This will leave a clear hole. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . in diameter. brass and silver. The punch A. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. Hankin. however. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. C. nut. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. a ring may be made from any metal. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. 2.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. Troy. 1. with good results. D. Fig. N. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. such as copper. Take a 3/4-in. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. thick and 1-1/4 in. I bind my magazines at home evenings. Place the band. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. Brass rings can be plated when finished. W. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines.

each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. The covering should be cut out 1 in. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. is nailed across the top. 2. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. 1. C. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. 1. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. The covering can be of cloth. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. Start with the front of the book. The string No. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. which is fastened the same as the first. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. Coarse white thread. through the notch on the left side of the string No. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. If started with the January or the July issue. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. is used for the sewing material. and a third piece. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. 5. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. using . Five cuts. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. After drawing the thread tightly. threaded double. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. and place them against the strings in the frame. 1/8 in. 1 in Fig. of the ends extending on each side. . on all edges except the back. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. size 16 or larger.4. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. The sections are then prepared for sewing. Place the cardboard covers on the book. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. allowing about 2 in.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. 1. as shown in Fig. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. deep. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. then back through the notch on the right side. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. 2. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. and then to string No.

Nebr. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. on which to hook the blade. Encanto. and. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. Cal. round iron. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. Tinplate. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. College View. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. --Contributed by Clyde E. Place the cover on the book in the right position. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. and mark around each one. Divine. For the blade an old talking-machine . Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. at opposite sides to each other. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in.

A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. and 1/4 in. with a steel sleeve. Hays. with 10 teeth to the inch. Moorhead. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. Summitville. and 1/4 in. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. B. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. fuse hole at D. C. and another piece (B) 6 in. Then on the board put . F. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. in order to drill the holes in the ends. by 4-1/2 in. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. long. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose..Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. at the same end. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. bore. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. and a long thread plug. thick. A. E. by 1 in. hydraulic pipe. or double extra heavy. and file in the teeth. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). as it is sometimes called. -Contributed by Willard J. On the upper side. thick. Miss. as shown. Make the blade 12 in. Ohio. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in.. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it.

--Contributed by Chas. as from batteries. and some No. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. Connect up as shown. of wire to each coil.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. Boyd. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . 4 jars. some sheet copper or brass for plates. using about 8 in. Philadelphia. of rubber-covered wire. high around this apparatus. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. the jars need not be very large. A lid may be added if desired. If you are going to use a current of low tension. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. H. about 5 ft. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid.

For the front runners these measurements are: A. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. thick. The current then will flow through the motor. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. Their size also depends on the voltage. with the cushion about 15 in. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. .. wide. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. and for the rear runners: A. In proportioning them the points A. long. The connection between point No. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front.. Use no nails. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. wide and 2 in. square by 14 ft. 34 in. C. steel rod makes a good steering rod. as they are not substantial enough. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. then apply a coat of thin enamel. two for each jar. 4 in. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig.. Construct the auto front (Fig. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. A variation of 1/16 in. sheet brass 1 in. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. long by 22 in. gives full current and full speed. C. wide and 3/4 in. 2. 3 in. and four pieces 14 in. is used to reduce friction. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. direct to wire across jars. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. beginning at the rear. 2 is lower down than in No. by 6 in. by 5 in. Equip block X with screw eyes. by 1-1/4 in. The stock required for them is oak. above the ground. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. by 2 in. 30 in. On the door of the auto front put the . How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. The illustration shows how to shape it. as they "snatch" the ice. thick. and bolt through. For the brass trimmings use No. 1 on switch.the way. 1 is connected to point No. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. Z. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. are important. Use no screws on the running surface. and plane it on all edges. The sled completed should be 15 ft.. Fig.. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. long. by 5 in.. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. apart. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. wide by 3/4 in. 3. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. long. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. To wire the apparatus. At the front 24 or 26 in. 5 on switch. B. 27 B. by 1-1/4 in. B. & S. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. A 3/4-in. 1 and so on for No. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. two pieces 30 in. however. 2. or source of current. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. 2 and 3. two pieces 34 in. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. long. 1. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. 4. 16-1/2 in. making them clear those in the front runner. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. on No. The top disk in jar No. by 1 in.. by 2 in. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. 15-1/2 in. 2. 3 and No. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. 11 in. An iron washer. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. B and C. two pieces 14 in. See Fig. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. oak boards. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. 4) of 3/4-in. 7 in. First sandpaper all the wood. 2 in. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. No. Put arm of switch on point No. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble.

If desired. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. brass plated. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . by 1/2 in. by 30 in. a brake may be added to the sled. which is somewhat moist. lunch. etc. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. long. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. to the wheel. may be stowed within. to improve the appearance. such as burlap. cutting it out of sheet brass. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. parcels. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. If desired. Then get some upholstery buttons. such as used on automobiles. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. a number of boys may share in the ownership. If the expense is greater than one can afford. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. Fasten a horn. overshoes. fasten a cord through the loop. cheap material. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. The best way is to get some strong. or with these for $25. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice.

Leland. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. --Contributed by Stewart H. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same.tree and bring. Lexington. Ill. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. .

thick. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. the cut will be central on the line. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. A small clearance space. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. CD. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. made from 1/16-in. 2. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. This guide should have a beveled edge. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. outside diameter and 1/16 in. when flat against it. with twenty-four teeth. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. a compass. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. though more difficult. which. say 1 in. First take the case of a small gearwheel. The straight-edge. E. London. Fig. from F to G. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. 4). very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. will be over the line FG. Fig. so that the center of the blade. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . 1. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. The first tooth may now be cut. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. some files. Fig. sheet metal. 3. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. the same diameter as the wheel. Draw a circle on paper. mild steel or iron. With no other tools than a hacksaw. FC. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. The Model Engineer. by drawing diameters. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch.

place the prepared slide with the corner cut. each in the center. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. electric lamp. 1. either the pencils for arc lamps. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. Make a hole in the other. transmitter. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. Focus the camera in the usual manner. ground it with a large piece of zinc. as shown in Fig. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. 2. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. some wire and some carbons. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. B. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. B. 1. No shock will be perceptible. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. or several pieces bound tightly together. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. hold in one hand. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. If there is no faucet in the house. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. A bright. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. and the other outlet wire. R. . substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way.Four Photos on One Plate of them. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. Then take one outlet wire. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch.

Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. serves admirably. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. B. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. a transmitter which induces no current is used. D D are binding posts for electric wires. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. J. Several battery cells. Ohio. or more of the latter has been used. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. Then set the whole core away to dry. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. by 1 in. as indicated by E E. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. one at the receiver can hear what is said. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. Wrenn. They have screw ends. 36 wire around it. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. of course. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. Pa. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. One like a loaf of bread. and about that size. at each end for terminals. Dry batteries are most convenient. are also needed. --Contributed by Geo. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. leaving about 10 in. But in this experiment. Slattery. by 12 in. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. and again wind the wire around it. as shown. A is a wooden block. If desired. For a base use a pine board 10 in. and will then burn the string C. Ashland. Emsworth. under the gable. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this.

B B. 14 wire. D. 1. and one single post switch. until the hand points to zero on the scale. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. Connect these three to switch. Ohio. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. These should have hollow ends. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. The oven is now ready to be connected. in parallel. C. run a No. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. Newark. in series with bindingpost. E. B B. First make a support. the terminal of the coil. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. The coil will commence to become warm. C. and the lamps. Fig. Jr. From the other set of binding-posts. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. 12 or No. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. connecting lamp receptacles. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. Turn on switch. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. F.wire. 2. The apparatus is now ready for operation. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. Place 16-cp. Fig. as shown. as shown. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. and switch. At one side secure two receptacles. while C is open. for the . D.. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles.

secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. a standard ammeter. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. drill through the entire case and valve. wide and 1-3/4 in. a variable resistance. The pointer or hand. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. etc. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. Dussault. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. 6. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. 4 amperes. long. The box is 5-1/2 in. 14. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. is made of iron. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. Montreal.or 4-way valve or cock. is then made and provided with a glass front.E. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. drill in only to the opening already through. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. long and make a loop. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. although copper or steel will do. high. wide and 1/8 in. drill a hole as shown at H. 14 wire. 7. remove the valve. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. long. 2. but if for a 4way. 1/4 in. 10 turns to each layer. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. thick. At a point a little above the center. A wooden box. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. 1. 5. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. a battery. 1. --Contributed by J. C. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. deep. To make one. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. until the scale is full. to prevent it turning on the axle. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. although brass is better. D. and D. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. 4. 1/2 in. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. Mine is wound with two layers of No. After drilling. B. 5. The core. where A is the homemade ammeter. inside measurements. D. This may be made of wood. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. Fig. wind with plenty of No. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. If for 3-way. 3 amperes. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. It is 1 in. 36 magnet wire instead of No. is made of wire. from the lower end. Fig. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . E.. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. This is slipped on the pivot.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. 3. Fig. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. as shown in the cut. 4 in. Fig.

A. and a metal rod. D. in thickness . and the arc light. F. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. By connecting the motor. E. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. as shown. To start the light. high. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. making two holes about 1/4 in. in diameter. B. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in.performing electrical experiments. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. and the other connects with the water rheostat. which is used for reducing the current. One wire runs to the switch. provided with a rubber stopper. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. This stopper should be pierced. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase.

N. 1. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. 1. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. Carthage. --Contributed by Harold L. B. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. Turn on the current and press the button. 1. as shown in C. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. To insert the lead plate. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. A piece of wood. Having finished the interrupter. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. Y. Jones. If all adjustments are correct. Fig. Fig. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. as shown in B. Fig. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. Having fixed the lead plate in position. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. where he is placed in an upright open . If the interrupter does not work at first. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. A. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. 2. long. As there shown. Fig. 2. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings.

and can be bought at Japanese stores.. could expect from a skeleton. A white shroud is thrown over his body. dressed in brilliant. within the limits of an ordinary room. figures and lights. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. light-colored garments. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. A. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. L and M.coffin. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. All . The skeleton is made of papier maché. as the entire interior. to aid the illusion. Its edges should nowhere be visible. inside dimensions. especially the joints and background near A. should be miniature electric lamps. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. They need to give a fairly strong light. giving a limp. loosejointed effect. The lights. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. is constructed as shown in the drawings. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. by 7 in. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. should be colored a dull black. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. with the exception of the glass. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. by 7-1/2 in. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. If it is desired to place the box lower down. If everything is not black. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. especially L. The glass should be the clearest possible. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. from which the gong has been removed. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. which can be run by three dry cells. and wave his arms up and down. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. high. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. until it is dark there. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. the illusion will be spoiled. and must be thoroughly cleansed. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. The model.

--Contributed by Geo. Two finishing nails were driven in. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. Fry. after which it assumes its normal color. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . W. If a gradual transformation is desired. San Jose. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. fat spark. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good.that is necessary is a two-point switch. square block. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. as shown in the sketch. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. placed about a foot apart. Cal. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery.

The plates are separated 6 in. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. by small pieces of wood. and should be separated about 1/8 in. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. Cohen. F. -Contributed by Dudley H. into the receiver G. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. with two tubes. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. soldered in the top. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. In Fig. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. If a lighted match . and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. hydrogen gas is generated. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. as shown. New York. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. A (see sketch). In Fig. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. B and C. One of these plates is connected to metal top. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. 1. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. the remaining space will be filled with air. or a solution of sal soda. to make it airtight. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. This is a wide-mouth bottle.

of No. 1. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. 1-5/16 in. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. The distance between the nipple. Fig. long. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. 36 insulated wire. N. 2 shows the end view. is made by drilling a 1/8in. A. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. Fig. One row is drilled to come directly on top. C C. P. N. by means of the clips. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. then a suitable burner is necessary. from the bottom. B. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. London. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. A. A. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. either by passing a current of electricity around it. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . A piece of 1/8-in. copper pipe. A nipple. long. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. in diameter and 6 in. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. copper pipe. is then coiled around the brass tube. A 1/64-in. which is plugged up at both ends. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. 1/2 in. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. which forms the vaporizing coil. A. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. or by direct contact with another magnet. says the Model Engineer. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. and the ends of the tube. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. should be only 5/16 of an inch. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. If desired. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. as is shown in the illustration.

fold and cut it 1 in. this makes a much nicer book. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. taking care not to bend the iron. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. trim both ends and the front edge. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. Fig. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). 1. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. Turn the book over and paste the other side. with a fine saw. Fig. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . about 8 or 10 in. but if the paper knife cannot be used. should be cut to the diameter of the can. larger all around than the book. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. at the front and back for fly leaves. 2). or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. longer and 1/4 in. boards and all. A disk of thin sheet-iron. 3.lamp cord. duck or linen. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. Take two strips of stout cloth. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. Cut four pieces of cardboard. leaving the folded edge uncut. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. 1/4 in. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. Fig. cut to the size of the pages. smoothly.

Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. is made the same depth as B. 4). Noble. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. and a little can. . which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. pasting them down (Fig. but its diameter is a little smaller. C. is fitted in it and soldered. as shown. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. is soldered onto tank A. B. Another can. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. as shown in the sketch. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. Va. is perforated with a number of holes. Toronto. in diameter and 30 in. Parker. This will cause some air to be enclosed. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. H. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. A. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. the joint will be gas tight. 18 in. D. --Contributed by Joseph N. --Contributed by James E. Ont. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. Bedford City. of tank A is cut a hole. In the bottom. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. without a head. is turned on it. Another tank. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. A gas cock. deep. E. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. which will just slip inside the little can. or rather the top now. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry.

shows how the connections are to be made. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. The diagonal struts. should be 1/4 in. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. A A. and about 26 in. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. Bott. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. 2. square by 42 in. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. by 1/2 in. Fig. The small guards. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. C. E. The bridle knots. 1. when finished. The longitudinal corner spines. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. are shown in detail at H and J. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. with an electric-bell magnet. The armature. long. If the pushbutton A is closed. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. J. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. -Contributed by H. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. If the back armature. S. B. fastened in the bottom.. to prevent splitting. which moves to either right or left. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. making the width. basswood or white pine. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. long. and sewed double to give extra strength. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. should be 3/8 in. B. and the four diagonal struts. D. H is a square knot. D. A. N. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. Beverly. Fig. The wiring diagram. exactly 12 in. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. tacks. which may be either spruce. should be cut a little too long. as shown at C. B. thus adjusting the .

as shown. thus shortening G and lengthening F. and if a strong wind is blowing. that refuse to slide easily. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. for producing electricity direct from heat. and. A bowline knot should be tied at J. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. D. If the kite is used in a light wind. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. Stoddard. the batteries do not run down for a long time. Closing either key will operate both sounders. however. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. --Contributed by Edw. --Contributed by A. Chicago. to prevent slipping. Kan. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. with gratifying results. E. Harbert. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. shift toward F. can be made of a wooden . but fasten a string securely to the stick at K.lengths of F and G. Clay Center.

driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. When the cannon is loaded. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. and the current may then be detected by means. and also holds the pieces of wood. C. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. Chicago. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. with a pocket compass. A. Then. spark. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. 14 or No. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. A. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. with a number of nails. in position. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. to the cannon. 16 single-covered wire. by means of machine screws or. The wood screw. which conducts the current into the cannon. or parallel with the compass needle.. --Contributed by A.frame. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . A and B. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. B. placed on top. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. A. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. C. E. C. F. D. E. Fasten a piece of wood. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore.

hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. Chicago. A. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. but no weights or strings. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. A and S. when in position at A'. Bend the strips BB (Fig. Big Rapids. B.the current is shut off. A and S. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. with the long arm at L'. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. Ohio. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. L. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. Connect as shown in the illustration. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. Fig. Mich. To reverse. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. in this position the door is locked. 1. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. --Contributed by Henry Peck. 1. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. To unlock the door. Marion. Keil. H. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. screw is bored in the block. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. to receive the screw in the center. To lock the door. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. In Fig. . now at A' and S'. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. Fig. --Contributed by Joseph B. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. press the button. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. where there is a staple. A hole for a 1/2 in. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. within the reach of the magnet. square and 3/8 in. requiring a strong magnet. 1. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind.

are enameled a jet black. When the holes are finished and your lines set. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. if enameled white on the concave side. When ready for use. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. The standard and base. or for microscopic work. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. and may be made at very slight expense. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. J. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. West Somerville.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. Rand. Thread the other end of the pipe. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. --Contributed by C. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. hole. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. and C is a dumbbell. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. about 18 in. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. pipe with 1-2-in. put in the handle. long. and if desired the handles may . Mass. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. gas-pipe. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen.

D. Fig. with a cover. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in.. Warren. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. Fig. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. high by 1 ft. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . B. 1. which shall project at least 2 in. 1. across. E. as shown at A in the sketch. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time.be covered with leather. A. across. 8 in. Make a cylindrical core of wood. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. North Easton. This peculiar property is also found in ice. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. --Contributed by C. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. inside the pail. Mass. long and 8 in. M.

allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. projecting from each end (Fig. such . By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. strip of sheet iron. It is placed inside the kiln.-G. but will be cheaper in operation. sand. as is shown in the sketch. After removing all the paper. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. long over the lid hole as a chimney. C. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. thick. pipe. Whatever burner is used. 60%. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. in diameter. and on it set the paper wrapped core.. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. 1390°-1410°.. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. if there is to be any glazing done. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. say 1/4 in. the firing should be gradual. C. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. to hold the clay mixture. passing wire nails through and clinching them. about 1 in. bottom and sides. When lighted. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. in diameter. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. After finishing the core. 15%. If the cover of the pail has no rim. Line the pail. Cover with paper and shellac as before. and graphite. and cut it 3-1/2 in.mixture of clay. wider than the kiln. and with especial caution the first time. make two wood ends. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. and 3/4 in. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. hotel china. The 2 in. and 3/8 in. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. 1). which is the hottest part. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. C. let this dry thoroughly. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. 1). setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. and varnish. and your kiln is ready for business. L. but it will burn a great deal of gas. diameter. if you have the materials.. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. Wind about 1/8 in. thick. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. as dictated by fancy and expense. or make one yourself. W. E. Fit all the parts together snugly. This done. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. cutting the hole a little smaller. carefully centering it. 1330°. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. full length of iron core. pack this space-top. 2. layer of the clay mixture. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. hard porcelain. 25%. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. long. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. of fine wire. the point of the blue flame. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. pipe 2-ft. Set aside for a few days until well dried. 3) with false top and bottom. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. Fig. 2 in. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in.

so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. as in Fig. square them up and place in a vise. every alternate card being the same color. all cards facing the same way. and divide it into two piles. R. the next black. . B. You can display either color called for. 2. square them up. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. Take the red cards. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. overlaps and rests on the body. length of . and plane off about 1/16 in. diameter. Of course. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. 2). procure a new deck. C. T. 1. as in Fig. red and black. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. and discharges into the tube. D. Chicago. with a plane. The funnel. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. Then.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. C. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. about 1/16 in. 8 in. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black.. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. as shown in the sketch herewith. --Contributed by J. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. C. leaving long terminals.53 in. Next restore all the cards to one pack. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. bind tightly with black silk. Then take the black cards. and so on. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. around the coil. A. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. taking care to have the first card red. Washington. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. 2.

After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. E. through the holes already drilled. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. The upright pieces. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. Let . The cement. All the horizontal pieces. D. as the difficulties increase with the size. of the frame. Drill all the horizontal pieces. and then the frame is ready to assemble. N. Fig. E. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. so that when they are assembled. stove bolts.J. stove bolts. It should be placed in an exposed location. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. 1. B. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. To find the fall of snow. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. Long Branch. The bottom glass should be a good fit. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. the first thing to decide on is the size. about 20 in. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. C. F. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. A. A. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. 1 gill of fine white sand. B. 1 gill of litharge. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. to form a dovetail joint as shown.C. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. and this is inexpensive to build. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. When the glass is put in the frame a space. B. thus making all the holes coincide. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. the same ends will come together again. angle iron for the frame. should be countersunk as shown in the detail..

a centerpiece (A. Fasten the lever. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. if desired. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. A. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. having a swinging connection at C. Aquarium Finished If desired. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. and. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. B. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. to the door knob. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. on the door by means of a metal plate. Fig. D.

Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. 1. Fig. 1 . 2 at GG. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. and Fig. PAUL S. several lengths of scantling 3 in. long. Do not fasten these boards now. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. which is 15 in. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. to keep the frame from spreading. another. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. according to the slant given C. to form the slanting part. showing the paddle-wheel in position. F.. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. 26 in. 1 is the motor with one side removed. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. but mark their position on the frame. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. --Contributed by Orton E. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. Buffalo. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. with a water pressure of 70 lb. Cut two pieces 30 in. A small piece of spring brass. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. from the outside top of the frame. 1. Y. long. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. for the top. 2 ft. long. long. I referred this question to my husband. Fig. B. Fig. D. soldered to the end of the cylinder. to form the main supports of the frame. C. thus doing away with the spring. Cut two of them 4 ft. approximately 1 ft. will open the door about 1/2 in. hoping it may solve the same question for them. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. another. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. To make the frame. wide . and another. screwed to the door frame. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. Fig. Fig. Two short boards 1 in. N. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. Fig. AA. 2 is an end view. E. They are shown in Fig. 6 in. White. 3 shows one of the paddles. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. as at E. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. wide by 1 in.

long to the wheel about 8 in. pipe. and a 1/4 -in.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. hole through the exact center of the wheel. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. 2) and another 1 in. iron 3 by 4 in. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. hole from the tops to the 1-in. steel shaft 12 in. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. Fig. thick. after which drill a 5/8 in. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. 24 in. to a full 1/2 in. 1. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. tapering from 3/16 in. long and filling it with babbitt metal. hole through its center. These are the paddles. in diameter. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. 4. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. hole through their sides centrally. (I. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. and drill a 1/8-in. then drill a 3/16-in. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. as shown in Fig. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. Take the side pieces. Make this hole conical. hole through them. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. hole to form the bearings. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. Tack one side on. with the wheel and shaft in place. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. Next secure a 5/8-in. Fasten them in their proper position. take down the crosspieces. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. Fig. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. by 1-1/2 in. Drill 1/8-in. holes. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. Now block the wheel. 2) form a substantial base. remove the cardboard. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. GG. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. and drill a 1-in. from one end by means of a key. that is. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. When it has cooled. Fig.burlap will do -. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. 2) with a 5/8-in. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. thick (HH.along the edges under the zinc to form . iron.

Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. Darken the rest of the window. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. Do not stop down the lens. light and the plate. but now I put them in the machine. shutting out all light from above and the sides. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. of course. as shown in the sketch at B. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. but as it would have cost several times as much. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. If sheet-iron is used. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. any window will do. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. Focus the camera carefully. says the Photographic Times. sewing machine. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. and the subject may move. ice-cream freezer. it would be more durable. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. on the lens. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. Correct exposure depends.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. Raise the window shade half way. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. as this makes long exposure necessary. If the bearings are now oiled. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. remove any white curtains there may be. and as near to it as possible. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. or what is called a process plate. . using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. Drill a hole through the zinc. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. drill press. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. start the motor. The best plate to use is a very slow one. It is obvious that. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation.a water-tight joint. place the outlet over a drain. and leave them for an hour or so.

and a base. On completing . a core. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. until the core slowly rises. 2. an empty pill bottle may be used. the core is drawn down out of sight. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. or an empty developer tube. 2. A. and without fog. or can be taken from an old magnet. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. or wood. The core C. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. C. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. full of water. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. The glass tube may be a test tube. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. as a slight current will answer. which is made of iron and cork. by twisting. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. a glass tube. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. D. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. as shown in Fig. B. With a piece of black paper. The current required is very small. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. without detail in the face. hard rubber. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. with binding posts as shown.

whale oil. and one not easy to explain. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. 1. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. 1 pt. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. white lead. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. and make a pinhole in the center. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. The colors appear different to different people. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. is Benham's color top. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. finest graphite. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. according to his control of the current. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. water and 3 oz. 1 lb. This is a mysterious looking instrument. and are changed by reversing the rotation.

Chicago. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. especially if the deck is a new one. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. -Contributed by D. fan-like. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. B. As this device is easily upset. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant.B. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. when the action ceases. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B.. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. deuce. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. or three spot. C. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. nearly every time. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. A. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. before cutting. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which .L. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. In prize games. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. thus partly filling bottles A and C. In making hydrogen. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time.

making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. long. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. --Contributed by F. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. 2.. 1. Form a cone of heavy paper. Dak. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. long and 3 in. Bently. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft.. J. Detail of Phonograph Horn . Make ten pieces about 1 ft. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. 4. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. W. Huron.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. S. --Contributed by C. 12 in. Fig. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. in length and 3 in. Fig. Jr. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. that will fit loosely in the tube A. S. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. in diameter. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. . Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. 3). 10 in. Make a 10-sided stick. 9 in. Detroit. (Fig. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue.

A second piece of silk thread. will cause an increased movement of C. C. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. with a pin driven in each end. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. but bends toward D. Cut out paper sections (Fig. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. 6. Fig. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. Denver. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. long. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. and walk in. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. bend it at right angles throughout its length. push back the bolt. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. on one side and the top. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. about the size of a leadpencil. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. 4 and temporarily fastened in position.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. Remove the form. Fortunately. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. allowing 1 in. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . A. it is equally easy to block that trick. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. making it three-ply thick. --Contributed by Reader. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. A piece of tin. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. E.

West St. S. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. posts. By this arrangement one. 4 ft. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. are made 2 by 4 in. long. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. A. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. Jr. B. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. Two wood-base switches.. The upper switch. Minn. is connected each point to a battery.strip. S. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. will last for several years. and rest on a brick placed under each end.. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. W. The reverse switch. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . as shown. long. or left to right. put together as shown in the sketch. The 2 by 4-in. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. B. while the lower switch. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. are 7 ft. S S. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. The feet. Fremont Hilscher. Paul. R. --Contributed by J.

thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. pulley wheel. thick. cut in half. The valve motion is shown in Figs. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. which will be described later. which is made of tin. with two washers. Fig. and in Fig.every house. 2. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. Fig. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. is an old bicycle pump. The piston is made of a stove bolt. FF. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. E. either an old sewing-machine wheel. The hose E connects to the boiler. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. and the crank bearing C. and a cylindrical . and valve crank S. and has two wood blocks. 2 and 3. In Fig. The steam chest D. the other parts being used for the bearing B. H and K. the size of the hole in the bearing B. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. or anything available. 1. 3/8 in. The base is made of wood. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. is part of the piston tube of the same pump.

powder can. Eustice. The boiler. The valve crank S. using the positive wire as a pen. Fig. First. G. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. and a very amusing trick. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. as shown in Fig. 4. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. This is wound with soft string. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. as it is merely a trick of photography. . San Jose. Wis. of Cuba. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. W. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. 3. This engine was built by W. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. Cal. Fry. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. or galvanized iron. J. at that. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. can be an old oil can. Schuh and A. C. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man.piece of hard wood. is cut out of tin. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. G. and the desired result is obtained. to receive the connecting rod H. and saturated with thick oil. Fig. 1. --Contributed by Geo.

the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. diameter. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. Fig. C. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. and place a bell on the four ends. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. Cut half circles out of each stave. and Fig. B. 1 will be seen to rotate. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. Fig. as shown at AA. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. B. When turning.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. 1 by covering up Figs. The smaller wheel. They may be of any size. and pass ropes around . first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. Fig. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. as shown. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. to cross in the center. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood.

DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. A (a short spool. To make this lensless microscope. This in turn will act on the transmitter. procure a wooden spool. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. as shown in the illustration. which allows the use of small sized ropes.G. which accounts for the sound. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. long. but not on all.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. From a piece of thin . --Contributed by H. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. Louis. St. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. from the transmitter.. W. such as clothes lines.M. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. produces a higher magnifying power). Mo. and enlarge the bore a little at one end.

A. e. C. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. can be made of brass and the armature. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings.. C. or 64 times. held at arm's length. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. E. bent as shown. 2. darting across the field in every direction. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. if the distance is reduced to one-third. is made of iron. (The area would appear 64 times as large.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. . which are pieces of hard wood.. which costs little or nothing to make. D. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. The pivot. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. 3. Viewed through this microscope. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. i. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. is fastened at each end by pins. B. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. B. if the distance is reduced to one-half. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. fastened to a wooden base. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. the diameter will appear twice as large. the object should be of a transparent nature. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. in which hay has been soaking for several days. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. To use this microscope. by means of brads. place a small object on the transparent disk. cut out a small disk. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. Fig. and look through the hole D. the diameter will appear three times as large. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. An innocent-looking drop of water. as in all microscopes of any power. and at the center.) But an object 3/4-in. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. The lever. H. 1. otherwise the image will be blurred. and so on. D. The spring. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand.

The base of the key. wide. AA. thick. long. D. is cut from a board about 36 in. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. and are connected to the contacts. wood: F. K. KEY-A. soft iron. B. A. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. 1. 16 in. E. The binding posts. between the armature and the magnet. C. Fig. HH. Cut the top. connection of D to nail. in length and 16 in. DD. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. or a single piece. Each side. similar to the one used in the sounder. wide. K. A switch. long by 16 in. Fig. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. can be made panel as shown. binding posts: H spring The stop. brass: B. nail soldered on A. 16 in. brass: E. 26 wire: E. The door. brass.SOUNDER-A. should be about 22 in. coils wound with No. D. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. wood. FF. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. which are made to receive a pivot. . The back. long and 14-1/2 in. wide and set in between sides AA. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. wood: C. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. or taken from a small one-point switch. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. wide and about 20 in. fastened near the end. wide. wide. brass or iron soldered to nail. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. F. 2. D. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. C. B.

the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. Make 12 cleats. with 3/4-in. When the electrical waves strike the needle. Ill. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. 13-1/2 in. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. 2 and made from 1/4-in. cut in them. E. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . brads. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. AA. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. long. as shown in the sketch. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. as shown. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. In operation. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in.. material. Garfield.

When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. N. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. E. A.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. --Contributed by John Koehler. down into the water increases the surface in contact. When the pipe is used. N. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. and. when used with a motor. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. --Contributed by R. in order to increase the surface. C. Pushing the wire. A (see sketch). A fairly stiff spring. J. filled with water. pulls down the armature. will give a greater speed. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. the magnet. B. F. Ridgewood. Y. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. Fairport. and thus decreases the resistance. The cord is also fastened to a lever. through which a piece of wire is passed. A. Brown. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube.

Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. Of course. even those who read this description. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. Gachville. --Contributed by Perry A. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. Borden. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. N.for the secret contact. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. if desired. B. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder .

A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. The top board is made 28-in. wide. wide. in a semicircle 2 in. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. 1. D. wide. J. records. 2. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. E. Two drawers are fitted in this space. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. H. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. as shown in Fig. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. wide. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. East Orange. Compton. Connect switch to post B. C.whenever the bell rings. wide. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. from the bottom. and on both sides of the middle shelf. --Contributed by H. thick and 12-in. where the other end of wire is fastened. The three shelves are cut 25-in. deep and 3/4 in.. . With about 9 ft. Washington. for 6-in. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. C. as shown in Fig. Cal. A. --Contributed by Dr. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. Mangold. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. records and 5-5/8 in. long and full 12-in. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. Jr. From a piece of brass a switch. Nails for stops are placed at DD. N. long and 5 in. apart. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. for 10in. Dobson. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in.

as shown by the dotted lines. When the cord is passed over pulley C. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. which in operation is bent. as shown in Fig. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. 1. Va. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. Roanoke. closed. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. A. B. to which is fastened a cord. E. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel.

1 in. thick. wide. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. in diameter. long. which should be about 1/2 in. B. holes (HH. deep and 1/2 in. Cut two grooves. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. These wheels should be 3/4 in. excepting the crank and tubing. If the wheels fit too tightly. Figs. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. through one of these holes. Now put all these parts together. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. they will bind. as shown in the illustration. Fig. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. In these grooves place wheels. The crankpin should fit tightly. one in each end. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. 1 in. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. 1. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. CC. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. they will let the air through. in diameter. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. 5) when they are placed. wide. in diameter. 3. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. 4 shows the wheel-holder. in diameter. Figs. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. Do not fasten the sides too . The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. Bore two 1/4 in. Notice the break (S) in the track. thick (A. Fig. it too loose. In the sides (Fig. against which the rubber tubing. is compressed by wheels. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. to turn on pins of stout wire. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. E. square and 7/8 in. Fig. D. Put the rubber tube. but a larger one could be built in proportion. apart. E. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. deep.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. 3).

Then turn the crank from left to right. of material. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. mark again. a platform should be added. tubing. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. iron. long. the other wheel has reached the bottom. though a small iron wheel is better. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. as it gives steadiness to the motion. as shown in Fig. Cut six pieces. from each end. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. 1. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. because he can . In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. Take the center of the bar. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. mark for hole and 3 in. Idana. from each end. beyond each of these two. from each end. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. B. If the motion of the wheels is regular. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. --Contributed by Dan H. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. costing 10 cents. from that mark the next hole. Kan. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. 2. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. from the bottom and 2 in. Fig.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. 1. The three legs marked BBB. Two feet of 1/4-in. The animal does not fear to enter the box. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. A in Fig. Fig. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. The screen which is shown in Fig. is all the expense necessary. and 3-1/2 in. 1. 17-1/2 in. 1. 15 in. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. and mark for a hole. AA. To use the pump. Fig. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. 2. the pump will give a steady stream. For ease in handling the pump. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. AA. Hubbard. stands 20 in. and are 30 in. Fig. 1. In the two cross bars 1 in.

C. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. add slowly. Place the carbon in the jar. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. of water dissolve 4 oz. 14 copper wire. of the top. . it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc.see through it: when he enters. The truncated. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. 4 oz. rub the zinc well. giving it a bright. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. It is useful for running induction coils. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. Meyer. The battery is now complete. and touches the bait the lid is released and. When the bichromate has all dissolved. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. there is too much liquid in the jar. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. acid 1 part). potassium bichromate. dropping. If the solution touches the zinc. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. and the solution (Fig. 2). This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. until it is within 3 in. or. long having two thumb screws. however. shuts him in. --Contributed by H. stirring constantly. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. If it is wet. Philadelphia. sulphuric acid. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. 1) must be prepared. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. or small electric motors. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. but if one casts his own zinc. The mercury will adhere. When through using the battery. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. If the battery has been used before. The battery is now ready for use. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. To cause a flow of electricity. some of it should be poured out. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. silvery appearance.

This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. If. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. e. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. i. which opens the door. with slight changes. The price of the coil depends upon its size. After putting in the coal.Fig.. the battery circuit. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. however. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. while the coal door is being opened. Wis. pressing the pedal closes the door. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. Madison. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. the jump-spark coil . When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door.

It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. W W. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B".described elsewhere in this book. This will make an excellent receiver. which is made of light copper wire. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. Now for the receiving apparatus. 7). 6. . in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. being a 1-in. in a partial vacuum. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. in a straight line from top to bottom. as shown in Fig. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. This coil. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. 7. and closer for longer distances. After winding. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. Change the coil described. made of No. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. as shown in Fig. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. apart. 5. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. 6. 7. the full length of the coil. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. W W. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. while a 12-in. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. coil. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig.7. diameter. Fig. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil.

A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. I run my lathe by power. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. are analogous to the flow of induction. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. 1). The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. and hence the aerial line. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. Run a wire from the other binding post. in the air. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. A large cone pulley would then be required. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. which will be described later.6 stranded. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. These circles. 90°. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil.The aerial line. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). being vertical. but simply illustrates the above to show that. as it matches the color well. at any point to any metal which is grounded. 1 to 4. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. B the bed and C the tailstock. . Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. after all. using an electric motor and countershaft. For an illustration. The writer does not claim to be the originator. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. but it could be run by foot power if desired. to the direction of the current. above the ground. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. being at right angles. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. 90°. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. A. only. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. No. where A is the headstock. may be easily made at very little expense. Figs.

and it is well to have the shaft hot. 5. After pouring. To make these bearings. Fig. deep. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. on the under side of the bed. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. 4. If the bearing has been properly made. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. B. thick. but not hot enough to burn it. just touching the shaft. 5. and runs in babbitt bearings. Fig. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. and Fig. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. Fig. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. which are let into holes FIG. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. 4. which pass through a piece of wood. 6 Headstock Details D. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. pitch and 1/8 in. one of which is shown in Fig. 2 and 3. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. tapered wooden pin. The bearing is then ready to be poured. Fig. A. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. 6. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. Heat the babbitt well. steel tubing about 1/8 in. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. too. The bolts B (Fig. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. The headstock.

J. embedded in the wood. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. Take up about 5 ft. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. lock nut. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. of the walk . If one has a wooden walk. they may be turned up after assembling. N. The tail stock (Fig. Ill. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. so I had to buy one. Newark. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. and a 1/2-in.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. If not perfectly true. Oak Park. B. FIG. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. This prevents corrosion. the alarm is easy to fix up. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in.other machines. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. A.

For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. water. --Contributed by R. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. silver or other metal. add potassium cyanide again. Minneapolis. hang the articles on the wires. save when a weight is on the trap. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. leaving a clear solution. Minn. Finally. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. to roughen the surface slightly. To avoid touching it. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. Then make the solution . Connect up an electric bell. and the alarm is complete. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. so that they will not touch. 2). putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. Do not touch the work with the hands again. clean the articles thoroughly. Fig. to remove all traces of grease.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. before dipping them in the potash solution. S. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. (A. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. of water. Jackson.

from the lower end. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. of water. with the pivot 2 in. Fig. long. thick by 3 in. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. but opens the door. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. Fig. a circuit is completed. of clothesline rope and some No. --Model Engineer. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. an old electric bell or buzzer. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. a hand scratch brush is good. light strokes. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. as at F. must be about 1 in. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. and then treated as copper. piece of broomstick. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. With an electric pressure of 3. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. 1). The wooden block C. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. copper. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. 18 wire. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. pewter. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. make a key and keyhole. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. Repeat six times. The wooden catch. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. Then. which is held by catch B. and the larger part (F. A 1/4 in. Having finished washing the precipitate. German silver. lead. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. A (Fig. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator.5 to 4 volts. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. If more solution is required. use 2 volts for large articles. In rigging it to a sliding door. 1 in. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. about 25 ft. square. also. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. with water. Before silver plating. If accumulators are used. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. long. zinc. hole in its center. 1 not only unlocks. When all this is set up. 3. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. as shown in Fig. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. Fig. and 4 volts for very small ones. B should be of the same wood.up to 2 qt. 1). 1. On brass. which . must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. when the point of the key touches the tin. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. silver can be plated direct. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. 3) strikes the bent wire L. such metals as iron. will serve for the key. This solution. which is advised. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. if one does not possess a buffing machine. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. Fig. nickel and such metals. Screw the two blocks together. To provide the keyhole. I. with water. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. Where Bunsen cells are used. Can be made of a 2-in. shaking. saw a piece of wood. Take quick. Make a somewhat larger block (E. 10 in. 3) directly over the hole.

This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. spoons and jackknives. 2. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty.. 1. H. Receiving the bowl again. or cave. top. with the lights turned low. no painting inside is required. One end is removed. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. 0. 3. and hands its contents round to the audience. The interior must be a dead black. some black paint. such as forks. The box must be altered first. On either side of the box. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. which unlocks the door. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. Fig. Next. He removes the bowl from the black box. some black cloth. one-third of the length from the remaining end. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. he points with one finger to the box. and plenty of candles. the illumination in front must be arranged. half way from open end to closed end. cut in one side. Fig. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. sides and end. Heavy metal objects. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. he tosses it into the cave.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. should be cut a hole. . One thing changes to another and back again. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. --Contributed by E. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. a few simple tools. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. East Orange. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. To prepare such a magic cave. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. 116 Prospect St. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. and a slit. so much the better. floor. B. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. and finally lined inside with black cloth. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. 2. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. In front of you. Objects appear and disappear. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. The magician stands in front of this. 1. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. the requisites are a large soap box. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. is the cut through which the rope runs. between the parlor and the room back of it. although a little more trouble. in his shirt sleeves. the box should be painted black both inside and out. Thus. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. H. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. surrounding a perfectly black space. heighten the illusion. Next. and black art reigns supreme. H. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. to throw the light toward the audience. with a switch as in Fig. Fig. enlarged. Klipstein. Fig. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. shows catch B. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. New Jersey. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place.

a screen must be used. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. you must have an assistant. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. The illusion. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. one on each side of the box. which can be made to dance either by strings. and several black drop curtains. The exhibitor should be . the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. only he. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. of course. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. is on a table) so much the better. his confederate behind inserts his hand. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. which are let down through the slit in the top. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. as presented by Hermann. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. into the eyes of him who looks. of course. and pours them from the bag into a dish. The audience room should have only low lights. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. Consequently. in which are oranges and apples. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. had a big stage. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. and if portieres are impossible. But illusions suggest themselves. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. the room where the cave is should be dark.Finally. was identical with this. if.

as shown in Fig. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. e1 and e2. c3. terminal c3 will show +. and c1 – electricity. and a common screw. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. terminal c3 will show . if you turn handle K to the right. respectively. 2). The action of the switch is shown in Fig. About the center piece H moves a disk. so arranged that. b1. c4. their one end just slips under the strips b1. held down on disk F by two other terminals. with three brass strips. square. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. b2. c1. making contact with them. is shown in the diagram. Fig. On the disk G are two brass strips. b3.a boy who can talk. Then. 1. or b2. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. respectively. FIG. b2. d. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. c2.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. or binding posts. A. f2. 2. respectively. Finally.. by 4 in. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). held down on it by two terminals. making contact with them as shown at y. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. and c2 to the zinc. at L. when handle K is turned to one side. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. A represents a pine board 4 in. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. vice versa. b3. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . 2. by means of two wood screws. and c4 + electricity. held down by another disk F (Fig. 1. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire.

Jr. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. Ohio. Tuttle. from three batteries. 5.. 4. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. 1. and C and C1 are binding posts. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. thus making the message audible in the receiver. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. when A is on No. from four batteries. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. when on No. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. from five batteries. --Contributed by Eugene F. 3. B is a onepoint switch. you have the current of one battery. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. jump spark coil. when on No. . Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . -Contributed by A. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. Joerin. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. and when on No. and then hold the receiver to your ear. E. Newark. When switch B is closed and A is on No.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade).

per second. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. New Orleans. E. When you do not have a graduate at hand. B. mark. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. of Burlington. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. per second for each second. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. The device thus arranged. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. Thus if the thread moves 1 in.. A. P. Thus. rule. Handy Electric Alarm . as shown in the sketch. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. traveled by the thread. Redmond. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. which may be a button or other small object. so one can see the time. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. A. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. Wis. mark. over the bent portion of the rule. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. is the device of H. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. A. and supporting the small weight. and placed on the windowsill of the car. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. La.

soldered to the alarm winder. but may be closed at F any time desired. Then if a mishap comes. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. S.which has a piece of metal. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. C. . --C. Pa. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. When the alarm goes off. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. for a wetting is the inevitable result. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. B. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. which illuminates the face of the clock. and with the same result. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. Lane. wrapping the wire around the can several times. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. Crafton. Instead. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. --Contributed by Gordon T. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto.

as shown. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. New York City. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. --Contributed by A. bearings. and duplicates of all these. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. 1 . Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. cannons. as shown in Fig. small machinery parts. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. ornaments of various kinds. C. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. engines. battery zincs. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. AA. when it is being prepared. It is possible to make molds without a bench. With the easily made devices about to be described.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. but it is a mistake to try to do this. whence it is soon tracked into the house. Macey. and many other interesting and useful articles. The first thing to make is a molding bench. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. BE. binding posts.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . A. Two cleats. models and miniature objects. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. If there is no foundry Fig. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. 1. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. which may. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. L.

If the box is not very strong. A slight shake of the bag Fig. is about the right mesh. DD. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point.How to Make a Mold [96] . The flask. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. A A. which can be made of a knitted stocking. high. The dowels. 2. the "cope. F. and saw it in half longitudinally. The rammer. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. G. A wedge-shaped piece. makes a very good sieve. It is made of wood and is in two halves. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. Fig. CC. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. 1. and the "drag. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described.near at hand. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. E. is made of wood. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. will be required. II . as shown. and this. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. but this operation will be described more fully later on. and a sieve. which can be either aluminum. H. and the lower pieces. a little larger than the outside of the flask." or lower part. white metal. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. 1. If desired the sieve may be homemade. say 12 in. try using sand from other sources. The cloth bag. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. J. is filled with coal dust. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. by 8 in. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. by 6 in. which should be nailed in. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. Fig. D. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. as shown. 2 . is shown more clearly in Fig." or upper half. CC. An old teaspoon. previous to sawing. is nailed to each end of the cope.

everything will be ready for the operation of molding. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. After ramming. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. and if water is added. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. where they can watch the molders at work. Place another cover board on top. or "cope. and by grasping with both hands." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. and then more sand is added until Fig. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. In finishing the ramming. as shown at C. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. as it is much easier to learn by observation. It is then rammed again as before. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. or "drag. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. turn the drag other side up. as shown. in order to remove the lumps. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. as shown at E. and scatter about 1/16 in. and thus judge for himself. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. The sand is then ready for molding. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. the surface of the sand at . scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. as described. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. it has a sufficient amount of moisture." in position. as shown at D. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag.

After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. after being poured. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. made out of steel rod. and then pour. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle.E should be covered with coal-dust. is next cut. III. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. as shown at H. Fig. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. The "sprue. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern." or pouring-hole. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. thus holding the crucible securely. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. as shown at F. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. as shown at H. as shown at G. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. After drawing the pattern. it shows that the sand is too wet. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. This is done with a spoon.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. to give the air a chance to escape. as shown at J. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. wide and about 1/4 in. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. thus making a dirty casting. place the cope back on the drag. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. as shown in the sketch. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. deep. Place a brick or other flat. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. in diameter. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. in order to prevent overheating. . to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted.

The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. Minneapolis. --Contributed by Harold S. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. may be used in either direction. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. If a good furnace is available. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. In my own case I used four batteries. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. Although the effect in the illustration . is very desirable. battery zincs. babbitt. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. Referring to the figure. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. or from any adjacent pair of cells. and. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. although somewhat expensive. used only for zinc. white metal and other scrap available. 15% lead. the following device will be found most convenient. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. and the casting is then ready for finishing. Morton. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. but any reasonable number may be used. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty.

2. --Contributed by Draughtsman. connected by cords to the rudder. may be made of hardwood. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. Make one of these pieces for each arm. Put a sharp needle point. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. 3/4 in. Chicago. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. If desired. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. as shown in the illustration. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. which will be sufficient to hold it. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. as shown at A. The brass rings also appear distorted. Fig. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. Then walk down among the audience. The bearings. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. B. outward. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. By replacing the oars with paddles. A. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . shaft made. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. backward. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. B. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. Then replace the table. To make it take a sheet-iron band. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before.

This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. D. as shown in Fig. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. 2 and 3. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. or the paint will come off. If babbitt is used. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. W. but when in motion. and a weight. 1. as shown in Fig. It may seem strange that ice . Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed.melted babbitt. C. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. spoiling its appearance. Fig. 3. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. or under pressure. A. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. In the same way. If galvanized iron is used. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. The covers. Snow. 1. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. being simply finely divided ice. E. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. when it will again return to its original state. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. The hubs. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. should be made of wood. 1. 2. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. A block of ice. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards.

The rate of flow is often very slow. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. sometimes only one or two feet a day. by 1/2 in. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. in. Pressing either push button. as shown on page 65. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. by 5 in. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. --Contributed by Gordon T. it will gradually change from the original shape A. by 2 in. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. B. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. the contact posts being of 1/4 in.should flow like water. as per sketch. but.. no matter how slow the motion may be. and assume the shape shown at B. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. square. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. which resembles ice in this respect. or supporting it in some similar way. whenever there is any connection made at all. Lane. but by placing it between books. thus giving a high resistance contact. Crafton. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. Pa. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. by 1/4. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. P. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. brass.

G. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. B. H. E. the induction coil. and C. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. draft. C. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch.thumb screws. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. J. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. A is the circuit breaker.000 ft. cord. Wilkinsburg. as shown. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. wooden supports. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. pulleys. as shown. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. B. Indianapolis. The parts are: A. Ward. K . and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. horizontal lever. vertical lever. weight. The success depends upon a slow current. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. draft chain. G. about the size used for automobiles. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. In the wiring diagram. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. and five dry batteries. D. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. I. furnace. --Contributed by A. alarm clock. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. Pa. F. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. the battery.

which will provide a fine place for the plants. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. material framed together as shown in Fig. will fit nicely in them. as well as the bottom. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. 3. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. Artistic Window Boxes The top. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. where house plants are kept in the home. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. Mich. The frame (Fig. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. 2 are dressed to the right angle. Kalamazoo. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . such as used for a storm window. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months.

multiples of series of three. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. and cost 27 cents FIG. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. so as to increase the current. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. S. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. and a suitable source of power.. W. Push the needle into the cork. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. in any system of lamps. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. Thus. This is more economical than dry cells. A certain number of these. this must be done with very great caution. which sells for 25 cents. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted.. in this connection. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. It must be remembered. is something that will interest the average American boy. where they are glad to have them taken away. Halifax. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. and the instrument will then be complete. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. as if drawn upon for its total output.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. but maintain the voltage constant. 1 each complete with base. for some time very satisfactorily. since a battery is the most popular source of power. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. and will give the . Grant. However.. 1. one can regulate the batteries as required. in diameter. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. by connecting them in series. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. as indicated by Fig. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. 1 cp. The 1/2-cp. Canada. However. --Contributed by Wm. e. after a rest. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. N. a cork and a needle. i. can be connected up in series. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series.

by the proper combination of these. In conclusion. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. 3. Chicago. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. Thus.. double insulated wire wherever needed. we simply turn on the water. each. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. and for Christmas trees. or 22 lights. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. making.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. lamps. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. according to the water pressure obtainable. and running the series in parallel. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. . This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. lamps. as in Fig. to secure light by this method. So. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. if wound for 6 volts. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. 1-cp. although the first cost is greater.proper voltage. Thus. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. which is the same as that of one battery. If wound for 10 volts. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. especially those of low internal resistance. 2 shows the scheme. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. 18 B & S. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. generates the power for the lights. Fig. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. and then lead No. and diffused light in a room. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. for display of show cases. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. FIG. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. However. 11 series. These will give 3 cp. where the water pressure is the greatest. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. lamp.

It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. or a tempting bone. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. --Contributed by F. CC. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. B. the letters indicate as follows: FF. DD. To reverse the motor. bars of pole-changing switch. as shown in the sketch. A indicates the ground. A. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. or from one pattern. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. simply change the switch. AA. we were not bothered with them. field of motor. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. After I connected up my induction coil. and C. Ind. Emig. switch. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. BB. brushes of motor. and the sides. Cal. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. thus reversing the machine. --Contributed by Leonard E.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. center points of switch. Parker. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. . outside points of switch. B. Plymouth. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. a bait of meat. Santa Clara. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. are cut just alike.

All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. W.. Fry. Cal. Melchior. San Jose. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. Minn. Hutchinson. When the circuit is broken a weight. and a table or bench. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. The experiment works best . attached to the end of the armature B. which is in the door. -Contributed by Claude B. 903 Vine St.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. A. If it is not. To unlock the door. The button can be hidden. a hammer. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. a piece of string. as it is the key to the lock. merely push the button E. or would remain locked. thus locking the door. one cell being sufficient.

as shown in Fig. 1). W. Wis. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. Madison. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. Ontario. releasing the weight. the key turns. Schmidt. D. On another block of wood fasten two wires. . which pulls the draft open. Culebra. the current flows with the small arrows. -. in the ceiling and has a window weight. Tie the ends of the string together. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. Brockville. Canada.Contributed by F. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. Porto Rico. 3. --Contributed by Geo. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. P. 2. Crawford Curry. 18 Gorham St. attached at the other end. When the alarm rings in the early morning. run through a pulley.. C. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. 4). Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. where it will remain suspended as shown. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. A. the stick falls away. 3. forming a loop. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. I.

These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. and break the corners off to make them round. square and 1 in. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. made with his own hands. get two pieces of plate glass. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. running one direct to the receiver. Use a barrel to work on. D. Camden. and then to the receiver. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. and the other to the battery. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. --Contributed by Wm.. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. R. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. including the mouthpiece.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. J. S. Connect two wires to the transmitter. J. thence to a switch. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. thick. First. Jr. or tree. N. 6 in. which fasten to the horn. or from a bed of flowers. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. The cut shows the arrangement. Farley. and .

or it will not polish evenly. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. spaces. wetting it to the consistency of cream. of water. and a large lamp. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. also rotate the glass. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. 2. unless a longer focal length is wanted. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. using straight strokes 2 in. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. or less. When polishing the speculum. 2. Fig. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. while walking around the barrel. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. it should be tested with the knife-edge test.. and spread on the glass. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. Fig. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. Use a binger to spread it on with. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. in length. Have ready six large dishes. wide around the convex glass or tool. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. then 8 minutes. When dry. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. L.. a round 4-in. wet till soft like paint. with pitch. as in Fig. In a dark room. the coarse grinding must be continued. When done the glass should be semitransparent. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. Fasten. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. set the speculum against the wall. A. twice the focal length away. and the under glass or tool convex. and is ready for polishing. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. so the light . with 1/4-in. and label. by the side of the lamp. Then warm and press again with the speculum. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. melt 1 lb. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. then take 2 lb. 1. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in.

so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. if a hill in the center. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. Then add solution B. Nitric acid . 4 oz.. or hills.. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. deep. Then add 1 oz.. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. cement a strip of board 8 in. with distilled water. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. With pitch. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. When dry. fill the dish with distilled water. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. the speculum will show some dark rings. Silver nitrate ……………………………. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. that was set aside. in the bath and leave until the silver rises. Fig. Alcohol (Pure) ……………. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. the speculum is ready to be silvered. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in.. 840 gr. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. 4 oz.. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency... from the lamp. 25 gr.. longer strokes. touched with rouge. and pour the rest into the empty dish.. also how the rays R from a star . The polishing and testing done. add the ammonia solution drop by drop. Solution D: Sugar loaf . 100 gr.……………. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid.100 gr. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. then ammonia until bath is clear. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. Now add enough of the solution A. Fig. The knife should not be more than 6 in. long to the back of the speculum. face down. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. 2.……………………………. Two glass or earthenware dishes. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. If not. 39 gr. Place the speculum S. When the focus is found. Place the speculum.………………………………. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. 2. Solution B: Distilled water …………………………….. must be procured. Fig. as in K.

cover with paper and cloth. and proceed as for any picture. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers.John E. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. About 20. . My telescope is 64 in. slightly wider than the lens mount. using strawboard and black paper. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. Thus an excellent 6-in.. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. long and cost me just $15. telescope can be made at home. Place over lens. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. deg. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. which proves to be easy of execution. Mellish. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. Then I made the one described. stop down well after focusing. The flatter they are the less they will distort. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. is a satisfactory angle. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. two glass prisms. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. with an outlay of only a few dollars. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. Make the tube I of sheet iron.

or powdered alum. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. instead of the contrary. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. then add a little sulphate of potash. . just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. The rays of the clear. unobstructed light strike the mirror. B. D. complete the arrangement. Ill. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. but will not preserve its hardening. The window must be darkened all around the shelf.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. The paper is exposed. To unlock. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. A. says the Master Painter. add the plaster gradually to the water. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. Zimmerman. through the lens of the camera and on the board. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. 2. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. push the button D. and reflect through the negative. Fig. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. Do not stir it. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. Boody. 1. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. as shown in Fig. -Contributed by A.

Then blow through the spool. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. as in Fig. so that it can rotate about these points. To reverse. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. throw . A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. 2. also provide them with a handle. use a string. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. 1). as shown in the sketch. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. but will remain suspended without any visible support. 2. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. Fasten on the switch lever. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. 3. Fig. as at A and B.

Tex. Levy. binding posts. San Marcos. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. Push one end of the tire into the hole. carbons.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. . Tex. San Antonio. Take out. -Contributed by Morris L. the armature. carbon sockets. In the sketch. C C. Neb. D. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. wash in running water. although this is not necessary. North Bend. L. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. Go McVicker. B. Thomas. --Contributed by R. as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Geo. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. rinse in alcohol. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. and E E. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. A is the electricbell magnet. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. and rub dry with linen cloth.

14 or No. By means of two or more layers of No. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. Brooklyn. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. 36 magnet wire. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. --Contributed by Joseph B. wound evenly about this core. Bell. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. long or more.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. 16 magnet wire. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity.

and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. and finally the fourth strip of paper. at a time. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. wide. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in.which would be better to buy ready-made. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. diameter. The condenser is next wrapped . 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. long and 2-5/8 in. When cut and laid in one continuous length. 1. then the strip of tin-foil. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. the entire core may be purchased readymade. and the results are often unsatisfactory. long and 5 in. After the core wires are bundled. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. 4. The following method of completing a 1-in. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. hole is bored in the center of one end. No. a box like that shown in Fig. or 8 in. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. in diameter. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. in length. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. but if it is not convenient to do this work. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. In shaping the condenser. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. which is desirable. A 7/8-in. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. The primary is made of fine annealed No. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. about 6 in. as the maker prefers. with room also for a small condenser. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. as shown in Fig. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. Beginning half an inch from one end. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. one piece of the paper is laid down. 2 yd. coil illustrates the general details of the work. This makes a condenser which may be folded. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. making two layers. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. which is an important factor of the coil.

Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E.securely with bands of paper or tape. I. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. whole length. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. copper lever with 1-in. bell. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. 3. which is insulated from the first. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. round so that the inside .) The wiring diagram. E. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. 4 in. wide. long and 12 in. and one from battery. F. battery . such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. D. spark. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. V-shaped copper strip. The alarm key will turn and drop down. B. forms the other pole or terminal. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. Fig.. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. lines H. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. shows how the connections are made. B. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. one from bell. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. flange turned on one side. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. ready for assembling. shelf for clock. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. and the other sheet. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. by 12 in. go. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. G. A. C. to the door. the letters indicate as follows: A. which allows wiring at the back. switch. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. open switch C. long to key.

Line the furnace. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. says the Model Engineer. 2 in. of zinc sulphate. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. do not shortcircuit. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. London. and the battery is ready for use. from the bottom. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. Use a glass or metal shade.. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. and then rivet the seam.diameter is 7 in. of blue stone. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. Short-circuit for three hours. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. If desired for use immediately. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. The circuit should also have a high resistance. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. but with the circuit. This is for blowing. . instead of close to it. but add 5 or 6 oz. That is what they are for. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed.

Outside of the scientific side involved. long. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. as in the other movement. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. At least it is amusing. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. To operate the trick. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. for others the opposite way. imparting to them a violet tinge. Ohio. affects . grip the stick firmly in one hand. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. the second finger along the side. and then.. square and about 9 in. for some it will turn one way. porcelain and paper. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. or think they can do the same let them try it. If any or your audience presume to dispute. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. changes white phosphorus to yellow. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. Enlarge the hole slightly. but the thing would not move at all. If too low. herein I describe a much better trick. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. g. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. and therein is the trick. 1." which created much merriment. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. below the bottom of the zinc. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. oxygen to ozone. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. Try it and see. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. This type of battery will give about 0. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. 2.9 of a volt. while for others it will not revolve at all. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. thus producing two different vibrations. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath.

This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. and. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. a means for holding it vertical. but not essential. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. and one of them is photomicrography. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. an old tripod screw. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. chemicals. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. but this is less satisfactory. however. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. if possible. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. but small flowers. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. To the front board is attached a box. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . earth. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. a short-focus lens. says the Photographic Times. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. insects. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw.

10 ft 523 33 lb. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. while it is not so with the quill. A line. long and 3 ft. 11 ft.--Contributed by George C. If the balloon is 10 ft. or 31 ft. Boston. 179 11 lb. 268 17 lb. which is 15 ft. Madison. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. 697 44 lb. 9 ft. in diameter. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. 8 ft. 113 7 lb. in Cu. 6 ft. 7-1/2 in. Fig. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. 5 ft. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. 12 ft. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. 5 in. balloon. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. and a line. 7-1/2 in. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. Divide one-quarter of the circle . Mass. CD. 905 57 lb. wide from which to cut a pattern. 7 ft. The following table will give the size. 1. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. Cap. Ft Lifting Power. 65 4 lb. 381 24 lb. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. or 3 ft. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. AB. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle.

This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. Procure 1 gal. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. Repeat this operation four times. cutting all four quarters at the same time. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. using a fine needle and No. on the curved line from B to C. The cloth segments are sewed together. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. This test will show if the bag is airtight. 70 thread. of beeswax and boil well together. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. 3. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. 2. of the very best heavy body. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. keeping the marked part on the outside. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. 4. The amounts necessary for a 10- . making a double seam as shown in Fig. and so on. The pattern is now cut. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing.

Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. pipe. Vegetable oils should never be used. A. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. leaving the hand quite clean. 150 gr. of iron. 1 lb. . or dusting with a dry brush. A. In the barrel. it is not fit to use. ft. 5 .. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. of iron borings and 125 lb. All FIG. which may sound rather absurd. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. but if any grease remains on the hand. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. A. should not enter into the water over 8 in. When the clock has dried. oil the spindle holes carefully. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. The outlet. as shown in Fig. C. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. B.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. ].ft. with 3/4in. About 15 lb. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. or a fan. B. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. The 3/4-in. above the level of the water in barrel A. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. using a fine brush. until no more dirt is seen. 1 lb. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. to the bag. with water 2 in. Fill the other barrel. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. Water 1 oz. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. 5. of sulphuric acid. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings.Green Iron ammonium citrate . capacity and connect them. balloon are 125 lb. a clean white rag. this should be repeated frequently. with the iron borings. B. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. of gas in one hour. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. of water will make 4 cu. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. by fixing. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. C. After washing a part. . if it is good it will dry off.

or carbon. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. and a vigorous negative must be used. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. 20 to 30 minutes. dry atmosphere will give best results. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. This aerial collector can be made in . Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. Port Melbourne. Printing is done in the sun. A cold. of any make. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. fix in hypo. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. Dry in the dark. Print to bronzing under a strong negative.000 ft.. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. keeping the fingers out of the solution. Dry the plates in the dark. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. Exposure. . JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. A longer exposure will be necessary. The negative pole. at the time of employment. The positive pole. or battery. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. The miniature 16 cp. says the Moving Picture World. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. to avoid blackened skin. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. and keep in the dark until used. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. or zinc. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use.Water 1 oz. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. . toning first if desired.

Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. as described below. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. forming a cup of the pipe. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. lead pipe. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. and as less current will flow the short way. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. a positive and a negative. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. long. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. holes . As the telephone offers a high resistance. in diameter. The storage cell. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. will soon become dry and useless. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. both positive and negative. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. the resistance is less. lay a needle. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. 5 in. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. and have the other connected with another aerial line. This will complete the receiving station. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. If the wave ceases.various ways. If the waves strike across the needle. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. making a ground with one wire. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. when left exposed to the air. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal.

Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. except for about 1 in. Two binding-posts should be attached.as possible. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. This box can be square. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. This support or block. does not need to be watertight. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. an oblong one and a triangular one. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. a round one. The other plate is connected to the zinc. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. D. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. or tube B. and the other to the negative. says the Pathfinder. of course. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. on each end. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. or tube C. by soldering the joint. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. B. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. When mixing the acid and water. namely: a square hole. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. one to the positive. This. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid.

square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. C. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. about 20 in. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. as shown in Fig. This punt. all around the edge. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. The third piece of brass. as shown in Fig. A and B. and has plenty of good seating capacity. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. deep and 4 ft. leaving about 1/16 in. C. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. 1.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. 1. 3. and match them together. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. were fitted by this one plug. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. long. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. thick cut two pieces alike. is built 15 ft. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. . 2. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. 2. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. Only galvanized nails should be used. wide. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. Chicago. back and under. Ill. in place on the wood. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. as it is not readily overturned. wide. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end.

Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. A. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. square (Fig 2).-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. B. is cut 1 in. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. In Fig. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . A piece of 1/4-in. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. thick and 3-1/2 in. gas pipe. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. Wash. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. Tacoma. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. long and fitted with a thumbscrew.

Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor.--Contributed by Charles H. or "rotor. and to consume. says the Model Engineer. H. In designing. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. without auxiliary phase. it had to be borne in mind that. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of ." has no connection with the outside circuit. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. which can be developed in the usual manner. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. which the writer has made. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. no special materials could be obtained. lamp. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. with the exception of insulated wire. The winding of the armature. Wagner. may be of interest to some of our readers. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. no more current than a 16-cp. if possible.

but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. After assembling a second time. as shown in Fig. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. 3. Unfortunately. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. and filled with rivets. bolts put in and tightened up. C. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. The stator is wound full with No. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. no steel being obtainable. 1. They are not particularly accurate as it is. to be filed out after they are placed together. 4. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. holes. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. while the beginnings . as shown in Fig. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. 5. with the dotted line. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. were then drilled and 1/4-in. Holes 5-32 in. wrought iron. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. B. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. 2. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. A. thick. being used. or "stator. and all sparking is avoided. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces.the field-magnet. about 2-1/2 lb. also varnished before they were put in. in diameter were drilled in the corners. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. this little machine is not self-starting. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available.

it would be very simple to build. as a means of illustrating songs. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. a regulating resistance is not needed. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. In making slides by contact. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. The rotor is wound with No. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. and as each layer of wire was wound. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover.. No starting resistance is needed. as before stated. having no commutator or brushes. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. exactly the same as a print is made on paper.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. if applied immediately. Jr. 1. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. and as the motor runs at constant speed. and all wound in the same direction. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. film to film. If too late for alcohol to be of use. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. J. and especially of colored ones. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. McKinney. N. and the other by reduction in the camera. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. 2. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. The image should . Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. Newark. and would not easily get out of order. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. 3-Contributed by C. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. This type of motor has drawbacks. as shown in Fig. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. E. One is by contact. The lantern slide is a glass plate. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other.

on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. except that the binding is different. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. a little extra work will be necessary. D. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. 2. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. 1. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. as shown in Fig. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. about a minute. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. It is best. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. over the mat. also. and development should be over in three or four minutes. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. 3. C. the formulas being found in each package of plates. If the exposure has been correct. Being unbreakable. These can be purchased from any photo material store. as shown in Fig.appear in. 4. if possible. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. they are much used by travelers. Draw lines with a pencil. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. Select a room with one window. Fig. A. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. 5. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. and then a plain glass. to use a plain fixing bath. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. B.

Fig. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. A piece of canvas. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. long. Fig. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. in diameter and 40 in. or other stout cloth. from the ends. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. from the end piece of the chair. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. holes bored in the end pieces. long. 16 in. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. 1. as shown at A. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. Corinth. 1. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. long. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. If the star is in front of the left eye. 2. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. while the dot will be in front of the other. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. as shown in Fig. Vt. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. from the center of this dot draw a star. is to be used for the seat. Hastings. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. as shown at B. known as rods and cones. wide and 50 in. in diameter and 20 in. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. These longer pieces can be made square.

Cal. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. A disk 1 in. per square inch. 1. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. Auburn. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. as shown in Fig. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. as well as to operate other household machines. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. O'Gara. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. . Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. made from an ordinary sash cord.-Contributed by P. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. 2.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. A belt. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. in thickness and 10 in. as shown in Fig. J.

direction. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. leaving it shaped like a bench. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. wide. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. it serves a very useful purpose. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. thick and 2-1/2 in. 3/4 in. square for a support. will be the thickness of the object. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. Put the bolt in the hole. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. then removing the object. fairly accurate. and the construction is complete. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. The part of a rotation of the bolt. with as fine a thread as possible. . screwing it through the nut. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. Cut out a piece from the block combination. A simple. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. Bore a 1/4-in. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. to the top of the bench. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. says the Scientific American. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. or inconvenient to measure. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. long. divided by the number of threads to the inch.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in.

Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. Oal. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. bolt in each hole. The wheel should be open . When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. material 12 ft. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. Bore a 3/4-in. long. piece of wood 12 ft. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. which show up fine at night. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. beyond the end of the wood. Santa Maria. Place a 3/4-in. long is used for the center pole. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. globe that has been thrown away as useless. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground.

and on its lower end a socket. made of the same material. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. at the top and 4 in. long. thick. thick. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. and the lower part 61/2 in. pieces used for the spokes. long. from the ends. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. Graham. Tex. at the bottom. O.-Contributed by A. from the top end. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. L. A cross bar. H and J. A piece of brass 2 in. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. is soldered. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. of the ends with boards. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. wide and 1/8 in. wide and 1/8 in. Fort Worth. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. which should be 1/4 in. P. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. The boards may be nailed or bolted. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. A. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. C.Side and Top View or have spokes. in diameter. square and 3 or 4 in. long. C. long. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. B. The spool . 1/2 in. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. The coil. thick is used for the armature. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. to be operated by the magnet coil.

and in numerous other like instances. S. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. for insulating the brass ferrule. B. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. by soldering. Randolph. Bradlev. C. 2. one without either rubber or metal end. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw.--A. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. --Contributed by Arthur D. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing.E.000 for irrigation work. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. which may be had by using German silver wire. 2 the hat hanging on it. which is also connected to the brass ferrule.is about 2-1/2 in. and place it against a door or window casing. 1. that holds the lower carbon. or a water rheostat heretofore described. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. This tie can be used on grain sacks. The armature. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. A soft piece of iron. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. F.000. At the bottom end of the frame. R. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. S. This is a very neat trick if performed right. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. long. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. Mass. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. When you slide the pencil along the casing. D and E. and directly centering the holes H and J. .J. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. do it without any apparent effort. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. is drilled. then with a firm. A.

2. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. with a 3/16-in. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. is constructed in the usual manner. D.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. leaving the projections as shown. The switch. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. A. The vibrator. in diameter and 1/16 in. long. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. S. in diameter. about 3/16 in. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. wide. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. about 1/8 in. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. for the secondary. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. in diameter and 2 in. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. S. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. Experiment with Heat [134] . 1. 1. The coil ends are made from cardboard. long and 1 in. C. The core of the coil. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. Fig. The vibrator B. in diameter. for the primary. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. Fig. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. F. About 70 turns of No. and then 1. for adjustment. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. B. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. may be made from a 3/8-in. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. about 1 in.500 turns of No. from the core and directly opposite. mixed with water to form a paste. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. hole in the center. is connected to a flash lamp battery. thick.

The hasp. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. The three screws were then put in the hasp. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. wide. as shown. Fig. The knob on the dial extends out too far. and the same distance inside of the new board. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. long and when placed over the board. with which to operate the dial. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. board. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. brass plate. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. and then well clinched. lighted. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. The tin is 4 in. 16 in. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. 1. 1. was to be secured by only three brass screws. . The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial.Place a small piece of paper. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. which is cut with two holes. which seemed to be insufficient. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. The lock. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. thick on the inside. which is only 3/8-in. as shown in the sketch. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. in an ordinary water glass. 2 to fit the two holes. it laps down about 8 in. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. between the boards. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig.

an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. high for use in window displays. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. or in the larger size mentioned. not shiny. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. and the back left dark. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. If the box is made large enough. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. one in each division. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. square and 10-1/2 in. the glass. square and 8-1/2 in. When the rear part is illuminated. but when the front part is illuminated. any article placed therein will be reflected in. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. which completely divides the box into two parts. When making of wood. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. black color. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. clear glass as shown. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish.

or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. as shown at A in the sketch. . or a piece of this width put on the bottom. long and 1 ft. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. into the other. as shown in the sketch. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. above the top of the tank. and with the proper illumination one is changed. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. wide will be about the right size. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. a tank 2 ft. alternately. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. place the goods in one part and the price in the other.. as it appears. When using as a window display. When there is no electric current available.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

square. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. Three windows are provided. square and 40 in. O. 2 ft. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. radius. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. Shape the under sides first. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. hole. and a solution of iron sulphate added. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. however. each. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. This precipitate is then washed. hole bored the full length through the center. If a planing mill is near. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. as shown. 1 in. but with a length of 12 in. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. bore from each end. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. The pieces can then be taken out. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. one for each side. is the green vitriol. The 13-in. then use a red-hot iron to finish. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. with a length of 13 in. lines gauged on each side of each. Iron sulphate. under sides together. gauge for depth. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. long. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. long. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. is built on the front. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. from the ground. A small platform. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. or ferrous sulphate. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. and 6 ft. thick and 3 in. and a door in front. wide. Columbus. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. two pieces 1-1/8 in. wide. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. high. using a 3/4-in. dried and mixed with linseed oil. This hole must be continued . 6 in. and boring two holes with a 1-in. 5 ft. bit. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap.

Saw the two blocks apart. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. apply two coats of wax. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. Electric globes--two. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. square and drawing a diagonal on each. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. If the parts are to be riveted. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. if shade is purchased. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. three or four may be attached as shown. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. When this is dry. thick and 3 in. Directions will be found on the filler cans. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach.through the pieces forming the base. For art-glass the metal panels are ." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. When the filler has hardened. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. hole in each block. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. The sketch shows one method of attaching. A better way.

The Completed Lamp cut out. as brass. and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. such as copper. Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. METAL SHADE .Construction of Shade .

Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. the other. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. the object and the background. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. as shown in the sketch. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. and Fig. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. The arms holding the glass. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. 2 the front view of this stand. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. as in ordinary devices. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. one way and 1/2 in. Figure 1 shows the side. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal.

pointing north and south. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. and an inside diameter of 9 in. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. outside diameter. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. uncork and recork again. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. and swinging freely. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. wide and 11 in. wide and 6-5/16 in. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. An ordinary pocket compass. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. channel in the circumference of the ring. about 1-1/4 in. in diameter for a base. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. as shown in the sketch. as shown in the cut. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. thus forming a 1/4-in. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. thick 5/8-in. Before mounting the ring on the base. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. If the light becomes dim. Put the ring in place on the base. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. in diameter. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. long. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. as it is very poisonous. Cut another circular piece 11 in.

088 . of the top. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. and mirrors. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg.715 . Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. B.289 . The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second.420 .375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. in diameter and 8 in. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. EE. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other.182 . How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. AA. into these cylinders. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes . and north of the Ohio river. CC. Corresponding mirrors. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg.865 1. 1 oz. The results given should be multiplied by 1. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. from the second to the third. are mounted on a base. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings. Place on top the so- . above the half can. to which a wire has been soldered for connections.500 . are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders.600 . Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. black oxide of copper. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current.

Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. Put the solution in a long. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. says Metal Worker. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. the wheel will revolve in one direction. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. slender bottle. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. In Fig. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . 31 gr. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. 62 gr. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. When renewing. University Park. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. little crystals forming in the liquid. alcohol. which otherwise remains clear.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. then they will not rust fast. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. always remove the oil with a siphon. Colo. of pulverized campor.

The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. will allow the magnet to point north and south. If two of them are floating on the same solution. Attach to the wires. This is used in place of the spoon. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. If zinc and copper are used. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. on the under side of the cork. Lloyd Enos. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. about 1-1/4 in. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. Solder in the side of the box . A paper-fastener box. If zinc and carbon are used. floating on a solution. --Contributed by C. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument.

to it. A circular piece of cardboard. 3 in. A. as shown in Fig. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. stained and varnished. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. hole. piece of 1/4-in. To this standard solder the supporting wire. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire.in. C. brass tubing. G--No. D. long that has about 1/4-in. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. of No. E. 1. of wire on each end extending from the coil. is made from a piece of No. The base. and on the other around the glass tube. A.1-in. Use a board 1/2. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid.in. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. Wind evenly about 2 oz. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. The spring should be about 1 in. glass tubing . Rhamstine. 1-1/4 in. E. 10 wire about 10 in.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. Take a small piece of soft iron. Thos. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. Put ends. F. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. can be made of oak. B. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. 1/2. Bore holes for binding-posts. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. 14 wire will do. The standard. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. away. long. D. If the hose is not a tight fit. and then solder on the cover. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. The bottom of the box. H. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. C. wide and 6 in. . and connect the two wires from the coil to them. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. wide and 2-1/2 in. or made with a little black paint. C. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. thick. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring.Contributed by J. B. one on each side of the board.not shorter than 18 in. D. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. long. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. long for the base and fasten the coil to it.

four hinges. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. of No. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. 2.--Contributed by R. long. long. Cuba. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. D. from the right hand. J.of the coil. Wis. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. about 1 in. of 8-oz. Smith. long. of mercury will be sufficient. in diameter. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. E. 5. making a support as shown in Fig. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. N. long are used for the legs. long. as shown in Fig. is drawn nearer to the coil. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. Y. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. . 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. 3 in. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. Milwaukee. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. 3-in. When the glass becomes soft. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. 1. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. long. two pieces 2 ft. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. About 1-1/2 lb. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. canvas. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. The iron plunger. 3. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. Teasdale.--Contributed by Edward M. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig.

. long. Can. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. leaving 8 in. thus leaving a. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. Fig. Toronto. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. expelling all the air. Measure 8 in. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. 6.. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. small aperture in the long tube. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. 3. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. Keys. 2. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. Break this thread off about 1/8 in.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. 5. --Contributed by David A. holding in the left hand. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. This tube as described will be 8 in. Take 1/2 in. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. The tube now must be filled completely. Break off the piece of glass. of vacuum at the top. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. 4. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens.

4 in. 6. joint be accurately put together. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. cut in the shape shown in Fig. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. thick. wide and 3 in. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes.6 -. as shown in Fig. The large pulley is about 14 in. Fig. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. wide and 5 ft. 5. thick. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. wood screws. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. long. A crosspiece 3/4-in. Four blocks 1/4 in. This forms a slot. with each projection 3-in. thick. as in Fig. as shown in Fig. 3 in. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . 1 in. long. but yellow pine is the best. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. wide and 5 ft. thick. long. from the end of same. thick. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. 3 in. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. in diameter. and the single projection 3/4 in. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. and 1/4 in. 9 in. 7. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. 4. 1. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. 3. material 2 in. FIG.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. wide and 5 ft. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. long. wide and 12 in.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. These are bent and nailed. 2. 1 in.

first removing the crank. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. R. --Contributed by C. says Photography. by 1-in. Manhattan. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. Water 1 oz. Kan. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. . Welsh. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. attach runners and use it on the ice. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. above the runner level. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter.

Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. as shown in Fig. of water. Mass. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. 2. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. and very much cheaper. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. This is done with a camel's hair brush. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. The print is washed. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. Leominster. Treasdale. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. 1. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. . Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. also. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. 3. from an ordinary clamp skate. --Contributed by Wallace C. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Edward M.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. Printing is carried rather far. Newton. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. 1 oz. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr.

1. Fig. wide. F. The swing door B. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. The thread is broken off at the . fasten a 2-in. Va. say. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. with about 1/8-in. high for rabbits. Then. Church. 2. hole. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. Alexandria. A. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. and 3 ft. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. about 10 in. wide and 4 in. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. 1 ft. extending the width of the box. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. long.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. 1-1/2 ft. from one end. 1. which represents the back side of the door. high. too. Fig. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. Place a 10-in. and bend them as shown in the sketch. Take two glass tubes. and to the bottom. causing the door to swing back and up. --Contributed by H. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. square piece. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. as shown in the sketch.

Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. 1. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. 1 in. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. B. in size. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. Fig. Out two rectangular holes. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. one in each end and exactly opposite each other.proper place to make a small hole. camera and wish to use some 4. D. say 8 in. -Contributed by William M. but cut it 1/4 in. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. Fig. to be used as a driving pulley. shorter at each end. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. Crilly. Paste a piece of strong black paper. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. wide. as shown in Fig. and go in the holder in the same way. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. horses and dogs. long. 10 in. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. high and 12 in. C. wide. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. black surfaced if possible. inside of the opening. automobiles. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. Jr. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. 3.by 5-in. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. shorter.. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. Take two pieces of pasteboard. says Camera Craft. in size. Cut an opening in the other piece. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. . making the appearance of the ordinary stage. Chicago. A and B. plates. trolley cars. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. and exactly 5 by 7 in. from the edge on each side of these openings. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. long. wide and 5 in. 2. This opening. being 1/8 in.by 7-in.

This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. long and 6 in. A cell of this kind can easily be made. if it has previously been magnetized. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod.in. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. into which the dog is harnessed. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. wide will be required. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. The needle will then point north and south. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. in diameter. making a .. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in.

chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. and a notch between the base and the pan. in which P is the pan. Do not paint any surface. long which are copper plated. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. zinc oxide. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. only the joints. in diameter and 6 in. 1 lb. plaster of paris. 3/4 lb. . Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. fuel and packing purposes. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. A is a block of l-in. when the paraffin is melted. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. File the rods to remove the copper plate. of the top.watertight receptacle. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. sal ammoniac. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. for a connection. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. short time. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. of water. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. beeswax melted together. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. F is a spool. filter. B is a base of 1 in. pull out the wire as needed. under the spool in the paraffin. of the plate at one end. one that will hold about 1 qt. with narrow flanges.in. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. says Electrician and Mechanic. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. Place the pan on the stove. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. leaving about 1/2-in. 1/4 lb. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. pine. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. Pack the paste in. of rosin and 2 oz. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. fodder. This makes the wire smooth. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. Form a 1/2-in.

and then. or think they can do the same." which created much merriment. At least it is amusing. Very few can make it turn both ways at will.. grip the stick firmly in one hand. and therein is the trick. for others the opposite way. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. Toledo. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. thus producing two different vibrations. by the Hindoos in India. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. and he finally. but the thing would not move at all. If any of your audience presume to dispute. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. g. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. square and about 9 in. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. Try it and see. let them try it. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. from vexation. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. while for others it will not revolve at all. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. and one friend tells me that they were . Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. as in the other movement. Ohio. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. Enlarge the hole slightly. long. 2. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. for some it will turn one way.

To operate. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. 3. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. rotation was obtained. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. p.100 r. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. 7. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. Thus a circular or . It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. A square stick with notches on edge is best. by means of a center punch.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. and. and I think the results may be of interest. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. If the pressure was upon an edge. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. 6. Speeds between 700 and 1. 4. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. m. secondly. 5. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. no rotation resulted. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. The experiments were as follows: 1. gave the best results. the rotation may be obtained. 2. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin.

" The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. Sloan. or greasy. a piece of wire and a candle. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. Ph. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. Minn. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. forming a handle for carrying. Lloyd. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. G. as shown. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. unwetted by the liquid. the upper portion is. --Contributed by G.. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. Duluth.D. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. Washington. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. is driven violently away. it will be clockwise. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. C. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward).. and the height of the fall about 6 in. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. --Contributed by M. A. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. . D. A wire is tied around the can.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. so far as can be seen from the photographs. at first. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. if the pressure is from the left. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. and the resultant "basket splash. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

thick and 1 in." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. flange and a 1/4-in. long. about 2-5/8 in. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. with a 1/16-in. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. in diameter. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. hole drilled in the center.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. 1. Each wheel is 1/4 in. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. as shown. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. axle. as shown in Fig. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button.

The parts. 1 from 1/4-in. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. Texas. is made from brass. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. and the locomotive is ready for running. as shown in Fig. This will save buying a track. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. each in its proper place. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. 3. bent as shown. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. The current. A trolley. Fuller. as shown in Fig. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. lamp in series with the coil. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch .50. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. 4. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. or main part of the frame. wide and 16 in. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. 3/4 in. The first piece. 2. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. Fig. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. --Contributed by Maurice E. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. 3. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. wood. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. If the ends are to be soldered. are shown in Fig. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. 5. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. bottom side up. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. of No. Fig. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. with cardboard 3 in. put together complete. long. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. These ends are fastened together.brass. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. which must be 110 volt alternating current. The motor is now bolted. 6. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. San Antonio. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. 2. holes 1 in. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. is made from a piece of clock spring. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig.

Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. and as this end . When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. the length of a paper clip. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. The quarter will not go all the way down. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. O. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. When cold treat the other end in the same way. Fig 1. but do not heat the center. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. then continue to tighten much more. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. as shown in Fig. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. Fig. Cincinnati. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. 2. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. 1. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. and holes drilled in them. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. as shown in Fig. 3. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil.

When the cutter A. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. and adjusted . All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. A pair of centers are fitted. or apparent security of the knot. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. has finished a cut for a tooth. 2 and 1 respectively. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. When the trick is to be performed. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. or should the lathe head be raised. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. In the sketch. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel.

above the surface. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post.) Place the paper design on the leather and. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . long. blotter back. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. if but two parts. (1. swing lathe. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. --Contributed by Samuel C. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. lady's card case.) Make on paper the design wanted. dividing it into as many parts as desired. twisted around itself and soldered. The frame holding the mandrel. (6. tea cosey. 2. N. (3. When connecting to batteries. about 1-1/2 in. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. (4. Bott. trace the outline.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). Bunker. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. gentleman's card case or bill book. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). (5. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. holding it in place with the left hand. tea cosey. watch fob ready for fastenings. (2.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. note book. Fig. Y. In this manner gears 3 in. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. or one-half of the design. at the same time striking light. Fold over along these center lines. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. lady's belt bag. and a nut pick. if four parts are to be alike. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. Second row: -Two book marks. coin purse. Brooklyn. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. 1. such as brass or marble. book mark. draw center lines across the required space. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made.to run true. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. An ordinary machine will do. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. --Contributed by Howard S.

and an ordinary bottle.How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. some heavy rubber hose. Secure .

A. The electrodes are made . Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. If the needle is not horizontal. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. C. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. Thrust a pin. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. Florida. and push it through a cork. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. into which fit a small piece of tube. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. and bore a hole through the center. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. from Key West. D. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water.C. where it condenses.. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. a distance of 900 miles. B. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown.

the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. 16 piano wire. take the glider to the top of a hill. 1-1/2 in. as shown in Fig. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. wide and 3 ft. 2. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. If 20-ft. 1-1/4 in. D. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. To make a glide. All wiring is done with No. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. using a high resistance receiver. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. 3/4 in. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. both laterally and longitudinally. thick. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. C. free from knots. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. wide and 4 ft.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. 2 in. long for the body of the operator. long. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. Connect as shown in the illustration. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. 1. square and 8 ft long. thick. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. 1/2. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. thick. --Contributed by Edwin L. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. apart and extend 1 ft. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. 1. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood.in. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. wide and 4 ft. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. thick. wide and 20 ft. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. long. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. 2 arm sticks 1 in. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. lengths and splice them. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. lumber cannot be procured. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. 1. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. as shown in Fig. 12 uprights 1/2 in. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. use 10-ft. long. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. by 3/4 in. or flying-machine. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. which is tacked to the front edge. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. long. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. 3. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. Powell. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. thick. and also to keep it steady in its flight. as shown in Fig. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. The operator can then land safely and . The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. Washington. slacken speed and settle. several strips 1/2 in. long. Four long beams 3/4 in. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. wide and 4 ft long. 2. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. wide and 3 ft.

gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. Of course. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. but this must be found by experience. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. Great care should be .gently on his feet. Glides are always made against the wind.

Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. a creature of Greek mythology. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. Olson. as shown in Fig. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. M. Bellingham. half man and half horse. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover.exercised in making landings. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. When heated a little. which causes the dip in the line. --Contributed by L. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. 2. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. 1. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] .

Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. about the size of stove pipe wire. While at the drug store get 3 ft. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. making it 2-1/2 in. of small rubber tubing. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. at the other. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. The light from the . pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. long. 14 in. outside the box. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. a piece of brass or steel wire. about the size of door screen wire. will complete the material list. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. in diameter. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. long and about 3/8 in. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. this will cost about 15 cents. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. square.

This is very simple when you know how. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. M. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. Hunting. as shown in Fig. as shown in the sketch. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. O. while others will fail time after time. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. Dayton. --Photo by M. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. If done properly the card will flyaway.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. as shown in Fig. 2.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. 1. . Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic.

When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. closing both hands quickly. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. When the desired shape has been obtained. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. Cool in water and dry. then put it on the hatpin head. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. hold the lump over the flame." or the Chinese students' favorite game. place the other two. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. This game is played by five persons. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. as described. If a certain color is to be more prominent. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. as before. as shown. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax.

and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. distribute electric charges . A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. passing through neutralizing brushes. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. these sectors. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. or more in width. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house.

2. in diameter. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. The fork part is 6 in. to which insulating handles . or teeth. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. and the outer end 11/2 in. in diameter. long and the shank 4 in. 3/4 in. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. in diameter. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. 4. 3. long and the standards 3 in. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. The plates. The plates are trued up. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. Two pieces of 1-in. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. long. and 4 in. These pins. 3. turned wood pieces. wide at one end. and of a uniform thickness. wide. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. in diameter. in diameter. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. D. The drive wheels. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. 1 in. in diameter. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. as shown in Fig. C C. long. are made from 7/8-in. at the other. The two pieces. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. GG. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. 1-1/2 in. Fig. are made from solid. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. Fig. from about 1/4-in. brass tubing and the discharging rods. free from wrinkles. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. and this should be done before cutting the circle. The collectors are made. material 7 in. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. the side pieces being 24 in. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. in diameter and 15 in. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. EE. after they are mounted. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. 1. RR. as shown in Fig. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. Two solid glass rods. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. and pins inserted and soldered. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass.

one having a 2-in. 12 ft. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft.are attached. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . --Contributed by C. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. long. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. D. wide and 22 ft. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. and the work was done by themselves. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. in diameter.. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. Lloyd Enos. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. Colorado City. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. KK. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. Colo. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. ball and the other one 3/4 in. which are bent as shown.

Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. as at A. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. deep. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. and bore a hole 1/2 in. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. string together. using a 1-in. They can be used to keep pins and needles. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. yet such a thing can be done. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. bit. pens . The key will drop from the string. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard.is a good one. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch.

extra metal on each of the four sides. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. 3. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. This is to make a clean. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. above the metal. file. 4. and the third one 1/4 in. The second oblong was 3/4 in. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. two spikes. unless it would be the metal shears. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. etc. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. They are easily made. they make attractive little pieces to have about. 8. sharp division between background and design. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. Inside this oblong.. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. Proceed as follows: 1. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. screw-driver and sheet copper of No.and pencils. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. 5. When the stamping is completed. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. about 3/4-in. very rapid progress can be made. inside the first on all. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. 9. flat and round-nosed pliers.. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. inside the second on all. then the other side. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. above the work and striking it with the hammer. also trace the decorative design. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. or cigar ashes. Having determined the size of the tray. 7. 23 gauge. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. etc. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. using a nail filed to chisel edge. Draw one-half the design free hand. 2. stamp the background promiscuously. Raise the ends. slim screw. Use . and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. 6.

9. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. 8. and fourth fingers. The eyes. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. 7. In the first numbering. 6. first fingers. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . Bradley All machinists use mathematics. second fingers. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. 10. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. and the effect will be most pleasing. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. third fingers. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown.

hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. which tens are added. At a glance you see four tens or 40. . thumbs. there are no fingers above. In the second numbering. Put your thumbs together. or numbers above 10. first fingers. or the product of 8 times 9. above 20 times 20. or 60. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. 12. above 15 times 15 it is 200. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. viz. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. but being simple it saves time and trouble. the product of 12 times 12.. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. Still. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. as high as you want to go. 11. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. 600. if we wish. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. renumber your fingers. which would be 16. etc. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. which would be 70. or the product of 6 times 6. 2 times 2 equals 4. or 80. Two times one are two. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. and the six lower fingers as six tens. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. etc. etc. Let us multiply 12 by 12.. 25 times 25. 400. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand..

9 and 10 the third numbering applies. adding 400 instead of 100.. further. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. the value which the upper fingers have. the revolution seems to reverse. about a vertical axis. 3. which is the half-way point between the two fives. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. not rotation. first fingers 22. when he removes his spectacles. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. beginning the thumbs with 16. Take For example 18 times 18. any two figures between 45 and 55. the value of the upper fingers being 20. whether the one described in second or third numbering.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. For example. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. however. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. It takes place also. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. lastly. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. 7. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. the lump sum to add. 2. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. thumbs. 21. twenties. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. first finger 17. the inversion takes place against his will. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. or what. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. Proceed as in the second lumbering. And the lump sum to add. in the case of a nearsighted person. 8. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. as one might suppose. at the will of the observer. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. and. 75 and 85. and so on. forties. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. For figures ending in 6. . being 80). thirties. or from above or from below. etc. The inversion and reversion did not take place.

but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. tee. The ports were not easy to make. sometimes the point towards him. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. A flat slide valve was used. the other appearance asserts itself. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. and putting a cork on the point. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. when he knows which direction is right. as . in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. Looking at it in semidarkness.

. Ill. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. H. apart. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. The steam chest is round. pipe 10 in. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. if continued too long without proper treatment. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. about 2 in. . Next take a block of wood. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. If nothing better is at hand. Kutscher. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. Fasten the block solidly. it is easily built. across and 1/2 in. in diameter. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. The eccentric is constructed of washers. Springfield. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. inexpensive. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. bottom side up. -Contributed by W. secure a piece of No. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. Beating copper tends to harden it and. pipe. as in a vise. deep. such as is shown in the illustration. and make in one end a hollow. saw off a section of a broom handle. While this engine does not give much power. across the head. The tools are simple and can be made easily. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out.

heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. To overcome this hardness. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. Camden. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. Vinegar. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. Hay. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand.will cause the metal to break. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. and. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. C. as it softens the metal. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. O. especially when the object is near to the observer. This process is called annealing. the other to the left. To produce color effects on copper. --Contributed by W. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . S.

" which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. the left eye sees through a blue screen. in the proper choice of colors. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. But they seem black. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. the one for the left eye being blue. the further from the card will the composite image appear. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. although they pass through the screen. from the stereograph. only the orange rays may pass through. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. because of the rays coming from them. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. and without any picture. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. because. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. they must be a very trifle apart. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. disappears fully. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. however. It is just as though they were not there. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. The red portions of the picture are not seen. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. In order to make them appear before the card. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass.stereoscope. it. The further apart the pictures are. . Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. and lies to the right on the picture. while both eyes together see a white background. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. orange. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. that for the right. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. as for instance red and green. would serve the same purpose. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. not two mounted side by side. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. with the stereograph. diameter. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. So with the stereograph. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils.

12 gauge wire. Cal. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. wide and 1 in. A No. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. 1/4 in.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. thick. This should only be bored about half way through the block. San Francisco. The weight of the air in round . A small round bottle about 1/2 in. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. or the middle of the bottle. etc. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. in diameter. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. in the shape of a crank. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. wireless. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. Place a NO. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. long and a hole drilled in each end. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire.

have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. will calibrate itself. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. wide and 4 in. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. but before attempting to put in the mercury. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. wide and 40 in. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. if you choose. inside diameter and 2 in. thick. In general. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. 30 in. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather.numbers is 15 lb. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. a bottle 1 in. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. high. a glass tube 1/8 in. or.. The 4 in. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. square. But if a standard barometer is not available. high. internal diameter and about 34 in. Before fastening the scale. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. the instrument. the contrary. Only redistilled mercury should be used. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. long. pine 3 in. square. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. high. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in.6) 1 in. and a slow fall. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. or a column of mercury (density 13. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. long. 34 ft. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. . to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. if accurately constructed. long.

thick. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. wide and 10 in. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. long. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. a cover from a baking powder can will do. 3.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. 2. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . 1. Mark out seven 1-in. the size of the outside of the bottle. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. Number the pieces 1. 5. 6 and 7. which is slipped quickly over the end. and place them as shown in Fig. Procure a metal can cover. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly.

3. Move 2-Jump No. procure unbleached tent duck. 2's place. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. 7 over No. Move 3-Move No. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. 3 to the center. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. l over No. 2. 6. Move 8-Jump No.Position of the Men move only one at a time. 7's place. 5. To make such a tent. Move 15-Move No. 5 over No. Move 4-Jump No. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. 3 over No. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. in diameter. 2's place. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. Move 13-Move No. 2 over No. Move 14-Jump No. Move ll-Jump No. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. Move 7-Jump No. long and 2 ft. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. 1. each 10 ft. shaped like Fig. 6 to No. L. Move 12-Jump No. 2 over No. Woolson. Move 6-Move No. 2. N. 3 into No. as shown in Fig. 1. Cape May Point. 5's place. This can be done on a checker board. Make 22 sections. 3. 6. 6 in. 6 over No. 6 into No. Move 5-Jump No. 5 over No. Move 9-Jump No. 7. which is the very best material for the purpose. 5's place. Move 10-Move No.-Contributed by W. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. using checkers for men. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. 1 into No.J. 1 to No. 3. 7 over No. 2 .

fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. will do. 5. Punch holes in the brass in . In raising the tent. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. from the top. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. 9 by 12 in. high. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. 2 in. Use blocks. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. Tress. wide by 12 in. These are ventilators. diameter. Fig. Nail a thin sheet of brass. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. As shown in the sketch. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. made in two sections. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. wide at the bottom. 3 in. in diameter. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. leaving the rest for an opening. --Contributed by G. to a smooth board of soft wood. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. added. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in.. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. fill with canvas edging. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. 6. Have the tent pole 3 in.J. Pa. 6-in. as in Fig. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. wide at the bottom. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. about 9 in. 5) stuck in the ground. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. 2. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. round galvanized iron. long. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in.in. After transferring the design to the brass. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. Fig. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. long and 4 in. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. Emsworth.

then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief.the spaces around the outlined figures. excepting the 1/4-in. When the edges are brought together by bending. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. around the outside of the pattern. . I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. It will not. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. apart. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. Corr. cut out the brass on the outside lines. Chicago. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. bend into shape. The pattern is traced as before. When all the holes are punched. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. but before punching the holes. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads.

A 6-in. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. Que. or center on which the frame swings. Oregon. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. or. --Contributed by H. E. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. Dunham. A cast-iron ring. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. better still. --Contributed by Geo. partially filled with cream.however. pipe is used for the hub. allowing 2 ft. G. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. pipe. between which is placed the fruit jar.. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. or less. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. If a wheel is selected. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. These pipes are . so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. Stevens. Badger. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. Mayger. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank.

pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. pipe clamps. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. pipe. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. bent to the desired circle. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. Four braces made from 1/2-in. An extra wheel 18 in. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel.

Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. 1. and the guide withdrawn. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. and dropped on the table. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. The performer. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. 3. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. as shown in Fig. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . while doing this. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. which was placed in an upright position. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes.

--Contributed by H. Denver. 2. D. Louis. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. in a half circle. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. Harkins. first. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. St.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. The box can be made of selected oak or . 1. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. in diameter on another piece of tin. -Contributed by C. White. and second. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. F. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. Colo. it requires no expensive condensing lens. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. Mo. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book.

2. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. If a camera lens is used. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. 3-1/2 in. 5-1/2 in. long and should be placed vertically. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. long. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. wide. long. This will be 3/4 in. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. AA. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. and 2 in. Two strips of wood 1/2 in.mahogany. high and must . The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. and. focal length. wide and 5 in. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. The door covering this hole in the back. wide and 6-1/2 in. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. An open space 4 in. fit into the runners. represented by the dotted line in Fig. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. but not tight. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. high and 11 in. from each end. from each end of the outside of the box. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. as shown in Fig. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. wide by 5 in. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. 1. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. Two or three holes about 1 in.

The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. then the second knuckle will be March. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. Ohio. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. April. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September.. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. West Toledo. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. 1. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. provided it is airtight. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. calling this February. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. C. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. and so on. This process is rather a difficult one. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month." etc. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. June and November. as it requires an airtight case. calling that knuckle January. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. Bradley. --Contributed by Chas. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. and extending the whole height of the lantern.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. the article may be propped up .

This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. in. Pour in a little turpentine. giving it an occasional stir. but waxed. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. Crawford. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. In each place two electrodes. --Contributed by J. fruit jars are required. . Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. 1 and 2. running small motors and lighting small lamps. and set aside for half a day. and the lead 24 sq. in. In both Fig. H. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. one of lead and one of aluminum. taking care to have all the edges closed. or suspended by a string. Schenectady. 1. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. The top of a table will do. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. 2. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. Y. the lid or cover closed. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. N.with small sticks. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt.

as well as others. After a few seconds' time. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. which you warm with your hands. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. you remove the glass. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . Cleveland. This trick is very simple. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. He. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. as you have held it all the time. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. You have an understanding with some one in the company. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick.. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. he throws the other. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. O. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain.

put it under the glass. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. Be sure that this is the right one.-Contributed by E. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top.take the handiest one. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. if any snags are encountered. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. but in making one. on a table. Colo. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. Crocker. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. but by being careful at shores. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. J. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. . Victor. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. in diameter in the center. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. Pull the ends quickly. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. near a partition or curtain. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear.

3 in. 4 outwales. 1 piece. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . of rope. by 15 ft. drilled and fastened with screws. 1 in. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown.. are as follows: 1 keelson. apart. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. 14 rib bands. Paint. of 1-1/2-yd. 1/4 in.. selected pine. for the bow. wide. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. by 12 in. and is removed after the ribs are in place. 2 and braced with an iron band. wide and 12 ft. 1 mast. 1 in. by 16 ft. 1 in. 1 piece. wide 12-oz. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. 2 gunwales. wide and 12 ft. long. for the stern piece. by 2 in. 9 ft. 1 in. Both ends are mortised. by 2 in. one 6 in. for cockpit frame. 11 yd. long. is 14 ft. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. 3 in. ducking. by 10 ft. 8 in. long. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. at the ends. 8 yd. screws and cleats. by 8 in. from each end to 1 in.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. as illustrated in the engraving. Fig. from the bow and the large one. for center deck braces. 1/8 in. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. thick and 3/4 in. from the stern. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. 3 and 4. 1. wide unbleached muslin. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. and the other 12 in. The keelson. and fastened with screws. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. 7 ft. by 16 ft. of 1-yd. clear pine. 50 ft. and. long. square by 16 ft. 2 in. the smaller is placed 3 ft. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces.

1 in. A block of pine. in diameter through the block. These are put in 6 in. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. a piece 1/4 in. A seam should be made along the center piece. Before making the deck. They are 1 in. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. 7 and 8. thick. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. 4 in. The 11-yd. also. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. is cut to fit under the top boards. long. and fastened to them with bolts. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. A piece of oak. wide. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. 6. is a cube having sides 6 in. wide and 24 in. The trimming is wood. 5. . apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. Fig. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. The deck is not so hard to do. thick and 1/2 in. This block. 6 and 7. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. thick and 12 in. doubled. length of canvas is cut in the center. from the bow. wide and 3 ft. screws. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. long is well soaked in water. Figs. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. wood screws. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. 1/4 in. gunwales and keelson. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. apart. 1 in. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. long. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. thick 1-1/2 in. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. Fig. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. corner braces. wide. thick. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. 6 in. 3-1/2 ft. long. wide and 14 in. A 6-in. The block is fastened to the keelson. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. 9. Braces.

With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. Ill. at the other. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. thick by 2 in. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. wide at one end and 12 in. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. 10 with a movable handle. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. long. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. The keel. Wilmette. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. wide. A strip 1 in.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. 12. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. in diameter and 10 ft. Tronnes. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. The sail is a triangle. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. Fig. . E. long. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. is 6 in. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. 11. The mast has two side and one front stay. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. apart in the muslin. are used for the boom and gaff. each 1 in. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. The house will accommodate 20 families. --Contributed by O.

Wilmette. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. wide and 30 in. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. Tronnes. Take this and fold it over . thick. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. with the ends and the other side rounding. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. as shown in Fig. 3. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. long. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. 2 in. --Contributed by O. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. thick. square. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. 4.into two 14-in. thick. Fig. wide. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. one 11-1/2 in. long. about 5/16 in. and the other 18 in. and 3 ft. Bevel both sides of the pieces. 2-1/2 in.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. 5. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. long. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. wide and 2 ft. Ill. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. 2-1/2 in. long and five 1/2-in. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. flat headed screws. E. flat on one side. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. flat-headed screws. 2. 1 yd. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. wide. five 1/2-in. Cut the maple. 1.

C. 1-1/4 in. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. wide and 6-3/4 in. the mechanical parts can be put together. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. Mo. leaving a small opening at one corner. is set. pieces 2-5/8 in. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. Bliss. wide and 6-1/2 in. 2 and 3. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. If carefully and neatly made. thick. long. and take care that the pieces are all square. wide and 2-3/4 in. The bag is then turned inside out. long. long. the top and bottom. E. Cut another piece of board. long. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. wide and 5 in. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. wide and 4-1/2 in. --Contributed by W. but can be governed by circumstances. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. as well as the edges around the opening.once. thick and 3 in. long. B. thick. Another piece. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. and make a turn in each end of the wires. The front. about 3/8 in. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. wide and 2-1/2 in. this square box is well sandpapered. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. of each end unwound for connections. Wind three layers of about No. Make a double stitch all around the edge. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. and the four outside edges. A. When the glue is set. wide and 3 ft. square. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. square. A. long. then centered. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. are rounded. wide . C. 3/8 in. Figs. St. D. Louis. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. About 1/2 in. 3 in. 6-1/2 in. 5 from 1/16-in. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. Fig. After the glue. Glue a three cornered piece. 1. F. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. 3-1/4 in. long. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. long. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. The sides are 3-1/4 in. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. forming an eye for a screw. soaked with water and blown up. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood.

1/16 in. 4. Richmond Hill. wide and 9 in. showing a greater defection of the pointer. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. the part carrying the pointer moves away. The stronger the current. Yorkshire. from the spindle. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. Chapman. and the farther apart they will be forced. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . F. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. A pointer 12 in. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. G. When the current flows through the coil.A. wide and 2-1/2 in. board. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. 4 is not movable. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set.S. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. in diameter. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. 1/4 in. Fig. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. so it will just clear the tin. The base is a board 5 in. and fasten in place. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. R. and as the part Fig. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. the same size as the first. 4. Like poles repel each other. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle.and 2-5/8 in. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H.R. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. Place the tin. Fig. long. hole is fastened to the pointer. 5-1/2 in. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. long. I. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. from one end. long. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. L. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. These wires should be about 1 in. C. bored in the back. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. thick. The end of the polar axis B. The resistance is now adjusted to show . Another strip of tin. that has the end turned with a shoulder. --Contributed by George Heimroth.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. W. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. 5. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. Austwick Hall.

1881. thus: 9 hr. The following formula will show how this may be found. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. M. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. A. 10 min. shows mean siderial. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. 10 min. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. say Venus at the date of observation. and vice . Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. 30 min. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. at 9 hr. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out.

Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. if one of these cannot be had. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality.f. . and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. New Haven. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. and then verify its correctness by measurement. owing to the low internal resistance. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. Hall. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery.m. Conn. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. --Contributed by Robert W. or.

leaves or bark. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. Fig. Wet paper will answer. fresh grass. inside diameter and about 5 in. The boring bar. as shown in the accompanying picture. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. 1-3/4 in. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. When the follower is screwed down. put the fish among the ashes. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. arsenic to every 20 lb. 1. of alum and 4 oz. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. thick. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. Then. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. 3/8 in. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . especially for cooking fish. and heap the glowing coals on top. cover up with the same. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. long.

Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . about 1/2 in. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. when they were turned in. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. pipe. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. thick. fastened with a pin. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. and threaded on both ends. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. pipe.

3. a jump spark would be much better. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. was then finished on an emery wheel. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. wide. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. This plate also supports the rocker arms. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. Fig. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. bent in the shape of a U. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. If the valve keeps dripping. and which gave such satisfactory results. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. square iron. The rough frame. Iowa. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. Fig. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. then it should be ground to a fit. the float is too high. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. labor and time. long. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. A 1-in. Fig. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder.valve stems. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. 2. thick and 3 in. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. Clermont. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. 30 in. but never one which required so little material. however. It . 5. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. 4. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. as the one illustrated herewith. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated.

3/4 in. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. A 3/4 -in. being held in position by spikes as shown. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. long. and a little junk. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. square and 2 ft. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. square. The seats are regular swing boards. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. Nieman. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. from all over the neighborhood." little and big. in fact. A malleable iron bolt. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. hole bored in the post. 12 ft. completes the merry-go-round. from the center. strong clear material only should be employed. strengthened by a piece 4 in. Use a heavy washer at the head. long. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. The crosspiece is 2 in. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. butting against short stakes. The upright is a 4 by 4-in.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. so it must be strong enough. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. set 3 ft. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. rope is not too heavy. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. The illustration largely explains itself. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. extending above. long." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. As there is no bracing. This makes an easy adjustment. It looks like a toy. and. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. for the "motive power" to grasp. --Contributed by C. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. in the ground with 8 ft. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. in diameter and 15 in. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . and long enough to keep firmly in the post. square and 5 ft. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. long is the pivot. no matter what your age or size may be. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. If it is to be used for adults. with no trees or buildings in the way. W. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. timber. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction.

If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. a wreck. and 18 in. if nothing better is at hand. light and strong. To wind the string upon the reel. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. as shown in Fig. The bow is now bent. 1. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. long. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. one for the backbone and one for the bow. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. square. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. The backbone is flat. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down.the fingers. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. A reel is next made. away. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. and sent to earth. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. These ends are placed about 14 in. then it is securely fastened. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. 2. 4. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft.2 emery. Both have large reels full of . Having placed the backbone in position. 1/4 by 3/32 in.

--Contributed' by Harry S. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. Bunker. Brooklyn. common packing thread. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. Newburyport. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. often several hundred yards of it. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. or glass-covered string. If the second kite is close enough. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. Y. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. he pays out a large amount of string.-Contributed by S. C. First. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. N. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . Moody. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise.string. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. Mass. the balance. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. The handle end is held down with a staple. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench.

Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. --Contributed by Earl R. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. length of 2-in. such as mill men use. cutting the circular piece into quarters. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. If the table is round. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. Vt. each the size of half the table top. Corinth. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. must be attached to a 3-ft. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. square (Fig. make the pad as shown in the illustration. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. then draw the string up tight. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. then a dust protector. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. lengths (Fig. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. Hastings.

How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag.-Contributed by H. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. and E to G.9-1/4 in. Wharton.. Use a smooth. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. 17-1/2 in. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. from E to F. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. Moisten the . hard pencil. 2-1/4 in. from C to D. Calif. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. E. which spoils the leather effect. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. Oakland. trace the design carefully on the leather. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. 16-1/4 in. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. 6-1/4 in..Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. . Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. G to H. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring..

get something with which to make a lining. H-B. wide. place both together and with a leather punch. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. G-J. Trace the openings for the handles. I made this motor . is taken off at a time.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. To complete the bag. apart. and lace through the holes. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. about 1/8 in. and E-G. also lines A-G. with the rounded sides of the tools. if not more than 1 in. and corresponding lines on the other side. Now cut narrow thongs. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. Cut it the same size as the bag. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire.

The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. iron. long. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. in length. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. 1. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. 1. D. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. Pasadena. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. 24 gauge magnet wire. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. B. --Contributed by J. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. each being a half circle. 2-1/4 in. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. . The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. Calif. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax.M. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. Shannon. 2. as shown in Fig. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. of No.

The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. near the center. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. balloon should be about 8 ft. high. from the bottom end. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. 1. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. are the best kind to make. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. pasted in alternately. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . The gores for a 6-ft. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. and the gores cut from these.

and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. After washing. so it will hang as shown in Fig. lap on the edges. Fig. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. The steam. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. after which the paint will adhere permanently. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. In removing grease from wood. 1. Staunton. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. These are to hold the wick ball. as shown in Fig. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. As the boat is driven forward by this force. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. 4. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. somewhat larger in size. 5. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. A. The boat soon attains considerable speed. as shown in Fig. leaving the solution on over night. B. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. coming through the small pipe A. leaving a long wake behind. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. In starting the balloon on its flight. saturating it thoroughly. 3. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water.widest point. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. using about 1/2-in. 2. --Contributed by R. If the gores have been put together right. in diameter. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. E. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. A Game Played on the Ice [216] .

This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. long and each provided with a handle. if you have several copies of the photograph. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. The blocks are about 6 in. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. 1. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. as is shown in Fig. Third. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. high and 8 in. In using either of the two methods described. There are three ways of doing this: First. in bowling form. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. long. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. wide by 6 in. Second. apart on these lines. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way.

Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. being careful not to dent the metal. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. Fig. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. Rinse the plate in cold water.Fig. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. Albany. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. not pointed down at the road at an angle. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. N. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. Hellwig. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. --Contributed by John A. 2. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. Y. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. thick.

A. which is 4 in. Corner irons. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. Richmond. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . Break off the frame. and Fig. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. In Fig. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. 2 the front view. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end.upon any particular object. through which passes the set screw S. 5 in. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. and not produce the right sound. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. These corner irons are also screwed to. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. A. B. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. --Contributed by R. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. S. wide and 8 in. long for the base. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. in diameter. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. are screwed to the circular piece. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. is fastened to a common camera tripod. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. 6 in. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. thick. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. Paine. wide and of any desired height. and. 1 Fig. CC. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. Va. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. A circular piece of wood. with a set screw. With this device.

will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. Lake Preston. -1. thus producing sound waves. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. in diameter of some 1-in. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. This will make a very compact electric horn. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. as only the can is visible. La Salle. pine boards. Ill. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. This horn. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. D. Kidder. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. R. . I made a wheel 26 in. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. S. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator.

2. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. Purdy. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. B. thick and 12 in. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. If there is a large collection of coins. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. --Contributed by James R. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. A. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. O. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. Kane. Doylestown. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. Ghent. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. The frame is made of a heavy card. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] .Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. square. 1. 1. the same thickness as the coins. --Contributed by C. Fig. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. If the collection consists of only a few coins. Feet may be added to the base if desired. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block.

A rivet punch is desirable. Toronto. --Contributed by J. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. It will hold 4 oz. If desired. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. Noble. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. Canada. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. for after the slides have been shown a few times. Wis. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. One Cloud. --Contributed by August T. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. they become uninteresting.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. melted and applied with a brush. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. of developer. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. border all around. though not absolutely necessary. into which to place the screws .E. Neyer.J. a hammer or mallet. A lead pencil. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. Cal. cut and grooved. Milwaukee. plus a 3/8-in. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. thick. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. Smith. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. --Contributed by R. and then glued together as indicated. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. The material required is a sheet of No. several large nails.

Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. draw one part. like the one shown. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. Take the nail. and file it to a chisel edge. There are several ways of working up the design. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. both outline and decoration. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the .that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. Remove the screws. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. using 1/2-in. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. screws placed about 1 in. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. never upon the metal directly.

2. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. each 1 in.wall. The pedal. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. Rivet the band to the holder. being ball bearing. and two lengths. long. up from the lower end. in the other. long. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. l-1/8 in. Provide four lengths for the legs. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. About 1/2 yd. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. of 11-in. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. for the lower rails. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. 3/4 in. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. square. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. for the top. 3. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. two lengths. using a 1/2in. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. as shown in Fig. square and 181/2 in. . long. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. Do not bend it over or flatten it. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. 1. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. square and 11 in. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet.

was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. --Contributed by John Shahan. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. Quackenbush. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. New York City. --Contributed by W. F. Attalla. having quite a length of threads.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. Ala. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator.

and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. wide and 4-1/4 in. long. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. each 1-1/4 in. Mich. initial. long. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. college or lodge colors. and 3/8 in. D. from one end. stitched on both edges for appearance.. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. long. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. Two pieces of felt. --Contributed by C. something that is carbonated. using class. in depth. wide and 8-1/4 in. Assemble as shown in the sketch. from the end. making a lap of about 1 in. and the other 2-3/4 in. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. and two holes in the other. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. the end of the other piece is folded over. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. Ironwood. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. one about 1 in. The desired emblem. Purchase a 1/2-in. Luther.

Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. 2. which can be procured from a plumber. Ind. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. and the cork will be driven out. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . if desired by the operator. --Contributed by John H.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. or a pasteboard box. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. A piece of lead. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. as shown in the sketch. Punch two holes A. This method allows a wide range of designs. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. as shown at B. in diameter and 2 in. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. in the cover and the bottom. or more in height. Fig. Schatz. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. Indianapolis. 1/4 in. from the center and opposite each other. 1. about 2 in.

O. The pieces of tin between the holes A. . non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. putting in the design. are turned up as in Fig. A piece of thick glass. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. and the ends of the bands looped over them. Fig. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. When the can is rolled away from you. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. it winds up the rubber band. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. 5. metal. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. or marble will serve. Columbus. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. 4. --Contributed by Mack Wilson.Rolling Can Toy lead. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. as shown in Fig. allowing the two ends to be free. 3. on both top and bottom. 1.

A pencil may be used the first time over. The edges should be about 1/8 in. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. long and bored a 1/2-in. If it is desired to "line" the inside. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. 1 in. face up. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. After this has been done. wide and 20 in. from each end. New York City. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. or more thick on each side. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. thicker than the pinion. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. thick. deep in its face. hole through it. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes .Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. I secured a board 3/4 in. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. mark over the design. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. 3 in. Next place the leather on the glass. and.

Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. 1 top board. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. Rice. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. countersinking the heads of the vise end. and fit it in place for the side vise. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. much of the hard labor will be saved. Y. 3 by 3 by 6 in. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. 1 piece. Syracuse. thick top board. Make the lower frame first. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. 2 crosspieces. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. 2 end rails. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. lag screws as shown. pieces for the vise slides. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. Brooklyn. 1 piece for clamp. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. --Contributed by A.in the board into the bench top. 4 guides. N. 1 screw block. in diameter. Cut the 2-in. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . Fig. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. M. 2 by 12 by 77 in. 2. 1 piece for clamp. 2 by 2 by 18 in. New York. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. 1 by 9 by 80 in. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. 1 by 12 by 77 in. Now fit up the two clamps. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. 1 top board. 2 side rails. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. 3 by 3 by 36. 1. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. 3 by 3 by 20 in. 1 back board.

The amateur workman. 1 monkey wrench. Only the long run. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop.screws. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. in diameter. 1 cross cut saw. 1 wood scraper. . A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. They can be purchased at a hardware store. 1 jack plane or smoother. 1 brace and set of bits. 24 in. 1 claw hammer. 1 pair pliers. 1 set chisels.. The bench is now complete. 1 nail set. 1 countersink. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. 1 set gimlets. 1 marking gauge. 2 screwdrivers.. 1 compass saw. 1 pair dividers. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. it can be easily found when wanted. If each tool is kept in a certain place. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. rule. 1 2-ft. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. 1 pocket level.. 1 rip saw. 1 bench plane or jointer. 3 and 6 in. as well as the pattern maker. 24 in.

Pa. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. 1. Fig. but will not make . Doylestown. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. 2 and 00 sandpaper.1. Fig. 1. 2. 3. after constant use. Fig. will sink into the handle as shown at D. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. ---Contributed by James M. Kane. the projecting point A. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness.1 6-in. will be easier to work. becomes like A. 1 oilstone. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. No. try square. Fig. The calf skin. being softer.

The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. the same method of treatment is used. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. If cow hide is preferred. such as copper or brass. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. secure a piece of modeling calf. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. Turn the leather. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. then prepare the leather.as rigid a case as the cow skin. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. Having prepared the two sides. lay the design on the face. cover it completely with water enamel and. water or heat will not affect. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. Two pieces will be required of this size. First draw the design on paper. After the outlines are traced. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. when dry. but a V-shaped nut pick. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. White. The form can be made of a stick of wood. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. . -Contributed by Julia A. New York City. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. which steam. will do just as well. and the length 6-5/8 in. If calf skin is to be used.

if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. as shown in the sketch. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. Maine. --Contributed by Chester L. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. --Contributed by Chas. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. Herrman. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. Jaquythe. Richmond. Cobb. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. and an adjustable friction-held loop. A.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. C. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. New York City. Cal. . When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. --Contributed by W. Portland.

an inverted stewpan. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. Cambridge. Wright. A thick piece of tin. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. . The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. This was very difficult. for instance. Mass. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. --Contributed by Wm. B. Roberts. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. --Contributed by Geo. Middletown.. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. Conn. was marked out as shown.

L. pulverized and applied.. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. as shown. Bone. Chicago. but only an odor which soon vanished. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. which has been tried out several times with success. and quite new. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. but not running over. When dry. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. If any traces of the grease are left. apply powdered calcined magnesia. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. Herbert.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. and the grease will disappear. Indianapolis. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. . had oil from a lamp spilled over it. of boiling water. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. on a clear piece of glass. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. If the article is highly polished. Illinois. --Contributed by Paul Keller. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. There was no quicklime to be had. so some bones were quickly calcined. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. F. face down. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. well calcined and powdered. Ind. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. A beautifully bound book. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. The next morning there was no trace of oil. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. --Contributed by C. used as part of furniture. such as chair seats.

thick. wide and 12 in.. the pieces . New York. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. If properly adjusted. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. deep and 5 in. says Scientific American. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. 6 in. Howe. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. 2 in. --Contributed by Geo. set and thumbscrews. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. A. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. Tarrytown. long.. high and are bolted to a block of wood. The pieces marked S are single. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. soft steel with the opening 6 in. This coaster is simple and easy to make.

Their size depends on the plate used. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. for sending to friends. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. albums and the like. says Camera Craft. If the letters are all cut the same height. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. no doubt. to the underside of which is a block. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. A sharp knife. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. they will look remarkably uniform. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. The seat is a board. E. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in.

trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. So arranged. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. pasting the prints on some thin card. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. photographing them down to the desired size. In cutting out an 0. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. mount them on short pieces of corks. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. The puzzle is to get . they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. for example. after. and. using care to get it in the right position. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. So made. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down.

A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. Bayley. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . Cape May Point. with the longest end outside.-Contributed by I. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. G. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. hung on pivots. A hole 6 or 7 in. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. of its top. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. Old-Time Magic . long that will just fit are set in. N. squeezes along past the center of the tube. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. snow or anything to hide it. says the American Thresherman.J. so they will lie horizontal. He smells the bait.

Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. --Contributed by L. Press the hands together. Rhode Island. Idaho. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. then spread the string. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. Pawtucket. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. Pocatello.faced up. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. --Contributed by L. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. E. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. or rub the hands a little before doing so. --Contributed by Charles Graham. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . Parker. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. Szerlip. then expose again. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. Brooklyn. Y. N. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined.

. or a complete suit of armor.Genuine antique swords and armor. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. Glue the other side of the blade. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. thick. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. long. end of the blade. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. 3 Fig. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. The handle is next made. using a straightedge and a pencil. 2 Fig. wipe the blade . near the point end. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. or green oil paint. in width. The pieces. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. they will look very much like the genuine article. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. When the glue is thoroughly dry. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. whether he requires a single sword only. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. says the English Mechanic. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. narrower. wide and 2 in. if any. and if carefully made. The blade should be about 27 in. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value.. 1. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. in building up his work from the illustrations. 1 Fig. full size. When the whole is quite dry. dark red. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. 4 on the blade.

1.. Fig. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. take two pieces of wood. preferably of contrasting colors. the length of the blade 28 in. 1. of course. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. in the widest part at the lower end. 1/8 in. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. 2. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. shows only two sides. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. 3. 4. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig.with light strokes up and down several times. should be about 9 in. The length of the handle. about 1-1/2 in. thick and 5 in. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. In making. not for use only in cases of tableaux. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine.. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. square and of any length desired. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. as it is . the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. 1. Both edges of the blade are sharp. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. This sword is about 68 in. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. and 3 in. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. 2. the other is flat or halfround. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. the other is flat or half-round. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. allowing for a good hold with both hands. 1. In making this scimitar. in diameter. In the finished piece. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. follow the directions as for Fig. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. the other two are identical. the illustration. long. 3.

as shown in the sketch. and if so. A cold . as can the pitch bed or block. long. N. --Contributed by John Blake. Doctors probed for the button without success. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. as there was some at hand. Both can be made easily. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. at the lower end. The thinness of the plank. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. or an insecure fastening. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. It is made of a plank. Morse. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. in an attempt to remove it. Franklin.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. A piece of mild steel. however. Y. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. each about 1 ft. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. and. Mass. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. On each edge of the board. piping and jackets by hard water. 2 in. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. --Contributed by Katharine D. Syracuse. about 3/8 in. square. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. are fastened two pieces of strap iron.

The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. When this has been done. on the pitch. To put it in another way. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. To remedy this. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. a file to reduce the ends to shape. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. design down. using a small metal saw.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. When the desired form has been obtained. 18 gauge. Trim up the edges and file them . heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. 5 lb. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. 5 lb.. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. tallow. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees.. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. plaster of Paris. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. secure a piece of brass of about No.

Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. That is lifting 33. or fraction of a horsepower. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. and still revolve. 2). A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. over the smaller vessel. one 18 in. 30 ft. per second. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. 1 ft. in one second. 1 ft. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. in diameter (Fig. it may be well to know what horsepower means. and hang a bird swing. to keep it from floating. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. per minute. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. lb. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. living together in what seems like one receptacle. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. --Contributed by Harold H. The smaller is placed within the larger. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. Cutter. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. or 550 ft. in diameter (Fig. 1) and the other 12 in. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. This in turn divided by 33. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. 3. make an unusual show window attraction. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. Clean the metal thoroughly. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. Fill the 3-in.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. in one minute or 550 lb.000 ft. using powdered pumice with lye. A. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. Before giving the description. space between the vessels with water.000 lb.smooth. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. . Fig. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. but not to stop it. in the center. lb.

Somerville.3 Fig. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. by L. --Contributed. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. Diameter 12 in. Y. N. Diameter Fig. 2 Fig. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete .18 in. The effect is surprising. --Contributed by J. Brooklyn. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. 1 Fig. F.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. Mass. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. or on a pedestal. Szerlip. Campbell.

In riveting. to keep the metal from tarnishing. the same as removing writing from a slate. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. then by drawing a straightedge over it. This compound is impervious to water. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. away from the edge. which may be of wood or tin. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished.copper of No. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. Polish both of these pieces. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. using any of the common metal polishes. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. unsatisfactory. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. and the clay . Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. as a rule. and then. is. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. with the pliers. keeping the center high. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. and cut out the shape with the shears. which. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. Rivet the cup to the base. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. often render it useless after a few months service. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. after which it is ready for use. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. Do not be content merely to bend them over. with other defects. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference.

--Contributed by John T. Dunlop. long. Scotland. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. Mich. in diameter and 5 in. Grand Rapids. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. Houghton. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. 3/4 in.can be pressed back and leveled. --Contributed by A. . DeLoof. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. 1. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. Mich. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. the device will work for an indefinite time. 2. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. Northville. It is made of a glass tube. -Contributed by Thos. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. Shettleston. A. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. as shown in Fig. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. The siphon is made of glass tubes.

As the handle is to . long with the crossguard and blade of steel. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall.1 FIG. in width and 2 in. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles.FIG. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. stilettos and battle-axes. long.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. put up as ornaments. This sword is 4 ft. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. London. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. 1. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color.

A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. When the whole is quite dry. 7. 8. This stiletto has a wood handle. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. The lower half of the handle is of wood. the upper part iron or steel. studded with brass or steel nails. in width. 3 is shown a claymore. The ball is made as described in Fig. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. in length. These must be cut from pieces of wood. with both edges of the blade sharp. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. Cut two strips of tinfoil. 5. When the glue is thoroughly dry. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. The sword shown in Fig. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. paint it a dark brown or black. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. firmly glued on. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. then glued on the blade as shown. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. narrower. This axe is made similar to the one . 20 spike. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. This weapon is about 1 ft. A German stiletto. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. which is about 2-1/2 ft. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. 4. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. with both edges sharp. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. long with a dark handle of wood. is shown in Fig. very broad. 11 were used. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. Three large. long. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. 6. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. one about 1/2 in. A German poniard is shown in Fig. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. sometimes called cuirass breakers. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. wood with a keyhole saw. This sword is about 4 ft. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. the axe is of steel. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. string. small rope and round-headed nails. The crossbar and blade are steel. Both handle and axe are of steel. When dry. In Fig. 9. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. The handle is of wood. This weapon is also about 1 ft. the same as used on the end of the handle. In Fig. In Fig. glue and put it in place. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. with wire or string' bound handle. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. sharp edges on both sides.represent copper. in length.

Davis. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. W. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. such as braided fishline. Chicago. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. together as shown in Fig. This will make a very good flexible belt. --Contributed by E.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. When wrapped all the way around. . high. will pull where other belts slip. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil.described in Fig. 2. 10. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. Old-Time Magic . so the contents cannot be seen. the ends are tied and cut off.

Calif. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. four glass tumblers. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. or using small wedges of wood. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. in a few seconds' time. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. These wires are put in the jar. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. Oakland. As zinc is much lighter than iron. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. causing the flowers to grow. 2. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. S. To make the flowers grow in an instant. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. with the circle centrally located. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. Before the performance. Bridgeton. There will be no change in color. apparently. Macdonald. about one-third the way down from the top.J. held in the right hand. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. some of the liquid. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . The dotted lines in Fig. an acid. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. --Contributed by A. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. filled with water. N. 1 and put together as in Fig. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid.

it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. Richmond. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. Cal. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. If the size wanted is No. says a correspondent of Photo Era. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. 4 for width and No. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. --Contributed by W. 2 for height. Jaquythe. unless some special device is used. which are numbered for convenience in working. practical and costs nothing. not only because of the fact just mentioned. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. This outlines the desired opening. When many slides are to be masked. and equally worthy of individual treatment. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. A. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. and kept ready for use at any time. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks.

or a pair of old tongs. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. paint the design. possibly. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. which is dangerous. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. and do not inhale the fumes. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. a little less acid than water. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. but they can be easily revived. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. using the carbon paper. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. about half and half. too. may be changed. With a stick. is about right for the No. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. the margin and the entire back of the metal. This done. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. 16 gauge. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. or. The one shown is merely suggestive. Secure a sheet of No. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. the paper is folded along the center line. The decoration. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. not the water into the acid. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. and the extreme length 7 in. Draw a design. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. When etched to the desired depth.

. the bell will ring. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. as at H. Then get two posts. through it. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. Nail a board. 5. 5. and about 2-1/2 ft. about 8 in. and bore two holes. attached to a post at each end. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. 3/8 in.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. as in Fig. long and 1 ft. or more wide. long. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. When the button S is pressed. as shown in Fig. to the table. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. Fig. about 3 ft. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. 1. Cut out a piece of tin. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. The connections are simple: I. J is another wire attached in the same way. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. repeat as many times as is necessary. Fig. C and D. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. It may be either nailed or screwed down. about 1 in. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. in diameter and 1/4 in. Fig. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. Fig. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. Paint the table any color desired. 2. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. A. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. about 2-1/2 in. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. thick. wide and of the same length as the table. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. 0 indicates the batteries. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. 4. it will touch post F. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. 2. 24 parts water. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. so that when it is pressed down. 2. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. with the wires underneath. 3. high. wide. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. as shown in the illustration. Fig. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board.

A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. A wood peg about 2 in. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in.. 1. The imitation articles are made of wood. long. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. thick. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. but they are somewhat difficult to make. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig.Imitation Arms and Armor . The circle is marked out with a compass. handle and all. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. These rings can be carved out. long serves as the dowel. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. This weapon is about 22 in. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. After the glue is dry. The entire weapon. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. 2. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. the wood peg inserted in one of them. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. says the English Mechanic. such as . is to appear as steel.

The tinfoil should be applied carefully. long. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. also. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. 2. The handle is of steel imitation. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. This weapon is about 22 in. or the amateur cannot use it well. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. Its length is about 3 ft. as described in Fig. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. covered with red velvet. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. 8. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. etc. 5. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. flowers. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. The entire handle should be made of one piece. used at the end of the fifteenth century. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. The axe is shown in steel. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. The spikes are cut out of wood. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel.ornamental scrolls. The lower half of the handle is wood. with a sharp carving tool. 6. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. leaves. All of these axes are about the same length. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. The upper half of the handle is steel. as before mentioned. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. . at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. The handle is of wood. If such a tool is not at hand. the hammer and spike. is shown in Fig. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. studded with large brass or steel nails. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. 3. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. as shown.

A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. as shown in Fig. 1. a three-base hit. Fig. Each person plays until three outs have been made. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. 5. . and so on for nine innings. 4). 7) calls for one out. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. the knife resting on its back. Chicago. 3. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. 6. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. then the other plays. The knife falling on its side (Fig. calls for a home run. 2. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. as in Fig.

the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. Somerville. This he does.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. of water for an hour or two. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. hypo to 1 pt. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. of the rope and holds it. F. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. 2.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. while the committee is tying him up. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. as shown in Fig. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. 3. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. Mass. Campbell. one of them burning . Old-Time Magic . If it is spotted at all. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. 1. with the rope laced in the cloth. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. as shown in Fig. It may be found that the negative is not colored.-Contributed by J. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table.

Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. Louisville. --Contributed by L. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. the other without a light. of water and 1 oz. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. etc. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. The magician walks over to the burning candle. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. and. Brown. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. bolt. --Contributed by C. of sugar. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. Drill Gauge screw. of plumbago.. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. Ky. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. showing that there is nothing between them. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. thick.brightly. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. Ky. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. . 4 oz. New York City. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. thus causing it to light. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. with which he is going to light the other candle. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle.Contributed by Andrew G. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. Thome. of turpentine. Lebanon. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. 4 oz. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. invisible to them (the audience). The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. B. He then walks over to the other candle. 3/4 in. shades the light for a few seconds. Evans.

Y. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. Pulteney. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. Its current strength is about one volt. To make the porous cell. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. --Contributed by C. for the material. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. thick. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. long. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. 5 in. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . diameter. about 5 in. which will give a strong. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. H. steady current. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. into a tube of several thicknesses. but is not so good. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. In making up the solution. N. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. Do not add water to the acid. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. or blotting paper. Denniston. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use.

carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. one drawing them together. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude.) may be obtained. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. To insure this. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. steel. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. Finally. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. As to thickness. steel. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. steel.station. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. carrying the hour circle at one end. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. One hole was bored as well as possible. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. but somewhat lighter. The . long with a bearing at each end. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. the other holding them apart. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. while the other end is attached by two screws. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. a positive adjustment was provided. After much experimentation with bearings.

Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. Each shaft. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. once carefully made. Cassiopiae.." When this is done. is provided with this adjustment. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. need not be changed. in each direction from two points 180 deg. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result.. All set screws. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. turn the pointer to the star. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. and 15 min. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. Instead. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. excepting those on the declination axis. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. To locate a known star on the map. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes." Only a rough setting is necessary. save the one in the pipe. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. and if it is not again directed to the same point. 45 min. To find a star in the heavens. All these adjustments. The pointer is directed to Alpha. It is. The aperture should be 1/4 in. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. are tightened. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. When properly set it will describe a great circle. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . Set the declination circle to its reading. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. Declination is read directly. apart. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. The pole is 1 deg. Point it approximately to the north star. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. subtract 24. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. If the result is more than 24 hours. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture.

add a little more benzole. which is the one examined. is the real cannon ball. In reality the first ball. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. Plain City. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. -Contributed by Ray E. taking care not to add too much. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. then add 1 2-3 dr. If this will be too transparent. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. of ether. a great effect will be produced. Strosnider. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. long. cannon balls. Ohio. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. benzole. New Orleans. The ball is found to be the genuine article. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. as shown in the sketch. La. is folded several times. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. 3 or 4 in. The dance will begin. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. the others . OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb..

which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. Somerville. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. 2. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. Return the card to the pack. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. Campbell. etc. small brooches. In boxes having a sliding cover. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. --Contributed by J. Fig. as shown in the illustration. Milwaukee. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. taps. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. F. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated.. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . 1). Mass. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. without taking up any great amount of space. Wis. Cal. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. San Francisco. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article.

Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. from the bottom of the box. thus giving ample store room for colors. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. round pieces 2-1/4 in. as shown in the illustration. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. .The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. slides and extra brushes. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. Beller. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. prints. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. Hartford. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. This box has done good service. Connecticut.

-Contributed by C. 1). When the ends are turned under. about threefourths full. will answer the purpose. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. holes in the bottom of one. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. or placed against a wall. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. FIG. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. tacking the gauze well at the corners. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. with well packed horse manure. West Lynn. 2). . Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. O. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. Darke. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. Fill the upper tub. Mass. costing 5 cents.

A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. Eifel. if this is not available. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. oil or other fluid. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. If plugs are found in any of the holes. and each bundle contains . The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. when they are raised from the pan. they should be knocked out. If the following directions are carried out. M. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. --Contributed by L. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. Chicago. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. cutting the cane between the holes. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back.

and. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. put about 3 or 4 in. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. held there by inserting another plug. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. No plugs . First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. In addition to the cane. then across and down. it should be held by a plug. after having been pulled tight. 1. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. as shown in Fig. a square pointed wedge. as it must be removed again. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. Whenever the end of one strand is reached.

and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. and the one we shall describe in this article. and for 1° it would be .075 in.5 in. is the base (5 in. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. as for example. and for lat. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. as the height of the line BC for lat.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. 1. It consists of a flat circular table. the height of which is taken from table No. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. If handled with a little care. it is 4. 4. 5 in. Patrick. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. --Contributed by M. When cool. as shown in Fig. 5. using the same holes as for the first layer. D. Michigan. but the most common. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . Fig. This will make three layers. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. called the gnomon. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. R. 1. From table No. W.15+. or the style. If you have a table of natural functions. the height of the line BC. 41°-30'. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. Their difference is . One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. No weaving has been done up to this time. The style or gnomon. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. as it always equals the latitude of the place. in this case) times the . 3. stretch the third one. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. 40°. 41 °-30'. After completing the second layer. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. Even with this lubrication. the next smallest. 3. for 2°. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. During the weaving. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. trim off the surplus rosin. -Contributed by E.42 in. is the horizontal dial. we have 4.2 in. All added to the lesser or 40°. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case.3 in. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair.075 in. There are several different designs of sundials. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. Detroit. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. Fig. 1 lat. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal.15 in. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired.= 4.2+. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. lat. 42° is 4. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. 1.

81 4.16 1.46 . 1. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 .89 50° 5.20 60° 8.44 44° 4. Draw the line AD.57 1.66 latitude. base. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No. draw two parallel lines AB and CD.59 2.28 .49 30 .19 1. 2.06 2. according to the size of the dial. if of metal.29 4-30 7-30 3.02 1.14 5.11 3.33 .87 4.55 46° 5. gives the 6 o'clock points. an inch or two.49 3.46 3. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points.30 1. long.97 5 7 4.55 30° 2.23 6. or more.82 2.55 4.83 27° 2. and intersecting the semicircles. or if of stone.12 52° 6.56 .42 45 .87 1.85 1. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed.55 5.66 48° 5.26 4. For latitudes not given.30 2.38 .42 1.94 1.68 5-30 6-30 5. Table NO. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style.tangent of the degree of latitude.39 .93 6.63 56° 7. using the points A and C as centers. Its thickness.76 1. circle Sundial.40 1.27 2. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight.40 34° 3. and perpendicular to the base or style. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in.96 32° 3. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown. To layout the hour circle.18 28° 2.77 2.64 4 8 3.07 4. A line EF drawn through the points A and C.93 2. with a radius of 5 in. Chords in inches for a 10 in.50 26° 2. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial.37 5.16 40 .66 1.57 3. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks.82 5. Fig.10 6.91 58° 8.00 40° 4. Height of stile in inches for a 5in.85 35 .42 .37 54° 6.33 42° 4. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No. 2 for given latitudes.82 3. .99 2. 2.41 38° 3.03 3. and for this size dial (10 in. Draw two semi-circles.88 36° 3. which will represent the base in length and thickness.79 4.32 6.

46 4. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.01 1. Mitchell.71 2. Each weapon is cut from wood. June 15. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time.14 1.77 3.24 5.89 3. An ordinary compass.from Sundial lime. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker. E.12 5. if west.34 5.50 .. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid. and on these dates the dial needs no correction. London. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco. after allowing for the declination. --Contributed by J.46 5. then the watch is slower. Sioux City. The + means that the clock is faster. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen.68 3. and for the difference between standard and local time. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality.21 2. and the .means that the dial is faster than the sun.87 6.54 60 . Sun time to local mean time. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15.10 4. says the English Mechanic. 3. 25. adding to each piece interest and value. 3. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York. Iowa.19 2. 900 Chicago.79 6. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face. April 16.08 1. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west.add those marked + subtract those Marked . will enable one to set the dial.49 3.72 5.30 2. each article can be labelled with the name. it will be faster.60 4. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached. Sept. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the .06 2. 3 Corrections in minutes to change.49 5. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year. 2 and Dec.82 3.53 1.50 55 .98 4.57 1. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon. This correction can be added to the values in table No.63 1. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. As they are the genuine reproductions.37 2. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No.52 Table No.93 6. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3.

brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. the length of which is about 5 ft. 3. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. When putting on the tinfoil. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. Partisan. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. . long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. 1..

is shown in Fig. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. . The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. The edges are sharp. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. in diameter. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. press it well into the carved depressions. about 4 in.. 8. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. long. 7.which is square. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. long. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. which are a part of the axe. long with a round staff or handle. It is about 6 ft. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. The spear is steel. The extreme length is 9 ft. This weapon is about 6 ft. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. 6 ft. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. A gisarm or glaive. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. used about the seventeenth century. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. the holes being about 1/4 in. The length of this bar is about 5 in. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. sharp on the outer edges. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. 5. long with a round wooden handle. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig.

are less durable and will quickly show wear. used for spacing and binding the whole together. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. are put in place. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig.-Contributed by R. or in holes punched in a leather strap. H. In Figs. Workman. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. Substances such as straw. The twisted cross cords should . This is important to secure neatness. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. 5. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. 2 and 3. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. apart. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. B. as shown in Fig. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. 4. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. Loudonville. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. Cut all the cords the same length. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. the most durable being bamboo.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. the cross cords. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. They can be made of various materials. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. Ohio. 1. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs.

New York. This was turned over the top of the other can. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. M. in which was placed a piece of glass. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. of the bottom. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. Harrer. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. To remedy this. 3 in. La. -Contributed by Geo. Four V-shaped notches were cut. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. below the top to within 1/4 in. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned.be of such material. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . New Orleans. as shown at B. Lockport. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. bamboo or rolled paper. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. A slit was cut in the bottom. shaped as shown at C. The first design shown is for using bamboo. wide. for a length extending from a point 2 in. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place.

gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. After this is finished. the brass is loosened from the block. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. This should be done gradually. Sanford. Ill. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. giving the appearance of hammered brass. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. is shown in the accompanying sketch. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. Y. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. H. N. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. --Contributed by Chas. turned over but not fastened. Cal. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. Maywood. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. do not throw away the gloves. about 1/16 in. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. wide. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. Newburgh. Schaffner.tape from sticking to the carpet. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. --Contributed by Joseph H. Shay. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. --Contributed by W. It would be well to polish the brass at first. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. Pasadena. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. This plank. and two along the side for attaching the staff. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end.

by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. A. Marshall. Richmond. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. --E. -Contributed by W. Jaquythe. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. in diameter. Oak Park. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. K. Ill. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. bent as shown. Unlike most clocks. the pendulum swings . Cal.

Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. Two uprights. in diameter. are secured in the base bar. The construction is very simple. about 12 in. Now place the board to be joined. 7-1/2 in. and the other two 2-5/8 in. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. Metzech. by 1-5/16 in. on the board B. to the first one with screws or glue. 3/4 in. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. In using this method. B. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. wide that is perfectly flat. bearing on the latter. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips.. wide. .Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. is an electromagnet. thick. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. Fasten another board. about 6 in. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. high. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. bar. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. only have the opposite side up. Secure a board. A. --Contributed by V. C. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. high and 1/4 in. high. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. 5/16 in. says the Scientific American. 6 in. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. Chicago. away. long and at each side of this. the center one being 2-3/4 in. such as this one. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. high. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock.

2. --Contributed by Elmer A. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. 1. by driving a pin through the wood. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. 4. . square inside. whose dimensions are given in Fig. Fig. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. Pa. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. 3. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. Vanderslice. square. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. 1. from one end. as shown at A. or more. wide and 1 in. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. The trigger. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. Phoenixville. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. 1. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. wide and 5 in. plates should be made 8 in. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. Fig. is fastened in the hole A. long.

and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. -Contributed by J. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. Ohio. rubbing varnish and turpentine. 5 parts of black filler. by weight. as shown in the illustration. Simonis.A. one-half the length of the side pieces. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. if only two bands are put in the . This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. which allows 1/4 in. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. square. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. Fostoria. 2 parts of whiting. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan.

--Contributed by Thos. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. long. place tracing paper on its surface. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. DeLoof. as shown in Fig. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. II. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. London. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. preferably copper. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. -Contributed by Abner B. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. 8 in. A piece of metal. says the English Mechanic. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. wide and about 1 ft.lower strings. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. Grand Rapids. A mirror. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. is necessary. It must be kept moist and well . deep. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. In use. Shaw. Mass. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. 1. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. No. Dartmouth. and the picture can be drawn as described. and it may be made as a model or full sized. Michigan. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. A double convex lens. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. In constructing helmets. keeps the strong light out when sketching. in the opposite end of the box. is set at an angle of 45 deg. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. G. which may be either of ground or plain glass. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. If a plain glass is used.

cut out the shape from a piece of wood. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. as shown in Fig. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. All being ready. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. will be necessary. Scraps of thin. and continue until the clay is completely covered. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. on which to place the clay. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. 2. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. as in bas-relief. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. with a keyhole saw. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. The clay. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. and left over night to soak. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue.kneaded. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. and over the crest on top. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. take. 1. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. 1. After the clay model is finished. 3. shown in Fig. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. the clay model oiled. joined closely together. and the deft use of the fingers. or some thin glue. a few clay-modeling tools. This being done. brown. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly .

A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. which should be no difficult matter. When perfectly dry. and the ear guards in two pieces. as seen in the other part of the sketch. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. The whole helmet. This contrivance should be made of wood. When the helmet is off the model. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. will make it look neat. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. owing to the clay being oiled. 1. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. In Fig. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. The band is decorated with brass studs. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. --Contributed by Paul Keller. 9. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. 7. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. the piecing could not be detected. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . Indianapolis. Indiana. then another coating of glue. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. and so on. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward.as possible. In Fig. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. should be modeled and made in one piece. a crest on top. When dry. Before taking it off the model. or. square in shape. The center of the ear guards are perforated. They are all covered with tinfoil. 5. as shown: in the design. with the exception of the vizor. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. the skullcap. a few lines running down. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. one for each side.

each 4-1/2 in. about 80 ft. the fuse block. The plate. 4. Fig. to receive screws for holding it to the base. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. thick sheet asbestos. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. Fig. AA. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. Fig. The two holes. 3. one small switch. Fig. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. as shown in Fig. are allowed to project about 1 in. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. 4. long. This will make an open space between the plates. Fig. 1. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. screws. should extend about 1/4 in. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. of No. 2. is shown in Fig. 4. with slits cut for the wires. AA. one oblong piece of wood. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. Fig. as shown in Fig. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. about 1/4 in. is then packed down inside the collar. also the switch B and the fuse block C. The reverse side of the base. and. The mineral wool. of fire clay. 4 lb. Fig. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. one glass tube. or. 1. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. if this cannot be obtained. thick. 1. until it is within 1 in. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. 3 in. when they are placed in opposite positions. 4. high. GG. in diameter and 9 in. 4. the holes leading to the switch. This will allow the plate. Fig. 4. 1. 12 in. wide and 15 in. Punch holes in one of the pie plates.same size. as it stands a higher temperature. long. JJ. A round collar of galvanized iron. E and F. as shown in Fig. If asbestos is used. which can be bought from a local druggist. for connections. about 1 lb. FF. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. of mineral wool. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. and two large 3in. If a neat appearance is desired. 2. German-silver wire is better. AA. 2. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. Fig. Fig. 22 gauge resistance wire. Fig. two ordinary binding posts. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. 1. Fig. 1. if the measurements are correct. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. long. Fig. 1 in. 4. above the collar. and C. of the top. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. The holes B and C are about 3 in. one fuse block. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay .

one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. then. when heated. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. apart. If it is not thoroughly dry. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. Catherines. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. Next. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. II. when cool. This completes the stove. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. --Contributed by R. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. Jaquythe. This point marks the proper length to cut it. As these connections cannot be soldered. above the rim. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. A file can be used to remove any rough places. Cover over about 1 in. While the clay is damp. will slip and come in contact with each other. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. --Contributed by W. When the tile is in place. allowing a space between each turn. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. Can. H. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. It should not be set on end. It should not be left heated in this condition. and pressed into it. Fig. The clay. steam will form when the current is applied. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. 2. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. KK. it leaves a gate for the metal. deep. A. If this is the case. 4. Cal. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. Cnonyn. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. When this is done. Richmond. so that the circuit will not become broken. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. using care not to get it too wet. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. Cut a 1/2-in. as the turns of the wires. causing a short circuit. St. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. more wire should be added. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. Fig.

the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. --Contributed by Andrew G. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. Thorne. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. the air can enter from both top and bottom. Louisville. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. the pie will be damaged. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. constructed of 3/4-in. square material in any size." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. but 12 by 24 in. and the prints will dry rapidly. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. Then clip a little off the . and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. as shown. and the frame set near a window. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. is large enough. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. says the Photographic Times. Ky.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose.

is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. long. as shown. An offset is bent in the center. thick. A 1/8-in. wide and 3 in. long. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. which gives the shaft a half turn. Le Mars. 1. long. which are fastened to the base. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. -Contributed by S. open out. thick and 3 in. 1/2 in. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. thereby saving time and washing. wide. for the crank. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. each 1/2 in. 1. The driving arm D. Fig. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. The board can be raised to place . thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. The connecting rod E. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. high. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. Fig. at GG. 3. 14 in. in diameter and about 4 in. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. in diameter. 1 and 3. 1. Figs. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. Iowa. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. W. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. long. As the shaft revolves. 22 gauge magnet wire. 2-1/2 in. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. The upright B. wide and 7 in. thick and 3 in. Two supports. 2. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. 1/2 in. 4 in. slip on two cardboard washers. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. causing a break in the current. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. Herron. The connections are made as shown in Fig. high. Fig. high. 1. allowing each end to project for connections. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. each 1 in. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head.Paper Funnel point. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. The contact F is made of a strip of copper.

in height. 3 in. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. Stecher. Place the pot. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. . In designing the roost. making a framework suitable for a roost. One or more pots may be used. on a board. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. --Contributed by William F. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. Mass. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. Dorchester. as shown in the sketch. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. bottom side up.

Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. paraffin and paint or varnish. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. odd corners. 1. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. Fig. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. if it is other than straight lines. in diameter. grills and gratings for doors. etc. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. preferably.. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. without any corresponding benefit. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. adopt the method described. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. The bottom part of the sketch. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. 1. F. when combined. The materials required are rope or. The design must be considered first and when one is selected.. Wind the . shelves. windows. that it is heated. F. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. and give it time to dry. as shown in Fig. ordinary glue. will produce the pattern desired. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails.

Harrer. N. Fig. Lockport. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. M. cut and glue them together.Fig. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . six designs are shown. 2. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. Y. -Contributed by Geo.

The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches... says the English Mechanic. which was used in front of a horse's head. etc. will be retained by the cotton. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. 1. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. but no farther. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. and the sides do not cover the jaws. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. when it will be observed that any organic matter. This piece of horse armor.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. etc. London. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in.. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. As the . chips of iron rust.

4. as shown in the sketch. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. the same as in Fig. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. the rougher the better.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. All being ready. then another coat of glue. The armor is now removed from the model. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. In Fig. This will make the model light and easy to move around. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. except the thumb and fingers. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. but the back is not necessary. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. which can be made in any size. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. as the surface will hold the clay. 2. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. and the clay model oiled. and therefore it is not described. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. This being done. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. This can be made in one piece. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. An arrangement is shown in Fig. with the exception of the thumb shield. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. but for . and will require less clay. 6 and 7. 2. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. This triangularshaped support. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. which is separate. 8. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig.

Fasten a polished brass ball to. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. If it does not hold a charge. running down the plate. Goshen. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. Calif.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. Y. 1/2 in. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. are better shown in Fig. 2. wide and 1/2 in. each about 1/4 in. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. are glued to it. two for the jaws and one a wedge. the two pieces of foil will draw together. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. long. When locating the place for the screw eyes. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. . in depth. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. but 3-1/2 in. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. cut into the shape shown in Fig. 9. Buxton. La Rue. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. --Contributed by Ralph L. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. --Contributed by John G. fastened to the rod. the foils will not move. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. will be about right. two in each jaw. and the instrument is ready for use. The two pieces of foil. Redondo Beach. A piece of board. N. the top of the rod. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil.

as this will cut under the water without splashing. At a point 6 in. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. silvered. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. enameled or otherwise decorated. hole bored through it. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. --Contributed by Mrs. pine board. long. M. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. Bryan. about 15 in. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. from the smaller end. The can may be bronzed. When a fish is hooked. as shown in the illustration. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. 2-1/2 in. is made of a 1/4-in. Texas. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. Corsicana. A. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. as indicated in the . as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel.

Having completed the drawing. such as basswood or pine was used. Any kind of wood will do. long over all. punch the holes. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. When it has dried over night. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. using a piece of carbon paper. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. thick. take a piece of thin wood. Polish the metal. using powdered pumice and lye. will do as well as the more expensive woods. 22 is plenty heavy enough. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. put a coat or two of wax and polish . and trace upon it the design and outline. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. Basswood or butternut." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. If soft wood. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. 3/8 or 1/4 in. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. wide by 6 in. or even pine. Next prepare the metal holder. as shown.Match Holder accompanying sketch. A good size is 5 in. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. then with a nail.

long. It is useful for photographers. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. Jaquythe. Instead of the usual two short ropes. If carving is contemplated. each 1 in. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. The metal holder may next be fastened in place.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. If one has some insight in carving. --Contributed by W. wide and 5 in. . Two wire nails. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. are used for the cores of the magnets. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. long. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. 2 in. A. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. thick. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. Cal. 1/2 in. the whole being finished in linseed oil. of pure olive oil. is used for the base of this instrument. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. can be made on the same standards. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. Richmond.

Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. leaving about 1/4 in. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. as shown in Fig. as shown by the dotted lines. then covered with red. London. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. when the key is pushed down. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. A rubber band. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. --Contributed by W. Lynas. says the English Mechanic. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. 3. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. All of the parts for the armor have been described. H. the paper covering put on. cut in the shape of the letter T. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. . The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. A piece of tin. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. in the shape shown in the sketch. About 1 in. at A. about No. except that for the legs. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. similar to that used in electric bells. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. 25 gauge. cloth or baize to represent the legs. acts as a spring to keep the key open. 1. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets.

for the sake of lightness. one to another . By moving the position of the bolt from. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. completes the equipment. Cut them to a length or 40 in. says Camera Craft. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. These can be purchased at a stationery store. So set up. or ordinary plaster laths will do. In one end of the piece. A 1/4-in. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. hole in the center. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. Take the piece shown in Fig. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. flat headed carriage bolt. 3 in. Instead of using brass headed nails. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. 2. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. Secure two strips of wood. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. in the other end. drill six 1/4-in. 1 in. apart. The two pieces are bolted together. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. about 1 in.. can be made in a few minutes' time. apart. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. Silver paper will do very well. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. at each end. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. not too tight. Fig. long.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. and eight small holes. holes. 1 and drill a 1/4in. make the same series of eight small holes and.

C over D and B. and the one beneath C. the one marked A. then B over C and the end stuck under A. doubled and run through the web of A. Then draw all four ends up snugly. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. for instance. Then take B and lay it over A. In this sketch. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. but instead of reversing . of the ends remain unwoven. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. 2. in Fig. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. Fig. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. D over A and C. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. 2. A is the first string and B is the second. lay Cover B and the one under D. 2. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. as in portraiture and the like. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. 1. and lay it over the one to the right. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. as shown in Fig. A round fob is made in a similar way. Start with one end. long.of the larger holes in the strip. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. taking the same start as for the square fob. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. 4.

Monroeville. over the one to its right. as in making the square fob. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. long. as at A in Fig. 3. 1-1/2 in. 5. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. Rupp. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. Other designs can be made in the same manner. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. always lap one string. --Contributed by John P.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. Ohio. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. the design of which is shown herewith. as B. is left out at the center before starting on one side. A loop. The round fob is shown in Fig. is to be made of leather. especially if silk strings are used. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them.

Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. Mich. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. . beeswax or paraffin. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. A. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. Any smooth piece of steel. When the supply of wax is exhausted. it can be easily renewed. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. using the reverse side. filling them with wax. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. such as a nut pick. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. Houghton. pressing it against the wood. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. Northville. -Contributed by A. door facing or door panel.

Enough plaster should. Petersburg. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. Ill. those on matte paper will work best. although tin ones can be used with good success. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. place it face down in the dish. Select the print you wish to mount. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. thick. D. says Photographic Times. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. apart and driven in only part way. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. N. Y. --Contributed by O. Fold together on lines C. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. and after wetting. leaving about 1/4 in. but any kind that will not stick may be used.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. and about 12 in. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. The tacks should be about 1 in. E and F. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. New York. J. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. long. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. it is best to leave a plain white margin. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. Thompson. . remaining above the surface of the board. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. if blueprints are used. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick.

The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. without mixing the solutions. as shown in the right of the sketch. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. bell flowers. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire.. One of the . Lower into the test tube a wire. will be rendered perfectly white. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. violets. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. as shown at the left in the sketch. etc. filling the same about onehalf full. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. roses. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes.

long and made of wood. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. made of heavy tin. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. not too tightly. --Contributed by L. 2. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. as shown. A rod that will fit the brass tube. L. The tin horn can be easily made. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. The first point should be ground blunt. should be soldered to the box. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. 1. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. South Dakota.. Fig. in diameter and 1 in. The sound box. 1-7/8 in.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. but which will not wobble loose. about 1/8s in. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. The diaphragm. or delicate tints of the egg. turned a little tapering. as shown in the sketch. thick. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. 3. to keep the core from coming off in turning. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. and at the larger end. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. is about 2-1/2 in. Shabino. Millstown. shading. long. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. When soldering these parts together. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat.

E.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. Gold. wondering what it was. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. Ill. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. while playing in the yard close to a grain house.Contributed by E. Jr. mice in the bottom. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. Victor. Chicago. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. and. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. Colo. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. and weighted it with a heavy stone. says the Iowa Homestead. put a board on top.

The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. . and as hard a blow may be struck as desired.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. Buffalo. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. Can. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. Ottawa. Pereira. N. --Contributed by Lyndwode. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. Y.

--Contributed by W. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. Richmond. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. Grand Rapids. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. cut round. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. Mich. as shown. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. by means of a flatheaded tack. longer than the length of the can. Jaquythe. through which several holes have been punched. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. and at one end of the stick fasten. A. --Contributed by Thos. This cart has no axle. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. De Loof. above the end of the dasher. a piece of tin. as it can be made quickly in any size. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . Put a small nail 2 in. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. Cal.

deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. 1 ft. I reversed a door gong. Kane. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. Notches 1/8 in. The base may be made of a 1/2-in.1. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. deep and 3 in. 1/4 in. were below the level of the bullseye. --Contributed by James M. wide and as long as the box. 2 in. 2. Doylestown. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. cut in the center of the rounding edge. screwed it on the inside of a store box. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. 1-1/2 in. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. La. long. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. New Orleans. of course. 1. wide and 3 ft. Fig. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. thick. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. The baseboard and top are separable. A wedge-shaped piece of . wide. as shown. 2. apart. 2. board. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. The candles. wide and 1/8 in. Pa. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig.

Needles. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. wide rubber bands or felt. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. the blade is put back into the groove . by cutting away the ends. When not in use. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. dressing one surface of each piece. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. the reason being that if both were solid. etc. Mass. stone or wood.Book Back Holders metal. A. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. Worcester. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. will. take two pieces of hard wood. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. 3. as shown in Fig. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. scissors. --Contributed by G. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. wide into each side of the casing. West Union. After the glue has dried. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. it can be removed without marring the casing. the shelf could not be put on the window. Cover the block with rubber. when placed as in Fig. This device is very convenient for invalids. 1. can be picked up without any trouble. Wood. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. to prevent its scratching the desk top. The block can also be used as a paperweight. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. Ia.. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. For the handle. After completing the handle.

The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. Mass. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. A notch is cut in one side. thus carrying the car up the incline. 1 in. --Contributed by H. A. Each one is made of a hardwood block. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. Erie. as shown in Fig. Cleveland. --Contributed by Maud McKee. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. square and 4 in. Pa. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. . Hutchins. 2. If desired. S. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. is shown in the accompanying sketch. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. Jacobs. Malden. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles.and sharpened to a cutting edge. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. 1. -Contributed by W. long. Ohio. as shown in Fig. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block.

J. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. will be needed. N.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. Prepare a design for the front. and an awl and hammer. One sheet of metal. 6 by 9-1/2 in. This will insure having all parts alike. Cape May Point. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. a board on which to work it. The letters can be put on afterward.. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. . If one such as is shown is to be used. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material.

The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. 3/4 part. On the back. varnish. The stick may be placed by the side of. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. . placed on a table. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. paste the paper design right on the metal. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. 1 part.Fasten the metal to the board. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. Remove the metal. says Master Painter. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. or. which is desirable." In all appearance. but weird and distant. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. if desired. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. as shown. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. that can be worked in your own parlor. behind or through the center of a table leg. only the marginal line is to be pierced. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. 2 parts white vitriol. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. applied by means of a brush. to right angles. The music will not sound natural. 1/4 part. turpentine. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. flat brush. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. So impressive are the results. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. If any polishing is required. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. a violin. mandolin or guitar. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. in the waste metal. One coat will do. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick.

The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. Two pairs of feet. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. says Work. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. each 6 in.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. each 28 in. long and spread about 8 in. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. it might be difficult. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. are shaped as shown in Fig. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. 2. long. without them. is bent square so as to form two uprights. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. wide. The longest piece. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. . round-head machine screws. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. 3. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. long and measuring 26 in. across the top. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. London. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. and is easy to construct. With proper tools this is easy. thick by 1/2 in. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. square bar iron. apart. which should be about 5-1/2 ft.

6. B. The brads are then removed. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. A. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. using rosin as a flux. or.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. After the joints are soldered. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. 5. cut a long piece of lead. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. D. Fig. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. special flux purchased for this purpose. in the grooves of the borders. is held by the brads. The glass. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. C. better still. While the piece of lead D. Place the corner piece of glass. the latter being tapped to . Fig. 5. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. The design is formed in the lead. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. on it as shown. and the base border. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. 4. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. lead. After the glass is cut. as shown in Fig. 7.

holes through their centers. Camden. Make three washers 3-in. bolt. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. square and of the length given in the drawing. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. then drill a 3/4-in. Bore a 3/4-in. --Contributed by W. This . hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. Dreier. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. rocker bolt. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. one on each side and central with the hole. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. long. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. This ring can be made of 1-in. plates. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. plank about 12 ft. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. and two wood blocks.. thick and drill 3/4-in. A and B. wood screws in each washer. Two styles of hand holds are shown.the base of the clip. H. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. N. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. Secure a post. bolt. long. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. then flatten its end on the under side. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. The center pin is 3/4-in. Fasten the plates to the block B. in diameter and 1/4 in. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. not less than 4 in. rounded at the top as shown. in diameter and about 9 in. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. and round the corners of one end for a ring. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. J. as shown in Fig. Bore a 5/8-in. 8. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. long. Jr.

a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. 1/2 in. long. 4 in. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. and some one can swing an axe. long and 1 piece. long. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. 7 in. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. hickory. shanks. maple. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. 9 in. 1. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans.will make an excellent cover for a pot. 16 screws. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. horse and rings. 4 filler pieces. the money outlay will be almost nothing. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. If trees are convenient. from one edge. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. long. by 3 ft. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. New Orleans. boards along the side of each from end to end. 3/4 by 3 in. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. chestnut or ash. long. by 6-1/2 ft. bolts and rope. bit. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. square by 5 ft. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. because it will not stand the weather. 50 ft. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. square by 9-1/2 ft. of 1/4-in. 2 by 4 in. long. 4 pieces. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. long. 4 pieces. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. To substitute small. 1-1/4in. Draw a line on the four 7-in. 3 in. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. apart for a distance of 3 ft. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. La. straight-grained hickory. The four 7-in. can make a first class gymnasium. in diameter and 7 in. screws. 4 in. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . 1 by 7 in. by 2 ft. 2-1/2 in. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home.

. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. Bore a 9/16-in. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted.. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. 8 in. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. deep and remove all loose dirt. 2. at each end. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. boards coincide. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. from the end. each 3 ft. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel.bored. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. apart. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. apart. piece of wood. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. so the 1/2-in. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved.

If the tumbler is rotated. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. just visible against the dark evening sky. it follows the edge for about 1 in. the effect is very striking. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. but most deceptive at dusk. and materially heightened the illusion. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible.. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. and then passes in a curve across the base. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. in an endless belt. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. . disappearing only to reappear again. When the interest of the crowd. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. He stretched the thread between two buildings. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. And all he used was a black thread. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem." which skimmed along the distant horizon. not much to look at in daytime. which at once gathered. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. apart. not even the tumbler. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. it is taken to the edge of the foot. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. W. was at its height. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. about 100 ft. passing through a screweye at either end. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. and ascends the stem. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed.

Fig. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. 1. 2 by 4 in. large spikes. 2 side braces. New Orleans. by 10 ft. long. 4 knee braces. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. The cork will come out easily. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. long. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. 2 base pieces. square and 6 ft. beginning at a point 9 in. long. long. 4 in. To make the apparatus. 8 bolts. so the point will be on top. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. long. Chisel out two notches 4 in. wide and 1 in. 4 in. by 3 ft. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. 4 wood screws. from either side of the center. La. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. 7 in. long and 1 doz. deep. long. 2 cross braces. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. preferably cedar. 6 in. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. and turned in a spiral D.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. long. by 2 ft. square and 51/2 ft. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 8 in. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. 8 in. 2 by 3 in. 2 by 4 in. 4 bolts. A wire about No. 8 in. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. 2 in. by 7 ft. long. 2 by 4 in. Bevel the ends of .

The wood so treated will last for years. etc. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. using four of the 7-in bolts. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. equipped with a strainer. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. except the bars. leaving the strainer always in position. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. which face each other. as shown in the diagram. of 7 ft.. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. additional long. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. Cal. leave it undressed. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. ( To be Continued. If using mill-cut lumber. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. screws. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. After the trenches are dug. --Contributed by W. A. jellies. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. Two endpieces must be made. Richmond. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. but even unpainted they are very durable. These will allow the ladle to be turned. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. so the bolts in both will not meet. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. . The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. Jaquythe.the knee braces. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. and countersinking the heads. save the bars. A large sized ladle. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus.

Oil. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. In order to accomplish this experiment. partly a barrier for jumps. which seems impossible. A. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. it is necessary to place a stick. of sufficient 1ength. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. thus holding the pail as shown. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. . or various cutting compounds of oil. drill press or planer. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. milling machine. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table.

long. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. 4 in. The material required is as follows: Two posts. to fasten the knee braces at the top. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. Hand holds must be provided next. 1 cross brace. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. 2 by 4 in. bolts. Procure from a saw mill. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. 2 adjusting pieces. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. by 3 ft. long. 2 by 4 in. but 5 ft. and free from knots.. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. stud cut rounding on one edge. The round part of this log must be planed. bolts. 4-1/2 in. long. 4 in. long. projections and splinters. in the ground. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. To construct. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. by 3 ft. two 1/2-in. is a good length. long. long. 4 knee braces. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. These are placed 18 in. 4 in. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. 2 bases. beginning 1-1/2 in. piece of 2 by 4-in. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. long. square by 5 ft. ten 1/2-in. These are well nailed in place. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. 3 in. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. 1 in. square by 5-1/2 ft. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. long.. 7 in. 2 by 4 in. apart. by 3 ft. apart in a central position on the horse. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . from each end. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. bolt. in diameter--the larger the better. bolts.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. wood yard or from the woods. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars.

Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. over and around. then bending to the shape desired. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. Cal.--Contributed by W. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. Richmond. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. A. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. such as a dent. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. snow. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. no one is responsible but himself. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber.horse top. etc. it is caused by an overloaded shell. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. water. Jaquythe. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. Such a hand sled can be made in a . One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. it is caused by some obstruction. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. pipe and fittings. Also. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. but nevertheless.

W. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. Paris. when straightened out. then run a string over each part. will give the length. The end elevation. Noble. 1/4 or 3/16 in. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. 2. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. in width and 1/32 in. which. 1. Ontario. Joerin. at E and F. when complete. These. . are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. are all the tools necessary. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. --Contributed by Arthur E. is much better than a wood sled. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. --Contributed by J. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. France. Boston.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. Mass. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. Vener. Toronto. --Contributed by James E. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. thick. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete.

It is best to use soft water. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. 4.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. The method shown in Figs. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. nor that which is partly oxidized. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. . The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. AA and BB. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. and the latter will take on a bright luster. are nailed. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. 3.

5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. 1). 8 and 9. class ice-yacht. . The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. as shown in Fig. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. or various rulings may be made. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. as shown in Fig. 2. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. or unequal widths as in Fig. 3. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. 4. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. 2. Broad lines can be made. Percy Ashley in Rudder. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. The materials used are: backbone.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

1. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. A good and substantial homemade lathe. a larger size of pipe should be used. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. Both the lower . about 30 in. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. pipe. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. long. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. but if it is made much longer. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. It can be made longer or shorter. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. pins to keep them from turning. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center.Fig. out from the collar. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. 1-Details of Lathe sort. a tee and a forging. bent and drilled as shown. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. The point should extend about 11/2 in. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. The headstock is made of two tees.

The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. To do this. --Contributed by W. 2. 1. . It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. --Contributed by W. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. M. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. a straight line should be scratched Fig. Laporte. thick as desired.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. Held. Musgrove. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. 2. or a key can be used as well. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by M. Man. Cal. Boissevain. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. but also their insulating properties. UpDeGraff. else taper turning will result. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. and will answer for a great variety of work. It is about 1 in. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. 3/4 or 1 in. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. a corresponding line made on this. as shown in Fig. W. Indiana. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. Fruitvale. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. 2.

To obviate this. Ft. The handle is of pine about 18 in. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. J. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. --Contributed by E. Ark.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. long. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. as shown. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. Cline. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. In use. Smith.

--Contributed by Maurice Baudier. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. --Contributed by Walter W. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. which should be backed out of contact. on starting the lathe. if this method is followed: First. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. La. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. After being entered. take . Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. the drill does not need the tool. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. centering is just one operation too many. Colo. and when once in true up to its size. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. New Orleans. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. Denver. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. White. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. face off the end of the piece. This prevents the drill from wobbling.

as shown in D. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. a bout 1/2 in. The handkerchief rod. after being shown empty. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. says the Sphinx. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. a long piece of glass tubing. all the better. After the wand is removed. the cap is placed over the paper tube. and can be varied to suit the performer. vanishing wand. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. The glass tube B. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. shown at C. unknown to the spectators. and this given to someone to hold. is put into the paper tube A. shorter t h a n the wand. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. In doing this. It can be used in a great number of tricks. by applying caustic soda or .

A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. 1 End. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. 1 Neck. Glue strips of soft wood. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. Glue the neck to the box. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. The sides. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. 1. 1 Bottom. with the back side rounding. thick. can be made by the home mechanic. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. preferably hard maple. long. across the front and back to strengthen them. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. End. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. and if care is taken in selecting the material. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. by 14 by 17 in. Cut a piece of hard wood. and glue it to the neck at F. This dimension and those for the frets . ends and bottom are made of hard wood. 2 Sides. With care and patience. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. square and 1-7/8 in. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. cut to any shape desired. The brace at D is 1 in. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. 1/4 in. 3/16.potash around the edges of the letters. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. as shown by K. As the cement softens.

Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. E. Stoddard. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. A board 1 in. H. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. and beveled . Carbondale. 1) on which to stretch the paper. When it is completed you will have a canoe. --Contributed by Chas. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. Norwalk. wide and 11-1/2 ft. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. toward each end. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. but it is not. -Contributed by J. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. 3/16 in. thick and about 1 ft. O. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. in diameter.Pa. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. Six holes. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. or backbone.should be made accurately. Frary. long is used for a keel.

Fig. which are easily made of long. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. as they are apt to do. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. These are better. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. 2). Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. with long stout screws. Fig. 3).) in notches. and so. in thickness and should be cut. 4). Osiers probably make the best ribs. will answer nearly as well. Any tough. b. Fig. The cross-boards (B. some tight strips of ash. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. Fig. thick. C. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. 1. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. are next put in. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. Shape these as shown by A. 2. probably. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. slender switches of osier willow. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. . 2). Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. procure at a carriage factory.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. 3. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. Fig. when made of green elm. and notched at the end to receive them (B. b. For the gunwales (a. in such cases. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. or similar material. and. thick. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. the loose strips of ash (b. 1 and 2. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. such as is used for making chairbottoms. two twigs may be used to make one rib. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. two strips of wood (b. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. 3/8 in. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. and are not fastened. as shown in Fig. 3. Fig. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. by means of a string or wire. Green wood is preferable. or other place. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. Fig. wide by 26 in. a. B.. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. The ribs. but before doing this. 3). long. such as hazel or birch. but twigs of some other trees. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. C. 4. 13 in. buy some split cane or rattan. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. Fig. In drying. twigs 5 or 6 ft. b. long are required. as shown in Fig. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. Fig. as before described. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. apart.

after wetting it. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. of very strong wrapping-paper. preferably iron. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. wide. but neither stiff nor very thick. Then take some of the split rattan and. You may put in . Fig. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. It should be drawn tight along the edges. 5). until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. The paper is then trimmed. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. and as soon as that has soaked in. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. and light oars. If the paper be 1 yd. if it has been properly constructed of good material. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. If not. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. and steady in the water. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. When the paper is dry. however. B. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. apply a second coat of the same varnish. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. Being made in long rolls.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. but with less turpentine. When thoroughly dry. It should be smooth on the surface. and very tough. tacking it to the bottom-board. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. and held in place by means of small clamps. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards.

We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. Fig. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. and make a movable seat (A. 1. Drive the lower nail first. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. they will support very heavy weights. 5). A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. 2. and if driven as shown in the cut. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. to fit it easily. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. 1 and the end in . Fig. Fig. We procured a box and made a frame. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. fore and aft. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. 5. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig.

Pa. and the result is. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in.Fig. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. 3. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. this makes the tube airtight. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. and the glass. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. This is an easy . One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. This way has its drawbacks. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. 5. Close the other end with the same operation. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. 4. Pittsburg. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. A good way to handle this work. being softer where the flame has been applied.

How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. above the work and striking it with the hammer. four. file. -Contributed by A. Oswald. above the metal. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. thin screw. also trace the decorative design. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. very rapid progress can be made. with a piece of carbon paper. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. 23 gauge. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. fourth. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. After the bulb is formed. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. Sixth. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper.way to make a thermometer tube. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. The candle holders may have two. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. or six arms. fifth. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. then reverse. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. extra metal all around. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. three. second. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. metal shears. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. Seventh. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. third. Give the metal a circular motion. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. rivet punch. flat and round-nosed pliers.

Small copper rivets are used. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. Having pierced the bracket. Metal polish of any kind will do. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. drip cup. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. and holder. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration.

the stick at the bottom of the sail. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. sugar 1 part. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. all the rest I found. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. I steer with the front wheel. Fifty. is a broomstick. J. The boom. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. The gaff. if it has not absorbed too much ink. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. F. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. except they had wheels instead of runners. and other things as they were needed. alcohol 2 parts. N. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. thus it was utilized. when it will be ready for use. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. they were like an ice boat with a sail. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. of glycerine to about 200 deg. and in a week . Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. Twenty cents was all I spent. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. on a water bath. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. and it will be ready for future use. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. and brace and bit were the tools used. Soak 1 oz. hammer. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. using a steel pen. A saw.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. and add the gelatine. deep. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. and water 24 parts. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. glycerine 4 parts. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. smooth it down and then remove as before. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. Heat 6-1/2 oz. winding the ends where they came together with wire. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. Mother let me have a sheet. Shiloh.

a projecting lens . Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up. A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly.Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing.

but if such a box is not found. high. 3. wire brads. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. at a point 1 in. or a lens of 12-in. DD. and 14 in. are . circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. 8 in. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. above the center. G.. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. describe a 9-in. thick. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. If a small saw is used. or glue.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. wide. at a distance of 24 ft. A table. and the work carefully done. and the lens slide. focus enlarging a 3-in. The board is centered both ways. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. A and B. as desired. 1. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. Fig. wide and 15 in. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. 1/2 to 3/4 in. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. provided the material is of metal. well seasoned pine. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. and a projecting lens 2 in. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. This ring is made up from two rings. and. about 2 ft. long. The slide support. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. H. slide to about 6 ft. E.

-Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. B. JJ. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. Minn. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. but not long enough. E. light burning oil. should the glass happen to upset.-Contributed by G. the strips II serving as guides. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. The arrangement is quite safe as. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. Paul. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. of safe. P. Small strips of tin. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. St. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. the water at once extinguishes the flame. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. apply two coats of shellac varnish. A sheet .constructed to slip easily on the table. placed on the water. and when the right position is found for each. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. To reach the water.

The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it.. form a piece of wire in the same shape. from a tent company. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. N. If one of these clips is not at hand. --Contributed by J. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid.H. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. 3. Schenectady. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. Crawford. 4. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. 12 ft. then the corners on one end are doubled over. Fig. 1. 3 in. I ordered a canvas bag. Y. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. 9 in. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along .Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. 2. by 12 ft. 3. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. to cover the mattresses. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. Fig. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig.

drill two 3/16 in. to keep it from unwinding. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. apart. for amperes and the other post. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. 1. To calibrate the instrument. long and 3/16 in. 3/4 in. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. insulating them from the case with cardboard. Colo. Denver. --Contributed by Walter W. first mark the binding-post A. A Film Washing Trough [331] . 2. White. V. Fold two strips of light cardboard. open on the edges. 1. 3/4 in. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. Fasten the wire with gummed label. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. Attach a piece of steel rod. through which the indicator works. An arc is cut in the paper. so as to form two oblong boxes. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. Fig. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. 2. 1/2 in. long. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. 2. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. C. to the coil of small wire for volts. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. Fig. A rubber band. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. and insert two binding-posts. wide. Pa. in the center coil. 1/2 in. as shown in Fig. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. --Contributed by Edward M. 3 to swing freely on the tack. Teasdale. thick. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. holes in the edge.each edge. D. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. Warren. Do not use too strong a rubber.

M. Wood Burning [331] . Place this can on one end of the trough. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. --Contributed by M. Hunting. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. Cut a 1/4-in. Dayton. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. with the large hole up. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. O. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. as shown. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width.

The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top.Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. then into this bottle place. mouth downward. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water.

This will make a very pretty ornament. 1. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. 3/4 in. long. as shown in the sketch. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. many puzzling effects may be obtained. --Contributed by Fred W. but not very thick. Place the small bottle in as before. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . If the small bottle used is opaque. N.Y.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. --Contributed by John Shahan. Ala. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. Upper Troy. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. thick. wide and 4 in. Auburn. Whitehouse. 2. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. If the cork is adjusted properly. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. provided the bottle is wide. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers.

high without the upper half. was keyed to shaft C. thick. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. 1. I. even in a light breeze. B. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. The bearing blocks were 3 in. 1. to the shaft. pulley F. G. 1. K. were constructed of 1-in. which gave considerable power for its size. The shaft C. The wire L was put . held the shaft from revolving in the hub. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. --Contributed by D. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. Its smaller parts. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. 2. Fig. 4. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. If a transmitter is used. 1. Milter. line. pulley. as shown in Fig. 2 ft. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. 1. On a 1000-ft. 3. sugar pine on account of its softness. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. such as blades and pulleys. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. thick and 3 in. 1 in. was 1/4in. long. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. which was 6 in. Both bearings were made in this manner. wide. The 21/2-in. W. by the method shown in Fig. thick. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. Fig. Fig. iron rod. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. in diameter and 1 in. or ordinary telephone transmitters. Fig. which extended to the ground. A staple. Fig. which was nailed to the face plate.

Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. through the latter.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. long and bend it as . square to the board P at the top of the tower. To make the key. R. washers were placed under pulley F. hole was bored for it. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. The smaller one. 1. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. 1. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. top down also. 1) 4 in. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. Fig. so that the 1/4-in. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. a 1/2-in. G. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. was tacked. strips. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. wide and 1 in. Fig. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. long and bend it as shown at A. There a 1/4-in. and was cut the shape shown. long and 3 in. in the center of the board P. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. 6. Fig. This board was 12 in. when the windmill needed oiling. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. 5. The power was put to various uses. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. 1. The other lid. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. Fig. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. long. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. cut out another piece of tin (X. pine 18 by 12 in. long. This fan was made of 1/4-in. Two washers were placed on shaft C. 6. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. To lessen the friction here. Fig. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. in diameter. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. for instance. Fig. across the thin edge of a board. long and 1/2 in. 25 ft. 1. was 2 ft. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. The bed plate D. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. hole for the shaft G was in the center. with brass headed furniture tacks. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. with all parts in place. apart in the tower. 0. This completes the receiver or sounder. 3 in. providing one has a few old materials on hand. Fig. as. If you have no bell. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. H. 2. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N.

Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. causing a buzzing sound. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. leaving the other wire as it is. Before tacking it to the board. after the manner of bicycle wheels. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. at the front. -Contributed by John R. as shown at Water. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. fitted with paddles as at M. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon.shown. Thus a center drive is made. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. Going back to Fig. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. 1. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. Now. The rear barrels are. like many another device boys make. 2. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. When tired of this instrument. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. and. using cleats to hold the board frame. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. By adjusting the coils. as indicated. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. McConnell. although it can be made with but two.

The speed is slow at first. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. 1. or even a little houseboat. There is no danger. 3. feet on the pedals. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. copper piping and brass tubing for base. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . can be built. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. which will give any amount of pleasure. there will not be much friction. as shown in Fig. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. If the journals thus made are well oiled. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. To propel it. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it.

1. Then melt out the rosin or lead. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. 1. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. B. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. Shape small blocks of boxwood. If magnifying glass cannot be had. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. Fig. If it is desired to make the light very complete. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. Fig. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. 1. Fig. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. Place one brass ring in cylinder. C. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. Turn a small circle of wood. 2. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. and so creating a false circuit. then the glass disc and then the other ring. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. 2. 2. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. A. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. Fig. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water.of pleasure for a little work. or it may be put to other uses if desired. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. D.

In placing clock on shelf. 5-1/4 by 10 in. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. brass rod. S. Chatland. after setting alarm. thick. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. shelf. 4 in. dry batteries. T. which stops bell ringing. or 1/4in. C.india rubber tubing. bracket. The parts indicated are as follows: A. To operate this. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. G. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. Throw lever off from the right to center. J. some glue will secure them. H. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. D. such as is used for cycle valves. Swissvale. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . wire from light to switch. near the bed. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. copper tubing. key of alarm clock. and pulled tight. if too small. while lying in bed. Pa. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. X. Ogden. brass strip. contact post. 3/8 in. long. after two turns have been made on the key. When alarm goes off. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. long. To throw on light throw levers to the left. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. E. C. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. To get the cylinder into its carriage. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. Utah. bell. B. F. wire from bell to switch. set alarm key as shown in diagram. --Contributed by C. I. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. switch. by having the switch on the baseboard. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . --Contributed by Geo.. 4-1/2 in. wide and 1/16 in. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. Brinkerhoff. wire from batteries to switch. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot.

letting it extend 3/4 in. Minn. for instance. Make the spindle as in Fig. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. as at A. 2. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. A small lamp of about 5 cp. as . scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. S. which can be made of an old can. wide. 1/4 in. 1. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. will do the heating. place stick and all in a pail of sand. Having finished this. All that is required is a tin covering. Fig. as at B. as at A. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. from one end. A flannel bag. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. 1. Make a shoulder. a bed warmer. Fig. 2. Fig. Chapman. long. about 6 in. Pull out the nail and stick. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. in diameter. about 3-1/2 in. 4 in. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. being careful not to get the sand in it. This is to form the fuse hole. beyond the end of the spindle. as in Fig.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. making it as true and smooth as possible. Lanesboro. in diameter. --Contributed by Chas. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. 3. gives the heater a more finished appearance. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of.

but if this wood cannot be procured. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. long. or hickory. Joerin. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. good straight-grained pine will do. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. spring and arrows. 3/8 in. ash. wide and 6 ft. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. 1. The material must be 1-1/2 in. long. 11/2 in. wide and 3 ft. 6 in. thick. A piece of oak. A piece of tin. deep. this is to keep the edges from splitting. thick. --Contributed by Arthur E. 1 in. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . 5/8 in. wide and a trifle over 3 ft.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. The illustration shows how this is done. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. long. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. wide and 3/8 in. thick. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. will be sufficient to make the trigger. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock.

then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. To shoot the crossbow. 9. To throw the arrow. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. 7. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. which is 1/4 in. place the arrow in the groove. 6. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. as shown in Fig. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. --Contributed by O. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. thick. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. Such a temporary safe light may be . and one for the trigger 12 in. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. When the trigger is pulled. in diameter. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. wide at each end. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. 8. it lifts the spring up. as shown in Fig. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. 2. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. Fig. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. having the latter swing quite freely. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. or through the necessity of. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. Ill. The trigger. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. from the end of the stock. from the opposite end. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. Fig. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. E. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. Trownes. 3. The bow is not fastened in the stock. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. A spring. 4. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. Fig. Wilmette. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. The stick for the bow. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. better still.

says Photo Era. C. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. from the ground. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. and nail it in position as shown at A. or only as a camp on a short excursion.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. since the flame of the candle is above A. make the frame of the wigwam. Remove the bottom of the box. This lamp is safe. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. from the ground. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. By chopping the trunk almost through. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. Moreover. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. it is the easiest camp to make. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. is used as a door. the bark lean-to is a . while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. apart. The hinged cover E. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. The cut should be about 5 ft. making lighting and trimming convenient. Remove one end. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. and replace as shown at B. respectively.

and split the tops with an ax. wide. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. spruce. In the early summer. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. selecting a site for a camp. Where bark is used. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. Tongs are very useful in camp. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. and when the camp is pitched. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. For a permanent camp. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. and cedar. Sheets of bark. makes a good pair of tongs. long and 1-1/2 in. . The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. are a convenient size for camp construction. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. long. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. nails are necessary to hold it in place. wide and 6 ft.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. piled 2 or 3 ft. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. deep and covered with blankets. thick. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. will dry flat. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. For a foot in the middle of the stick. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. a 2-in. 3 ft. make the best kind of a camp bed. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. 6 ft. A piece of elm or hickory. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. long and 2 or 3 ft. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in.

Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. and affording accommodation for several persons. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. . or even a rough lock for the camp larder. hinges. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats.

--Contributed by James M. Fig. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. I drove a small cork. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. and provide a cover or door. A.. Kane. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. B. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. the interior can. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. deep and 4 in. about 4 in. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. Pa. to another . 1. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. B. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. wide. Doylestown. changing the water both morning and night.

fused into one side. This makes . Fig. 2. E. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. if necessary. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. which project inside and outside of the tube. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. until. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. such as ether. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. 2. 4 and 5). C. limit. 3. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. a liquid.glass tube. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. to pass through an increasing resistance. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. The diagram. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. for instance. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. for instance. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. The current is thus compelled. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered.

by turning the lathe with the hand. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. brass. 3-3/8 in. A. thick. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. mark off a space. as shown in Fig. as shown in the left-hand sketch. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. After the template is marked out. tap. is composed of wrought sheet iron. when several pieces are placed together. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. Fig. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. between centers. 2. in diameter. in diameter. drill the four rivet holes. thicker. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. Alpena. When the frame is finished so far. Michigan. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. brass or iron. therefore. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. which may be of any thickness so that. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. making it 1/16 in. two holes. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. or pattern. After cleaning them with the solution. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. hole is . clamp the template. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. on a lathe. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. and for the outside of the frame. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. larger than the dimensions given. which will make it uniform in size. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. A 5/8in. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. Fig. bent at right angles as shown. 1. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. 4-1/2 in. These holes are for the bearing studs. they will make a frame 3/4 in. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. thick. 3-3/8 in. to allow for finishing. The bearing studs are now made. If the thickness is sufficient. set at 1/8 in. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. screws. Before removing the field from the lathe. Then the field can be finished to these marks. but merely discolored. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. 3. or even 1/16 in. assemble and rivet them solidly. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. cannot be used so often. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size.

or otherwise finished. Fig. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. into which a piece of 5/8-in. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. soldered into place. The shaft of the armature. 4. is turned up from machine steel. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. When the bearings are located. brass rod is inserted. and build up the solder well. file them out to make the proper adjustment. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. solder them to the supports. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft.

Procure 12 strips of mica. and then they are soaked in warm water. When annealed. Armature-Ring Core. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. Find the centers of each segment at one end. holes through them for rivets. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. washers. 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. thick. 6. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. 1-1/8 in. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. sheet fiber. Rivet them together. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. then drill a 1/8-in.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. brass rod. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. 3/4 in. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. by 1-1/2 in.. When this is accomplished. inside diameter. as shown in Fig. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. 7. and held with a setscrew. 3. After they . or segments. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. as shown in Fig. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. thick are cut like the pattern. 9. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. to allow for finishing to size. wide. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. as shown in Fig. thick. as shown in Fig. being formed for the ends. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. The sides are also faced off and finished. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. 5. wide. thick. 8. threaded. hole and tap it for a pin. thick and 1/4 in. After the pieces are cut out. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. The pins are made of brass. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. 6. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. Make the core 3/4 in. 1/8 in. deep and 7/16 in. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. 3. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. as shown m Fig.

sheet fiber. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. sheet fiber. and wind on four layers. of the end to protrude. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. which will take 50 ft. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. 6 in. To connect the wires. after the motor is on the stand. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. The two ends are joined at B. After one coil. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. being required. and bring the end of the wire out at B. thick. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. Fig. about 100 ft. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. 1. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. This winding is for a series motor. When the glue is set. yet it shows a series of . 1. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. of the wire. or side. All connections should be securely soldered. The winding is started at A. wide and 1 in. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. 5. long. The source of current is connected to the terminals. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal.have dried. they are glued to the core insulation. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. shown at A. by bending the end around one of the projections. 8 in. of No. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. the two ends of the wire. shown at B. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. In starting to wind. Run one end of the field wire. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. are soldered together. The field is wound with No. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. until the 12 slots are filled. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. Fig.

and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. or. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. A 1/2-in. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. which serves as the ground wire. as in the case of a spiral. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. is fastened to the metallic body. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. one from each of the eight contacts. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. Nine wires run from the timer. and one. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. still more simply.

perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. board. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. Covering these is a thin. 45 deg. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. long. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. It should be . This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. circle. thus giving 16 different directions. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. Without this attachment. 6 in. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button.The Wind Vane. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. of the dial. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in.

though a special knife. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. will answer the purpose just as well. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. Place the leather on some level. Blackmer. called a chip carving knife. Buffalo. Fill the box with any handy ballast. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. To make it. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. if not too high." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. Y. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. -Contributed by James L. will be sufficient.about 6 ft. or. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. however. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. To work these outlines. high. 14 by 18 in. and securely nail on the top of the box. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. also a piece of new carpet. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. thus making a universal joint. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. and about 6 in. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. Cut 3-in. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. is most satisfactory. making it heavy or light. . according to who is going to use it. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. N. will be enough for the two sides. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. long to give the best results. Before tacking the fourth side.

fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. Paste the silk plush to the inner side. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. An ordinary sewing-machine . A good leather paste will be required.

Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. --Contributed by Katharine D. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting.will do if a good stout needle is used. rather than the smooth side. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. Morse. of water. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. as in cases of a sprained ankle. a needle and some feathers. B. temporary lameness. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. Syracuse. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. or a hip that has been wrenched. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. If a fire breaks out. and fasten the feathers inside of it. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. Y. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. N. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. can be thrown away when no longer needed. square and tying a piece of . It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. of common salt and 10 lb. away from it. and tie them together securely at the bottom. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft.

wide and 1/16 in. and the receiver is ready for use. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. F. Wis. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. long. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. board all around the bottom on the inside. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. The strings should be about 15 in. setting traps. high. G. B. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. The end is filed to an edge. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. Y. cut to the length of the spool. wound on the head end. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. There is a 1-in. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. commonly called tintype tin. etc. the corners being wired. laying poisoned meat and meal. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. is cut on the wood. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. thus helping the rats to enter. E. letting it go at arm's length. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. Ashland. The diaphragm C. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. . Paterson. and tacked it to the boards. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool.. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange.J. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. One end is removed entirely. long. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. A small wooden or fiber end. The body of the receiver. Hellwig. 1/8 in. N. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. which is the essential part of the instrument. N. A.string to each corner. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. but not sharp. Gordon Dempsey. The coil is 1 in. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. and a coil of wire. --Contributed by John A. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. Albany. This not only keeps the rats out. --Contributed by J. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. deep. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. made up of four layers of No. as shown. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding.

dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. to . Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. Take a piece of string or. better still. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. begin with the smallest scrolls. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. To clean small articles. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. A single line will be sufficient. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. a piece of small wire. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. and bend each strip in shape. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. gold. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. The vase is to have three supports. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. wide.

Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. 3-1/4 in. wide when stitching up the purse.. from C to D. Fold the leather on the line EF. Work down the outside line of the design. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. thus raising it. through which to slip the fly AGH.. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. 4-1/4 in. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. About 1 in. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. After taking off the pattern. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. as shown in the sketch. 3-1/2 in.which the supports are fastened with rivets. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. Press or model down the leather all around the design. Trace also the line around the purse. . and does not require coloring. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. from the lines EF on the piece. 6-3/8 in. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. from E to F. using a duller point of the tool. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. sharp pencil. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily.

and tack the other piece slightly. deep. and. Then nail the wheel down firmly. then nail it. with a compass saw. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. First. Fit this to the two . and cut it out as shown in Fig. following the dotted lines. and cut out a wheel. Cut off six pieces 12 in. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. square. and the projections B. 2. 1 was cut. It can be made without the use of a lathe. and which will be very interesting. leaving the lug a. Make the lug 1/4 in. with pins or small nails. by 12 ft. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. as shown in Fig. then place the square piece out of which Fig. 1. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. all the way around. with the open side down.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. and a model for speed and power. b. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. 3. being cast in wooden molds. When it is finished. 1/2 in. thick. This also should be slightly beveled. around the wheel. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. It is neat and efficient. the "open" side. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. deep.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. as well as useful. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. Now take another piece of wood. with the largest side down. long.

1.pieces just finished. hole entirely through at the same place. place it between two of the 12-in. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. as shown by the black dots in Fig. Now take another of the 12-in. as shown by the .1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. one of which should have a 3/8-in. and cut it out as shown in Fig. slightly beveled. deep. 4. and boring a 3/8-in. hole bored through its center. and clean all the shavings out of it. then bolt it together. holes through it. and lay it away to dry. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. After it is finished. in the center of it. square pieces of wood. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. Now put mold No. bolts. hole 1/4 in. and bore six 1/4-in. Take the mold apart. square pieces of wood.

1. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. in diameter must now be obtained. fasten a 3/8-in. one in the projections. 6. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. Then bolt the castings together.black dots in Fig. place it under the drill. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. one in the lug. place the entire machine in a vise. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. and run in babbitt metal again. This will cast a paddle-wheel.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. and pour babbitt metal into it. as shown by the black dots in Fig. the other right-handed.1. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. and 3/8-in. and connect to the boiler. B. Using the Brace . with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. Pour metal into mold No. Now cut out one of the 12-in. 5. only the one is left-handed. 4. long. so that it will turn easily. and pouring metal in to fill it up. and the exhaust hole in projection b. and drill it entirely through. long. This is the same as Fig. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting.2.1. from the one end. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. and lay it away to dry. take an ordinary brace. and drill them in the same manner. A piece of mild steel 5 in. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. holes. and two 1/4-in. b.2. Let it stand for half an hour. and bore three 1/4-in. instead of the right-handed piece. This is mold No. 6. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. holes at d. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. Put this together in mold No. as shown in illustration. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. until it is full. lay it on a level place. drill in it. and the other in the base. This is for a shaft. Fig. where the casting did not fill out. wide and 16 in. screw down. d. Now take mold No. put the top of the brace through this hole. true it up with a square. see that the bolts are all tight. over the defective part. Commencing 1-1/2 in. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. After it is fitted in.

Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. long. will do good service. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. turn the wheel to the shape desired. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. and if instructions have been carefully followed. Then take a knife or a chisel. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. and with three small screw holes around the edge.. Plan of Ice Boat . piece and at right angles to it. with a boss and a set screw. one 6 ft. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. and the other 8 ft. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. At each end of the 6ft. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. and. while it is running at full speed. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal.

Make your runners as long as possible. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. Fig. To the under side of the 8-ft. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. in diameter in the center. Run the seam on a machine. at the end. 1. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. distant. boards to make the platform. plank nail 8-in. 8 a reef point knot. at the top. This fits in the square hole. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. 1. 3. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. so much the better will be your boat. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. in front of the rudder block. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. and about 8 in. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. bolt the 8-ft. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. in diameter at the base