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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial


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  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother


Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)







A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. 2. away. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. until it is bound as shown in Fig. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . 2 -. It is held in this curve until dry. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. Toronto. To throw a boomerang.Fig. --Contributed by J. apart. grasp it and hold the same as a club. Ontario. Fig. 1. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. wide and 2 ft. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. A piece of plank 12 in. E. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. distant. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. as shown in Fig. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. with the hollow side away from you. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. Noble. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. long will make six boomerangs. The pieces are then dressed round. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. 2. 1. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. as shown in Fig. 1.

Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. thick. 6 in. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. long. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. blocks . A wall. minus the top. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. which makes the building simpler and easier. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. made of 6-in. and it may be necessary to use a little water. dry snow will not pack easily. forcing it down closely. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. If the snow is of the right consistency. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. the block will drop out. high and 4 or 5 in. First. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. it is not essential to the support of the walls. and with a movable bottom. or rather no bottom at all. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. however. A very light. one inside of the circle and the other outside. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. but about 12 in. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house.

and the young architect can imitate them. D. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. A nail. Fig. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. or an old safe dial will do. 1. Ore. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. wide. Union. Fig. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. long and 1 in. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. --Contributed by Geo. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. 3. The piece of wood. a. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. 2. Fig. 3 -. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. is 6 or 8 in. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. which is about 1 ft. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. There is no outward thrust. which can be made of wood. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. Goodbrod. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. 1. above the ground. It also keeps them out. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. 2. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. C.

the box locked . the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen.When taking hot dishes from the stove. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. Merrill. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. one pair of special hinges. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. --Contributed by R. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. as the weight always draws them back to place. Syracuse. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. S. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. If ordinary butts are used. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. says the Sphinx. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. New York.

Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. smooth surface. one for each corner. If the measuring has been done properly. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. With the metal shears.and the performer steps out in view. as shown in Fig. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. Augusta. allowing each coat time to dry. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. as shown in Fig. All . draw one-half of it. Place the piece in a vise. proceed as follows: First. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. Alberta Norrell. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. It remains to bend the flaps. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. on drawing paper. To make a design similar to the one shown. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. When the sieve is shaken. 3. 1. -Contributed by L. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. about 1-32 of an inch. as shown. Ga. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. If they do not. Fig. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. 2. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece.

Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. causing it to expand. A resistance. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. of No. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F.the edges should be left smooth. Colo. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. If a touch of color is desired. H. Galbreath. is fitted tightly in the third hole. Denver. from the back end. about 6 in. in diameter. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. C. A piece of porcelain tube. and in the positions shown in the sketch. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. heats the strip of German-silver wire. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. R. --Contributed by R. 25 gauge German-silver wire. The current. long. if rolled under the shoe sole. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. in passing through the lamp. 25 German-silver wire. used for insulation. as shown at AA. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. which is about 6 in. should be in the line. To keep the metal from tarnishing. When the current is turned off. After this has dried. In boring through rubber corks. B. The common cork. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E.

Fig. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. Purchase two long book straps. Kansas City. --Contributed by David Brown. Mo. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. as shown in Fig. 3. 1. . The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown.bottom ring. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. with thin strips of wood. 2. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. leaving a space of 4 in. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. between them as shown in Fig. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe.

The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. Fig. to form a handle. just the right weight for a woman to use. Two strips of brass. which is the right weight for family use. The string is then tied. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. long. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. Fig.An ordinary electric bell. Doylestown. 2. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. The folds are made over the string. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. 36 in. --Contributed by James M. one weighing 15 lb. 4. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box.. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. When the aeroplane tips. These are shown in Fig. as . Y. 3. N. --Contributed by Katharine D. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb.. Pa. C. Syracuse. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. in diameter. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. 1. are mounted on the outside of the box. and one weighing 25 lb. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. and tack smoothly. A. 1. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. Fig. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. 1. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. having a gong 2-1/2 in. Morse. Kane. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. and a pocket battery. and also prevent any leakage of the contents.

1. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. four washers and four square nuts. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. Y. N. 2. two 1/8 -in.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. Frame Made of a Rod . which can be purchased at a local hardware store. and many fancy knick-knacks. Day. The saw. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. Floral Park. such as brackets. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. in diameter. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. machine screws. --Contributed by Louis J. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. if once used. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. long. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. 3/32 or 1/4 in. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. 2. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. bent as shown in Fig. AA.

Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. of course. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. Apply two coats. Michigan. using a swab and an old stiff brush. as well as the depth of etching desired. --Contributed by W. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. The buckle is to be purchased. be covered the same as the back. For etching. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in.may be made of either brass. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. it has the correct strength. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. File these edges. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. Drying will cause this to change to purple.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. 1 part nitric acid. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. Of the leathers. 1 part sulphuric acid. the most expensive. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. In the design shown. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt.. after breaking up. Detroit. Scranton. use them in place of the outside nuts. Rub off the highlights. A. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. if copper or brass. of water. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. though almost any color may be obtained. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. of water in which dissolve. or silver. green and browns are the most popular. copper. treat it with color. therefore. If it colors the metal red. Watch Fob For coloring silver. allowing each time to dry. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. Silver is the most desirable but. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. as well as brass and copper. An Austrian Top [12] .

wide and 3/4 in. 5-1/4 in. Bore a 3/4-in. 1-1/4 in. hole. 3/4 in. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. The handle is a piece of pine. long.F.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. Parts of the Top To spin the top. in diameter. --Contributed by J. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. allowing only 1-1/4 in. Ypsilanti. starting at the bottom and winding upward. pass one end through the 1/16-in. hole in this end for the top. is formed on one end. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. Michigan. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. When the shank is covered. A handle. Tholl. . A 1/16-in. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. long. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. thick. set the top in the 3/4 -in.

The baking surface. --A. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. Augusta. A.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. . Ga. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. Alberta Norrell. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. Northville. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. Mich. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. For black leathers. tarts or similar pastry. having no sides. Houghton. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. --Contributed by Miss L. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface.

The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. says Studio Light. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. Centralia. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. Mo. two turns will remove the jar. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. then solder cover and socket together. Stringing Wires [13] A.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. When you desire to work by white light. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. the same as shown in the illustration. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. glass fruit jar. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar.

Janesville. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. so it can be folded up. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. square by 12 in. They are fastened. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in.for loading and development. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. 4 Braces. 4 Vertical pieces. square by 62 in. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. 16 Horizontal bars. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. 1-1/4 in. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. Wis. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. . The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. and not tip over. as shown in the cross-section sketch. 1-1/4 in. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out.

--Contributed by Dr. H. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. New York. After rounding the ends of the studs. from scrap material. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. If the loop is tied at the proper place. O. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. C. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. Rosenthal. The front can be covered . The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. The whole. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. -Contributed by Charles Stem. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. Cincinnati. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. and a loop made in the end. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. after filling the pail with water. Phillipsburg. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand.

you are. Baltimore. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. thoroughly fix. The . sickly one. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. either for contact printing or enlargements. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. FIG. Wehr. The results will be poor. principally mayonnaise dressing. the color will be an undesirable. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. and. the mouth of which rests against a. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. if you try to tone them afterward. 1 FIG. Md. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. In my own practice. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. --Contributed by Gilbert A. By using the following method. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. Develop them into strong prints. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. by all rules of the game. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. If the gate is raised slightly. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown.

. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects. without previous wetting... A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper. long to admit the angle support. Put one on each corner of the blotting paper. --Contributed by T.. 2 oz. in size.. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder. as it will appear clean much longer than the white..... where it will continue to bleach. An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in. L... Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete.... 2.. Cal.... A good final washing completes the process..... Water . The blotting paper can .. etc.. 20 gr... The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished..... The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper....... three times. thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses..... The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone.. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig.. 1 and again as in Fig. to make it 5 by 5 in.. It will bleach slowly and evenly.. San Francisco... With a little practice.. when it starts to bleach. This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print.. this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain.. 5 by 15 in. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes... When the desired reduction has taken place....." Cyanide of potassium .bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison. Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper... wide and 4 in. Place the dry print. Iodide of potassium . in this solution. Gray. preferably the colored kind. 16 oz.. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away. but.. stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax.... transfer it to a tray of water. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table..

Wilson Aldred Toronto.J. the head of which is 2 in. and a length of 5 in. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. wide below the . 20 gauge. the shaft 1 in. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. --Contributed by J. Make a design similar to that shown. Oshkosh. Corners complete are shown in Fig. Wisconsin. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. wide. Monahan. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. --Contributed by L. 3. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. having a width of 2-1/4 in.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. Canada.

using turpentine. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. using carbon paper. 1 Fig. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. then trace the other half in the usual way. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. using a small metal saw. Apply with a small brush. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. 1. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. 3. which gives the outline of the design Fig. 4. With the metal shears.FIG. With files. Do not put the hands in the solution. as shown in Fig. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. then put on a second coat. 2. Trace the design on the metal. After the sawing. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. 1 part sulphuric acid. After this has dried. The metal must be held firmly. Allow this to dry. but use a swab on a stick. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. Fig. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. after folding along the center line. freehand. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. . The lines at A and B will need to be cut. deep. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. being held perpendicular to the work. 1 part nitric acid. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. Make one-half of the design. Pierce a hole with a small drill. For coloring olive green. then coloring.

. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. After the stain has dried. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. Morse. on a chopping board. Syracuse. then stain it a mahogany color. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. it does the work rapidly. as shown. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. M. New York. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. --Contributed by H. --Contributed by Katharine D. East Hartford. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. --Contributed by M. Ii is an ordinary staple. attach brass handles. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. Cal. thick. Burnett. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. When this is cold. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. Conn. Richmond. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. Carl Cramer.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth.

The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. brass.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. Richmond. also locate the drill holes. Atwell. as shown in Fig. indicating the depth of the slots. holes. thick. Fig. A. --Contributed by W. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. 1/4 in. not over 1/4 in. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. or tin. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. L. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. saucers or pans. square. one shaft. about 3/16 in. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. machine screws. Cal. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. H. in width at the shank. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. --Contributed by Mrs. thick and 4 in. some pieces of brass. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. as shown at A. Jaquythe. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. WARNECKE Procure some brass. two enameled. .. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. Florida. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. Kissimmee. 53 steel pens. 1. 4. and several 1/8-in. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes.

7. Fig. If the shaft is square. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. 3. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. machine screws and nuts. The shaft hole may also be filed square. 3. 5. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. as shown in Fig. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. hole. each about 1 in. a square shaft used. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. in diameter and 1/32 in. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . 2. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. supply pipe. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. long and 5/16 in. hole is drilled to run off the water. lead should be run into the segments. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. wide. with 1/8-in. Fig. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. hole in the center. as in Fig. 2. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. as shown. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. thick. 6. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. wide and bend as shown in Fig. long by 3/4 in. into the hole. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. brass and bolted to the casing. If metal dishes. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. using two nuts on each screw. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. and pins inserted. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. 1. with the face of the disk. and the ends filed round for the bearings. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. A 3/4-in. machine screws. about 1/32 in. with a 3/8-in. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. can be procured. Fig. These are connected to a 3/8-in. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. There should be a space of 1/16 in. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing.. Bend as shown in Fig. thick.

The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. using four to each leg. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. three of which are in the basket. we will call the basket. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. With a string or tape measure. V. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. deep over all. Ill. from the bottom end of the legs. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. The lower part. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. La Salle. Now you will have the box in two pieces. deep and 1-1/4 in. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. or more in diameter. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. Stain the wood before putting in the . With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. When assembling. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. The four legs are each 3/4-in. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. to make the bottom. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. high and 15 in. from the top of the box. long. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. make these seams come between the two back legs. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. Smith. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. Fasten with 3/4-in. --Contributed by F. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. --Contributed by S. Cooke. Be sure to have the cover.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. Canada. screws. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. square and 30-1/2 in. Hamilton. 8-1/2 in. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain.

If all the parts are well sandpapered. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. Boston. Packard. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. 1. The folded part in the center is pasted together. Fig. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. The side. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound.2 Fig. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. and gather it at that point. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. --also the lower edge when necessary. 2. Md. -Contributed by Stanley H.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . Baltimore. you can. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. sewing on the back side. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. wide. Sew on to the covered cardboards. Cover them with the cretonne. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane.lining. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. When making the display. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. wide and four strips 10 in. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. Mass. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible.

Orlando Taylor. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. When through using the pad. It is not difficult to . Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. saving all the solid part. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. 3. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. Y. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. and. Fig. with slight modifications. L. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. --Contributed by H. Crockett. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. It is cleanly. Gloversville. --Contributed by B. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. Cross Timbers. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. N. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. Mo.

and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. or if desired. are shown in the diagram. If a file is used. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . across the face. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. Mass. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. it should be new and sharp. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. El Paso. -Contributed by C. remove the contents. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. Lane. Lowell. --Contributed by Edith E. After this is done. Both of these methods are wasteful. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. and secure it in place with glue or paste. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. After stirring. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. and scrape out the rough parts. S. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. Bourne. Texas. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton.

As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. Canton. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. Wheeler. --Contributed by Geo. Turl. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. Greenleaf. Iowa. After several hours' drying. The insects came to the light. He captured several pounds in a few hours. circled over the funnel and disappeared. --Contributed by Marion P. Ill. Those having houses . As these were single-faced disk records. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. A Postcard Rack [25]. F.cooking utensil. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. --Contributed by Loren Ward. Des Moines. Oregon. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. Ill. The process works well and needs no watching. Oak Park. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork.

anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. will do as well. Glenbrook. Lay the floor next. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. Both sides can be put together in this way. and the second one for the developing bench. Only three pieces are required. and as they are simple in design. 6 in. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. --Contributed by Thomas E. the best material to use being matched boards. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. and both exactly alike. --Contributed by Wm.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. Dobbins. but for cheapness 3/4 in. one on each side of what will be the . Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in.. plane and pocket knife. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. Rosenberg. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. The single boards can then be fixed. thick. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. material. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. 6 in. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. Mass. by 2 ft. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. Worcester. boards are preferable. not even with the boards themselves. Conn. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch.. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. the bottom being 3/8 in. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond.

2 in section. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. fix a narrow piece between the side boards.doorway. 8. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. etc. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. as shown in Figs. is cut. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. of the top of the door for the same reason. brown wrapping paper. Fig. 7. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in.. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. 9). In hinging the door. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. and shown to a larger scale in Fig.. At the top of the doorway. 5. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. so that the water will drain off into the sink. hinged to it. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. the closing side as at B. and to the outside board of the sides. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. The roof boards may next be put on. 11. 6 and 9. nailing them to each other at the ridge. wide. and act as a trap for the light. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. below which is fixed the sink. and in the middle an opening. 10). Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. 9 by 11 in. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. by screwing to the floor. so that it will fit inside the sink. which is fixed on as shown . The developing bench is 18 in. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. and should be zinc lined. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. It is shown in detail in Fig. 6. 3 and 4. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light.. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. 6. and the top as at C in the same drawing.

Details of the Dark Rook .

Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. and a 3/8-in. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. screwing them each way into the boards. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. 13. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. 16. 13. Fig. as shown in the sections. or the room may be made with a flat roof. though this is hardly advisable. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. The house will be much strengthened if strips. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. 20. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. 1. as at I. 16. as at M. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. which makes it possible to have white light. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. Fig. Fig. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. or red light as at K. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. The handle should be at least 12 in. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. are fastened in the corners inside. mixing flour and water. and a tank stand on it. if desired. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. 15. Karl Hilbrich. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. A circular piece about 2 in. these being shown in Fig. Erie. as in Fig. hole bored in the center for a handle. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. 19. --Contributed by W. 17.in Fig. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. In use. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. as shown in Fig. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. 14. For beating up an egg in a glass. it is better than anything on the market. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. Fig. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. but not the red glass and frame. Pennsylvania. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. preferably maple or ash. 18. 6. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. 2. after lining with brown paper. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. four coats at first is not too many.

Yonkers. D. Smith. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. Mitchell. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. when put together properly is a puzzle.copper should be. for a handle. Schweiger. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. long. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. Kansas City. Eureka Springs. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. --Contributed by L. which. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. L. Mo. about 3/8 in. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. To operate. --Contributed by Wm. -Contributed by E. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. New York. Ark. G. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. as shown in the sketch. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] .

One form of panel design is shown in Fig. in order to thoroughly preserve it. the rustic work should be varnished. as well as improve its appearance.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. for the moment. as is usually the case. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. A number of 1/2-in. If the sill is inclined. need them. as shown in Fig. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. 1. After the box is trimmed. 3. Each cork is cut as in Fig. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. The corks in use are shown in Fig. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. which binds them together. The design shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. the box will require a greater height in front. Having completed the bare box. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. . 3. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. to make it set level. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. especially for filling-in purposes. 2. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. holes should be drilled in the bottom. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch.

At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. life in the summer time is a vexation. too dangerous. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. as shown in Fig. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. drilled at right angles. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal.. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. can't use poison. cabbages. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. being partly eaten into. share the same fate. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. Each long projection represents a leg. it's easy. and observe results. 4. 1. But I have solved the difficulty. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. F. When the corn is gone cucumbers. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. etc. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. 2. 3. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. . the squirrels come in droves from far and near. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. Traps do no good. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary.

The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. If. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. cut some of it off and try again. the coil does not heat sufficiently. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. The solution can be used over and over again. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. Iowa. and made up and kept in large bottles. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. of No. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. cut in 1/2-in.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. strips. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. -. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. by trial. long. About 9-1/2 ft. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. .

D. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. In cleaning silver. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. coffee pot. is a good size--in this compound. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. N. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. C. Kane. of oleic acid with 1 gal. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. --Contributed by Katharine D. it falls to stop G. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. as shown in the sketch. . Syracuse. Fig 2. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. Morse. Knives. forks. Stir and mix thoroughly. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. Doylestown. of whiting and 1/2 oz. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. but with unsatisfactory results. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. --Contributed by James M. Pa. 1) removed. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. to cause the door to swing shut. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. hot-water pot. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. Y. Do not wash them. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. of gasoline. Dallas. and a strip. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. Texas. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig.

using the paper dry. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. La. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. . A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. Ill. negatives. Sprout. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. --Contributed by Theodore L. --Contributed by Oliver S. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. but unfixed. Pa. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. Fisher. of course. later fixed and washed as usual. Waverly. New Orleans. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. which is. Harrisburg. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier.

To obviate this difficulty. metal. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. The harmonograph. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. 1. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. then . one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. Fig. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. In this uncertainty lies the charm. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. a harmonograph is a good prescription. No two hamonograms are exactly alike.

as long as the other. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. Gaffney. in the center of the circle to be cut.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. Rosemont. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. with a nail set or punch. Punch a hole. A small table or platform. makes respectively 3. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. 1. for instance. is about right for a 10-ft. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. --Contributed by James T. to prevent any side motion. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. what is most important. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. that is. A small weight. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. The length of the short pendulum H. K. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. 1-3/4 by 2 in. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. etc. Holes up to 3 in. such as a shoe buttoner. 1. or the lines will overlap and blur. one-fifth.. R. and unless the shorter pendulum is. Arizona. --Contributed by Wm. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. of about 30 or 40 lb. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. A pedestal. A length of 7 ft. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. J. Chicago. one-fourth. exactly one-third. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. is attached as shown at H. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. as shown in Fig. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. A weight. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. in diameter. Ingham.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. G. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble.. ceiling. Another weight of about 10 lb. provides a means of support for the stylus. which can be regulated. as shown in the lower part of Fig.

one for the sender and one for the receiver. and proceed as before. Fig. Cape May City. a correspondent of . The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. then 3 as in Fig. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. distributing them over the whole card. Morey. Cruger. of course. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. 2. --Contributed by J. 3. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. and 4 as in Fig. -Contributed by W. dividing them into quarters. 4.J. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. 6. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. The capacity of the vise. Chicago. 1. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal.J. The two key cards are made alike. 5. N. then put 2 at the top. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. Fig.H.

After securing the tint desired. long. 30 gr. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. citrate of iron and ammonia. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. Wind the successive turns of . acetic acid and 4 oz. To assemble. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. 1/2 oz.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. wood-screws. Asbestos board is to be preferred. drill 15 holes. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. After preparing the base and uprights. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. Ga. --Contributed by L. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. of the uprights. remove the prints. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. the portion of the base under the coil. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. of water. 6 gauge wires shown. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. says Popular Electricity. If constructed of the former. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. of 18-per-cent No. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. of ferricyanide of potash. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. Alberta Norrell. Cut through the center. 1/4 in. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. sheet of well made asbestos paper. respectively. from the top and bottom. 22 gauge German-silver wire. Augusta. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. deep. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in.

white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. Small knobs may be added if desired. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. which. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. if one is not a smoker.. square. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. The case may be made of 1/2-in. 14 gauge.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. rivets. as they are usually thrown away when empty. N. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. Labels of some kind are needed. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. Ampere. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. --Contributed by Frederick E. 16 gauge copper wire. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. Y. then fasten the upright in place. screws. Ward. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. but these are not necessary. etc. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . cut and dressed 1/2 in.

Eureka Springs. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. Ark. lead. tin. of water. A. the pure muriatic acid should be used. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. --Contributed by A. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. as shown in the sketch. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. California. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. it must be ground or filed to a point. of glycerine to 16 oz. Richmond. --C. particularly so when the iron has once been used. tinner's acid. and one made of poplar finished black. Jaquythe. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. Kenosha. D. sandpaper or steel wool. --Contributed by W. a piece of solder. . The material can be of any wood. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. S. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. This is considerable annoyance. If the soldering copper is an old one. Heat it until hot (not red hot). A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. Wis. The parts are put together with dowel pins. and labeled "Poison. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. and rub the point of the copper on it. brass. then to the joint to be soldered. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. E and F.. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. G. being careful about the heat. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. especially if a large tub is used. Larson. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. B. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. or has become corroded. Copper. In soldering galvanized iron. zinc. galvanized iron. C. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them.14 oz. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered.

Place the band. Apart from this. thick and 1-1/4 in. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. The punch A. The covers of the magazines are removed. N. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. Take a 3/4-in. in diameter. C. The disk will come out pan shaped. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. Fig. This completes the die. Brass rings can be plated when finished. 2. wide. and drill out the threads. Y. in diameter. however. This will leave a clear hole. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. Troy. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . which gives two bound volumes each year. W. with good results. a ring may be made from any metal. The dimensions shown in Fig. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. Six issues make a well proportioned book. Hankin. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. such as copper. brass and silver. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. 7/8 in. B. -Contributed by H. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. 1. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. round iron. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. nut. D. I bind my magazines at home evenings. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. Fig. The metal used should be about 1/16 in.

The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. size 16 or larger. is nailed across the top. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. 2. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. and a third piece. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No.4. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. . They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. 5. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. Start with the front of the book.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. of the ends extending on each side. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. and then to string No. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. deep. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. as shown in Fig. 1. on all edges except the back. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. which is fastened the same as the first. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. After drawing the thread tightly. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. using . pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. 1. Five cuts. threaded double. is used for the sewing material. then back through the notch on the right side. If started with the January or the July issue. 2. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. and place them against the strings in the frame. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. allowing about 2 in. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. 1 in Fig. The string No. The covering should be cut out 1 in. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. 1/8 in. through the notch on the left side of the string No. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. 1. The sections are then prepared for sewing. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. The covering can be of cloth. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. Coarse white thread. C. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. Place the cardboard covers on the book.

at opposite sides to each other. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. Nebr. round iron. Cal. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. and. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. Encanto. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. on which to hook the blade. College View. Place the cover on the book in the right position.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. Divine. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. For the blade an old talking-machine . bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. Tinplate. --Contributed by Clyde E. and mark around each one.

B. thick. Moorhead. Summitville. Ohio. A.. at the same end. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. Miss. and another piece (B) 6 in. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. thick.. by 1 in. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. and file in the teeth. bore. C.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. and a long thread plug. fuse hole at D. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. and 1/4 in. by 4-1/2 in. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. E. in order to drill the holes in the ends. -Contributed by Willard J. as shown. and 1/4 in. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. as it is sometimes called. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. with a steel sleeve. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. hydraulic pipe. F. On the upper side. with 10 teeth to the inch. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. Hays. or double extra heavy. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. Then on the board put . long. Make the blade 12 in.

18 gauge wire for the wiring. A lid may be added if desired. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. high around this apparatus. If you are going to use a current of low tension. and some No. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. of wire to each coil. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. Boyd. of rubber-covered wire. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . Connect up as shown. using about 8 in. about 5 ft. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. 4 jars. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. Philadelphia. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. the jars need not be very large. as from batteries.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. H. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. some sheet copper or brass for plates. --Contributed by Chas.

as they are not substantial enough. 3 and No. long. 2. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. First sandpaper all the wood. making them clear those in the front runner. two pieces 34 in. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. 4) of 3/4-in. The illustration shows how to shape it. by 1-1/4 in. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. For the brass trimmings use No. In proportioning them the points A. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. Z. then apply a coat of thin enamel. . 1 and so on for No. thick. The current then will flow through the motor.. C. with the cushion about 15 in. by 1-1/4 in. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. A 3/4-in. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. gives full current and full speed. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. 7 in. by 1 in. 2. 3.. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. No. B. oak boards. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. by 5 in. 4 in. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. The connection between point No. are important. wide and 2 in. and plane it on all edges. 27 B. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. or source of current. long. At the front 24 or 26 in. 2 is lower down than in No. On the door of the auto front put the . Fig. two for each jar. wide. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against.. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. Use no screws on the running surface. wide and 3/4 in. 2. 1. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. To wire the apparatus. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. Use no nails. 2 and 3. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. direct to wire across jars. The sled completed should be 15 ft. 1 on switch. long. by 5 in. thick. Their size also depends on the voltage. by 2 in. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in.. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. The top disk in jar No. A variation of 1/16 in. two pieces 30 in. B and C. sheet brass 1 in. & S. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. is used to reduce friction. For the front runners these measurements are: A. 16-1/2 in. beginning at the rear. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. steel rod makes a good steering rod. Equip block X with screw eyes. 1 is connected to point No.. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. B. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in.. The stock required for them is oak. An iron washer. 5 on switch. two pieces 14 in. on No.. however. by 6 in. above the ground. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. Construct the auto front (Fig. 3 in. C. and for the rear runners: A. 4. 34 in. square by 14 ft. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. and four pieces 14 in. long. by 2 in. 30 in. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. Put arm of switch on point No. as they "snatch" the ice. 15-1/2 in. and bolt through. apart. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. long by 22 in. 2 in. See Fig. wide by 3/4 in.the way. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. 11 in. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks.

sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. to improve the appearance. If the expense is greater than one can afford.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. Fasten a horn. a brake may be added to the sled. to the wheel. by 1/2 in. If desired. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. such as used on automobiles. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. parcels. fasten a cord through the loop. by 30 in. overshoes. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. may be stowed within. The best way is to get some strong. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. cheap material. If desired. long. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. such as burlap. cutting it out of sheet brass. etc. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . lunch. which is somewhat moist. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. Then get some upholstery buttons. brass plated. a number of boys may share in the ownership. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. or with these for $25. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end.

Ill. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. --Contributed by Stewart H. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. Lexington.tree and bring. . and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. Leland.

How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. 4). which. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. by drawing diameters. This guide should have a beveled edge. CD. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. sheet metal. FC. The Model Engineer. A small clearance space. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. London. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. 2. 1. First take the case of a small gearwheel. from F to G. with twenty-four teeth. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. some files. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. the same diameter as the wheel. E. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. though more difficult. a compass. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. mild steel or iron. Fig. so that the center of the blade. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. the cut will be central on the line. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. Fig. The straight-edge. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. thick. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. made from 1/16-in. 3. when flat against it. The first tooth may now be cut. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. say 1 in. Draw a circle on paper. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. will be over the line FG. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. With no other tools than a hacksaw. outside diameter and 1/16 in. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. Fig. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle.

To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. and the other outlet wire. 1. each in the center. 2. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. R. or several pieces bound tightly together. Focus the camera in the usual manner. A bright. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon.Four Photos on One Plate of them. as shown in Fig. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. B. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. No shock will be perceptible. some wire and some carbons. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. Then take one outlet wire. transmitter. 1. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. either the pencils for arc lamps. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. If there is no faucet in the house. . ground it with a large piece of zinc. electric lamp. as shown in Fig. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. hold in one hand. Make a hole in the other. B. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. as shown in Fig. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners.

Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. A is a wooden block. under the gable. one at the receiver can hear what is said. and about that size.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. at each end for terminals. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. and will then burn the string C. as shown. Ohio. Dry batteries are most convenient. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. Then set the whole core away to dry. a transmitter which induces no current is used. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. But in this experiment. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. --Contributed by Geo. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. B. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. or more of the latter has been used. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . as indicated by E E. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. leaving about 10 in. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. of course. Slattery. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. J. Pa. are also needed. If desired. by 1 in. They have screw ends. Wrenn. Emsworth. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. Several battery cells. by 12 in. serves admirably. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. D D are binding posts for electric wires. One like a loaf of bread. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. For a base use a pine board 10 in. Ashland. and again wind the wire around it. 36 wire around it. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire.

Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. for the . From the other set of binding-posts. 2. Place 16-cp. Fig. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. First make a support. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. connecting lamp receptacles. run a No. C. as shown. C. Fig. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. and the lamps. Newark. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. 1. B B. and switch. The coil will commence to become warm. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. until the hand points to zero on the scale. The oven is now ready to be connected. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. while C is open. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. in parallel. B B. the terminal of the coil.. Jr. E. These should have hollow ends. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. 12 or No. F. The apparatus is now ready for operation. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. Connect these three to switch. D. Ohio. 14 wire. Turn on switch. At one side secure two receptacles.wire. and one single post switch. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. D. as shown. in series with bindingpost.

Dussault. D. high. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. This is slipped on the pivot. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. and D. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. long.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. wide and 1/8 in. After drilling. etc. long and make a loop. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. drill in only to the opening already through. The pointer or hand. To make one. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. 14 wire. D. Montreal. although brass is better. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. wind with plenty of No. inside measurements. as shown in the cut. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. 5. B. a variable resistance. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. 36 magnet wire instead of No. is made of iron. long. C. from the lower end. 4 amperes. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. Fig. This may be made of wood. Fig. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. Mine is wound with two layers of No. 1/2 in. 10 turns to each layer. to prevent it turning on the axle. A wooden box. deep. 3 amperes. a battery. until the scale is full. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. 1/4 in. remove the valve. The core. 14. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. It is 1 in. is made of wire. The box is 5-1/2 in. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. drill a hole as shown at H. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. E. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. 4 in. Fig. where A is the homemade ammeter. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. 1. If for 3-way. wide and 1-3/4 in. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. is then made and provided with a glass front. Fig. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. 5. although copper or steel will do. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. --Contributed by J. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. 6. 1.or 4-way valve or cock. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. thick. 4. At a point a little above the center. 7. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. 3.E. drill through the entire case and valve. 2. a standard ammeter. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. but if for a 4way..

in thickness . The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. in diameter. F. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. and the other connects with the water rheostat. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. A. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. high. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. and a metal rod. B.performing electrical experiments. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. making two holes about 1/4 in. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. as shown. which is used for reducing the current. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. This stopper should be pierced. One wire runs to the switch. and the arc light. To start the light. E. By connecting the motor. D. provided with a rubber stopper. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point.

Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. Having fixed the lead plate in position. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. If the interrupter does not work at first. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. Fig. Fig. Carthage. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. 1. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. B. To insert the lead plate. Fig.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. 2. If all adjustments are correct. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. long. As there shown. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. --Contributed by Harold L. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. Fig. 2. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. as shown in B. 1. Turn on the current and press the button. 1. as shown in C. A piece of wood. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. N. Jones. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. where he is placed in an upright open . Y. A. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. Having finished the interrupter.

dressed in brilliant. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. which can be run by three dry cells. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. loosejointed effect. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. inside dimensions. by 7-1/2 in. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. They need to give a fairly strong light. light-colored garments. should be colored a dull black. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. If everything is not black. and wave his arms up and down. If it is desired to place the box lower down. within the limits of an ordinary room. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. from which the gong has been removed. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. The skeleton is made of papier maché. with the exception of the glass. giving a limp. and can be bought at Japanese stores. A. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. The glass should be the clearest possible. to aid the illusion. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. All . has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. by 7 in. Its edges should nowhere be visible. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. is constructed as shown in the drawings. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. could expect from a skeleton.coffin. The lights. and must be thoroughly cleansed. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. until it is dark there. high. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. the illusion will be spoiled. A white shroud is thrown over his body. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall.. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. as the entire interior. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. should be miniature electric lamps. figures and lights. especially the joints and background near A. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. especially L. L and M. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. The model.

square block. Cal. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. as shown in the sketch. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. --Contributed by Geo. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. W. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. placed about a foot apart. Fry. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . a double-pointed rheostat could be used. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. fat spark. Two finishing nails were driven in. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil.that is necessary is a two-point switch. San Jose. If a gradual transformation is desired. after which it assumes its normal color. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype.

This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. This is a wide-mouth bottle. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. soldered in the top. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. If a lighted match . 1. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. hydrogen gas is generated. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. by small pieces of wood. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. and should be separated about 1/8 in.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. F. In Fig. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. The plates are separated 6 in. the remaining space will be filled with air. with two tubes. -Contributed by Dudley H. New York. to make it airtight. In Fig. or a solution of sal soda. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. into the receiver G. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. One of these plates is connected to metal top. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. as shown. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. Cohen. A (see sketch). B and C. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig.

1-5/16 in. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . B. A 1/64-in. by means of the clips. 2 shows the end view. copper pipe. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. long. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. The distance between the nipple. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. long. Fig. is then coiled around the brass tube. and the ends of the tube. copper pipe. A. London. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. either by passing a current of electricity around it. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. One row is drilled to come directly on top. Fig. A. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. If desired. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. C C. P. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. which forms the vaporizing coil. A nipple. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. 1. A piece of 1/8-in. of No. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. N. N. says the Model Engineer. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. which is plugged up at both ends. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. A.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. then a suitable burner is necessary. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. A. or by direct contact with another magnet. 36 insulated wire. in diameter and 6 in. should be only 5/16 of an inch. as is shown in the illustration. from the bottom. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. is made by drilling a 1/8in. 1/2 in.

smoothing and creasing as shown at A. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. cut to the size of the pages. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. fold and cut it 1 in. 3. A disk of thin sheet-iron. larger all around than the book. duck or linen. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. leaving the folded edge uncut. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. about 8 or 10 in. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . at the front and back for fly leaves. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. should be cut to the diameter of the can. Cut four pieces of cardboard. smoothly. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. 2). Turn the book over and paste the other side. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. trim both ends and the front edge. Fig. taking care not to bend the iron. this makes a much nicer book. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. 1. 1/4 in. longer and 1/4 in. boards and all.lamp cord. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. Take two strips of stout cloth. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. Fig. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. Fig. but if the paper knife cannot be used. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. with a fine saw.

The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. Another can. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. is fitted in it and soldered. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. D. 4). is turned on it. is soldered onto tank A. A. the joint will be gas tight. which will just slip inside the little can. . A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. Ont. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. Va. E. 18 in. as shown in the sketch. In the bottom. Noble. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. but its diameter is a little smaller. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. in diameter and 30 in. C. as shown. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. deep. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. and a little can. without a head. pasting them down (Fig. B. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. --Contributed by James E. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. Bedford City. Parker. --Contributed by Joseph N. is made the same depth as B. is perforated with a number of holes. of tank A is cut a hole. A gas cock. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. H. Another tank. This will cause some air to be enclosed.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. or rather the top now. Toronto.

Fig. shows how the connections are to be made. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. when finished. The wiring diagram. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. long. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. The longitudinal corner spines. exactly 12 in. and sewed double to give extra strength. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. and the four diagonal struts. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. basswood or white pine. H is a square knot. square by 42 in. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. with an electric-bell magnet. A A. by 1/2 in. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. B. making the width. The diagonal struts. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. as shown at C. A. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. which may be either spruce. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. thus adjusting the . long. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. tacks. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. and about 26 in. should be 3/8 in. The small guards. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. Beverly. to prevent splitting. If the back armature. The armature. Fig. fastened in the bottom. -Contributed by H. D. If the pushbutton A is closed. should be cut a little too long. E. J. 2. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. D. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook.. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. should be 1/4 in. B. are shown in detail at H and J. S. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. 1. Bott.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. The bridle knots. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. C. which moves to either right or left. B. N.

D. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. as shown.lengths of F and G. and if a strong wind is blowing. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. E. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. and. can be made of a wooden . to prevent slipping. Chicago. A bowline knot should be tied at J. If the kite is used in a light wind. that refuse to slide easily. Closing either key will operate both sounders. with gratifying results. Clay Center. for producing electricity direct from heat. however. the batteries do not run down for a long time. Stoddard. --Contributed by Edw. --Contributed by A. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. Kan. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. Harbert. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. shift toward F. thus shortening G and lengthening F. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters.

in position. Then. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. by means of machine screws or. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. to the cannon. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. and the current may then be detected by means. 14 or No. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. Fasten a piece of wood. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. with a number of nails. C. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. with a pocket compass. spark. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed.frame. F. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. A. A. The wood screw. When the cannon is loaded. or parallel with the compass needle. E. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. 16 single-covered wire.. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . Chicago. B. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. C. which conducts the current into the cannon. C. A and B. A. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. placed on top. --Contributed by A. and also holds the pieces of wood. D. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. E. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device.

Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. . Ohio. --Contributed by Joseph B. when in position at A'. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. Connect as shown in the illustration. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. A and S. To lock the door. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. in this position the door is locked. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. In Fig. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. Keil. L. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. 1. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. To unlock the door. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. square and 3/8 in. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders.the current is shut off. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. --Contributed by Henry Peck. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. A. 1. To reverse. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. Fig. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. where there is a staple. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. A and S. within the reach of the magnet. Marion. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. with the long arm at L'. Chicago. Mich. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. Big Rapids. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. Bend the strips BB (Fig. now at A' and S'. but no weights or strings. B. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. to receive the screw in the center. 1. H. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. requiring a strong magnet. screw is bored in the block. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. Fig. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. A hole for a 1/2 in. press the button.

The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. When ready for use. Mass. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. --Contributed by C. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. about 18 in. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. J. put in the handle. West Somerville. Rand. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. and may be made at very slight expense. if enameled white on the concave side. When the holes are finished and your lines set. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. Thread the other end of the pipe. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. and if desired the handles may . are enameled a jet black. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. or for microscopic work. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. hole. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. and C is a dumbbell. pipe with 1-2-in. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. long. The standard and base. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. gas-pipe.

E. B. Fig. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. inside the pail. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. high by 1 ft. --Contributed by C. 8 in. with a cover. This peculiar property is also found in ice. 1. as shown at A in the sketch. long and 8 in. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. North Easton.be covered with leather. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. which shall project at least 2 in. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . M. D. 1. across. A. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. Warren. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. across. Fig. Mass. Make a cylindrical core of wood..

say 1/4 in. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. C. The 2 in. After finishing the core. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. of fine wire. such . and 3/8 in. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. 2. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes.. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. and graphite. in diameter. 1). C. and cut it 3-1/2 in. Line the pail. Set aside for a few days until well dried. Whatever burner is used. thick. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. or make one yourself. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. passing wire nails through and clinching them. bottom and sides. E. 2 in. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. layer of the clay mixture. to hold the clay mixture. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. projecting from each end (Fig. in diameter. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. make two wood ends.. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. and your kiln is ready for business. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. cutting the hole a little smaller. If the cover of the pail has no rim. 3) with false top and bottom. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. Fit all the parts together snugly. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. and varnish. and with especial caution the first time. 15%. diameter. long over the lid hole as a chimney. and on it set the paper wrapped core. 1). Fig. 25%. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in.. After removing all the paper. hard porcelain. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. and 3/4 in. wider than the kiln. When lighted. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. 1330°. hotel china. strip of sheet iron. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. 60%. Wind about 1/8 in. if there is to be any glazing done. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. but will be cheaper in operation. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. let this dry thoroughly.mixture of clay. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. full length of iron core. about 1 in. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. pipe 2-ft. This done. the point of the blue flame. as dictated by fancy and expense. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. long. L. It is placed inside the kiln. Cover with paper and shellac as before. pipe. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. C. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. the firing should be gradual. which is the hottest part. if you have the materials. W. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. pack this space-top.-G. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. 1390°-1410°. thick. carefully centering it. as is shown in the sketch. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. but it will burn a great deal of gas. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. sand.

Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. as shown in the sketch herewith. Then take the black cards. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. red and black. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. Take the red cards. taking care to have the first card red. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. --Contributed by J. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. 1. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. procure a new deck. and plane off about 1/16 in. the next black. square them up and place in a vise. 2. C. all cards facing the same way. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. with a plane. D. every alternate card being the same color. C. You can display either color called for. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. as in Fig.53 in. Next restore all the cards to one pack. R. The funnel. . and discharges into the tube. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. Of course. and divide it into two piles. about 1/16 in. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. 2. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. B. overlaps and rests on the body. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. Chicago. T. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. leaving long terminals. Then. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. around the coil. diameter. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. square them up. as in Fig. C. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. 2). A. Washington. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch.. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. and so on.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. length of . 8 in. bind tightly with black silk.

This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. the first thing to decide on is the size. stove bolts. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. Drill all the horizontal pieces. thus making all the holes coincide. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. A. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces.C. Let . E. D. C. Long Branch. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. F. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. All the horizontal pieces. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. stove bolts.. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. to form a dovetail joint as shown. through the holes already drilled. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. The upright pieces. B. so that when they are assembled.J. of the frame. E. N. and then the frame is ready to assemble. The bottom glass should be a good fit. angle iron for the frame. Fig. B. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. When the glass is put in the frame a space. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. To find the fall of snow. 1 gill of litharge. 1 gill of fine white sand. the same ends will come together again. 1. as the difficulties increase with the size. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. A. It should be placed in an exposed location. B. The cement. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. and this is inexpensive to build. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. about 20 in.

having a swinging connection at C. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. on the door by means of a metal plate. to the door knob. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. D. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. and. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. a centerpiece (A. Fasten the lever. Aquarium Finished If desired. Fig. if desired. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. A. B.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium.

. They are shown in Fig. I referred this question to my husband. long. C. will open the door about 1/2 in. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. PAUL S. Buffalo. Fig. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. White. E. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. 2 at GG. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. 3 shows one of the paddles. Fig. 1. screwed to the door frame. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. To make the frame. 6 in. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. A small piece of spring brass. Two short boards 1 in. hoping it may solve the same question for them. F. Fig. 2 ft. 26 in. N. 2 is an end view. Cut two pieces 30 in. to form the main supports of the frame. to form the slanting part. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. approximately 1 ft. long. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. for the top. AA. Do not fasten these boards now. but mark their position on the frame. 1. Fig. 1 is the motor with one side removed. and Fig. soldered to the end of the cylinder. to keep the frame from spreading. another. with a water pressure of 70 lb. several lengths of scantling 3 in. according to the slant given C.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. long. another. B. D. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. long. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. --Contributed by Orton E. Y. Cut two of them 4 ft. from the outside top of the frame. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. wide by 1 in. which is 15 in. Fig. as at E. and another. showing the paddle-wheel in position. 1 . Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. Fig. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. thus doing away with the spring. wide .

Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. pipe. hole through their sides centrally. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. long and filling it with babbitt metal. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. thick (HH. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. remove the cardboard. after which drill a 5/8 in.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. and a 1/4 -in. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. long to the wheel about 8 in. Fig. When it has cooled. hole through its center. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. 2) form a substantial base. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. Fig. tapering from 3/16 in. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). steel shaft 12 in. with the wheel and shaft in place. 2) with a 5/8-in.burlap will do -. hole from the tops to the 1-in. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. 1. 24 in. that is. iron. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. as shown in Fig. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. to a full 1/2 in. (I. and drill a 1/8-in. hole to form the bearings. 2) and another 1 in. thick. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. holes. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. Drill 1/8-in. then drill a 3/16-in. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. Fasten them in their proper position. hole through the exact center of the wheel. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. by 1-1/2 in. Fig. Tack one side on. in diameter. Now block the wheel. These are the paddles. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. iron 3 by 4 in. hole through them. and drill a 1-in. take down the crosspieces. from one end by means of a key. Make this hole conical. GG. 4. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets.along the edges under the zinc to form . Take the side pieces. Next secure a 5/8-in. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft.

tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. and leave them for an hour or so. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. . shutting out all light from above and the sides. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. Correct exposure depends. as this makes long exposure necessary. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. but as it would have cost several times as much. says the Photographic Times. Drill a hole through the zinc. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. drill press.a water-tight joint. It is obvious that. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. Do not stop down the lens. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. place the outlet over a drain. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. and the subject may move. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. If the bearings are now oiled. any window will do. it would be more durable. or what is called a process plate. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. remove any white curtains there may be. The best plate to use is a very slow one. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. Darken the rest of the window. on the lens. as shown in the sketch at B.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. If sheet-iron is used. of course. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. start the motor. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. sewing machine. and as near to it as possible. but now I put them in the machine. ice-cream freezer. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. Focus the camera carefully. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. Raise the window shade half way. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. light and the plate.

The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. until the core slowly rises. or an empty developer tube. hard rubber. which is made of iron and cork. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. and without fog. or can be taken from an old magnet. 2. and a base. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. as a slight current will answer. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. C. as shown in Fig. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. B. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. 2. with binding posts as shown.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. full of water. the core is drawn down out of sight. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. D. The core C. With a piece of black paper. without detail in the face. The current required is very small. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. an empty pill bottle may be used. A. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. a core. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. or wood. by twisting. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. The glass tube may be a test tube. On completing . is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. a glass tube. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube.

A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. whale oil. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. according to his control of the current. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. and make a pinhole in the center. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. 1 pt. 1 lb. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. water and 3 oz. finest graphite. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. 1. is Benham's color top. This is a mysterious looking instrument. and are changed by reversing the rotation. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. and one not easy to explain. white lead. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. The colors appear different to different people.

deuce. before cutting..B. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. especially if the deck is a new one. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. In making hydrogen. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. Chicago. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. C. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. In prize games. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. B. when the action ceases. nearly every time. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. As this device is easily upset. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. fan-like. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other.L. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. or three spot. thus partly filling bottles A and C. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. A. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. -Contributed by D. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results.

Detail of Phonograph Horn . Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. Detroit. in diameter. that will fit loosely in the tube A. Jr. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. Bently. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. 12 in. in length and 3 in. Dak. Form a cone of heavy paper. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. Huron. 3). Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. J. 10 in. 2. 1. Fig. Fig. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. W. as shown in Fig. (Fig. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. --Contributed by C. 9 in. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. long.. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. S. 4. Make a 10-sided stick. long and 3 in.. . --Contributed by F. S. Make ten pieces about 1 ft.

for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. --Contributed by Reader. Denver. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. making it three-ply thick. Fig. and walk in. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. Cut out paper sections (Fig. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. with a pin driven in each end. A second piece of silk thread. allowing 1 in. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. A piece of tin. 6. C. A. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . will cause an increased movement of C. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. but bends toward D. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. Remove the form. Fortunately. push back the bolt. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. on one side and the top. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. E. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. bend it at right angles throughout its length. about the size of a leadpencil.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. it is equally easy to block that trick. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. long.

are made 2 by 4 in. Jr. long.strip. R. 4 ft.. or left to right. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. S. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. S S. The reverse switch. S. Paul. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. Fremont Hilscher. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. will last for several years. A. while the lower switch. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. Two wood-base switches. B. The upper switch. and rest on a brick placed under each end. West St. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. B. as shown. The 2 by 4-in.. long. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. are 7 ft. Minn. W. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . put together as shown in the sketch. By this arrangement one. is connected each point to a battery. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. --Contributed by J. The feet. posts.

2. and valve crank S. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. the other parts being used for the bearing B. is an old bicycle pump. and a cylindrical . and the bearing B is fastened by staples. 1. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. with two washers. The base is made of wood. cut in half. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. E.every house. FF. pulley wheel. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. and in Fig. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. either an old sewing-machine wheel. the size of the hole in the bearing B. 3/8 in. The valve motion is shown in Figs. Fig. which is made of tin. In Fig. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. and the crank bearing C. Fig. The piston is made of a stove bolt. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. The hose E connects to the boiler. which will be described later. H and K. The steam chest D. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. thick. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. 2 and 3. or anything available. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. and has two wood blocks.

G. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. The boiler. 1. as it is merely a trick of photography. . and the desired result is obtained. Fig. of Cuba. First. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. W. Schuh and A. 4. or galvanized iron. at that. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. can be an old oil can. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first.piece of hard wood. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. C. The valve crank S. using the positive wire as a pen. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. This engine was built by W. Eustice. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. This is wound with soft string. San Jose. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. Fry. is cut out of tin. and saturated with thick oil. and a very amusing trick. G. Cal. powder can. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. --Contributed by Geo. as shown in Fig. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. Wis. 3. to receive the connecting rod H. J. Fig.

The smaller wheel. and place a bell on the four ends. B. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. B. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. Fig. 1 by covering up Figs. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. 1 will be seen to rotate. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. They may be of any size. and Fig. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. Fig. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. Cut half circles out of each stave. to cross in the center. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. diameter. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. When turning. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. Fig. as shown. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. as shown at AA. C. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. and pass ropes around .

St. procure a wooden spool. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. To make this lensless microscope. From a piece of thin . DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. --Contributed by H. long. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. but not on all.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. W.M. and enlarge the bore a little at one end.. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. produces a higher magnifying power). from the transmitter. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury.G. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. such as clothes lines. as shown in the illustration. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. This in turn will act on the transmitter. A (a short spool. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. Louis. which accounts for the sound. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. Mo. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. which allows the use of small sized ropes.

place a small object on the transparent disk. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. if the distance is reduced to one-half. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. if the distance is reduced to one-third. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. e. the diameter will appear three times as large. (The area would appear 64 times as large. otherwise the image will be blurred. the diameter will appear twice as large. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. The lever. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. . C.) But an object 3/4-in. i. as in all microscopes of any power. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. Viewed through this microscope. or 64 times. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. is made of iron. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. B. can be made of brass and the armature. E. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. 1. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. To use this microscope. which costs little or nothing to make. cut out a small disk. in which hay has been soaking for several days. darting across the field in every direction. 3. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters.. the object should be of a transparent nature. H. is fastened at each end by pins. and look through the hole D. A. The spring. held at arm's length. which are pieces of hard wood. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. C. and so on. Fig. by means of brads. D. 2. B. and at the center. D.. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. fastened to a wooden base. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. The pivot. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. An innocent-looking drop of water. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. bent as shown. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size.

A. long by 16 in. long. E. The base of the key. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. similar to the one used in the sounder. and are connected to the contacts. between the armature and the magnet. F. Fig. wide. wood: C. brass: E. is cut from a board about 36 in. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. K. Fig. wide. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. C.SOUNDER-A. fastened near the end. wide. A switch. Each side. brass: B. thick. K. D. wide and about 20 in. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. wood: F. or taken from a small one-point switch. B. wide and set in between sides AA. brass. The door. D. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. 16 in. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. connection of D to nail. FF. B. Cut the top. DD. or a single piece. 26 wire: E. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. brass or iron soldered to nail. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. . soft iron. 2. wide. wood. The back. D. long and 14-1/2 in. C. in length and 16 in. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. KEY-A. coils wound with No. can be made panel as shown. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. binding posts: H spring The stop. The binding posts. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. HH. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. nail soldered on A. 16 in. should be about 22 in. 1. AA. which are made to receive a pivot.

with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. brads. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. When the electrical waves strike the needle. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. AA. E. as shown. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. In operation. 13-1/2 in. with 3/4-in. cut in them. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. 2 and made from 1/4-in. long. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. Make 12 cleats.. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. Ill. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. material. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. as shown in the sketch. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. Garfield.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig.

A fairly stiff spring. Brown. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. pulls down the armature. --Contributed by R. and. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. J. F. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. when used with a motor. down into the water increases the surface in contact.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. Fairport. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. Ridgewood. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. C. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. N. through which a piece of wire is passed. A. A. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. filled with water. N. --Contributed by John Koehler. the magnet. A (see sketch). Y. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. in order to increase the surface. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. B. When the pipe is used. E. The cord is also fastened to a lever. and thus decreases the resistance. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. Pushing the wire. will give a greater speed. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches.

By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7.for the secret contact. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. if desired. Gachville. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. N. Borden. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. Of course. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. B. --Contributed by Perry A. even those who read this description.

for 10in. Washington. C. The top board is made 28-in. From a piece of brass a switch. 2. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. . as shown in Fig. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in.. in a semicircle 2 in. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. deep and 3/4 in. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. records. as shown in Fig. wide. H. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. for 6-in. long and 5 in. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in.whenever the bell rings. N. wide. Two drawers are fitted in this space. Dobson. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. where the other end of wire is fastened. wide. Mangold. long and full 12-in. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. thick and 12-in. wide. --Contributed by Dr. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. D. records and 5-5/8 in. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. --Contributed by H. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. and on both sides of the middle shelf. 1. With about 9 ft. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. Compton. apart. Connect switch to post B. wide. A. Jr. J. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. E. The three shelves are cut 25-in. C. from the bottom. East Orange. Nails for stops are placed at DD. Cal.

B. E. 1. to which is fastened a cord. Va. as shown in Fig. which in operation is bent. closed. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. as shown by the dotted lines. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. When the cord is passed over pulley C. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. Roanoke. A. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum.

These wheels should be 3/4 in. as shown in the illustration. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. Now put all these parts together. deep and 1/2 in. Put the rubber tube. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. against which the rubber tubing. In the sides (Fig. one in each end. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. excepting the crank and tubing. 1. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. apart. D. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. thick. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. CC. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. B. E. which should be about 1/2 in. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. long. deep. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. in diameter. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. in diameter. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. Notice the break (S) in the track. 3). it too loose. Cut two grooves. wide. In these grooves place wheels. 3. Figs. wide. is compressed by wheels. If the wheels fit too tightly. Figs. Fig. in diameter. they will let the air through. 5) when they are placed. to turn on pins of stout wire. 4 shows the wheel-holder. Fig. through one of these holes. but a larger one could be built in proportion. Do not fasten the sides too .Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. The crankpin should fit tightly. in diameter. 1 in. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. they will bind. holes (HH. E. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. 1 in. square and 7/8 in. Fig. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. thick (A. Bore two 1/4 in. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig.

bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. Then turn the crank from left to right. The screen which is shown in Fig. as it gives steadiness to the motion. AA. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. 17-1/2 in. Hubbard. costing 10 cents. For ease in handling the pump. Fig. B. from each end. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. 1. 2. the pump will give a steady stream. Two feet of 1/4-in. AA. stands 20 in. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. If the motion of the wheels is regular. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. Idana. from that mark the next hole.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. Fig. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. To use the pump. iron. 1. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. The three legs marked BBB. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. because he can . In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. though a small iron wheel is better. from the bottom and 2 in. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. is all the expense necessary. the other wheel has reached the bottom. 1. A in Fig. mark again. Take the center of the bar. long. --Contributed by Dan H. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. The animal does not fear to enter the box. mark for hole and 3 in. and 3-1/2 in. beyond each of these two. Fig. 15 in. 1. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. from each end. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. and are 30 in. as shown in Fig. and mark for a hole. In the two cross bars 1 in. from each end. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. tubing. a platform should be added. 2. Fig.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. Cut six pieces. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. Kan. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. 1. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. of material.

or small electric motors. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. and the solution (Fig. silvery appearance. 2). however. When the bichromate has all dissolved. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. C. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. If the solution touches the zinc. take out the carbon and lower the zinc.see through it: when he enters. giving it a bright. of the top. and touches the bait the lid is released and. but if one casts his own zinc. until it is within 3 in. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. Meyer. Philadelphia. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. The truncated. acid 1 part). 4 oz. If it is wet. 1) must be prepared. The battery is now ready for use. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. If the battery has been used before. there is too much liquid in the jar. --Contributed by H. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. . one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. 14 copper wire. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. or. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. sulphuric acid. long having two thumb screws. of water dissolve 4 oz. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. The battery is now complete. It is useful for running induction coils. To cause a flow of electricity. some of it should be poured out. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. When through using the battery. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. stirring constantly. dropping. potassium bichromate. add slowly. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. rub the zinc well. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. The mercury will adhere. shuts him in. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. Place the carbon in the jar.

After putting in the coal. which opens the door. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. the battery circuit. Wis. Madison.. while the coal door is being opened. e. the jump-spark coil . The price of the coil depends upon its size.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. If. with slight changes. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. pressing the pedal closes the door. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. i. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. however.Fig.

. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. 6. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. and closer for longer distances. as shown in Fig. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. Now for the receiving apparatus. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. W W. coil. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. This will make an excellent receiver. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. This coil. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. apart. After winding. as shown in Fig. in a partial vacuum. 7. the full length of the coil. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. Change the coil described. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. W W. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. 5. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. 7. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece.described elsewhere in this book. in a straight line from top to bottom. Fig. which is made of light copper wire. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. made of No. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. diameter. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. 6. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal.7. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. 7). while a 12-in. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. being a 1-in.

Figs. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. 1 to 4. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. No. being vertical. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. A large cone pulley would then be required. only. The writer does not claim to be the originator. A. 1). may be easily made at very little expense. I run my lathe by power. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. at any point to any metal which is grounded. B the bed and C the tailstock. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). These circles. 90°. but simply illustrates the above to show that. are analogous to the flow of induction. but it could be run by foot power if desired. For an illustration. after all. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. to the direction of the current. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. Run a wire from the other binding post. above the ground. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection.6 stranded. and hence the aerial line. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. . 90°. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. using an electric motor and countershaft. which will be described later. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. as it matches the color well. being at right angles. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft.The aerial line. where A is the headstock. in the air. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles.

Fig. 6 Headstock Details D. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. 5. which pass through a piece of wood. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. To make these bearings. Heat the babbitt well.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. The bearing is then ready to be poured. which are let into holes FIG. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. B. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. 6. too. but not hot enough to burn it. If the bearing has been properly made. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. 5. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. 4. Fig. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . tapered wooden pin. and Fig. and it is well to have the shaft hot. The bolts B (Fig. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. 4. just touching the shaft. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. one of which is shown in Fig. After pouring. on the under side of the bed. 2 and 3. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. steel tubing about 1/8 in. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. and runs in babbitt bearings. thick. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. Fig. deep. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. pitch and 1/8 in. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. Fig. A. The headstock.

The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. of the walk . To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. the alarm is easy to fix up.J. FIG. and a 1/2-in. embedded in the wood. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. The tail stock (Fig. Ill. they may be turned up after assembling. Oak Park. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. lock nut. Take up about 5 ft. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. This prevents corrosion. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. If one has a wooden walk. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. N. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. A. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue.other machines. Newark. If not perfectly true. B. so I had to buy one. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin.

of water. water. clean the articles thoroughly. 2). about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. To avoid touching it. --Contributed by R. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. Connect up an electric bell. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. Fig. to roughen the surface slightly. Minn. Jackson. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. hang the articles on the wires. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. Finally. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. to remove all traces of grease. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. before dipping them in the potash solution. (A. save when a weight is on the trap. and the alarm is complete. silver or other metal. S. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. so that they will not touch. add potassium cyanide again. Then make the solution . For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. Do not touch the work with the hands again. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. Minneapolis. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. leaving a clear solution.

but opens the door. will serve for the key. This solution. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. from the lower end. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. shaking. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. about 25 ft. with water. Repeat six times. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. must be about 1 in. of water. Fig. 3) strikes the bent wire L. Having finished washing the precipitate. Fig. The wooden catch. pewter. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. Where Bunsen cells are used. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. which is advised. On brass. 3. Before silver plating. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. long. long. Take quick. I. 3) directly over the hole. light strokes. Screw the two blocks together. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. A 1/4 in. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. 18 wire. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. of clothesline rope and some No. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. If accumulators are used. hole in its center. Then. a hand scratch brush is good. a circuit is completed. Make a somewhat larger block (E. also. which . and then treated as copper. piece of broomstick. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. When all this is set up. 1. nickel and such metals. 1). be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. an old electric bell or buzzer. 10 in. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. thick by 3 in. make a key and keyhole. 1). as shown in Fig. B should be of the same wood. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. In rigging it to a sliding door. If more solution is required. saw a piece of wood. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. To provide the keyhole. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. The wooden block C. lead. when the point of the key touches the tin. With an electric pressure of 3. Fig. silver can be plated direct. German silver.up to 2 qt. with the pivot 2 in. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape.5 to 4 volts. use 2 volts for large articles. such metals as iron. which is held by catch B. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. Fig. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. and the larger part (F. 1 not only unlocks. A (Fig. and 4 volts for very small ones. 1 in. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. as at F. Can be made of a 2-in. if one does not possess a buffing machine. square. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. zinc. --Model Engineer. with water. copper. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K.

but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. --Contributed by E. although a little more trouble. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. cut in one side. is the cut through which the rope runs. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). Fig. with a switch as in Fig. H. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. H. . Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. Thus. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. Fig. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. such as forks. 2. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. The box must be altered first. 1. or cave. Fig. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. Fig. and hands its contents round to the audience. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. 2. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. On either side of the box. surrounding a perfectly black space. he points with one finger to the box. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. 3. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. He removes the bowl from the black box. 1. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. and a slit. some black paint. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. 0. and black art reigns supreme. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. so much the better. Objects appear and disappear. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. no painting inside is required. and plenty of candles. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. which unlocks the door.. Klipstein. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. one-third of the length from the remaining end. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. spoons and jackknives. he tosses it into the cave. enlarged. top. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. One end is removed. between the parlor and the room back of it. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. in his shirt sleeves. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. The interior must be a dead black. H. The magician stands in front of this. and finally lined inside with black cloth. heighten the illusion. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. sides and end. the box should be painted black both inside and out. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. the illumination in front must be arranged. half way from open end to closed end. the requisites are a large soap box. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. To prepare such a magic cave. a few simple tools. with the lights turned low. is an upright square of brightly burning lights.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. floor. 116 Prospect St. should be cut a hole. some black cloth. B. Next. Next. Receiving the bowl again. East Orange. to throw the light toward the audience. One thing changes to another and back again. New Jersey. In front of you. Heavy metal objects. shows catch B.

and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. and several black drop curtains. The illusion. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. and pours them from the bag into a dish. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. which are let down through the slit in the top. only he. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms.Finally. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. had a big stage. you must have an assistant. one on each side of the box. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. But illusions suggest themselves. his confederate behind inserts his hand. and if portieres are impossible. a screen must be used. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. the room where the cave is should be dark. of course. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. was identical with this. which can be made to dance either by strings. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. The audience room should have only low lights. The exhibitor should be . There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. in which are oranges and apples. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. of course. is on a table) so much the better. if. into the eyes of him who looks. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. as presented by Hermann. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. Consequently. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton.

while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. About the center piece H moves a disk. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. terminal c3 will show . so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. b3. held down on it by two terminals. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. respectively. by means of two wood screws. vice versa. when handle K is turned to one side. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. FIG. terminal c3 will show +. b1. f2. their one end just slips under the strips b1. A. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. respectively. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. at L.. c3. 1. On the disk G are two brass strips.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. b2.a boy who can talk.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. and a common screw. e1 and e2. and c1 – electricity. b2. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). if you turn handle K to the right. held down by another disk F (Fig. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. held down on disk F by two other terminals. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. b3. making contact with them. by 4 in. respectively. as shown in Fig. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. c1. d. and c2 to the zinc. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. or binding posts. 1. Fig. c4. 2. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. 2. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. and c4 + electricity. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. so arranged that. A represents a pine board 4 in. making contact with them as shown at y. or b2. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. Then. with three brass strips. is shown in the diagram. 2). Finally. square. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. c2.

--Contributed by Eugene F. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. B is a onepoint switch. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. when on No. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. -Contributed by A. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. 4. When switch B is closed and A is on No. Newark. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. Joerin. E. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. . 1. 3. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. from three batteries. thus making the message audible in the receiver. Tuttle. and C and C1 are binding posts. and when on No. you have the current of one battery. jump spark coil. when on No. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade).in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. from four batteries. Jr. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . 2 you receive the current from two batteries.. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. and then hold the receiver to your ear. 5. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. when A is on No. Ohio. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. from five batteries.

Wis. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. A.. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. Redmond. A. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. mark. Thus. so one can see the time. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. of Burlington. and placed on the windowsill of the car. is the device of H. The device thus arranged. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. P. When you do not have a graduate at hand. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. per second. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. and supporting the small weight. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. which may be a button or other small object.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. traveled by the thread. B. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. mark. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. rule. A. per second for each second. as shown in the sketch. E. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. New Orleans. over the bent portion of the rule. Handy Electric Alarm . Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. La. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position.

which has a piece of metal. soldered to the alarm winder. Instead. When the alarm goes off. which illuminates the face of the clock. . and with the same result. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. --Contributed by Gordon T. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. S. but may be closed at F any time desired. wrapping the wire around the can several times. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. Lane. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. C. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. Then if a mishap comes. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. for a wetting is the inevitable result. Pa. Crafton. --C. B.

which in turn support the mold while it is being made. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. whence it is soon tracked into the house. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. With the easily made devices about to be described. cannons. Two cleats. as shown in Fig. AA.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . L. models and miniature objects. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. It is possible to make molds without a bench. 1 . Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. as shown. binding posts. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. and many other interesting and useful articles. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. small machinery parts. If there is no foundry Fig. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. New York City. when it is being prepared. The first thing to make is a molding bench. and duplicates of all these. BE. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. battery zincs. engines. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. --Contributed by A. Macey. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. but it is a mistake to try to do this. A. C. ornaments of various kinds. which may. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. bearings.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. 1.

" or upper half. will be required. by 8 in. and this. is filled with coal dust. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. is nailed to each end of the cope. which should be nailed in.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. Fig. DD. If the box is not very strong. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. makes a very good sieve. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. The dowels. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. but this operation will be described more fully later on. A wedge-shaped piece. which can be either aluminum. G. and the lower pieces. and a sieve. and the "drag. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. The flask. An old teaspoon. 1. as shown." or lower part. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. D. and saw it in half longitudinally. white metal. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. try using sand from other sources. a little larger than the outside of the flask. It is made of wood and is in two halves. 2 . F. 2. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. as shown. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. CC. II . is made of wood. is shown more clearly in Fig. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. H. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. which can be made of a knitted stocking. by 6 in. The cloth bag. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. The rammer.near at hand. is about the right mesh. 1. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. the "cope. previous to sawing. If desired the sieve may be homemade. A slight shake of the bag Fig. say 12 in. high. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. J. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use.How to Make a Mold [96] . A A. CC. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. E. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. Fig. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor.

It is then rammed again as before. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. as described. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. as shown at E. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. or "cope. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. The sand is then ready for molding. In finishing the ramming. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. and by grasping with both hands. and thus judge for himself. After ramming. as shown at D. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. and scatter about 1/16 in. and then more sand is added until Fig. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. turn the drag other side up. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. and if water is added. as it is much easier to learn by observation. the surface of the sand at . An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. in order to remove the lumps. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. where they can watch the molders at work. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. Place another cover board on top. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. or "drag. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. as shown. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed." in position. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. as shown at C.

as shown at G. as shown at H. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. as shown at F. . thus making a dirty casting. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. wide and about 1/4 in. Fig. This is done with a spoon. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. after being poured. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. to give the air a chance to escape. in diameter. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. After drawing the pattern. place the cope back on the drag. is next cut. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. it shows that the sand is too wet. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. and then pour. as shown in the sketch. as shown at H. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used.E should be covered with coal-dust. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. made out of steel rod. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. in order to prevent overheating. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. The "sprue. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. thus holding the crucible securely. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. III. Place a brick or other flat. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. deep. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. as shown at J." or pouring-hole. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it.

the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. and. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. although somewhat expensive. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. 15% lead. Although the effect in the illustration . Minneapolis. --Contributed by Harold S. battery zincs. used only for zinc. or from any adjacent pair of cells. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. is very desirable. Morton. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. Referring to the figure. white metal and other scrap available. babbitt. the following device will be found most convenient.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. but any reasonable number may be used. may be used in either direction. If a good furnace is available. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. In my own case I used four batteries. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. and the casting is then ready for finishing.

To make it take a sheet-iron band. outward. 3/4 in. Then walk down among the audience. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. Chicago. connected by cords to the rudder. --Contributed by Draughtsman. which will be sufficient to hold it. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. If desired. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. B. Then replace the table. The brass rings also appear distorted. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. Fig. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. Put a sharp needle point. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. shaft made. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. Make one of these pieces for each arm. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. backward. 2.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . A. The bearings. B. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. By replacing the oars with paddles. may be made of hardwood. as shown at A. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. as shown in the illustration. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required.

or the paint will come off. 2. If galvanized iron is used. spoiling its appearance. E. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. as shown in Fig. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. 3. The hubs. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. It may seem strange that ice . C. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. and a weight. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid.melted babbitt. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. being simply finely divided ice. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. as shown in Fig. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. In the same way. A block of ice. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. should be made of wood. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. when it will again return to its original state. 1. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. The covers. 1. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. but when in motion. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. W. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. or under pressure. If babbitt is used. 1. A. 2 and 3. D. Fig. Snow.

brass. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. thus giving a high resistance contact. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. Pressing either push button. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. which resembles ice in this respect. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. in. The rate of flow is often very slow. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . as shown on page 65. and assume the shape shown at B. whenever there is any connection made at all. by 2 in. by 1/2 in. Lane. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. --Contributed by Gordon T. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. by 1/4. P. but by placing it between books. square. by 5 in. it will gradually change from the original shape A.. as per sketch. the large body of ice has to bend in moving.should flow like water. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. Crafton. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. or supporting it in some similar way. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. no matter how slow the motion may be. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. B. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. sometimes only one or two feet a day. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. but. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. Pa. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in.

To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. Indianapolis. vertical lever. H. In the wiring diagram. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. E. J. draft chain. and five dry batteries. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. the induction coil. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. pulleys. G. The success depends upon a slow current. the battery. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. B. Pa. A is the circuit breaker. and C. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. The parts are: A. C. horizontal lever. Wilkinsburg. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. about the size used for automobiles. I. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. F. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. wooden supports. as shown.000 ft.thumb screws. as shown. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. --Contributed by A. G. K . A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. weight. B. draft. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. furnace. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. cord. D. alarm clock. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. Ward.

If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. where house plants are kept in the home. The frame (Fig.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. will fit nicely in them. which will provide a fine place for the plants. 3. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. Kalamazoo. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. material framed together as shown in Fig. 2 are dressed to the right angle. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. Mich. as well as the bottom. Artistic Window Boxes The top. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. such as used for a storm window. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in.

and cost 27 cents FIG. a cork and a needle. in diameter. W. Thus. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. since a battery is the most popular source of power. as indicated by Fig. after a rest. --Contributed by Wm. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. but maintain the voltage constant. 1 cp. It must be remembered. which sells for 25 cents. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. Halifax. Canada.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. this must be done with very great caution. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. The 1/2-cp. i. 1. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. S. and a suitable source of power. This is more economical than dry cells. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. Grant. so as to increase the current. However. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. A certain number of these. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel.. and will give the . However. for some time very satisfactorily. e. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. by connecting them in series.. 1 each complete with base. N. in this connection. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. and the instrument will then be complete. in any system of lamps. can be connected up in series. multiples of series of three. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. Push the needle into the cork. where they are glad to have them taken away. is something that will interest the average American boy. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. as if drawn upon for its total output.. one can regulate the batteries as required.

it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. 3. each. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. Chicago. Thus. If wound for 10 volts. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. where the water pressure is the greatest. if wound for 6 volts. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. 1-cp. and diffused light in a room. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. we simply turn on the water. which is the same as that of one battery. lamps. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. FIG. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. In conclusion. as in Fig. However. by the proper combination of these. to secure light by this method. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. 18 B & S. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. . making.proper voltage. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. for display of show cases. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. and then lead No..2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. 11 series. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. according to the water pressure obtainable. or 22 lights. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. and running the series in parallel. although the first cost is greater. Fig. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. especially those of low internal resistance. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. double insulated wire wherever needed. and for Christmas trees. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. These will give 3 cp. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. generates the power for the lights. 2 shows the scheme. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. lamp. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. So. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. Thus. lamps. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. The dynamo can also be used as a motor.

field of motor. thus reversing the machine. or from one pattern. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. Santa Clara. Emig. To reverse the motor. BB. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. the letters indicate as follows: FF. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. --Contributed by F. outside points of switch. DD. and the sides. or a tempting bone. simply change the switch. center points of switch. AA. switch. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. . Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. and C. as shown in the sketch. B. CC.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. After I connected up my induction coil. Ind. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. we were not bothered with them. B. --Contributed by Leonard E. A. A indicates the ground. are cut just alike. Parker. a bait of meat. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. Cal. bars of pole-changing switch. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. brushes of motor. Plymouth.

Minn. or would remain locked. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. a piece of string. and a table or bench. To unlock the door.. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. 903 Vine St. a hammer. Fry. which is in the door. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. San Jose. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. thus locking the door. A. as it is the key to the lock.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. Melchior. The button can be hidden. If it is not. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. W. Hutchinson. The experiment works best . merely push the button E. attached to the end of the armature B. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. Cal. one cell being sufficient. When the circuit is broken a weight. -Contributed by Claude B.

attached at the other end. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. P. When the alarm rings in the early morning. C. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. -. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. Crawford Curry. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. Wis. I. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. as shown in Fig. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. the key turns. the stick falls away. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. Ontario. in the ceiling and has a window weight. where it will remain suspended as shown. releasing the weight. which pulls the draft open. W.Contributed by F.. 3. 3. 18 Gorham St. D.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. Canada. run through a pulley. Brockville. Porto Rico. --Contributed by Geo. forming a loop. . Culebra. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. Schmidt. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. the current flows with the small arrows. Tie the ends of the string together. A. On another block of wood fasten two wires. 2. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. 1). Madison. 4).

J. --Contributed by Wm. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. or from a bed of flowers. or tree. Use a barrel to work on. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. First. Farley. running one direct to the receiver. 6 in. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. The cut shows the arrangement. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. which fasten to the horn. Jr. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. Connect two wires to the transmitter. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. made with his own hands.. thick. and break the corners off to make them round. J.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. R. thence to a switch. D. N. and then to the receiver. including the mouthpiece. S. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. get two pieces of plate glass. and the other to the battery. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. Camden. square and 1 in. and . How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers.

and a large lamp. the coarse grinding must be continued. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. wet till soft like paint. and the under glass or tool convex. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. When polishing the speculum. by the side of the lamp. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. and is ready for polishing. or less. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. set the speculum against the wall. When dry. 2. In a dark room. then 8 minutes. unless a longer focal length is wanted. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds.. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. with pitch. Have ready six large dishes. with 1/4-in. so the light . 2. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. When done the glass should be semitransparent. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. Fasten. a round 4-in. Fig. and label. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. L. twice the focal length away. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. wetting it to the consistency of cream. 1. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. also rotate the glass. while walking around the barrel. spaces. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. Then warm and press again with the speculum. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. Fig. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. as in Fig.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. or it will not polish evenly. A.. of water. in length. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. Use a binger to spread it on with. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. wide around the convex glass or tool. using straight strokes 2 in. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. then take 2 lb. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. and spread on the glass. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. melt 1 lb.

the speculum will show some dark rings.. cement a strip of board 8 in.. touched with rouge. as in K. Fig. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. Two glass or earthenware dishes. 4 oz. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. that was set aside. Place the speculum S. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in.. 39 gr. longer strokes.………………………………. and pour the rest into the empty dish.. face down. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. Silver nitrate ……………………………. Fig. add the ammonia solution drop by drop.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp..……………………………. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. Fig.. from the lamp. Then add solution B. long to the back of the speculum. Place the speculum. The knife should not be more than 6 in. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. must be procured. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. the speculum is ready to be silvered. then ammonia until bath is clear. The polishing and testing done. or hills. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. if a hill in the center. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. Alcohol (Pure) ……………. 25 gr. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. 100 gr. Now add enough of the solution A. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. 2.. Nitric acid . Solution D: Sugar loaf . When the focus is found. fill the dish with distilled water.……………. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. When dry. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center.100 gr. 840 gr. If not. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water …………………………….. deep. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. Then add 1 oz. 4 oz. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade.. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. in the bath and leave until the silver rises.. 2. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). With pitch. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. also how the rays R from a star . with distilled water.

is a satisfactory angle. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. slightly wider than the lens mount. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers.John E. cover with paper and cloth. deg. About 20. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. Make the tube I of sheet iron. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. My telescope is 64 in. . then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. which proves to be easy of execution. Thus an excellent 6-in. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. stop down well after focusing. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. long and cost me just $15. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. with an outlay of only a few dollars. telescope can be made at home. using strawboard and black paper. and proceed as for any picture. Then I made the one described. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. The flatter they are the less they will distort. Place over lens. Mellish.. two glass prisms. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet.

The paper is exposed. says the Master Painter. complete the arrangement. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. Boody. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. but will not preserve its hardening. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. The rays of the clear. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. or powdered alum. unobstructed light strike the mirror. . which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. then add a little sulphate of potash. Zimmerman. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. -Contributed by A. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. Fig. B. push the button D. through the lens of the camera and on the board. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. and reflect through the negative. add the plaster gradually to the water. Ill. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. D. instead of the contrary. 2. as shown in Fig. 1. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. Do not stir it. To unlock. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. A. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A.

Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. Fasten on the switch lever. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. Fig. 1). throw . 2. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. but will remain suspended without any visible support. also provide them with a handle. 3. as in Fig. as shown in the sketch. 2. as at A and B. so that it can rotate about these points. use a string. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. To reverse.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. Then blow through the spool. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig.

Push one end of the tire into the hole. D. B. Go McVicker. A is the electricbell magnet. --Contributed by Geo. --Contributed by R. the armature. rinse in alcohol. Take out. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. Levy. . North Bend. carbon sockets. and E E. Neb. -Contributed by Morris L. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. Tex. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. In the sketch. wash in running water. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. although this is not necessary.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. and rub dry with linen cloth. San Antonio. carbons. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. C C. binding posts. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. L. Thomas. San Marcos. as shown in the sketch. Tex.

By means of two or more layers of No. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. --Contributed by Joseph B. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. 14 or No. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. 36 magnet wire. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. long or more. Bell. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. Brooklyn. wound evenly about this core. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. 16 magnet wire.

This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. When cut and laid in one continuous length. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. which is an important factor of the coil. which is desirable. long and 2-5/8 in. The primary is made of fine annealed No. No. making two layers. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. at a time. The following method of completing a 1-in. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. or 8 in. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. wide. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. the entire core may be purchased readymade. in diameter. in length. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. long and 5 in. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. one piece of the paper is laid down. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. with room also for a small condenser. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. a box like that shown in Fig. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. 1. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. about 6 in. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. and the results are often unsatisfactory. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. The condenser is next wrapped . through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. hole is bored in the center of one end. and finally the fourth strip of paper. 4. diameter. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. then the strip of tin-foil.which would be better to buy ready-made. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. After the core wires are bundled. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. coil illustrates the general details of the work. In shaping the condenser. A 7/8-in. 2 yd. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. as the maker prefers. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. as shown in Fig. but if it is not convenient to do this work. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. This makes a condenser which may be folded. Beginning half an inch from one end. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper.

and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. the letters indicate as follows: A.. 4 in. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. F. B. to the door. which allows wiring at the back. shelf for clock. V-shaped copper strip. copper lever with 1-in. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. battery . and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. lines H. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. bell. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. forms the other pole or terminal. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. G. spark. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. round so that the inside . go. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. long to key. shows how the connections are made. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. 3. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. flange turned on one side. and one from battery. whole length. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. and the other sheet. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. by 12 in. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. switch. which is insulated from the first. wide. ready for assembling. Fig. A. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. open switch C.) The wiring diagram. I. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. D. C. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. long and 12 in. The alarm key will turn and drop down. E. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts.securely with bands of paper or tape. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. one from bell. B.

or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. That is what they are for. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. The circuit should also have a high resistance. from the bottom. If desired for use immediately. do not shortcircuit.diameter is 7 in. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. instead of close to it.. Use a glass or metal shade. . Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. Line the furnace. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. but add 5 or 6 oz. This is for blowing. says the Model Engineer. of zinc sulphate. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. 2 in. Short-circuit for three hours. of blue stone. London. and then rivet the seam. but with the circuit. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. and the battery is ready for use.

long. square and about 9 in." which created much merriment. and then. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. herein I describe a much better trick. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. Outside of the scientific side involved. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. Try it and see. but the thing would not move at all. for some it will turn one way. If any or your audience presume to dispute. while for others it will not revolve at all. To operate the trick. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. the second finger along the side. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. g. or think they can do the same let them try it. Enlarge the hole slightly. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made.9 of a volt.. porcelain and paper. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. and therein is the trick. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. for others the opposite way. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. below the bottom of the zinc. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. affects . In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. 2. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. Ohio. changes white phosphorus to yellow. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. If too low. as in the other movement. thus producing two different vibrations. imparting to them a violet tinge. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. grip the stick firmly in one hand. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. At least it is amusing. This type of battery will give about 0. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. oxygen to ozone. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. 1. thus making the arm revolve in one direction.

chemicals. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. says the Photographic Times. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. and. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. if possible. but this is less satisfactory. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. an old tripod screw. a short-focus lens. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. earth. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. To the front board is attached a box. but not essential. insects. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. a means for holding it vertical. and one of them is photomicrography. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. however. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. but small flowers. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone.

wide from which to cut a pattern. balloon. 6 ft. 10 ft 523 33 lb.--Contributed by George C. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. Madison. Ft Lifting Power. while it is not so with the quill. The following table will give the size. CD. A line. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. If the balloon is 10 ft. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. Cap. Mass. 7-1/2 in. 1. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. 5 ft. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. which is 15 ft. AB. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. long and 3 ft. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. in diameter. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. 697 44 lb. 5 in. 179 11 lb. 8 ft. 113 7 lb. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. 11 ft. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. or 31 ft. 7-1/2 in. 12 ft. 7 ft. and a line. or 3 ft. 905 57 lb. 9 ft. 381 24 lb. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. 65 4 lb. Fig. Boston. 268 17 lb. Divide one-quarter of the circle . in Cu.

cutting all four quarters at the same time. 4. 70 thread. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. of the very best heavy body. 3. and so on. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. The cloth segments are sewed together. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. Procure 1 gal. keeping the marked part on the outside. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. The pattern is now cut. This test will show if the bag is airtight. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. Repeat this operation four times. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. making a double seam as shown in Fig. The amounts necessary for a 10- . This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. on the curved line from B to C. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. 2. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. of beeswax and boil well together.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. using a fine needle and No. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel.

When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. ]. by fixing. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. A. it is not fit to use. The 3/4-in. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. B. which may sound rather absurd. Vegetable oils should never be used. When the clock has dried. About 15 lb. of sulphuric acid. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. using a fine brush. 1 lb.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. A. In the barrel. B. but if any grease remains on the hand. pipe. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. of iron borings and 125 lb. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. balloon are 125 lb. with water 2 in. 5 . if it is good it will dry off. ft. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. above the level of the water in barrel A. C. All FIG. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. The outlet. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. of water will make 4 cu. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. of gas in one hour. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. with 3/4in. a clean white rag. leaving the hand quite clean. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. to the bag. Water 1 oz.. . washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. as shown in Fig. until no more dirt is seen.Green Iron ammonium citrate . Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. or a fan. capacity and connect them. with the iron borings. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. should not enter into the water over 8 in. oil the spindle holes carefully. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. or dusting with a dry brush. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts.ft. A. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. . How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. 150 gr. this should be repeated frequently. C. After washing a part. of iron. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. Fill the other barrel. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. 1 lb. B. 5. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point.

000 ft. or zinc. A cold. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. fix in hypo. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell.Water 1 oz. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. and keep in the dark until used. Dry in the dark. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. The negative pole. toning first if desired. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. The positive pole. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. The miniature 16 cp. or carbon. dry atmosphere will give best results. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. This aerial collector can be made in . 20 to 30 minutes. of the cell is connected to the aerial line.. and a vigorous negative must be used. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. at the time of employment. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. to avoid blackened skin. of any make. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. . Port Melbourne. keeping the fingers out of the solution. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. Exposure. Dry the plates in the dark. says the Moving Picture World. or battery. A longer exposure will be necessary. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. Printing is done in the sun. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. .

which will cause the clickings that can be heard. when left exposed to the air. lead pipe. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. holes . in diameter. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. long.various ways. and have the other connected with another aerial line. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. as described below. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. lay a needle. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. This will complete the receiving station. As the telephone offers a high resistance. If the wave ceases. If the waves strike across the needle. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. the resistance is less. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. The storage cell. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. forming a cup of the pipe. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. and as less current will flow the short way. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. a positive and a negative. making a ground with one wire. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. will soon become dry and useless. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. both positive and negative. 5 in. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight.

The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. except for about 1 in. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell.as possible. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. a round one. by soldering the joint. or tube C. This support or block. This. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. says the Pathfinder. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. or tube B. namely: a square hole. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. does not need to be watertight. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. Two binding-posts should be attached. The other plate is connected to the zinc. an oblong one and a triangular one. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. one to the positive. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. of course. and the other to the negative. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. This box can be square. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. When mixing the acid and water. D. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. B. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. on each end.

C. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. as it is not readily overturned. were fitted by this one plug. long. C. Only galvanized nails should be used. as shown in Fig. is built 15 ft. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. 1. wide. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. in place on the wood. thick cut two pieces alike. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. back and under. The third piece of brass. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. 2. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. . The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. 3. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. deep and 4 ft. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. 2. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. leaving about 1/16 in. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. Chicago. Ill. This punt. A and B. and match them together. and has plenty of good seating capacity. 1. wide. as shown in Fig. all around the edge.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. about 20 in. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument.

long and fitted with a thumbscrew. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. Wash. square (Fig 2). Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. In Fig.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. B. A. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. thick and 3-1/2 in. gas pipe. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. Tacoma. A piece of 1/4-in. is cut 1 in.

The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. no more current than a 16-cp. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. The winding of the armature. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. lamp. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. which the writer has made. which can be developed in the usual manner. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. and to consume. In designing. may be of interest to some of our readers. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. or "rotor." has no connection with the outside circuit. H.--Contributed by Charles H. without auxiliary phase. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. no special materials could be obtained. with the exception of insulated wire.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. Wagner. if possible. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. says the Model Engineer. it had to be borne in mind that. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of .

The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. Holes 5-32 in. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. were then drilled and 1/4-in. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. C. and filled with rivets. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. holes." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. this little machine is not self-starting. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. with the dotted line. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. in diameter were drilled in the corners. about 2-1/2 lb. Unfortunately. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. B. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. The stator is wound full with No. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. also varnished before they were put in. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. 5. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. 2. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. thick. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. while the beginnings . being used. as shown in Fig. or "stator. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. A. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. and all sparking is avoided. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. They are not particularly accurate as it is. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. 4. wrought iron. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. bolts put in and tightened up. After assembling a second time. to be filed out after they are placed together. as shown in Fig. 1. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. no steel being obtainable. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces.the field-magnet. 3. When put together they should make a piece 2 in.

as shown in Fig. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. as a means of illustrating songs. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. E. 2. In making slides by contact. The image should . but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. One is by contact. J. No starting resistance is needed.. and as the motor runs at constant speed. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. and the other by reduction in the camera. The rotor is wound with No. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. Jr. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. The lantern slide is a glass plate. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. McKinney. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. If too late for alcohol to be of use. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. a regulating resistance is not needed. and would not easily get out of order. and all wound in the same direction. 1. it would be very simple to build. and as each layer of wire was wound. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. N. This type of motor has drawbacks. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. and especially of colored ones. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. as before stated. Newark. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. if applied immediately. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. film to film. having no commutator or brushes. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. 3-Contributed by C. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit.

In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. the formulas being found in each package of plates. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. It is best. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. 3. as shown in Fig. B. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. except that the binding is different. about a minute. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. 4. as shown in Fig. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. Select a room with one window. Being unbreakable. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. These can be purchased from any photo material store. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. If the exposure has been correct. to use a plain fixing bath. and then a plain glass. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. 5. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. also. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. Fig. C. D. a little extra work will be necessary. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig.appear in. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. if possible. 2. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. they are much used by travelers. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. and development should be over in three or four minutes. Draw lines with a pencil. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. A. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. 1. over the mat.

from the ends. or other stout cloth. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. long. wide and 50 in. and two pieces 1-1/4 in.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. 1. as shown in Fig. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. These longer pieces can be made square. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. If the star is in front of the left eye. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. 2. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. long. Fig. long. from the end piece of the chair. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. while the dot will be in front of the other. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. 16 in. from the center of this dot draw a star. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. known as rods and cones. A piece of canvas. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. holes bored in the end pieces. is to be used for the seat. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. Corinth. in diameter and 40 in. as shown at A. in diameter and 20 in. 1. Vt. as shown at B. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. Hastings. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. Fig. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R.

and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. . Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. per square inch. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. Auburn. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. as well as to operate other household machines. as shown in Fig. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. O'Gara. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. made from an ordinary sash cord. 1. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. Cal. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. A belt. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. as shown in Fig. J.-Contributed by P.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. 2. A disk 1 in. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. in thickness and 10 in. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board.

or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. will be the thickness of the object. direction. thick and 2-1/2 in. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. . it serves a very useful purpose. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. square for a support. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. Cut out a piece from the block combination. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. or inconvenient to measure. Bore a 1/4-in. with as fine a thread as possible. leaving it shaped like a bench. then removing the object. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. divided by the number of threads to the inch. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. says the Scientific American. A simple. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. fairly accurate. wide. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. long. screwing it through the nut. to the top of the bench. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. The part of a rotation of the bolt. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. and the construction is complete. Put the bolt in the hole. 3/4 in.

When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. bolt in each hole. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. which show up fine at night. Santa Maria. Bore a 3/4-in. long. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. Oal. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. beyond the end of the wood. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. material 12 ft. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. piece of wood 12 ft. long is used for the center pole. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. The wheel should be open . Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. globe that has been thrown away as useless.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. Place a 3/4-in.

which should be 1/4 in. The coil. thick. A. and the lower part 61/2 in. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. A cross bar. and on its lower end a socket. long. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. pieces used for the spokes. 1/2 in. at the bottom. long. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. Fort Worth. in diameter. is soldered. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. from the top end. L. of the ends with boards. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. from the ends. at the top and 4 in.-Contributed by A. A piece of brass 2 in. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. The spool . the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. thick. long. Graham. P. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. long. square and 3 or 4 in. B. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. O. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. C. H and J. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks.Side and Top View or have spokes. Tex. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. made of the same material. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. wide and 1/8 in. to be operated by the magnet coil. thick is used for the armature. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. C. The boards may be nailed or bolted.

or a water rheostat heretofore described. Randolph. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post.000. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. which may be had by using German silver wire. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. do it without any apparent effort. When you slide the pencil along the casing. for insulating the brass ferrule. Mass. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. This tie can be used on grain sacks. long. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. then with a firm. A. F. and it will stay as if glued to the casing.000 for irrigation work. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. B. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. At the bottom end of the frame. S. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. Bradlev.E. R. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. and directly centering the holes H and J. one without either rubber or metal end. placing the end of the cord under the first loop.J. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. 2 the hat hanging on it. S. and place it against a door or window casing. and in numerous other like instances.is about 2-1/2 in. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. 2. --Contributed by Arthur D.--A. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. . and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. that holds the lower carbon. 1. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. This is a very neat trick if performed right. by soldering. is drilled. D and E. The armature. A soft piece of iron. C. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil.

wide. is constructed in the usual manner. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. C. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. S. for adjustment. 1. leaving the projections as shown. and then 1. may be made from a 3/8-in. for the primary. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. The switch. hole in the center. about 3/16 in.500 turns of No. in diameter and 1/16 in. in diameter. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. About 70 turns of No. The coil ends are made from cardboard. long. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. mixed with water to form a paste. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. S. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. B. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. long and 1 in. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. Experiment with Heat [134] . How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. from the core and directly opposite. in diameter. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. Fig. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. Fig. thick. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. in diameter and 2 in. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. for the secondary. about 1 in. with a 3/16-in. A. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. 1. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. F. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. D. 2. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. The core of the coil. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. The vibrator. The vibrator B. about 1/8 in. is connected to a flash lamp battery.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite.

16 in. and then well clinched. which is cut with two holes. . 2 to fit the two holes. board. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. The lock. brass plate. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin.Place a small piece of paper. The three screws were then put in the hasp. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. 1. with which to operate the dial. long and when placed over the board. as shown. as shown in the sketch. The hasp. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. was to be secured by only three brass screws. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. and the same distance inside of the new board. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. lighted. between the boards. which seemed to be insufficient. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. in an ordinary water glass. The knob on the dial extends out too far. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. 1. wide. which is only 3/8-in. The tin is 4 in. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. it laps down about 8 in. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. thick on the inside. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. Fig. which may be filed off and two holes substituted.

a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. high for use in window displays. the glass. but when the front part is illuminated. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. which completely divides the box into two parts. any article placed therein will be reflected in. square and 8-1/2 in. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. one in each division. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . and the back left dark. When making of wood. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. or in the larger size mentioned. When the rear part is illuminated. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. not shiny.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. black color. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. square and 10-1/2 in. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. clear glass as shown. If the box is made large enough.

wide will be about the right size. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. When there is no electric current available. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. and with the proper illumination one is changed. alternately. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. into the other. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. When using as a window display. . This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. as shown in the sketch. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. as it appears. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects.. as shown at A in the sketch. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. long and 1 ft. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. a tank 2 ft.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. above the top of the tank.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

with a length of 13 in. as shown. and a door in front. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. however. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. Iron sulphate. 2 ft.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. square and 40 in. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. radius. 1 in. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. lines gauged on each side of each. wide. Columbus. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. and a solution of iron sulphate added. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. two pieces 1-1/8 in. using a 3/4-in. bit. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. but with a length of 12 in. from the ground. Shape the under sides first. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. This precipitate is then washed. then use a red-hot iron to finish. one for each side. The 13-in. O. bore from each end. The pieces can then be taken out. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. long. dried and mixed with linseed oil. If a planing mill is near. thick and 3 in. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. A small platform. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. and 6 ft. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. 6 in. and boring two holes with a 1-in. is the green vitriol. 5 ft. or ferrous sulphate. long. hole bored the full length through the center. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. wide. gauge for depth. each. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. Three windows are provided. under sides together. hole. This hole must be continued . Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. is built on the front. high. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. square. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch.

thick and 3 in. apply two coats of wax. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. hole in each block. three or four may be attached as shown. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. When this is dry. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. For art-glass the metal panels are . The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout.through the pieces forming the base. if shade is purchased. Saw the two blocks apart. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. Electric globes--two. A better way. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. When the filler has hardened. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. The sketch shows one method of attaching. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. If the parts are to be riveted. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. square and drawing a diagonal on each. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. Directions will be found on the filler cans.

the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal. METAL SHADE .The Completed Lamp cut out. such as copper. as brass. and reinforcing and riveting with another metal.Construction of Shade .

as in ordinary devices. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. 2 the front view of this stand. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. as shown in the sketch. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. and Fig. the object and the background. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. The arms holding the glass. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. the other. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. Figure 1 shows the side. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. one way and 1/2 in. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows.

about 1-1/4 in. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. as shown in the cut. If the light becomes dim. as shown in the sketch. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. pointing north and south. An ordinary pocket compass. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. thus forming a 1/4-in. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. wide and 6-5/16 in. channel in the circumference of the ring. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. wide and 11 in. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. in diameter for a base. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. in diameter. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. Before mounting the ring on the base. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. outside diameter. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. long. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. Cut another circular piece 11 in. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. Put the ring in place on the base. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. and swinging freely. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. and an inside diameter of 9 in. uncork and recork again. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. as it is very poisonous. thick 5/8-in. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass.

420 . Corresponding mirrors. AA.865 1. in diameter and 8 in. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. Place on top the so- . from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes . and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg.715 .3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. and north of the Ohio river. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. of the top. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders.289 . The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other. black oxide of copper.182 . are mounted on a base. CC. EE.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. to which a wire has been soldered for connections. above the half can.600 . Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. into these cylinders.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. B. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in.088 . 1 oz. from the second to the third. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders.500 . and mirrors. The results given should be multiplied by 1.

always remove the oil with a siphon. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. which otherwise remains clear. of pulverized campor. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. then they will not rust fast. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. slender bottle. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. alcohol. Put the solution in a long. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. In Fig. University Park. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. 31 gr. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. says Metal Worker. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. Colo. the wheel will revolve in one direction. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. little crystals forming in the liquid. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . When renewing. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. 62 gr.

--Contributed by C. If zinc and copper are used. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. Lloyd Enos. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. If two of them are floating on the same solution. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. on the under side of the cork. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. This is used in place of the spoon. floating on a solution. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. Solder in the side of the box . The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. about 1-1/4 in. Attach to the wires. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. If zinc and carbon are used. A paper-fastener box. will allow the magnet to point north and south.

thick. D. B. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. C. D. glass tubing . 3 in. one on each side of the board. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. To this standard solder the supporting wire. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. Thos. as shown in Fig. Use a board 1/2. E. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. Wind evenly about 2 oz. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. D. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. and on the other around the glass tube. of wire on each end extending from the coil. brass tubing. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. B. . A circular piece of cardboard. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. Bore holes for binding-posts. or made with a little black paint. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. long that has about 1/4-in. Rhamstine. 10 wire about 10 in. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. A.in. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. E. The standard. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. can be made of oak. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft.in. 1-1/4 in. C. to it. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way.not shorter than 18 in.1-in. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. G--No. 14 wire will do. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. C. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. A. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. and then solder on the cover. wide and 2-1/2 in. Put ends. long.Contributed by J. The spring should be about 1 in. of No. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. piece of 1/4-in. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. wide and 6 in. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. F. 1/2. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. hole. H. 1. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. Take a small piece of soft iron. is made from a piece of No. away.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. If the hose is not a tight fit. The bottom of the box. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . long. stained and varnished. The base.

5. Wis. from the right hand. Milwaukee. Y. of mercury will be sufficient. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. J. long.--Contributed by R. When the glass becomes soft. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl.of the coil. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. four hinges. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. Smith. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. long. 1. long. two pieces 2 ft. D. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. of 8-oz. Teasdale. long. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. about 1 in. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. Cuba. is drawn nearer to the coil. of No. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. . At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges.--Contributed by Edward M. 3-in. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. The iron plunger. About 1-1/2 lb. 3 in. in diameter. long are used for the legs. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. E. making a support as shown in Fig. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. canvas. long. N. as shown in Fig. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. 3. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. 2.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. square of which two pieces are 6 ft.

Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. 3. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. long. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. This tube as described will be 8 in. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. 2. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. Fig. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. Take 1/2 in. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. of vacuum at the top. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. Toronto. thus leaving a. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. expelling all the air. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. Keys. small aperture in the long tube. 4. 6. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. holding in the left hand. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. The tube now must be filled completely. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. --Contributed by David A. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig.. leaving 8 in.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. 5. Measure 8 in. Break off the piece of glass. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube.. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. Can.

long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. but yellow pine is the best. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. 1 in. Fig. 6. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. in diameter. 3 in. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. 1 in. FIG.6 -. 1. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . wood screws. thick. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. as shown in Fig. thick. The large pulley is about 14 in. wide and 5 ft. joint be accurately put together. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. This forms a slot. 9 in. 4. long. thick. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. and 1/4 in. long. from the end of same. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. thick. wide and 5 ft. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. long.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. 2. 7. thick. 3 in. and the single projection 3/4 in. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. with each projection 3-in.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. wide and 3 in. cut in the shape shown in Fig. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. as in Fig. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. material 2 in. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. long. Four blocks 1/4 in. as shown in Fig. These are bent and nailed. 3. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. wide and 12 in. wide and 5 ft. 5. 4 in. A crosspiece 3/4-in. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig.

which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. Water 1 oz. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. attach runners and use it on the ice. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. . by 1-in. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. R.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. Kan. Manhattan. above the runner level. says Photography. first removing the crank. --Contributed by C. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. Welsh.

The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. Printing is carried rather far. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. 3. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. Leominster. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. also. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. 1 oz. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. --Contributed by Wallace C. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. from an ordinary clamp skate. Newton. 2. 1. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. as shown in Fig. and very much cheaper. This is done with a camel's hair brush. Mass. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. .This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. Treasdale. --Contributed by Edward M. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. as shown in Fig. The print is washed. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. of water. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell.

A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. causing the door to swing back and up. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. wide. say. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. and 3 ft. high for rabbits. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. A. --Contributed by H. 2. Va. high. F. Fig. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. about 10 in. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. extending the width of the box. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. Take two glass tubes. from one end. which represents the back side of the door. Then. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. Fig. 1. as shown in the sketch. and bend them as shown in the sketch. The swing door B. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. 1. with about 1/8-in. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. square piece. 1-1/2 ft. Alexandria. Church. too. The thread is broken off at the . 1 ft. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. Place a 10-in.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. and to the bottom. long. wide and 4 in. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. hole. fasten a 2-in.

trolley cars. This opening. inside of the opening. Fig.by 5-in. shorter at each end.proper place to make a small hole. 2. 10 in. as shown in Fig. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. Paste a piece of strong black paper. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. camera and wish to use some 4. A and B. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. automobiles. and exactly 5 by 7 in. plates. but cut it 1/4 in. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. black surfaced if possible. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. Jr. wide and 5 in. says Camera Craft. wide. say 8 in. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. Fig. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. to be used as a driving pulley. shorter.by 7-in. in size. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. long. 1 in. being 1/8 in. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. 3. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. Chicago. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. high and 12 in. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. Crilly. wide. in size. D. 1. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. long.. horses and dogs. B. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. and go in the holder in the same way. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. . from the edge on each side of these openings. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. Cut an opening in the other piece. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. -Contributed by William M. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. C. Take two pieces of pasteboard. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. Out two rectangular holes.

How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. long and 6 in. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. making a . The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. into which the dog is harnessed. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. if it has previously been magnetized. The needle will then point north and south." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. wide will be required. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed.. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. A cell of this kind can easily be made. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. in diameter. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about.in.

S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. pine. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. File the rods to remove the copper plate. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. filter. when the paraffin is melted. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. one that will hold about 1 qt. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. leaving about 1/2-in. 3/4 lb. long which are copper plated. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. of the plate at one end. sal ammoniac. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder.watertight receptacle. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. beeswax melted together. says Electrician and Mechanic. fuel and packing purposes. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. under the spool in the paraffin. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. in which P is the pan. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. pull out the wire as needed.in. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. only the joints. B is a base of 1 in. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. zinc oxide. A is a block of l-in. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. plaster of paris. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. 1 lb. 1/4 lb. with narrow flanges. Place the pan on the stove. short time. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. fodder. of the top. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. for a connection. . This makes the wire smooth. Pack the paste in. F is a spool. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. of water. in diameter and 6 in. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. of rosin and 2 oz. Do not paint any surface. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. and a notch between the base and the pan. Form a 1/2-in. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. Carbons used in arc lamps will do.

thus producing two different vibrations. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. square and about 9 in. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. while for others it will not revolve at all. for some it will turn one way. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. or think they can do the same.. Ohio. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. from vexation. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. At least it is amusing. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. g. Toledo. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches." which created much merriment. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. by the Hindoos in India. long. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. but the thing would not move at all. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. and then. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. 2. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. and he finally. and therein is the trick. let them try it. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. Try it and see. If any of your audience presume to dispute. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. grip the stick firmly in one hand. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. for others the opposite way. Enlarge the hole slightly. and one friend tells me that they were . and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. as in the other movement.

The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. The experiments were as follows: 1. secondly. and. the rotation may be obtained. 7. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. Thus a circular or . this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. To operate. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. rotation was obtained. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. m. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. gave the best results. p. Speeds between 700 and 1. by means of a center punch. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. 2. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole.100 r. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. 3. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. no rotation resulted. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. and I think the results may be of interest. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. A square stick with notches on edge is best. 6. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. 5. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. If the pressure was upon an edge. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. 4. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again.

and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. a piece of wire and a candle. is driven violently away. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. --Contributed by M. --Contributed by G. and the height of the fall about 6 in. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. G. so far as can be seen from the photographs.. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. or greasy. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. Minn. Ph. Duluth. A wire is tied around the can. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. . instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere.D. forming a handle for carrying. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. C. unwetted by the liquid. as shown. the upper portion is. Sloan. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. A. and the resultant "basket splash. Washington. D.. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. it will be clockwise. if the pressure is from the left. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. Lloyd. at first.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. 1. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. as shown in Fig. Each wheel is 1/4 in. hole drilled in the center. long. thick and 1 in. axle.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. as shown. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. with a 1/16-in. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . in diameter. flange and a 1/4-in. about 2-5/8 in.

as shown in Fig. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. This will save buying a track. 4. The motor is now bolted. wood. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. The parts. put together complete. as shown in Fig. wide and 16 in. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. 3. 6. with cardboard 3 in. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. Fuller.brass. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. is made from brass. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. are shown in Fig. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. The current. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. --Contributed by Maurice E. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. and the locomotive is ready for running. lamp in series with the coil. If the ends are to be soldered. A trolley. bottom side up. long. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. 1 from 1/4-in. bent as shown. of No. These ends are fastened together. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch .50. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. Fig. 5. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. 3/4 in. San Antonio. which must be 110 volt alternating current. Fig. is made from a piece of clock spring. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. Texas. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. 2. or main part of the frame. The first piece. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. 2. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. 3. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. each in its proper place. holes 1 in.

then continue to tighten much more. When cold treat the other end in the same way. 2. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. 3. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. and holes drilled in them. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. and as this end . pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. as shown in Fig. 1. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. The quarter will not go all the way down. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. Fig 1. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. the length of a paper clip. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. but do not heat the center. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. O. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. as shown in Fig. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. Fig. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. Cincinnati.

A pair of centers are fitted. or should the lathe head be raised. When the cutter A. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. has finished a cut for a tooth. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. When the trick is to be performed. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. In the sketch. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. or apparent security of the knot.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. and adjusted . Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. 2 and 1 respectively. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end.

When connecting to batteries.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. Y. (3. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. watch fob ready for fastenings. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. twisted around itself and soldered. or one-half of the design. (4. 2. if but two parts. book mark. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. (2. Second row: -Two book marks. swing lathe. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. Brooklyn. Bunker. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. (5. long. at the same time striking light. lady's belt bag. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. tea cosey.) Place the paper design on the leather and. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. gentleman's card case or bill book. dividing it into as many parts as desired. such as brass or marble. Fold over along these center lines. blotter back. N. (1.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. holding it in place with the left hand. lady's card case. The frame holding the mandrel. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. (6. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. note book. Fig. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. --Contributed by Howard S. 1.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. tea cosey. if four parts are to be alike. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. and a nut pick. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. An ordinary machine will do. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within).) Make on paper the design wanted. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. In this manner gears 3 in. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. Bott. about 1-1/2 in. draw center lines across the required space. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . trace the outline. --Contributed by Samuel C. coin purse.to run true. above the surface.

some heavy rubber hose.How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. Secure . and an ordinary bottle.

Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. a distance of 900 miles. and push it through a cork. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. D. If the needle is not horizontal. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington.. Florida. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. A. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. The electrodes are made .C. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. into which fit a small piece of tube. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. Thrust a pin. and bore a hole through the center. where it condenses. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. B. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. C. from Key West. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water.

thick. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. both laterally and longitudinally. 16 piano wire. by 3/4 in. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. If 20-ft. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. long. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. long. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. thick. long. long. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. square and 8 ft long. wide and 3 ft. wide and 4 ft. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. wide and 4 ft long. 1-1/4 in. To make a glide. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. using a high resistance receiver. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. thick. use 10-ft. wide and 3 ft. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. 2. 2 in. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. 1-1/2 in. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. 3/4 in. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. 1. --Contributed by Edwin L. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. Powell. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. lumber cannot be procured. as shown in Fig. 1. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. thick. as shown in Fig.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. as shown in Fig. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. wide and 4 ft. D. slacken speed and settle. 1/2. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. several strips 1/2 in. Four long beams 3/4 in. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. long for the body of the operator. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. lengths and splice them. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. 12 uprights 1/2 in. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. thick. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. 2 arm sticks 1 in. apart and extend 1 ft. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. take the glider to the top of a hill. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. or flying-machine. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. which is tacked to the front edge. 2. wide and 20 ft. The operator can then land safely and . The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. long. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. C. 1. and also to keep it steady in its flight. Connect as shown in the illustration. free from knots.in. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. 3. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. All wiring is done with No. Washington.

Glides are always made against the wind. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. Great care should be .gently on his feet. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. Of course. but this must be found by experience. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing.

half man and half horse. When heated a little. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. Bellingham. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. M. which causes the dip in the line. a creature of Greek mythology. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. 2. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. Olson. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. --Contributed by L. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. 1. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . as shown in Fig. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop.exercised in making landings.

long and about 3/8 in. of small rubber tubing. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. at the other. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. about the size of door screen wire. 14 in. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. will complete the material list. The light from the . Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. outside the box. While at the drug store get 3 ft. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. in diameter. about the size of stove pipe wire. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. this will cost about 15 cents. long. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. square. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. a piece of brass or steel wire. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. making it 2-1/2 in. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered.

1. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. M. Dayton. O. Hunting. as shown in Fig. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. but puzzling when the trick is first seen.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. as shown in the sketch. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. while others will fail time after time. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. . 2. as shown in Fig. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. This is very simple when you know how. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. --Photo by M. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. If done properly the card will flyaway.

place the other two. then put it on the hatpin head. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. closing both hands quickly. while the one in the right shall have disappeared." or the Chinese students' favorite game. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. hold the lump over the flame. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. Cool in water and dry. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. When the desired shape has been obtained. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. as described. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. If a certain color is to be more prominent. as shown. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. as before. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. This game is played by five persons. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger.

and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. distribute electric charges . Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. these sectors. or more in width. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. passing through neutralizing brushes.

as shown in Fig. 3. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. turned wood pieces. long and the standards 3 in. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. 3/4 in. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. C C. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. after they are mounted. and pins inserted and soldered. in diameter. brass tubing and the discharging rods. 1. long and the shank 4 in. long. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. long. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. Two solid glass rods. from about 1/4-in. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. as shown in Fig. EE. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. in diameter. in diameter. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. are made from 7/8-in. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. are made from solid. or teeth. The collectors are made. 1 in. wide at one end. The plates. 3. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. 2. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. in diameter. the side pieces being 24 in. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. These pins. and of a uniform thickness. Fig. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. and this should be done before cutting the circle. Fig. and the outer end 11/2 in. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. material 7 in. and 4 in. in diameter. GG. wide. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. in diameter and 15 in. RR. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. D. The two pieces. The drive wheels. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. in diameter. at the other. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. The fork part is 6 in. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. 4. free from wrinkles. to which insulating handles . Two pieces of 1-in. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. The plates are trued up. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. 1-1/2 in. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in.

ball and the other one 3/4 in.. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. --Contributed by C. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. wide and 22 ft. Colorado City. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. KK. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. D. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. long. one having a 2-in. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. 12 ft. and the work was done by themselves. Colo. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods.are attached. which are bent as shown. Lloyd Enos. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. in diameter.

pens . yet such a thing can be done. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place.is a good one. They can be used to keep pins and needles. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. and bore a hole 1/2 in. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. deep. The key will drop from the string. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. bit. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. as at A. string together. using a 1-in. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall.

slim screw. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. flat and round-nosed pliers. 6. extra metal on each of the four sides. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. using a nail filed to chisel edge.. inside the first on all. above the metal. very rapid progress can be made. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. 7. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. file. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. 4. etc. also trace the decorative design. 8. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. sharp division between background and design. 23 gauge. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. about 3/4-in. 3. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. inside the second on all. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. they make attractive little pieces to have about. 5. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. 2.. above the work and striking it with the hammer. Inside this oblong. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. Proceed as follows: 1. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. The second oblong was 3/4 in. This is to make a clean. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. Draw one-half the design free hand. 9. or cigar ashes. then the other side. etc. Having determined the size of the tray. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. unless it would be the metal shears. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. and the third one 1/4 in. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. stamp the background promiscuously. two spikes. Use . The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. They are easily made. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. When the stamping is completed.and pencils. Raise the ends.

Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. In the first numbering. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . and the effect will be most pleasing. and fourth fingers.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. second fingers. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. 6. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. 10. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. first fingers. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. 7. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. third fingers. 8. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. 9. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. The eyes. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs.

. which would be 70. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. 12. above 15 times 15 it is 200. above 20 times 20. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. At a glance you see four tens or 40.. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. renumber your fingers.. as high as you want to go. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. Put your thumbs together. 2 times 2 equals 4. which tens are added. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. or 80. Still. the product of 12 times 12. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. viz. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. or 60. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. etc. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. and the six lower fingers as six tens. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. first fingers. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. there are no fingers above. or numbers above 10. 25 times 25. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. which would be 16. thumbs. Let us multiply 12 by 12. or the product of 6 times 6. In the second numbering. Two times one are two. 600. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. or the product of 8 times 9. if we wish. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing.. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. but being simple it saves time and trouble. etc. etc. 11. 400. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right.

Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. 2. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. or from above or from below.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. 21. however. about a vertical axis. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. at the will of the observer. etc. first fingers 22. Take For example 18 times 18. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. being 80). but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. The inversion and reversion did not take place. 7. or what. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. It takes place also. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. the value which the upper fingers have. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. For figures ending in 6. thumbs. the lump sum to add. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. Proceed as in the second lumbering. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. further. and. adding 400 instead of 100. thirties. . 3. the value of the upper fingers being 20. when he removes his spectacles. 75 and 85. For example. 8. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. twenties. whether the one described in second or third numbering. the inversion takes place against his will. any two figures between 45 and 55. beginning the thumbs with 16.. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. And the lump sum to add. forties. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. as one might suppose. not rotation. first finger 17. and so on. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. the revolution seems to reverse. which is the half-way point between the two fives. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. lastly. in the case of a nearsighted person.

Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. as . The cylinder consists of a 3-in. sometimes the point towards him. A flat slide valve was used. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. Looking at it in semidarkness. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. tee. the other appearance asserts itself. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. and putting a cork on the point. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. when he knows which direction is right. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. The ports were not easy to make.

How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. H. pipe. saw off a section of a broom handle. if continued too long without proper treatment. secure a piece of No. such as is shown in the illustration. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. The eccentric is constructed of washers. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. While this engine does not give much power. it is easily built. in diameter. across and 1/2 in. -Contributed by W. about 2 in. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. pipe 10 in. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. . 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. inexpensive. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. Beating copper tends to harden it and. across the head. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. Kutscher. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. The tools are simple and can be made easily. Next take a block of wood. as in a vise. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. bottom side up. Ill. and make in one end a hollow.. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. The steam chest is round. Fasten the block solidly. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. Springfield. If nothing better is at hand. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. apart. deep. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings.

The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot.will cause the metal to break. Vinegar. Camden. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. --Contributed by W. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. To produce color effects on copper. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. and. Hay. C. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. especially when the object is near to the observer. This process is called annealing. O. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. the other to the left. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. as it softens the metal. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. To overcome this hardness. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. S. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the .

and then with the left eye through the blue glass. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. however. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. the one for the left eye being blue. . that for the right. orange. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. and lies to the right on the picture. and without any picture. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. in the proper choice of colors. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. The further apart the pictures are. only the orange rays may pass through. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. although they pass through the screen. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. because. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. because of the rays coming from them. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. they must be a very trifle apart. disappears fully. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. diameter. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. the left eye sees through a blue screen. while both eyes together see a white background.stereoscope. would serve the same purpose. The red portions of the picture are not seen. In order to make them appear before the card. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. So with the stereograph. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. from the stereograph. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. with the stereograph." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. But they seem black. it. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. It is just as though they were not there. not two mounted side by side. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. the further from the card will the composite image appear. as for instance red and green.

A small round bottle about 1/2 in. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. 1/4 in. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. wide and 1 in. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. 12 gauge wire. wireless. Place a NO. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. Cal. in the shape of a crank.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. San Francisco. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. etc. in diameter. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. This should only be bored about half way through the block. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. A No. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. The weight of the air in round . Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. or the middle of the bottle. long and a hole drilled in each end. thick.

When the tube is filled to within 1 in. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. a bottle 1 in. but before attempting to put in the mercury. thick.numbers is 15 lb. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. high. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. the instrument. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. 30 in. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. and a slow fall. a glass tube 1/8 in. square. will calibrate itself. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. Only redistilled mercury should be used. wide and 40 in. wide and 4 in. high. long. or. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. if you choose. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. Before fastening the scale. pine 3 in. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. square. long. But if a standard barometer is not available. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. . The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. internal diameter and about 34 in. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. long. The 4 in. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. if accurately constructed. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. 34 ft.6) 1 in. In general. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. high. inside diameter and 2 in. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. or a column of mercury (density 13.. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. the contrary. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in.

Mark out seven 1-in. a cover from a baking powder can will do.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. the size of the outside of the bottle. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. 3. Procure a metal can cover. which is slipped quickly over the end. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. 2. thick. long. 1. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. 5. wide and 10 in. Number the pieces 1. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. and place them as shown in Fig. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . 6 and 7. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support.

After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. 6. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. Move 4-Jump No. 1 into No. L.J. Cape May Point. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. 7. which is the very best material for the purpose. 3 over No. procure unbleached tent duck. Move 13-Move No. 5's place. 3 into No. Move 3-Move No. 2's place. Move 7-Jump No. 6 in. 1. 5's place. 2 . l over No. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. 6 over No. 6 to No. Move 14-Jump No. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. in diameter. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. 5 over No.Position of the Men move only one at a time. 7 over No. Move 15-Move No. 2. 6. Move 5-Jump No. 3. This can be done on a checker board. Move 12-Jump No. 3 to the center. as shown in Fig. Woolson. To make such a tent. 7 over No. Move 9-Jump No. Move 8-Jump No. 5 over No. 5. each 10 ft. 2 over No. Move ll-Jump No. Make 22 sections. 2 over No. Move 10-Move No. 3. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns.-Contributed by W. 7's place. 3. Move 6-Move No. Move 2-Jump No. 1. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. long and 2 ft. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. N. using checkers for men. 6 into No. 1 to No. shaped like Fig. 2's place. 2.

from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. Emsworth. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. As shown in the sketch. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. will do. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. wide by 12 in. Fig. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. Punch holes in the brass in . wide at the bottom. 2. 6-in. Pa. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. 3 in. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. Use blocks. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. 5) stuck in the ground. long and 4 in. 9 by 12 in. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. 5. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. diameter. --Contributed by G. In raising the tent. These are ventilators. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. wide at the bottom. as in Fig.in. 2 in. high. added. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. Nail a thin sheet of brass. about 9 in. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. Fig.. leaving the rest for an opening. long. round galvanized iron. from the top. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. in diameter. fill with canvas edging. made in two sections.J. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. After transferring the design to the brass. 6. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. Tress. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. to a smooth board of soft wood. Have the tent pole 3 in.

The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. . A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. When the edges are brought together by bending. apart. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. The pattern is traced as before. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. but before punching the holes. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. When all the holes are punched.the spaces around the outlined figures. It will not. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. Chicago. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. bend into shape. around the outside of the pattern. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. cut out the brass on the outside lines. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. Corr. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. excepting the 1/4-in.

or. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. allowing 2 ft. These pipes are . Stevens. A 6-in. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. pipe is used for the hub. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. A cast-iron ring. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard.. Que. Badger. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. or less. partially filled with cream.however. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. or center on which the frame swings. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. --Contributed by H. pipe. E. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. between which is placed the fruit jar. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. Mayger. G. better still. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. Dunham. If a wheel is selected. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. Oregon. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. --Contributed by Geo.

Four braces made from 1/2-in. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. bent to the desired circle. An extra wheel 18 in. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. pipe clamps. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. pipe. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel.

This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. 3. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. The performer. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. which was placed in an upright position. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. and dropped on the table. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. while doing this. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. and the guide withdrawn. as shown in Fig. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. 1. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before.

St. it requires no expensive condensing lens. White. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. Louis. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. Mo. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. Colo. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. F. -Contributed by C. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. --Contributed by H. The box can be made of selected oak or . and second. in diameter on another piece of tin. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. first. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. D. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. Harkins. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. 2. Denver. 1. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. in a half circle. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives.

The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. wide by 5 in. 1. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. and. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. represented by the dotted line in Fig. fit into the runners. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. If a camera lens is used. high and must . focal length. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. long. from each end of the outside of the box. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in.mahogany. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. long. AA. Two or three holes about 1 in. and 2 in. high and 11 in. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. wide and 6-1/2 in. long and should be placed vertically. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. from each end. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. The door covering this hole in the back. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. 3-1/2 in. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. wide. 5-1/2 in. wide and 5 in. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. but not tight. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. This will be 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. An open space 4 in. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. 2.

Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. June and November. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. This process is rather a difficult one. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. 1. --Contributed by Chas. Bradley.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. as it requires an airtight case. April. C. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. calling that knuckle January. Ohio.. and so on. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. and extending the whole height of the lantern. provided it is airtight. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. the article may be propped up . then the second knuckle will be March. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box." etc. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. calling this February. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. West Toledo. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger.

in. but waxed. in. 1. and set aside for half a day. In both Fig. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. Y. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. one of lead and one of aluminum. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. --Contributed by J. and the lead 24 sq. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. or suspended by a string. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. Crawford. Schenectady. running small motors and lighting small lamps. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. The top of a table will do. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. giving it an occasional stir. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. fruit jars are required. In each place two electrodes. 2. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. N. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush.with small sticks. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. taking care to have all the edges closed. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. the lid or cover closed. . Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. 1 and 2. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. Pour in a little turpentine. H. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A.

bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. You have an understanding with some one in the company.. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. This trick is very simple. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. O. as well as others. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. he throws the other. He. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. you remove the glass. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. as you have held it all the time. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. Cleveland. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. After a few seconds' time. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. which you warm with your hands.

near a partition or curtain. but in making one. Be sure that this is the right one. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. if any snags are encountered. on a table.take the handiest one. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. but by being careful at shores. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. in diameter in the center. put it under the glass. . Crocker. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. Victor. Pull the ends quickly. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. J. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. Colo. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle.-Contributed by E. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top.

by 10 ft. 8 yd. 1 piece. by 12 in. for the bow. 3 in. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. The keelson. 1 in. 2 in. 1/8 in. long. long. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. wide and 12 ft. of 1-1/2-yd. of 1-yd. 1 piece. 1. as illustrated in the engraving. Fig. for cockpit frame. square by 16 ft. from the bow and the large one. 14 rib bands. from the stern. for center deck braces.. 9 ft. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. 1 in. are as follows: 1 keelson. by 8 in. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. and the other 12 in. apart. 1/4 in. 2 and braced with an iron band. 11 yd. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. screws and cleats. drilled and fastened with screws. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. for the stern piece. from each end to 1 in. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. and fastened with screws. 7 ft.. 3 in. 1 in. Both ends are mortised. 8 in. by 15 ft. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. wide 12-oz. 1 mast.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. wide and 12 ft. long. wide unbleached muslin. clear pine. 4 outwales. selected pine. 50 ft. 3 and 4. and. 2 gunwales. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. is 14 ft. wide. by 2 in. by 16 ft. by 2 in. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. long. 1 in. ducking. by 16 ft. one 6 in. thick and 3/4 in. at the ends. of rope. the smaller is placed 3 ft. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. and is removed after the ribs are in place. Paint.

3-1/2 ft. A 6-in. . is a cube having sides 6 in. The block is fastened to the keelson. A seam should be made along the center piece. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. 5. wide. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. gunwales and keelson. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. wood screws. Fig. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. Figs. is cut to fit under the top boards. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. doubled. and fastened to them with bolts. They are 1 in. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. wide. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. thick 1-1/2 in. long is well soaked in water.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. 7 and 8. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. 6 and 7. The 11-yd. Braces. Fig. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. in diameter through the block. screws. A piece of oak. A block of pine. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. Before making the deck. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. The deck is not so hard to do. 6. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. 4 in. thick and 12 in. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. The trimming is wood. wide and 24 in. long. 1/4 in. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. 1 in. wide and 3 ft. from the bow. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. a piece 1/4 in. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. These are put in 6 in. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. corner braces. 1 in. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. wide and 14 in. also. long. 6 in. apart. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. long. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. This block. thick. length of canvas is cut in the center. 9. thick. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. thick and 1/2 in.

A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. Tronnes. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. long. each 1 in.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. is 6 in. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. The mast has two side and one front stay. long. wide at one end and 12 in. Fig. 11. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. . The house will accommodate 20 families. thick by 2 in. Ill. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. in diameter and 10 ft. A strip 1 in. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. apart in the muslin. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. wide. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. The sail is a triangle. Wilmette. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. E. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. The keel. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. are used for the boom and gaff. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. --Contributed by O. at the other. 10 with a movable handle. 12. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun.

All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. 1. 5. with the ends and the other side rounding. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. and the other 18 in. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. thick. Ill. one 11-1/2 in. wide. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. wide and 30 in. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. wide. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. thick. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. Fig. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by O. 3. thick. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. square. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. flat headed screws. long and five 1/2-in. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. wide and 2 ft. Wilmette. Tronnes. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. 2-1/2 in. Bevel both sides of the pieces. Cut the maple. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. 2. and 3 ft. Take this and fold it over . 4. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in.into two 14-in. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. five 1/2-in. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. E. long. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. 1 yd. about 5/16 in. flat-headed screws. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. long. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. flat on one side. 2 in. 2-1/2 in. long.

The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. wide and 5 in. the mechanical parts can be put together. Louis. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. leaving a small opening at one corner. 1-1/4 in. When the glue is set. thick. 3-1/4 in. Mo. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. long. About 1/2 in. Make a double stitch all around the edge. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. then centered. 3/8 in. The sides are 3-1/4 in. E. wide and 4-1/2 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. pieces 2-5/8 in.once. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. Fig. 3 in. long. long. C. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. --Contributed by W. long. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. Another piece. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. F. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. long. forming an eye for a screw. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. wide . The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. 2 and 3. the top and bottom. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. this square box is well sandpapered. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. 6-1/2 in. Figs. wide and 6-3/4 in. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. wide and 3 ft. The bag is then turned inside out. thick. B. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. but can be governed by circumstances. After the glue. 1. thick and 3 in. Glue a three cornered piece. The front. and take care that the pieces are all square. D. long. soaked with water and blown up. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. long. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. long. about 3/8 in. C. square. is set. St. of each end unwound for connections. and the four outside edges. wide and 2-3/4 in. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. and make a turn in each end of the wires. 5 from 1/16-in. Wind three layers of about No. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. are rounded. as well as the edges around the opening. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. A. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. Bliss. square. If carefully and neatly made. A. wide and 2-1/2 in. Cut another piece of board.

long. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. that has the end turned with a shoulder. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. When the current flows through the coil. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. 1/16 in. bored in the back. 5-1/2 in.S. from the spindle. 4 is not movable. thick. long. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. the same size as the first. --Contributed by George Heimroth. R. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. Yorkshire. 4. G. Place the tin. Chapman. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. wide and 2-1/2 in. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. The end of the polar axis B. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. in diameter. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. board. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. and the farther apart they will be forced. long. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. L. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. from one end. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. and as the part Fig. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. The stronger the current. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. Another strip of tin. W. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. These wires should be about 1 in. hole is fastened to the pointer. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. showing a greater defection of the pointer. 4. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. and fasten in place. I. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. Austwick Hall. wide and 9 in.A. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. the part carrying the pointer moves away. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. The base is a board 5 in. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. Fig. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. 5. Fig.R. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. C. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. F. 1/4 in. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. Like poles repel each other. A pointer 12 in. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. Richmond Hill. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. so it will just clear the tin. The resistance is now adjusted to show .and 2-5/8 in. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil.

Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. 1881. The following formula will show how this may be found. thus: 9 hr. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. M. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. and vice . 10 min. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. A. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. 30 min. 10 min. at 9 hr. shows mean siderial. say Venus at the date of observation.

Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. or. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. if one of these cannot be had. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. --Contributed by Robert W. . Hall. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down.f. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. New Haven. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess.m. and then verify its correctness by measurement. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. Conn. owing to the low internal resistance.

The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. of alum and 4 oz. especially for cooking fish. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. 3/8 in. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. long. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. inside diameter and about 5 in. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. cover up with the same. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. put the fish among the ashes. 1. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. fresh grass. Wet paper will answer. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. arsenic to every 20 lb. as shown in the accompanying picture. thick. Fig. The boring bar. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. 1-3/4 in. When the follower is screwed down. Then. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. leaves or bark. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . after scraping away the greater part of the coals. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. and heap the glowing coals on top.

pipe were fitted to these holes so that. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. about 1/2 in. fastened with a pin. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. when they were turned in. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. and threaded on both ends. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . pipe. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. pipe. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. thick. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off.

A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. Fig. A 1-in. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. Fig. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. 5. labor and time. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. long. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. 2. Iowa.valve stems. thick and 3 in. It . then it should be ground to a fit. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. wide. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. a jump spark would be much better. If the valve keeps dripping. This plate also supports the rocker arms. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. Clermont. but never one which required so little material. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. Fig. the float is too high. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. 3. 30 in. and which gave such satisfactory results. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. square iron. as the one illustrated herewith. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. The rough frame. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. bent in the shape of a U. was then finished on an emery wheel. 4. however. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine.

rope is not too heavy. extending above. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. Nieman. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. for the "motive power" to grasp. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. set 3 ft. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. 12 ft. and. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. This makes an easy adjustment. in diameter and 15 in. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. Use a heavy washer at the head. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . square. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. The illustration largely explains itself. long. so it must be strong enough. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. As there is no bracing. long. being held in position by spikes as shown. W. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. from the center. 3/4 in. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. long.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. The seats are regular swing boards. no matter what your age or size may be. square and 5 ft. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. long is the pivot. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. strengthened by a piece 4 in. The crosspiece is 2 in. and a little junk. butting against short stakes. completes the merry-go-round. in fact. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. A malleable iron bolt. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. A 3/4 -in. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. square and 2 ft. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. from all over the neighborhood. --Contributed by C. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. in the ground with 8 ft. timber. strong clear material only should be employed. It looks like a toy. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. hole bored in the post. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. If it is to be used for adults." little and big." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. with no trees or buildings in the way.

if nothing better is at hand. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. square. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. 1/4 by 3/32 in. 2. To wind the string upon the reel. away. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. A reel is next made. and sent to earth. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. and 18 in. a wreck. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. then it is securely fastened. The bow is now bent. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. long. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. These ends are placed about 14 in. as shown in Fig. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated.the fingers. 1. light and strong. The backbone is flat. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. Both have large reels full of . paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread.2 emery. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. one for the backbone and one for the bow. 4. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. Having placed the backbone in position.

he pays out a large amount of string. Brooklyn. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. Moody. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. Newburyport. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. --Contributed' by Harry S. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string.string. If the second kite is close enough. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. or glass-covered string. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. the balance. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. The handle end is held down with a staple. First. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. Y. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . N. Bunker. often several hundred yards of it. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. C.-Contributed by S. common packing thread. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. Mass. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull.

such as mill men use. then draw the string up tight. make the pad as shown in the illustration. must be attached to a 3-ft. cutting the circular piece into quarters. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. then a dust protector. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. length of 2-in. Vt.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. Hastings. lengths (Fig. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. If the table is round. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. Corinth. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. --Contributed by Earl R. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. each the size of half the table top. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. square (Fig.

E. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. 2-1/4 in. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. trace the design carefully on the leather. Use a smooth. and E to G. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. Calif. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. Wharton. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. 16-1/4 in. hard pencil. If leaves are wanted in extending the table.. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. Moisten the . The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring.. 6-1/4 in. from C to D. from E to F. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. .. which spoils the leather effect. G to H. Oakland. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B.9-1/4 in.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. 17-1/2 in.-Contributed by H.

apart. and corresponding lines on the other side. wide. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. G-J. is taken off at a time. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. place both together and with a leather punch. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. Now cut narrow thongs. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. if not more than 1 in. and lace through the holes. Cut it the same size as the bag. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. I made this motor . also lines A-G. To complete the bag. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. and E-G. H-B. get something with which to make a lining. Trace the openings for the handles.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. about 1/8 in. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. with the rounded sides of the tools.

2. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. 1. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. 1. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. 24 gauge magnet wire. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. B. as shown in Fig. 2-1/4 in. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. Shannon. each being a half circle. . long. of No. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax.M. --Contributed by J.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. in length. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. iron. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. Pasadena. Calif. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. D.

pasted in alternately. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. high. are the best kind to make. 1. balloon should be about 8 ft. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. near the center. from the bottom end. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. and the gores cut from these.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. The gores for a 6-ft. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig.

Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. lap on the edges. 3. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. leaving the solution on over night. in diameter. If the gores have been put together right. Fig. After washing. saturating it thoroughly. The steam. The boat soon attains considerable speed. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. after which the paint will adhere permanently. coming through the small pipe A. These are to hold the wick ball. 1. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. --Contributed by R. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. E. B. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. Staunton. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. leaving a long wake behind. so it will hang as shown in Fig.widest point. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. as shown in Fig. 5. In removing grease from wood. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. In starting the balloon on its flight. 2. A. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. 4. somewhat larger in size. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. as shown in Fig. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. using about 1/2-in. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. As the boat is driven forward by this force. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water.

long and each provided with a handle. Third. There are three ways of doing this: First. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. high and 8 in. if you have several copies of the photograph. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. in bowling form. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. long. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. Second. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. 1. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. apart on these lines. as is shown in Fig. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. In using either of the two methods described. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. wide by 6 in. The blocks are about 6 in. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft.

The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. Albany. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. --Contributed by John A. 2. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. not pointed down at the road at an angle. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. thick. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque.Fig. Hellwig. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. Rinse the plate in cold water. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. Y. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. being careful not to dent the metal. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. N. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . Fig.

6 in. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. 5 in. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. Richmond. S. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. and Fig. CC. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. is fastened to a common camera tripod. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. 1 Fig. A. through which passes the set screw S. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. and not produce the right sound. wide and of any desired height. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. Corner irons. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. long for the base. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. in diameter. In Fig. These corner irons are also screwed to. and. A circular piece of wood. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. are screwed to the circular piece.upon any particular object. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. Va. 2 the front view. With this device. B. which is 4 in. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. with a set screw. thick. wide and 8 in. A. --Contributed by R. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. Break off the frame. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. Paine. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost.

if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. This will make a very compact electric horn. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. as only the can is visible. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. -1. R. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. S. Kidder. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. pine boards. Lake Preston. in diameter of some 1-in. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. thus producing sound waves.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. D. This horn. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. . Mount the bell vibrator on the base. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. Ill. La Salle. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. I made a wheel 26 in.

--Contributed by C.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. A. O. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. 1. Ghent. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. thick and 12 in. Feet may be added to the base if desired. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. Kane. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. Fig. 1. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . Doylestown. 2. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. If the collection consists of only a few coins. The frame is made of a heavy card. --Contributed by James R. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. If there is a large collection of coins. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. B. Purdy. the same thickness as the coins. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. square.

24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. If desired. Toronto. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. --Contributed by August T. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. A rivet punch is desirable. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. melted and applied with a brush.E. into which to place the screws . A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. border all around. Milwaukee. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. thick. Smith. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. a hammer or mallet. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. cut and grooved. Wis. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. It will hold 4 oz. --Contributed by J. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. though not absolutely necessary.J. they become uninteresting. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. --Contributed by R. Neyer. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. of developer. several large nails. One Cloud. Noble. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. for after the slides have been shown a few times. and then glued together as indicated. A lead pencil. Canada. Cal. The material required is a sheet of No. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. plus a 3/8-in.

then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. never upon the metal directly. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. using 1/2-in. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. There are several ways of working up the design. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. Remove the screws. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. both outline and decoration. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. and file it to a chisel edge. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. screws placed about 1 in. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. Take the nail.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. draw one part. like the one shown. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth.

using a 1/2in. for the top. The pedal. 3. and two lengths. 1. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. long. Provide four lengths for the legs. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. About 1/2 yd. . is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. two lengths. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. square and 11 in. long. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. long. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed.wall. Do not bend it over or flatten it. 3/4 in. being ball bearing. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. Rivet the band to the holder. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. square and 181/2 in. in the other. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. as shown in Fig. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. each 1 in. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. square. of 11-in. l-1/8 in. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. for the lower rails. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. 2. up from the lower end. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg.

The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. Quackenbush. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. having quite a length of threads. New York City. F. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. --Contributed by John Shahan. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. Attalla. Ala. --Contributed by W. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph.

each 1-1/4 in. and the other 2-3/4 in. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. Luther. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. from one end. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. Purchase a 1/2-in. in depth. making a lap of about 1 in. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. wide and 8-1/4 in.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. and 3/8 in. Ironwood.. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . The desired emblem. initial. college or lodge colors. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. from the end. D. Assemble as shown in the sketch. and two holes in the other. stitched on both edges for appearance. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. Mich. using class. something that is carbonated. Two pieces of felt. one about 1 in. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. long. --Contributed by C. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. the end of the other piece is folded over. wide and 4-1/4 in. long. long.

the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. Indianapolis. 1. about 2 in. from the center and opposite each other. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. 1/4 in.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. in diameter and 2 in. in the cover and the bottom. and the cork will be driven out. Fig. or a pasteboard box. This method allows a wide range of designs. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. Ind. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. Punch two holes A. --Contributed by John H. Schatz. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. or more in height. A piece of lead. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. as shown in the sketch. if desired by the operator. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . which can be procured from a plumber. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. 2. as shown at B.

. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. 4. putting in the design. O. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. allowing the two ends to be free. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level.Rolling Can Toy lead. Columbus. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. A piece of thick glass. 3. Fig. on both top and bottom. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. metal. When the can is rolled away from you. The pieces of tin between the holes A. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. or marble will serve. are turned up as in Fig. and the ends of the bands looped over them. 5. it winds up the rubber band. 1. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand.

thicker than the pinion. I secured a board 3/4 in. or more thick on each side. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. face up. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. from each end. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. The edges should be about 1/8 in. 1 in. wide and 20 in. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. Next place the leather on the glass. If it is desired to "line" the inside. hole through it. thick. long and bored a 1/2-in. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. and. New York City. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . 3 in. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. A pencil may be used the first time over. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. After this has been done. mark over the design. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. deep in its face.

Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. pieces for the vise slides. 1 by 12 by 77 in. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. 3 by 3 by 6 in. 1 piece for clamp. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. 1 piece. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. Y. Syracuse. N. Now fit up the two clamps. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. 2. 4 guides. 2 crosspieces. and fit it in place for the side vise. 2 by 2 by 18 in. 1. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. Cut the 2-in. 2 by 12 by 77 in. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. 2 side rails. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. 2 end rails. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . in diameter. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. 1 by 9 by 80 in. 1 screw block.in the board into the bench top. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. Fig. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. countersinking the heads of the vise end. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. 1 piece for clamp. lag screws as shown. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. 1 back board. 1 top board. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. --Contributed by A. M. 1 top board. thick top board. Make the lower frame first. New York. Brooklyn. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. much of the hard labor will be saved. 3 by 3 by 20 in. 3 by 3 by 36. Rice. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs.

The amateur workman. in diameter. 1 jack plane or smoother. 1 monkey wrench. rule. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. as well as the pattern maker. 1 pair dividers.. 1 wood scraper. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. They can be purchased at a hardware store. The bench is now complete. 24 in. 3 and 6 in.. 1 nail set. 1 set gimlets. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. Only the long run. . 1 set chisels. 1 claw hammer. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. 2 screwdrivers. 1 pocket level. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. 1 2-ft. 24 in. 1 cross cut saw. 1 brace and set of bits. 1 rip saw. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise.screws. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted.. it can be easily found when wanted. 1 countersink. 1 bench plane or jointer. 1 pair pliers. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. If each tool is kept in a certain place. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. 1 marking gauge. 1 compass saw.

will be easier to work. The calf skin. Fig. ---Contributed by James M. but will not make . but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C.1. 2 and 00 sandpaper.1 6-in. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. 1. the projecting point A. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. becomes like A. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. being softer. after constant use. will sink into the handle as shown at D. 2. Pa. try square. 3. Fig. Kane. 1. Fig. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. Doylestown. Fig. 1 oilstone. No.

This will make a perfectly impervious covering. then prepare the leather. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. will do just as well. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. After the outlines are traced. and the length 6-5/8 in. when dry. which steam. Turn the leather. White. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall.as rigid a case as the cow skin. water or heat will not affect. secure a piece of modeling calf. If calf skin is to be used. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. . Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. Two pieces will be required of this size. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. -Contributed by Julia A. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. First draw the design on paper. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. New York City. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. the same method of treatment is used. cover it completely with water enamel and. lay the design on the face. such as copper or brass. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. but a V-shaped nut pick. If cow hide is preferred. The form can be made of a stick of wood. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. Having prepared the two sides.

Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. as shown in the sketch. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. Cal. Herrman. Richmond. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. Jaquythe. Cobb. --Contributed by Chester L. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. --Contributed by W. . This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. New York City. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. A. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. Portland. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. Maine. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. and an adjustable friction-held loop. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. --Contributed by Chas. C.

A thick piece of tin. Cambridge. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. This was very difficult. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. --Contributed by Geo. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. B. . for instance. Roberts. Middletown. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. Mass. Conn. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop.. an inverted stewpan. was marked out as shown. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. --Contributed by Wm. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. Wright.

The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. pulverized and applied. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. face down. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. Indianapolis. as shown. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. and the grease will disappear. such as chair seats. F.. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. If the article is highly polished. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. There was no quicklime to be had. If any traces of the grease are left. well calcined and powdered. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. so some bones were quickly calcined. L. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. . and quite new. The next morning there was no trace of oil. Bone. A beautifully bound book. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. used as part of furniture. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. but not running over. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. Ind. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. Illinois. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. which has been tried out several times with success. Herbert. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. --Contributed by Paul Keller.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. of boiling water. Chicago. but only an odor which soon vanished. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. on a clear piece of glass. --Contributed by C. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. apply powdered calcined magnesia. When dry. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle.

true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. --Contributed by Geo. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. wide and 12 in. If properly adjusted. thick. 6 in. A. The pieces marked S are single. Tarrytown. the pieces .. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. soft steel with the opening 6 in. New York. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. This coaster is simple and easy to make. high and are bolted to a block of wood.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. set and thumbscrews. Howe. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle.. long. deep and 5 in. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. says Scientific American. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. 2 in.

E. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. Their size depends on the plate used. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. for sending to friends. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. no doubt. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. albums and the like. If the letters are all cut the same height. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. The seat is a board. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. says Camera Craft. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. they will look remarkably uniform. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. to the underside of which is a block. A sharp knife.

after. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. So made. So arranged. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. for example. photographing them down to the desired size. pasting the prints on some thin card. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. mount them on short pieces of corks. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. The puzzle is to get . and. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. using care to get it in the right position. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. In cutting out an 0. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting.

Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. squeezes along past the center of the tube. with the longest end outside. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. long that will just fit are set in. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. Cape May Point.-Contributed by I. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. Bayley. hung on pivots. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. Old-Time Magic . says the American Thresherman. A hole 6 or 7 in. of its top. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. N. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. snow or anything to hide it.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. so they will lie horizontal. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit.J. G. He smells the bait.

stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. then expose again. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. Pocatello. Pawtucket. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. or rub the hands a little before doing so. E. Press the hands together. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. Rhode Island.faced up. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. --Contributed by L. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. then spread the string. --Contributed by L. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. Y. Parker. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. Idaho. N. Brooklyn. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. Szerlip. --Contributed by Charles Graham. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album.

Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. they will look very much like the genuine article. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. 4 on the blade. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. or a complete suit of armor. and if carefully made. thick. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. using a straightedge and a pencil. long. 3 Fig. 1 Fig. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. in building up his work from the illustrations. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. if any. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. or green oil paint. near the point end. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. 2 Fig. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. Glue the other side of the blade. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. end of the blade.Genuine antique swords and armor. dark red.. 1. in width. whether he requires a single sword only. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. The pieces. The handle is next made. narrower. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. says the English Mechanic.. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. full size. When the whole is quite dry. When the glue is thoroughly dry. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. wide and 2 in. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. The blade should be about 27 in. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. wipe the blade . The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in.

The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. in diameter. about 1-1/2 in. in the widest part at the lower end. In the finished piece.with light strokes up and down several times. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. the length of the blade 28 in. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. Fig. 2. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. should be about 9 in.. In making this scimitar. 2. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. follow the directions as for Fig. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. In making. The length of the handle. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. preferably of contrasting colors. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. long. 1. 1/8 in. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. the other two are identical. 1. the other is flat or halfround. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. the other is flat or half-round. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig.. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. thick and 5 in. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. 1. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. 4. square and of any length desired. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. shows only two sides. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. not for use only in cases of tableaux. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. take two pieces of wood. allowing for a good hold with both hands. This sword is about 68 in. Both edges of the blade are sharp. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. of course. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. 3. as it is . such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. 1. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. and 3 in. 3. the illustration. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. using a soft and dry piece of cloth.

long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. The thinness of the plank. at the lower end. each about 1 ft. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. Y. Syracuse. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. long. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. N. piping and jackets by hard water. Morse. and if so. A piece of mild steel. or an insecure fastening. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. It is made of a plank. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. --Contributed by John Blake. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. as shown in the sketch. Doctors probed for the button without success. Franklin. as there was some at hand. about 3/8 in. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. 2 in. Both can be made easily.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. as can the pitch bed or block. Mass. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. --Contributed by Katharine D. and. square. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. On each edge of the board. however. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. A cold . in an attempt to remove it.

For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. To remedy this. secure a piece of brass of about No. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. When the desired form has been obtained. 5 lb. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. tallow. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. design down. a file to reduce the ends to shape. Trim up the edges and file them . on the pitch. plaster of Paris.. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. using a small metal saw. To put it in another way. When this has been done. 5 lb.. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. 18 gauge.

Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. Fig. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. in one second. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. Cutter. in one minute or 550 lb. Clean the metal thoroughly. per second. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. and still revolve.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. 30 ft. This in turn divided by 33. 1) and the other 12 in. space between the vessels with water.smooth. --Contributed by Harold H.000 ft. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. 3. one 18 in. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. per minute. using powdered pumice with lye. make an unusual show window attraction. or fraction of a horsepower. in the center. 2). but not to stop it. A. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. 1 ft. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. That is lifting 33. to keep it from floating. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass.000 lb. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. over the smaller vessel. Before giving the description. lb. and hang a bird swing. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. or 550 ft. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. 1 ft. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. in diameter (Fig. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. lb. it may be well to know what horsepower means. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. The smaller is placed within the larger. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. living together in what seems like one receptacle. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. . in diameter (Fig. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. Fill the 3-in. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds.

--Contributed by J. --Contributed. 2 Fig. by L. N. Somerville. Szerlip. F. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. Diameter 12 in. The effect is surprising. Brooklyn. 1 Fig. Diameter Fig.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes.18 in. Y. Campbell. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . Mass. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. or on a pedestal.3 Fig.

A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. with the pliers. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. which may be of wood or tin. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. away from the edge. is. then by drawing a straightedge over it. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. as a rule. keeping the center high. using any of the common metal polishes. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. In riveting. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. and then. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. Rivet the cup to the base. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. to keep the metal from tarnishing. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. the same as removing writing from a slate. which. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. and cut out the shape with the shears. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. This compound is impervious to water. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. with other defects. and the clay . often render it useless after a few months service. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. unsatisfactory.copper of No. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. Polish both of these pieces. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. Do not be content merely to bend them over. after which it is ready for use.

The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. Mich. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. the device will work for an indefinite time. Mich. 3/4 in. DeLoof. The siphon is made of glass tubes. --Contributed by A. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. A. Houghton. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. 2. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. --Contributed by John T. in diameter and 5 in. Shettleston. Grand Rapids. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. 1. as shown in Fig. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. long. Scotland. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. It is made of a glass tube. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below.can be pressed back and leveled. Northville. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. . Dunlop. -Contributed by Thos. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark.

The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. As the handle is to . in width and 2 in. This sword is 4 ft. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. stilettos and battle-axes. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. London. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade.1 FIG. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. put up as ornaments. 1.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords.FIG. long with the crossguard and blade of steel. long. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle.

Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. very broad. firmly glued on. in length. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. When dry. The ball is made as described in Fig. small rope and round-headed nails. sharp edges on both sides. wood with a keyhole saw. In Fig. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. When the whole is quite dry. with wire or string' bound handle. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. The sword shown in Fig. 20 spike. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. 3 is shown a claymore. in length. studded with brass or steel nails. The crossbar and blade are steel. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. with both edges sharp. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. In Fig. This weapon is also about 1 ft. When the glue is thoroughly dry. sometimes called cuirass breakers. with both edges of the blade sharp. paint it a dark brown or black. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. 6. is shown in Fig. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. This stiletto has a wood handle. These must be cut from pieces of wood. glue and put it in place. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. one about 1/2 in. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. 4. then glued on the blade as shown. 8. long with a dark handle of wood. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. The lower half of the handle is of wood. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. 5. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century.represent copper. Cut two strips of tinfoil. Three large. A German poniard is shown in Fig. 9. string. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. This axe is made similar to the one . the upper part iron or steel. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. narrower. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. the same as used on the end of the handle. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. 11 were used. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. 7. long. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. which is about 2-1/2 ft. Both handle and axe are of steel. This weapon is about 1 ft. The handle is of wood. in width. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. the axe is of steel. A German stiletto. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. In Fig. This sword is about 4 ft. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil.

together as shown in Fig. Old-Time Magic .described in Fig. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. 10. This will make a very good flexible belt. Davis. the ends are tied and cut off. such as braided fishline. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. . 2. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. Chicago. --Contributed by E. W. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. high. will pull where other belts slip. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. When wrapped all the way around. so the contents cannot be seen. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig.

The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. Calif. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. To make the flowers grow in an instant. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. S. The dotted lines in Fig. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. Macdonald. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. There will be no change in color. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. --Contributed by A. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. an acid. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. apparently. causing the flowers to grow. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. As zinc is much lighter than iron. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. Bridgeton. 2. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. Oakland. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. held in the right hand. with the circle centrally located. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat.J. or using small wedges of wood. filled with water. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . 1 and put together as in Fig. in a few seconds' time. These wires are put in the jar. N. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. about one-third the way down from the top. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. four glass tumblers. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. some of the liquid.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. Before the performance.

and kept ready for use at any time. 2 for height. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. Jaquythe. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. This outlines the desired opening. unless some special device is used. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. and equally worthy of individual treatment. not only because of the fact just mentioned. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . A. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. which are numbered for convenience in working. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. 4 for width and No. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. When many slides are to be masked. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. If the size wanted is No. --Contributed by W. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. Richmond. says a correspondent of Photo Era. Cal. practical and costs nothing. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in.

the margin and the entire back of the metal. the paper is folded along the center line. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. too. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. or a pair of old tongs. The decoration. not the water into the acid. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. may be changed. When etched to the desired depth. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. a little less acid than water. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. Secure a sheet of No. possibly.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. and do not inhale the fumes. or. but they can be easily revived. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. using the carbon paper. about half and half. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. paint the design. The one shown is merely suggestive. This done. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. With a stick. which is dangerous. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. Draw a design. 16 gauge. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . and the extreme length 7 in. is about right for the No.

the bell will ring. Fig. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. as shown in the illustration. attached to a post at each end. as shown in Fig. When the button S is pressed. . 1. Cut out a piece of tin. Fig. about 1 in. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. long. high. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. 24 parts water.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. to the table. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. 4. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. and about 2-1/2 ft. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. it will touch post F. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. 3. 2. in diameter and 1/4 in. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. wide and of the same length as the table. through it. Fig. long and 1 ft. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. with the wires underneath. and bore two holes. about 2-1/2 in. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. repeat as many times as is necessary. 0 indicates the batteries. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. Fig. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. 3/8 in. wide. as in Fig. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. so that when it is pressed down. J is another wire attached in the same way. or more wide. The connections are simple: I. thick. Nail a board. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. Fig. 2. about 8 in. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. 5. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. as at H. C and D. It may be either nailed or screwed down. about 3 ft. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. Then get two posts. A. 2. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. 5. Paint the table any color desired.

It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. the wood peg inserted in one of them. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. is to appear as steel. such as . The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. says the English Mechanic. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. thick. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. After the glue is dry. The entire weapon. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. long. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. A wood peg about 2 in. These rings can be carved out. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. 1. long serves as the dowel. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. This weapon is about 22 in. handle and all. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool.Imitation Arms and Armor . 2. The imitation articles are made of wood. but they are somewhat difficult to make. The circle is marked out with a compass. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head.. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks.

All of these axes are about the same length. also. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. 6. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. flowers. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. The handle is of wood. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. etc. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. leaves. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. The axe is shown in steel. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The lower half of the handle is wood. or the amateur cannot use it well. 8. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. long. . covered with red velvet. as before mentioned. is shown in Fig. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. The upper half of the handle is steel. The handle is of steel imitation. used at the end of the fifteenth century. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. 2. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. The entire handle should be made of one piece. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. 5. 3. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. with a sharp carving tool. as described in Fig. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. The spikes are cut out of wood.ornamental scrolls. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. Its length is about 3 ft. as shown. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. the hammer and spike. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. If such a tool is not at hand. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. This weapon is about 22 in. studded with large brass or steel nails. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe.

a three-base hit.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. as in Fig. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. The knife falling on its side (Fig. . A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. 4). 5. 6. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. as shown in Fig. 3. 2. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. Fig. 7) calls for one out. then the other plays. Chicago. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. the knife resting on its back. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. and so on for nine innings. calls for a home run. 1. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. Each person plays until three outs have been made.

the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. while the committee is tying him up. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. 2. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. hypo to 1 pt. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. This he does.-Contributed by J. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. It may be found that the negative is not colored. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. as shown in Fig. Somerville. of water for an hour or two.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. Old-Time Magic . If it is spotted at all. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. Campbell. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. Mass. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. 3. with the rope laced in the cloth. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. 1. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. F. as shown in Fig. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. one of them burning . When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. of the rope and holds it. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo.

A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. with which he is going to light the other candle. The magician walks over to the burning candle. the other without a light. Evans. --Contributed by L. 4 oz. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. New York City. 4 oz. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. showing that there is nothing between them. Louisville. bolt. of turpentine. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. etc. --Contributed by C. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. thus causing it to light. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. Lebanon. B. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. of plumbago. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. invisible to them (the audience). Ky. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down.Contributed by Andrew G. of sugar. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole.brightly. and. of water and 1 oz. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. Thome. thick. Drill Gauge screw. Ky. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. shades the light for a few seconds. He then walks over to the other candle. Brown.. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. 3/4 in. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. . in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper.

N. into a tube of several thicknesses. long. To make the porous cell. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. --Contributed by C. H. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. which will give a strong. about 5 in. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. Its current strength is about one volt. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. Pulteney. In making up the solution. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. or blotting paper. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. steady current. thick. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. 5 in. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. Denniston. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. diameter. Y. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. for the material. Do not add water to the acid. but is not so good. but can be made up into any required voltage in series.

By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. steel. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. To insure this. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace.station. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. a positive adjustment was provided. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. while the other end is attached by two screws. the other holding them apart. one drawing them together. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. steel. steel. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. carrying the hour circle at one end. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. long with a bearing at each end. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. One hole was bored as well as possible. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. As to thickness. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. but somewhat lighter. The . It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described.) may be obtained. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. Finally. After much experimentation with bearings. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument.

and 15 min. once carefully made. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. save the one in the pipe. turn the pointer to the star. apart. subtract 24. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. Instead. is provided with this adjustment. It is. To find a star in the heavens. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis." When this is done. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. 45 min. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. are tightened. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar.. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. in each direction from two points 180 deg. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. Cassiopiae. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. The pole is 1 deg. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. The aperture should be 1/4 in. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. Set the declination circle to its reading. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. All these adjustments. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars." Only a rough setting is necessary. Point it approximately to the north star. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. need not be changed. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . When properly set it will describe a great circle. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. All set screws. If the result is more than 24 hours.. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. and if it is not again directed to the same point. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. Declination is read directly. Each shaft. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. To locate a known star on the map. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. The pointer is directed to Alpha. excepting those on the declination axis.

is folded several times. If this will be too transparent. In reality the first ball. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. Plain City. which is the one examined. New Orleans. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. long. taking care not to add too much. Strosnider. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. a great effect will be produced. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. of ether. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. then add 1 2-3 dr. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. benzole. -Contributed by Ray E. The ball is found to be the genuine article. the others . is the real cannon ball. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. cannon balls. as shown in the sketch. The dance will begin. La. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. 3 or 4 in. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. add a little more benzole. Ohio.. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr.

San Francisco. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. Somerville.. Return the card to the pack. Campbell. Mass. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. Cal. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. 2. Fig. as shown in the illustration. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. Milwaukee. 1). --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. --Contributed by J. Wis.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. etc. without taking up any great amount of space. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . small brooches. taps. In boxes having a sliding cover. F. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills.

and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. This box has done good service. as shown in the illustration. thus giving ample store room for colors.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. slides and extra brushes. Hartford. Beller. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. from the bottom of the box. . the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. round pieces 2-1/4 in. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. Connecticut. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. prints.

A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. with well packed horse manure. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. Mass.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. about threefourths full. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. . The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. Darke. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. FIG. -Contributed by C. O. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. will answer the purpose. West Lynn. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. Fill the upper tub. costing 5 cents. holes in the bottom of one. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. When the ends are turned under. 1). tacking the gauze well at the corners. 2). or placed against a wall. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture.

If plugs are found in any of the holes. Eifel. and each bundle contains . M. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. they should be knocked out. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. --Contributed by L. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. when they are raised from the pan. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. if this is not available. cutting the cane between the holes. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. oil or other fluid. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. If the following directions are carried out. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. Chicago. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it.

then across and down.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. a square pointed wedge. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. 1. In addition to the cane. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. put about 3 or 4 in. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. as shown in Fig. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. as it must be removed again. and. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. it should be held by a plug. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. held there by inserting another plug. No plugs . after having been pulled tight.

It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. 40°. and the one we shall describe in this article. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. is the horizontal dial. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. There are several different designs of sundials. trim off the surplus rosin. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. 3. in this case) times the . For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . called the gnomon. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. 42° is 4. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. and for lat.075 in. 4. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. 5 in. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. It consists of a flat circular table. 1. D. using the same holes as for the first layer. When cool. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. The style or gnomon. 41°-30'.2 in. Even with this lubrication. or the style. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. This will make three layers. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. we have 4. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. 3. 1. Detroit. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. as shown in Fig. Michigan. Their difference is . R. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place.= 4. From table No. is the base (5 in. stretch the third one. the next smallest. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. as for example. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. Fig. it is 4. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. --Contributed by M. lat. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break.42 in. Fig.2+. W. 1 lat.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place.15 in. as the height of the line BC for lat. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. the height of which is taken from table No.15+. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. Patrick.075 in. No weaving has been done up to this time. the height of the line BC. -Contributed by E. as shown in Fig. If you have a table of natural functions.5 in. 41 °-30'. and for 1° it would be . How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. After completing the second layer. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. but the most common. During the weaving. All added to the lesser or 40°. for 2°. 5.3 in. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. as it always equals the latitude of the place. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. 1. If handled with a little care. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used.

28 .37 5. Its thickness. draw two parallel lines AB and CD. using the points A and C as centers. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight.14 5. which will represent the base in length and thickness. 2 for given latitudes.42 45 . long. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in.02 1.55 5.32 6.93 6.16 40 .83 27° 2.49 3.55 46° 5.57 3.46 3.82 2.79 4. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed.87 1.23 6.96 32° 3. and perpendicular to the base or style.57 1.37 54° 6.39 .27 2.29 4-30 7-30 3.66 1.30 1.18 28° 2.03 3.40 1.38 .07 4.44 44° 4. according to the size of the dial.20 60° 8.12 52° 6. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2.26 4.97 5 7 4.tangent of the degree of latitude.64 4 8 3.94 1. Chords in inches for a 10 in.19 1.49 30 . in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in. and for this size dial (10 in. gives the 6 o'clock points. Fig.59 2. an inch or two. Table NO.33 42° 4.66 48° 5. Height of stile in inches for a 5in.85 1.66 latitude.93 2. Draw two semi-circles. 2.82 5. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No. base. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style.82 3.10 6.11 3.42 1.88 36° 3.68 5-30 6-30 5. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks. 1. with a radius of 5 in.87 4. if of metal.50 26° 2.06 2. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No. For latitudes not given. To layout the hour circle.56 .30 2.55 4. or if of stone. and intersecting the semicircles. A line EF drawn through the points A and C. circle Sundial.16 1. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial. 2.81 4.76 1.91 58° 8.85 35 . placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 .41 38° 3. Draw the line AD.63 56° 7.99 2.33 .77 2.89 50° 5.40 34° 3. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown.55 30° 2.00 40° 4.46 . or more. .42 .

49 3. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face. This correction can be added to the values in table No.72 5.77 3.54 60 .57 1. and the .46 5. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time.49 5. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time.01 1. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached. will enable one to set the dial.50 .21 2.30 2.06 2. Mitchell. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon.53 1.10 4.87 6.46 4. and for the difference between standard and local time.12 5. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid. and on these dates the dial needs no correction.98 4. 3.from Sundial lime. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3.71 2. June 15. 3. 25. April 16. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco.37 2.52 Table No.60 4. after allowing for the declination. if west. 900 Chicago. The + means that the clock is faster. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York. Sun time to local mean time. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen. each article can be labelled with the name. it will be faster. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality. 3 Corrections in minutes to change. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year. then the watch is slower.add those marked + subtract those Marked .34 5.14 1. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker.24 5. adding to each piece interest and value.63 1.19 2. --Contributed by J.82 3. E.. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds. Iowa. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15. London.93 6. As they are the genuine reproductions. 2 and Dec.68 3.79 6. An ordinary compass.means that the dial is faster than the sun.50 55 .08 1. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Sioux City. Sept. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No. says the English Mechanic. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the .89 3. Each weapon is cut from wood. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole.

1. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. . long from the point where it is attached to the handle. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. the length of which is about 5 ft. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil.. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. 3. Partisan. When putting on the tinfoil. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft.

The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. which are a part of the axe.which is square. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. 5. 6 ft. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. used about the seventeenth century. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. This weapon is about 6 ft. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. The edges are sharp. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. The spear is steel. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. long. long. It is about 6 ft. long with a round staff or handle. The extreme length is 9 ft. . with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. 8. in diameter. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. press it well into the carved depressions. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. 7. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown.. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. The length of this bar is about 5 in. the holes being about 1/4 in. about 4 in. long with a round wooden handle. A gisarm or glaive. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. sharp on the outer edges. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. is shown in Fig. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century.

are less durable and will quickly show wear. used for spacing and binding the whole together. or in holes punched in a leather strap. are put in place. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. In Figs. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. the cross cords. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. H. apart. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. 2 and 3. B. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. Substances such as straw. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. This is important to secure neatness. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. Cut all the cords the same length. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. Loudonville. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. the most durable being bamboo. 5. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. Ohio. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. 1. 4.-Contributed by R. as shown in Fig. Workman. The twisted cross cords should . Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. They can be made of various materials.

One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. New Orleans. in which was placed a piece of glass. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. as shown at B. This was turned over the top of the other can. -Contributed by Geo. wide. New York. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. Lockport. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. The first design shown is for using bamboo. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place.be of such material. La. of the bottom. below the top to within 1/4 in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. for a length extending from a point 2 in. M. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. To remedy this. shaped as shown at C. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. Four V-shaped notches were cut. A slit was cut in the bottom. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. bamboo or rolled paper. Harrer. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . 3 in. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle.

Schaffner. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. This should be done gradually. is shown in the accompanying sketch. the brass is loosened from the block. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. wide. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. Ill. It would be well to polish the brass at first. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. H.tape from sticking to the carpet. Sanford. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. Cal. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. N. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. about 1/16 in. Maywood. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. Y. This plank. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. --Contributed by W. do not throw away the gloves. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. --Contributed by Joseph H. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. Newburgh. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. Pasadena. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. After this is finished. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. and two along the side for attaching the staff. turned over but not fastened. Shay. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. --Contributed by Chas. giving the appearance of hammered brass.

It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. K. the pendulum swings . This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. Oak Park. Cal. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. Richmond.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. Unlike most clocks. Ill. --E. Marshall. in diameter. A. -Contributed by W. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. bent as shown. Jaquythe.

the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. and the other two 2-5/8 in. The construction is very simple. high. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. on the board B. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. only have the opposite side up. such as this one. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. C. Fasten another board. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. bearing on the latter. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. 3/4 in. 7-1/2 in. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. In using this method. Secure a board. high. by 1-5/16 in. B. wide that is perfectly flat. Metzech. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. says the Scientific American. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight.. to the first one with screws or glue. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. about 12 in. A. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. the center one being 2-3/4 in. bar. are secured in the base bar. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. Now place the board to be joined. 5/16 in. about 6 in. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. in diameter. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. high. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. Two uprights. high and 1/4 in. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. Chicago. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. . which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. 6 in. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. is an electromagnet. wide. thick. --Contributed by V. away. long and at each side of this.

It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. 1. . Pa. long. wide and 5 in. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. wide and 1 in. as shown at A. or more. --Contributed by Elmer A. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. 1. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. Phoenixville. whose dimensions are given in Fig. plates should be made 8 in. from one end.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. 4. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. The trigger. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. square. Fig. 3. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. is fastened in the hole A. 1. by driving a pin through the wood. 2. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. Fig. square inside. Vanderslice.

Ohio. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. 3 parts of stiff keg lead.A. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. Fostoria. one-half the length of the side pieces. if only two bands are put in the . 2 parts of whiting. rubbing varnish and turpentine. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. Simonis. square. -Contributed by J. as shown in the illustration. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. 5 parts of black filler.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. which allows 1/4 in. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. by weight. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin.

all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. G. Dartmouth. long. --Contributed by Thos. In use.lower strings. London. Michigan. is set at an angle of 45 deg. in the opposite end of the box. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. wide and about 1 ft. preferably copper. and the picture can be drawn as described. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. 8 in. Grand Rapids. A double convex lens. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. A piece of metal. Shaw. Mass. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. 1. It must be kept moist and well . and it may be made as a model or full sized. place tracing paper on its surface. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. as shown in Fig. -Contributed by Abner B. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. A mirror. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. No. If a plain glass is used. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. keeps the strong light out when sketching. In constructing helmets. which may be either of ground or plain glass. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. deep. DeLoof. II. is necessary. says the English Mechanic. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and.

wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. 2. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. as shown in Fig. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. will be necessary. This being done.kneaded. take. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. The clay. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. and left over night to soak. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. and the deft use of the fingers. 3. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. on which to place the clay. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. with a keyhole saw. Scraps of thin. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. After the clay model is finished. a few clay-modeling tools. or some thin glue. shown in Fig. brown. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. and over the crest on top. the clay model oiled. as in bas-relief. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. All being ready. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. 1. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. joined closely together. and continue until the clay is completely covered. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. 1.

and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. and the ear guards in two pieces. In Fig. one for each side. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. as seen in the other part of the sketch. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. will make it look neat. 9. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. The center of the ear guards are perforated. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. or. --Contributed by Paul Keller. as shown: in the design. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. Before taking it off the model. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. then another coating of glue. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. with the exception of the vizor. square in shape. Indiana. In Fig. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. When perfectly dry. When the helmet is off the model. 7. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. should be modeled and made in one piece. The band is decorated with brass studs. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. Indianapolis.as possible. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . a crest on top. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. a few lines running down. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. When dry. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. 1. This contrivance should be made of wood. 5. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. the skullcap. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. The whole helmet. They are all covered with tinfoil. the piecing could not be detected. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. owing to the clay being oiled. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. which should be no difficult matter. and so on.

1. 4. high. until it is within 1 in. Fig. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. Fig. screws. one glass tube. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. is then packed down inside the collar. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. If asbestos is used. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. GG. as shown in Fig. AA. This will allow the plate. AA. 1. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. each 4-1/2 in. 4. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. long. E and F. 2. when they are placed in opposite positions. Fig. Fig. or. 1. with slits cut for the wires. 1. long. 4. 2. FF. also the switch B and the fuse block C. the fuse block. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. The two holes. as shown in Fig. to receive screws for holding it to the base. The holes B and C are about 3 in. is shown in Fig. 3. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. are allowed to project about 1 in. Fig. Fig. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. The reverse side of the base. Fig. of the top. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. which can be bought from a local druggist. above the collar. This will make an open space between the plates. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. and two large 3in. Fig. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. thick. if the measurements are correct. one small switch. AA. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. 3 in. as it stands a higher temperature. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . Fig. and C. JJ. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. 1.same size. 4. The plate. and. of fire clay. if this cannot be obtained. 4 lb. 1. of mineral wool. The mineral wool. about 1 lb. two ordinary binding posts. one oblong piece of wood. A round collar of galvanized iron. 12 in. thick sheet asbestos. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. should extend about 1/4 in. for connections. in diameter and 9 in. Fig. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. 22 gauge resistance wire. one fuse block. about 80 ft. about 1/4 in. 2. long. Fig. 1 in. If a neat appearance is desired. 4. the holes leading to the switch. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. wide and 15 in. Fig. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. Fig. 4. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. 4. of No. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. German-silver wire is better. as shown in Fig.

As these connections cannot be soldered. so that the circuit will not become broken. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. Catherines. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. as the turns of the wires. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. above the rim. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. using care not to get it too wet. This point marks the proper length to cut it. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. A. It should not be left heated in this condition. The clay. If it is not thoroughly dry. Cut a 1/2-in. 4. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. causing a short circuit. Fig. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. deep. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. and pressed into it. --Contributed by R. Cal. If this is the case. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. apart. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. allowing a space between each turn. II. When this is done. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. While the clay is damp. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. then. KK. will slip and come in contact with each other. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. when heated. Next. Richmond. Cnonyn. Cover over about 1 in. steam will form when the current is applied. St. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. when cool. Jaquythe. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. 2. Can. When the tile is in place. --Contributed by W. A file can be used to remove any rough places. it leaves a gate for the metal. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. This completes the stove. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. It should not be set on end. H. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. Fig. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. more wire should be added. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. Removing Pies from Pans [275] .

says the Photographic Times. and the frame set near a window. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. is large enough. Thorne. the air can enter from both top and bottom. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. square material in any size. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. constructed of 3/4-in. Ky. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. Louisville. as shown. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. but 12 by 24 in. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. --Contributed by Andrew G. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. and the prints will dry rapidly. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. Then clip a little off the . the pie will be damaged.

as shown. The board can be raised to place . 1 and 3. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. The upright B. causing a break in the current. wide and 7 in. A 1/8-in. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. 4 in. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. Iowa. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. Fig. each 1/2 in. W. Figs. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. each 1 in. An offset is bent in the center. 1. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. The driving arm D. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. 2. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. As the shaft revolves. thereby saving time and washing. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. high.Paper Funnel point. 2-1/2 in. thick and 3 in. long. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. 1/2 in. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. at GG. open out. high. long. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. Herron. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. which are fastened to the base. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. 14 in. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. Le Mars. The connecting rod E. wide. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. Fig. long. 22 gauge magnet wire. high. Two supports. in diameter and about 4 in. which gives the shaft a half turn. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. 3. thick. wide and 3 in. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. 1. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. 1. slip on two cardboard washers. long. in diameter. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. The connections are made as shown in Fig. for the crank. thick and 3 in. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. Fig. 1. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. allowing each end to project for connections. -Contributed by S. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. 1/2 in.

the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. in height. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. Stecher. as shown in the sketch. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. Mass. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. . --Contributed by William F. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. 3 in. on a board. Dorchester. bottom side up. One or more pots may be used. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. making a framework suitable for a roost. In designing the roost. Place the pot.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him.

Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. windows. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. as shown in Fig. and give it time to dry. Wind the . if it is other than straight lines. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. Fig. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. F. F. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. paraffin and paint or varnish. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. grills and gratings for doors. preferably. 1. shelves. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. ordinary glue.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. odd corners. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. that it is heated. when combined. without any corresponding benefit. in diameter. adopt the method described. etc. The materials required are rope or.. The bottom part of the sketch.. will produce the pattern desired. 1.

Fig. Lockport. 2. Y. N. M. six designs are shown. cut and glue them together. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . -Contributed by Geo. Harrer. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. Fig.

etc. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. London. etc. 1.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. As the . says the English Mechanic. which was used in front of a horse's head. This piece of horse armor. but no farther. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. will be retained by the cotton.... The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. chips of iron rust. when it will be observed that any organic matter. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. and the sides do not cover the jaws. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in.

It is not necessary to have smooth boards. 6 and 7. as the surface will hold the clay. which is separate. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. except the thumb and fingers. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. 4. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. 2. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. as shown in the sketch. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. 8. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. and therefore it is not described. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. and will require less clay. The armor is now removed from the model. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. which can be made in any size. All being ready. 2. and the clay model oiled. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. This can be made in one piece. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. but for . the same as in Fig. then another coat of glue. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. with the exception of the thumb shield. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. but the back is not necessary. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. An arrangement is shown in Fig. This triangularshaped support. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. the rougher the better. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. This will make the model light and easy to move around. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. This being done. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. In Fig.

The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. wide and 1/2 in. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. the two pieces of foil will draw together. 1/2 in. --Contributed by John G. Y. the foils will not move. A piece of board. . Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. fastened to the rod. long. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. Buxton. Fasten a polished brass ball to. will be about right. --Contributed by Ralph L. 2. the top of the rod. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. are better shown in Fig. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. Calif. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. If it does not hold a charge. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. and the instrument is ready for use. N. When locating the place for the screw eyes. Goshen. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. cut into the shape shown in Fig. La Rue. are glued to it. two for the jaws and one a wedge. each about 1/4 in. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. but 3-1/2 in.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. running down the plate. in depth. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. 9. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. The two pieces of foil. two in each jaw. Redondo Beach.

enameled or otherwise decorated. is made of a 1/4-in. M. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. as this will cut under the water without splashing.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. pine board. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. Texas. about 15 in. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. hole bored through it. Corsicana. from the smaller end. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. 2-1/2 in. as shown in the illustration. long. When a fish is hooked. At a point 6 in. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. as indicated in the . --Contributed by Mrs. The can may be bronzed. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. A. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. Bryan. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. silvered.

Basswood or butternut. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. Next prepare the metal holder. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. long over all. such as basswood or pine was used. When it has dried over night. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. wide by 6 in. or even pine. Having completed the drawing. 22 is plenty heavy enough. If soft wood. using powdered pumice and lye. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. using a piece of carbon paper. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. Any kind of wood will do. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. A good size is 5 in. Polish the metal. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. then with a nail. put a coat or two of wax and polish .Match Holder accompanying sketch. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. punch the holes. will do as well as the more expensive woods. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. take a piece of thin wood. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. and trace upon it the design and outline. thick." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. as shown. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. 3/8 or 1/4 in. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use.

This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. If carving is contemplated. 2 in. of pure olive oil. is used for the base of this instrument. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. Cal. Two wire nails. . wide and 5 in. are used for the cores of the magnets. Richmond. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. can be made on the same standards. long. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. Jaquythe. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. --Contributed by W. each 1 in. A. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. 1/2 in. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. thick.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. the whole being finished in linseed oil. It is useful for photographers. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. Instead of the usual two short ropes. If one has some insight in carving. long.

then covered with red. A piece of tin. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. 1. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. A rubber band. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. says the English Mechanic. leaving about 1/4 in. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. cloth or baize to represent the legs. acts as a spring to keep the key open. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. 3. 25 gauge. about No. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. similar to that used in electric bells. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. as shown by the dotted lines. in the shape shown in the sketch. --Contributed by W. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. Lynas. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. . except that for the legs. when the key is pushed down. About 1 in. the paper covering put on. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. at A. All of the parts for the armor have been described. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. cut in the shape of the letter T. H. as shown in Fig. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. London.

flat headed carriage bolt. at each end. In one end of the piece. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. These can be purchased at a stationery store. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. 3 in. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. 2. apart. completes the equipment. A 1/4-in. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. not too tight. or ordinary plaster laths will do. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. hole in the center. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. long. make the same series of eight small holes and. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. Silver paper will do very well. Cut them to a length or 40 in. So set up. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. By moving the position of the bolt from. one to another . a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. 1 in. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. Fig. about 1 in. for the sake of lightness. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. holes. can be made in a few minutes' time. apart. The two pieces are bolted together. Take the piece shown in Fig. Instead of using brass headed nails. 1 and drill a 1/4in. and eight small holes. Secure two strips of wood. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. drill six 1/4-in. in the other end. says Camera Craft..Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope.

Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. A round fob is made in a similar way. 2. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. doubled and run through the web of A. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. Then take B and lay it over A. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. of the ends remain unwoven. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. then B over C and the end stuck under A. in Fig. but instead of reversing . Then draw all four ends up snugly. 2. as in portraiture and the like. for instance. as shown in Fig. Fig. Start with one end. taking the same start as for the square fob. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. 4. In this sketch. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. D over A and C. 2. the one marked A. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. and lay it over the one to the right. A is the first string and B is the second. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger.of the larger holes in the strip. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. 1. lay Cover B and the one under D. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. and the one beneath C. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. long. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. C over D and B.

How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. --Contributed by John P. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. 5. 1-1/2 in. as B. Ohio. 3. the design of which is shown herewith. over the one to its right. especially if silk strings are used. Monroeville. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. always lap one string. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. is left out at the center before starting on one side. A loop. The round fob is shown in Fig. Other designs can be made in the same manner. Rupp. long. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. as in making the square fob. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. is to be made of leather. as at A in Fig. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all.

trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. -Contributed by A. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. Mich. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. When the supply of wax is exhausted. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. using the reverse side. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. . A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. pressing it against the wood. Houghton. beeswax or paraffin.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. Northville. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. Any smooth piece of steel. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. it can be easily renewed. filling them with wax. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. door facing or door panel. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. such as a nut pick. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. A. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness.

Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. Ill. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. and about 12 in. D. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. . Petersburg. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. says Photographic Times. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. The tacks should be about 1 in. apart and driven in only part way. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. it is best to leave a plain white margin. remaining above the surface of the board. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. Select the print you wish to mount. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. and after wetting.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. leaving about 1/4 in. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. E and F. Enough plaster should. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. those on matte paper will work best. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. Y. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. J. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. Thompson. place it face down in the dish. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. New York. N. Fold together on lines C. --Contributed by O. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. but any kind that will not stick may be used. thick. long. if blueprints are used. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. although tin ones can be used with good success. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch.

How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. etc.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. violets. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. Lower into the test tube a wire. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. will be rendered perfectly white. as shown at the left in the sketch. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. as shown in the right of the sketch. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool.. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. roses. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. filling the same about onehalf full. bell flowers. One of the . Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. without mixing the solutions. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized.

Shabino. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. about 1/8s in. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. 3. The first point should be ground blunt. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. or delicate tints of the egg. shading. Fig. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. as shown. not too tightly. and at the larger end. 1-7/8 in. long. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. thick. to keep the core from coming off in turning. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. --Contributed by L. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. A rod that will fit the brass tube.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. When soldering these parts together. 1. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing.. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. The diaphragm. as shown in the sketch. L. turned a little tapering. South Dakota. long and made of wood. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. The tin horn can be easily made. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. in diameter and 1 in. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. but which will not wobble loose. should be soldered to the box. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. is about 2-1/2 in. Millstown. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. 2. The sound box. made of heavy tin. Phonograph and Construction of Parts .

Gold. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. E. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. and weighted it with a heavy stone. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. Chicago. and. Ill.Contributed by E. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. Victor. says the Iowa Homestead. wondering what it was. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. Colo.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. put a board on top. mice in the bottom. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. Jr. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] .

with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. N.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. Y. Can. . or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. Pereira. --Contributed by Lyndwode. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. Buffalo. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. Ottawa.

Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. This cart has no axle. Mich. --Contributed by Thos. Jaquythe. by means of a flatheaded tack. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. Grand Rapids. longer than the length of the can. as shown. cut round. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. A. and at one end of the stick fasten.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. a piece of tin. De Loof. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. Richmond. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. through which several holes have been punched. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. Cal. --Contributed by W. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. above the end of the dasher. as it can be made quickly in any size. Put a small nail 2 in. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so .

and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. Doylestown. apart. wide and 1/8 in. The candles. as shown. wide and 3 ft. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. New Orleans. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. La. were below the level of the bullseye. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. The baseboard and top are separable. A wedge-shaped piece of . deep and 3 in. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. cut in the center of the rounding edge. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. 2. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches.1. 2. 1 ft. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. wide. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. 2 in. long. thick. --Contributed by James M. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. Pa. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. I reversed a door gong. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. screwed it on the inside of a store box. 1/4 in. board. Notches 1/8 in. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. 1-1/2 in. wide and as long as the box. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. Fig. of course. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. 2. 1. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Kane.

Needles. Cover the block with rubber. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. take two pieces of hard wood. The block can also be used as a paperweight. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. Mass. After the glue has dried. wide into each side of the casing. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. the blade is put back into the groove . I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf.Book Back Holders metal. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. dressing one surface of each piece. A. the shelf could not be put on the window. wide rubber bands or felt.. Ia. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. West Union. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. will. by cutting away the ends. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. Worcester. Wood. For the handle. 1. scissors. as shown in Fig. it can be removed without marring the casing. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. etc. when placed as in Fig. can be picked up without any trouble. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. stone or wood. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. When not in use. After completing the handle. --Contributed by G. the reason being that if both were solid. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. This device is very convenient for invalids. to prevent its scratching the desk top. 3.

Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. --Contributed by H. as shown in Fig. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. thus carrying the car up the incline. S. Erie. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. Cleveland. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. --Contributed by Maud McKee. Jacobs. -Contributed by W. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block.and sharpened to a cutting edge. If desired. Each one is made of a hardwood block. long. 1. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. as shown in Fig. is shown in the accompanying sketch. 1 in. square and 4 in. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. . 2. A. Ohio. Malden. Hutchins. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. Pa. A notch is cut in one side. Mass.

and an awl and hammer. . A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. The letters can be put on afterward. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. One sheet of metal. Cape May Point. a board on which to work it. will be needed. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. This will insure having all parts alike.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. N. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. 6 by 9-1/2 in. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. If one such as is shown is to be used.. Prepare a design for the front.J.

If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise.Fasten the metal to the board. behind or through the center of a table leg. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. but weird and distant. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. or. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. The stick may be placed by the side of. placed on a table. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. 1/4 part. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. that can be worked in your own parlor. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. . a violin. as shown. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. If any polishing is required. flat brush. varnish. only the marginal line is to be pierced. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. in the waste metal. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. applied by means of a brush. if desired. which is desirable. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. paste the paper design right on the metal. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. 3/4 part. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. One coat will do. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. So impressive are the results. to right angles. 1 part. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. Remove the metal." In all appearance. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. says Master Painter. The music will not sound natural. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. 2 parts white vitriol. turpentine. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. On the back. mandolin or guitar.

The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. says Work. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. round-head machine screws. The longest piece. thick by 1/2 in. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. each 6 in. long and spread about 8 in. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. 3. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. across the top. is bent square so as to form two uprights. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. without them. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. . 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. each 28 in. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. and is easy to construct. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. long and measuring 26 in. 2. Two pairs of feet. wide. are shaped as shown in Fig.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. London. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. it might be difficult. square bar iron. long. With proper tools this is easy. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. apart.

A. B. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. 6. The brads are then removed. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. on it as shown. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. 5. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. D. special flux purchased for this purpose. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. better still. 4. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. C. 7. The design is formed in the lead. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. Fig. in the grooves of the borders. After the joints are soldered. Fig. cut a long piece of lead. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. 5. or. While the piece of lead D. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. as shown in Fig. After the glass is cut. The glass.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. using rosin as a flux. lead. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. the latter being tapped to . Place the corner piece of glass. is held by the brads. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. and the base border.

This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. in diameter and about 9 in. A and B. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. one on each side and central with the hole. Jr. thick and drill 3/4-in. wood screws in each washer. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. holes through their centers. and two wood blocks. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. square and of the length given in the drawing. long. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. --Contributed by W.. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. Make three washers 3-in. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. Bore a 5/8-in. Bore a 3/4-in. J. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. plates. Two styles of hand holds are shown. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. bolt. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. Camden. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. bolt. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. rounded at the top as shown. Fasten the plates to the block B. rocker bolt. and round the corners of one end for a ring. H. in diameter and 1/4 in. long. The center pin is 3/4-in. then flatten its end on the under side. long. 8. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. not less than 4 in. This ring can be made of 1-in. then drill a 3/4-in. Secure a post. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in.the base of the clip. This . Concrete is much better if it can be secured. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. Dreier. N. plank about 12 ft. as shown in Fig.

of 1/4-in. 2 by 4 in. hickory. 1/2 in. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . and some one can swing an axe. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. 4 filler pieces. long. 2-1/2 in. 4 pieces. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. shanks. by 2 ft. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. long. 1 by 7 in. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. in diameter and 7 in. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. long. by 3 ft. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 1. 3/4 by 3 in. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. boards along the side of each from end to end. bit. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. 4 in. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. the money outlay will be almost nothing. La. 1-1/4in. Draw a line on the four 7-in. 7 in. The four 7-in. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. 3 in. straight-grained hickory. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. long. horse and rings. maple. New Orleans. To substitute small. 4 in. apart for a distance of 3 ft. from one edge. 50 ft. square by 5 ft. chestnut or ash. screws. 9 in. 16 screws. because it will not stand the weather. square by 9-1/2 ft. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. can make a first class gymnasium. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. by 6-1/2 ft. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. long and 1 piece. bolts and rope. long. 4 pieces. If trees are convenient. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. long.will make an excellent cover for a pot.

then buried to a depth of 2 ft. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. 8 in. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. at each end. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. so the 1/2-in. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. apart. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. Bore a 9/16-in. 2. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. each 3 ft. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground.bored. apart. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar.. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. boards coincide. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. from the end. piece of wood. deep and remove all loose dirt. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted.. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut.

passing through a screweye at either end." which skimmed along the distant horizon. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. When the interest of the crowd. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. and ascends the stem. And all he used was a black thread. the effect is very striking. was at its height.. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. which at once gathered. about 100 ft. not much to look at in daytime. it is taken to the edge of the foot. . He stretched the thread between two buildings. in an endless belt. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. and materially heightened the illusion. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. but most deceptive at dusk. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. W. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. and then passes in a curve across the base. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. just visible against the dark evening sky. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. not even the tumbler. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. apart. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. it follows the edge for about 1 in. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. If the tumbler is rotated. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. disappearing only to reappear again.

The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. 4 knee braces. La. New Orleans. preferably cedar. large spikes. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. 2 by 4 in. 2 by 4 in. 2 base pieces. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. 4 in. long. long. A wire about No. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. by 2 ft. 8 in. 4 bolts. 8 bolts. 2 cross braces. square and 51/2 ft. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. Chisel out two notches 4 in. 2 by 4 in. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. long. long. long. beginning at a point 9 in. 2 in.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. long. 2 by 3 in. long and 1 doz. 8 in. The cork will come out easily. by 10 ft. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. long. 7 in. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. 6 in. long. 2 side braces. by 3 ft. 1. 4 wood screws. and turned in a spiral D. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. To make the apparatus. Bevel the ends of . wide and 1 in. Fig. 4 in. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. by 7 ft. 8 in. deep. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. so the point will be on top. from either side of the center. square and 6 ft.

The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. so the bolts in both will not meet. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. Jaquythe. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft.. save the bars. The wood so treated will last for years. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. . using four of the 7-in bolts. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. After the trenches are dug. A. equipped with a strainer. which face each other. leave it undressed. except the bars. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. etc. as shown in the diagram. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. Two endpieces must be made. ( To be Continued. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. and countersinking the heads. Richmond. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. If using mill-cut lumber. leaving the strainer always in position.the knee braces. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. Cal. screws. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. but even unpainted they are very durable. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. of 7 ft. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. additional long. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. These will allow the ladle to be turned.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. jellies. A large sized ladle. --Contributed by W.

In order to accomplish this experiment. of sufficient 1ength. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. milling machine. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. it is necessary to place a stick. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. or various cutting compounds of oil. drill press or planer. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. A.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. Oil. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. which seems impossible. partly a barrier for jumps. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. . partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. thus holding the pail as shown. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog.

but 5 ft. These are placed 18 in. two 1/2-in. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. 1 cross brace. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. 2 adjusting pieces. projections and splinters. long. by 3 ft. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. piece of 2 by 4-in. 2 by 4 in. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. stud cut rounding on one edge. The round part of this log must be planed. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. ten 1/2-in. long. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. 4 in. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. Procure from a saw mill. is a good length. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. The material required is as follows: Two posts. from each end. 1 in. apart in a central position on the horse.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. beginning 1-1/2 in. by 3 ft. in diameter--the larger the better. in the ground. These are well nailed in place. by 3 ft. 2 by 4 in. apart. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. 7 in. long. 4 in. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. 2 bases. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. long. long. long. square by 5-1/2 ft. long. bolts. to fasten the knee braces at the top. 2 by 4 in. and free from knots. bolts. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. square by 5 ft. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. To construct. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. 3 in. 4-1/2 in. bolt. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. bolts. 4 in. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . Hand holds must be provided next. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. long. 4 knee braces.. wood yard or from the woods. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars..

Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. then bending to the shape desired. Also. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. Richmond. such as a dent. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts.horse top. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. Cal. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. but nevertheless. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. over and around. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. pipe and fittings. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. Such a hand sled can be made in a . but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. snow. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. A. no one is responsible but himself. etc. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. it is caused by an overloaded shell.--Contributed by W. water. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. Jaquythe. it is caused by some obstruction. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon.

--Contributed by James E. thick. 1. in width and 1/32 in. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. Vener. Noble. Ontario.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. W. 1/4 or 3/16 in. when complete. --Contributed by Arthur E. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. These. then run a string over each part. at E and F. France. Joerin. Toronto. are all the tools necessary. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. which. --Contributed by J. when straightened out. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. The end elevation. . Mass. Boston. Paris. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. will give the length. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. is much better than a wood sled. 2. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig.

Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. nor that which is partly oxidized. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. 3. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. are nailed. . 4. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. and the latter will take on a bright luster. The method shown in Figs. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. It is best to use soft water. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. AA and BB. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe.

A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. 1). Broad lines can be made. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. as shown in Fig. . 2. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. or unequal widths as in Fig. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. The materials used are: backbone. 3. 4. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. class ice-yacht. Percy Ashley in Rudder. 8 and 9. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. 2. or various rulings may be made. as shown in Fig. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. 1. The point should extend about 11/2 in. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. pipe. but if it is made much longer. out from the collar. It can be made longer or shorter. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. about 30 in. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. pins to keep them from turning. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. A good and substantial homemade lathe. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. The headstock is made of two tees. a larger size of pipe should be used. a tee and a forging. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. long. bent and drilled as shown. 1-Details of Lathe sort. Both the lower . nipples and flanges arranged as shown. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it.Fig. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in.

as shown in Fig. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. Indiana. 2. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. Held. else taper turning will result. --Contributed by W. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. 1. but also their insulating properties. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. or a key can be used as well. as shown in Fig. Boissevain. Laporte. a straight line should be scratched Fig. To do this. Man. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. Cal. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. --Contributed by W.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. and will answer for a great variety of work. It is about 1 in. thick as desired. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. --Contributed by M. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. 3/4 or 1 in. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. 2. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. . it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. W. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. Musgrove. UpDeGraff. Fruitvale. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. a corresponding line made on this. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. M. 2.

long. J. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. In use. as shown. --Contributed by E. Ark. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. Cline. The handle is of pine about 18 in.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. Ft. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. Smith. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. To obviate this.

This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. New Orleans.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. face off the end of the piece. --Contributed by Walter W. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. if this method is followed: First. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. on starting the lathe. which should be backed out of contact. La. and when once in true up to its size. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. This prevents the drill from wobbling. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. White. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. Colo. the drill does not need the tool. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. take . Denver. After being entered. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. centering is just one operation too many. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier.

shown at C. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. by applying caustic soda or . This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. The handkerchief rod. as shown in D. after being shown empty. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. the cap is placed over the paper tube. It can be used in a great number of tricks. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. shorter t h a n the wand. is put into the paper tube A. In doing this. a long piece of glass tubing. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. all the better. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. The glass tube B. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. and this given to someone to hold.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. a bout 1/2 in. unknown to the spectators. After the wand is removed. and can be varied to suit the performer. vanishing wand. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. says the Sphinx.

1. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. 1/4 in. across the front and back to strengthen them. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. preferably hard maple. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. This dimension and those for the frets . 1 Neck. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. by 14 by 17 in. 1 Bottom. 3/16. cut to any shape desired.potash around the edges of the letters. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. As the cement softens. with the back side rounding. The sides. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. With care and patience. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. long. can be made by the home mechanic. Glue the neck to the box. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. thick. square and 1-7/8 in. as shown by K. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. 2 Sides. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. The brace at D is 1 in. End. and glue it to the neck at F. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. and if care is taken in selecting the material. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. Cut a piece of hard wood. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. 1 End. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. Glue strips of soft wood.

wide and 11-1/2 ft. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. -Contributed by J. Six holes. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. Stoddard. but it is not. 1) on which to stretch the paper. and beveled . E. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. long is used for a keel. or backbone. Carbondale. H. thick and about 1 ft. O. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. A board 1 in. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length.should be made accurately. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels.Pa. Norwalk. 3/16 in. toward each end. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. in diameter. --Contributed by Chas. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. Frary. When it is completed you will have a canoe. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand.

or similar material. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. 2. two strips of wood (b. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. are next put in. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. . Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. 2). 4. buy some split cane or rattan. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. Fig. as they are apt to do. thick. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. Fig. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. in such cases. with long stout screws. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. C. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. when made of green elm. These are better. Fig. 3. b. long are required. For the gunwales (a. 1 and 2. Shape these as shown by A. wide by 26 in. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. the loose strips of ash (b. Fig. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. two twigs may be used to make one rib. C. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. 2). slender switches of osier willow. Fig. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. and the smaller ends to the gunwales.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. or other place. 13 in. In drying. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. Fig. a. The ribs. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. 3). but before doing this. B. some tight strips of ash. long. and. Fig. as shown in Fig. 4). which are easily made of long. twigs 5 or 6 ft. 3. procure at a carriage factory. probably. and so. Any tough.. thick. b. The cross-boards (B. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. but twigs of some other trees. as shown in Fig. and notched at the end to receive them (B. as before described. will answer nearly as well. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. apart. b. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. 3). by means of a string or wire. Green wood is preferable. Fig. Osiers probably make the best ribs. such as hazel or birch.) in notches. in thickness and should be cut. and are not fastened. such as is used for making chairbottoms. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. 3/8 in. Fig. 1.

and light oars. It should be smooth on the surface. apply a second coat of the same varnish. If the paper be 1 yd. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. and very tough. Then take some of the split rattan and. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. preferably iron. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. and as soon as that has soaked in. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. Fig. It should be drawn tight along the edges. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. If not. You may put in . after wetting it. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. however. but neither stiff nor very thick. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. if it has been properly constructed of good material. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. B. When thoroughly dry. but with less turpentine. wide. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. 5). trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. The paper is then trimmed. and held in place by means of small clamps. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. When the paper is dry. of very strong wrapping-paper. and steady in the water. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. Being made in long rolls. tacking it to the bottom-board.

1. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. Fig. 2. and if driven as shown in the cut. Drive the lower nail first. to fit it easily. Fig. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. 5). and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. 5. Fig. fore and aft. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. they will support very heavy weights. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. 1 and the end in .) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. We procured a box and made a frame. and make a movable seat (A. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house.

3. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. being softer where the flame has been applied. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. and the glass. This way has its drawbacks. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. This is an easy . 5. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. this makes the tube airtight. Pa. Close the other end with the same operation. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. 4.Fig. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. and the result is. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. Pittsburg. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. A good way to handle this work. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame.

The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. fourth. very rapid progress can be made. Seventh. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. above the metal. third. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. After the bulb is formed. fifth. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. Oswald. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. extra metal all around. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. file. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. metal shears. above the work and striking it with the hammer. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. also trace the decorative design. Sixth. three. Give the metal a circular motion. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. thin screw. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. flat and round-nosed pliers. The candle holders may have two. or six arms.way to make a thermometer tube. -Contributed by A. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. 23 gauge. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. rivet punch. then reverse. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. second. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. four. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. with a piece of carbon paper.

and holder. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. Small copper rivets are used. drip cup. How To Make a Hectograph [326] .Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. Metal polish of any kind will do. Having pierced the bracket. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together.

The boom. N. smooth it down and then remove as before. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. when it will be ready for use. if it has not absorbed too much ink. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. and other things as they were needed. deep. Shiloh.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. Mother let me have a sheet. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. Fifty. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. winding the ends where they came together with wire. the stick at the bottom of the sail. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. Heat 6-1/2 oz. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. and add the gelatine. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. all the rest I found. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. and water 24 parts. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. hammer. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. on a water bath. and brace and bit were the tools used. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. Soak 1 oz. glycerine 4 parts. alcohol 2 parts. thus it was utilized. of glycerine to about 200 deg. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. I steer with the front wheel. is a broomstick. J. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. except they had wheels instead of runners. sugar 1 part. and it will be ready for future use. F. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. using a steel pen. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. Twenty cents was all I spent. and in a week . The gaff. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. they were like an ice boat with a sail. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. A saw.

Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up. A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly. a projecting lens .Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing.

greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. The board is centered both ways. or a lens of 12-in. G. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. DD. H. E. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. 8 in. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. and. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. as desired. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. or glue.. A and B. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. Fig. and a projecting lens 2 in. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. long. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. describe a 9-in. slide to about 6 ft. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. above the center. at a point 1 in. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. provided the material is of metal. at a distance of 24 ft. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. are . wide and 15 in. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. and the work carefully done. The slide support. thick. A table. about 2 ft. and the lens slide.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. high. focus enlarging a 3-in. This ring is made up from two rings. 3. well seasoned pine. If a small saw is used. 1/2 to 3/4 in. wide. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. 1. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. wire brads. and 14 in. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. but if such a box is not found.

The arrangement is quite safe as. and when the right position is found for each. apply two coats of shellac varnish. E. light burning oil. A sheet . All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. P. but not long enough. Minn. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. To reach the water. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. should the glass happen to upset. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. the strips II serving as guides. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. B. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. Small strips of tin. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. Paul. the water at once extinguishes the flame. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides.constructed to slip easily on the table. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. of safe. JJ.-Contributed by G. St. placed on the water. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil.

--Contributed by J. 3 in. then the corners on one end are doubled over. 3. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. Fig. to cover the mattresses. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it.H. Fig. N. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. 12 ft. 4. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . from a tent company. 3. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. 1. 2. Y. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. 9 in. by 12 ft. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. form a piece of wire in the same shape. Crawford.. I ordered a canvas bag. If one of these clips is not at hand.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. Schenectady.

Fasten the wire with gummed label. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. Pa. in the center coil. so as to form two oblong boxes. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. C. To calibrate the instrument. Fig. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. Teasdale. Fig. for amperes and the other post. 1/2 in. long and 3/16 in. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. White. Fold two strips of light cardboard. A rubber band. Denver. long. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. apart. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. Do not use too strong a rubber. V. --Contributed by Walter W. and insert two binding-posts. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. thick. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. --Contributed by Edward M. first mark the binding-post A. insulating them from the case with cardboard. Attach a piece of steel rod. Warren. open on the edges. to keep it from unwinding. 2. holes in the edge. Colo. 1/2 in. A Film Washing Trough [331] . wide. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. 1. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. An arc is cut in the paper. 3/4 in. drill two 3/16 in. 2. 2.each edge. as shown in Fig. D. 1. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. 3 to swing freely on the tack. through which the indicator works. 3/4 in. to the coil of small wire for volts.

with the large hole up. M. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. Wood Burning [331] . O. Hunting. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. Cut a 1/4-in. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. --Contributed by M.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. Dayton. Place this can on one end of the trough. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. as shown. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in.

mouth downward. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle.Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. then into this bottle place. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top.

How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. Ala. --Contributed by John Shahan. This will make a very pretty ornament. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. 1. Upper Troy. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. provided the bottle is wide.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . 3/4 in. Auburn. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. thick. --Contributed by Fred W. many puzzling effects may be obtained. Place the small bottle in as before. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. long. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. Whitehouse.Y. as shown in the sketch. If the cork is adjusted properly. N. 2. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. If the small bottle used is opaque. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. wide and 4 in. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. but not very thick.

Fig. The shaft C. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. were constructed of 1-in. I. thick and 3 in. Fig. which was 6 in. W. thick. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. long. wide. high without the upper half. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. On a 1000-ft. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. even in a light breeze. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. iron rod. pulley. was keyed to shaft C. thick. --Contributed by D. Its smaller parts. which gave considerable power for its size. in diameter and 1 in. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. The 21/2-in. Fig. A staple. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. sugar pine on account of its softness. If a transmitter is used.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. 2 ft. to the shaft. G. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. B. K. Fig. such as blades and pulleys. Both bearings were made in this manner. Fig. 1 in. 1. 1. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. 4. 1. Milter. The wire L was put . pulley F. The bearing blocks were 3 in. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. or ordinary telephone transmitters. 1. was 1/4in. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. which was nailed to the face plate. which extended to the ground. line. by the method shown in Fig. 2. as shown in Fig. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. 3. 1.

when the windmill needed oiling. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. Fig. apart in the tower. long. washers were placed under pulley F. for instance. long and 3 in. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. 6. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. through the latter. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. pine 18 by 12 in. H. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. strips. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. To lessen the friction here.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. 6. 2. Fig. 1. The power was put to various uses. This board was 12 in. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. This completes the receiver or sounder. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. The other lid. 1. R. a 1/2-in. 1) 4 in. so that the 1/4-in. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. This fan was made of 1/4-in. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. long and 1/2 in. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. with all parts in place. 0. The bed plate D. was 2 ft. 25 ft. G. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. 1. long and bend it as shown at A. Fig. with brass headed furniture tacks. square to the board P at the top of the tower. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. in the center of the board P. hole was bored for it. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. If you have no bell. long and bend it as . square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. hole for the shaft G was in the center. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. across the thin edge of a board. long. top down also. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. cut out another piece of tin (X. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. Fig. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. Fig. Two washers were placed on shaft C. 1. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. was tacked. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. providing one has a few old materials on hand. There a 1/4-in. 5. wide and 1 in. as. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. 3 in. in diameter. To make the key. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. and was cut the shape shown. Fig. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. Fig. The smaller one.

How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. The rear barrels are. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. as shown at Water. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. at the front. although it can be made with but two. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. Now. When tired of this instrument.shown. McConnell. Thus a center drive is made. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. By adjusting the coils. like many another device boys make. as indicated. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. Going back to Fig. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. Before tacking it to the board. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. -Contributed by John R. 2. 1. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. after the manner of bicycle wheels. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. using cleats to hold the board frame. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. and. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. fitted with paddles as at M. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. leaving the other wire as it is. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . causing a buzzing sound. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels.

seat yourself on the bicycle seat. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. 1. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. 3. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. as shown in Fig. copper piping and brass tubing for base. If the journals thus made are well oiled. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. feet on the pedals. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. There is no danger. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. or even a little houseboat. which will give any amount of pleasure. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. can be built. To propel it. The speed is slow at first. there will not be much friction. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount .Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels.

so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. then the glass disc and then the other ring. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. 1. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. Fig. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. 2. Fig. Turn a small circle of wood. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose.of pleasure for a little work. B. Place one brass ring in cylinder. A. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. or it may be put to other uses if desired. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. If it is desired to make the light very complete. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . 1. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. Fig. Shape small blocks of boxwood. 2. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. Fig. D. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. If magnifying glass cannot be had. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. 2. and so creating a false circuit. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. 1. Then melt out the rosin or lead. C.

electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . I. Utah. key of alarm clock. S. C. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. 3/8 in. X. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. --Contributed by C. dry batteries. contact post. switch. 5-1/4 by 10 in. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. copper tubing. 4 in. E. To get the cylinder into its carriage. set alarm key as shown in diagram. brass strip. C. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. wire from batteries to switch. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. Chatland. To operate this. after two turns have been made on the key. Throw lever off from the right to center.. if too small. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. long. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. D. B. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. T. by having the switch on the baseboard. such as is used for cycle valves. 4-1/2 in. long. To throw on light throw levers to the left. --Contributed by Geo. and pulled tight. thick. Brinkerhoff. bell. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. wire from bell to switch. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. after setting alarm. F. some glue will secure them. Ogden. The parts indicated are as follows: A. shelf. wire from light to switch. Pa. In placing clock on shelf. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . while lying in bed.india rubber tubing. H. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. near the bed. bracket. When alarm goes off. G. J. which stops bell ringing. brass rod. Swissvale. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. or 1/4in. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. wide and 1/16 in.

gives the heater a more finished appearance. beyond the end of the spindle. --Contributed by Chas. 2. which can be made of an old can. being careful not to get the sand in it. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. letting it extend 3/4 in. as . wide. Minn. as at B. in diameter. 3. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. from one end. S. as at A. making it as true and smooth as possible. Make the spindle as in Fig. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. as in Fig. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. 1. This is to form the fuse hole. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. 1. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. Pull out the nail and stick. will do the heating. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. Fig. as at A. Lanesboro. 2. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. Fig. Fig. long. All that is required is a tin covering. A small lamp of about 5 cp. place stick and all in a pail of sand. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. in diameter. about 3-1/2 in. a bed warmer. A flannel bag. Chapman. for instance. Having finished this. 1/4 in. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. about 6 in. 4 in. Make a shoulder.

The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. 1 in. will be sufficient to make the trigger. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. wide and 6 ft. 6 in. wide and 3/8 in. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. thick. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. this is to keep the edges from splitting. thick. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. --Contributed by Arthur E. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. The illustration shows how this is done. thick. good straight-grained pine will do. Joerin. deep. long. or hickory. The material must be 1-1/2 in. but if this wood cannot be procured.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. ash. A piece of oak. 11/2 in. 5/8 in. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . wide and 3 ft. 1. long. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. A piece of tin. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. 3/8 in. spring and arrows. long.

3. The bow is not fastened in the stock. Such a temporary safe light may be . To shoot the crossbow. or through the necessity of. 2. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. Trownes. Fig. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. 8. in diameter. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. and one for the trigger 12 in. Fig. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. from the end of the stock. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. A spring. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. as shown in Fig. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. Ill. The stick for the bow. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. thick. better still. E. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. When the trigger is pulled. having the latter swing quite freely. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. 6. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. wide at each end.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. 4. 7. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. Wilmette. Fig. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. as shown in Fig. place the arrow in the groove. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. from the opposite end. which is 1/4 in. 9. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. To throw the arrow. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. --Contributed by O. it lifts the spring up. The trigger. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end.

Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. Remove one end. and replace as shown at B. from the ground. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. or only as a camp on a short excursion. the bark lean-to is a . Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. C. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. This lamp is safe. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. and nail it in position as shown at A. it is the easiest camp to make. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. is used as a door. By chopping the trunk almost through. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. respectively. The hinged cover E. since the flame of the candle is above A. Remove the bottom of the box. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. says Photo Era. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. making lighting and trimming convenient. The cut should be about 5 ft. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. Moreover. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. apart. make the frame of the wigwam. from the ground.

Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. makes a good pair of tongs. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. long and 1-1/2 in. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. selecting a site for a camp. deep and covered with blankets. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. are a convenient size for camp construction. A piece of elm or hickory. Where bark is used. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. wide and 6 ft. make the best kind of a camp bed. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. and when the camp is pitched. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. For a foot in the middle of the stick. nails are necessary to hold it in place. wide. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. long. . the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. and split the tops with an ax. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. 3 ft. 6 ft. In the early summer. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. thick. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. Sheets of bark. spruce. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. Tongs are very useful in camp. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. long and 2 or 3 ft. a 2-in. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. piled 2 or 3 ft. and cedar. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. For a permanent camp. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. will dry flat.

and affording accommodation for several persons. . and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. or even a rough lock for the camp larder. hinges.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard.

Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. wide. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. --Contributed by James M. to another .. Kane. the interior can. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. B. changing the water both morning and night. I drove a small cork. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. and provide a cover or door. deep and 4 in. Pa. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. B. Doylestown. 1. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. about 4 in. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. A. Fig.

E. Fig. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. 2. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. 3. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. to pass through an increasing resistance. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. a liquid. for instance. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. The current is thus compelled. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them.glass tube. such as ether. The diagram. limit. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. 2. which project inside and outside of the tube. C. if necessary. for instance. This makes . The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. 4 and 5). the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. until. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. fused into one side. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together.

thicker. Alpena. but merely discolored. tap. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. Then the field can be finished to these marks. set at 1/8 in. When the frame is finished so far. is composed of wrought sheet iron. Michigan. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. If the thickness is sufficient. brass or iron. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. cannot be used so often. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. mark off a space. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. 2. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. bent at right angles as shown. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. brass. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. The bearing studs are now made. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. by turning the lathe with the hand. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. A. therefore. two holes. hole is . These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. which will make it uniform in size. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. they will make a frame 3/4 in. and for the outside of the frame. assemble and rivet them solidly. to allow for finishing. in diameter. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. making it 1/16 in. After the template is marked out. as shown in Fig. Before removing the field from the lathe. which may be of any thickness so that. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. thick. larger than the dimensions given. or pattern. clamp the template. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. 3. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. on a lathe. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. These holes are for the bearing studs. thick. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. drill the four rivet holes. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. when several pieces are placed together. in diameter. or even 1/16 in. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. 4-1/2 in. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. A 5/8in. Fig. as shown in the left-hand sketch. After cleaning them with the solution. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. screws. between centers. 1. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. 3-3/8 in. 3-3/8 in. Fig.

Fig. and build up the solder well. soldered into place. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. When the bearings are located. 4. The shaft of the armature.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. solder them to the supports. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. brass rod is inserted. or otherwise finished. file them out to make the proper adjustment. is turned up from machine steel. into which a piece of 5/8-in. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft.

The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. brass rod. thick. After they . 3/4 in.. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. Find the centers of each segment at one end. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. threaded.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. 7. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. to allow for finishing to size. After the pieces are cut out. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. washers. as shown in Fig. When this is accomplished. thick. Armature-Ring Core. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. as shown in Fig. 3. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. as shown in Fig. 5. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. 3/4 in. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. 6. or segments. deep and 7/16 in. as shown in Fig. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. Make the core 3/4 in. wide. hole and tap it for a pin. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. holes through them for rivets. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. When annealed. The sides are also faced off and finished. thick. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. by 1-1/2 in. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. The pins are made of brass. being formed for the ends. sheet fiber. 8. inside diameter. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. and held with a setscrew. Procure 12 strips of mica. thick and 1/4 in. 1-1/8 in. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. and then they are soaked in warm water. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. as shown m Fig. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. 1/8 in. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. 3. thick are cut like the pattern. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. as shown in Fig. 9. 6. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. wide. then drill a 1/8-in. Rivet them together. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments.

which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. after the motor is on the stand. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. Run one end of the field wire. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. thick. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. Fig. The field is wound with No. To connect the wires. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. This winding is for a series motor. yet it shows a series of . by bending the end around one of the projections. shown at A. The source of current is connected to the terminals. When the glue is set. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. sheet fiber. until the 12 slots are filled. All connections should be securely soldered. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. 5. and wind on four layers. which will take 50 ft. long. The two ends are joined at B. and bring the end of the wire out at B. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. 1. or side. wide and 1 in. are soldered together. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. they are glued to the core insulation. The winding is started at A. In starting to wind. After one coil. 1. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. 6 in. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. Fig. of the end to protrude. sheet fiber. of No. being required. of the wire. shown at B. the two ends of the wire. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. about 100 ft. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire.have dried. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. 8 in.

The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. A 1/2-in. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. and one. still more simply. as in the case of a spiral. Nine wires run from the timer. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. which serves as the ground wire. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. or. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. one from each of the eight contacts. is fastened to the metallic body. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle.

two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. circle. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. thus giving 16 different directions. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. board. It should be . The pointer end of the needle is painted black. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. of the dial. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. 45 deg. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. long. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. Without this attachment. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card.The Wind Vane. 6 in. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. Covering these is a thin.

A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. Cut 3-in. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. will be sufficient. also a piece of new carpet. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. and about 6 in. and securely nail on the top of the box. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. N. Fill the box with any handy ballast. is most satisfactory. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. To work these outlines. 14 by 18 in. long to give the best results. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. however. To make it. Buffalo. will answer the purpose just as well. though a special knife. Before tacking the fourth side. or. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. Y. high. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. making it heavy or light. if not too high." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. will be enough for the two sides. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. called a chip carving knife.about 6 ft. . It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. according to who is going to use it. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. Blackmer. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. -Contributed by James L. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. thus making a universal joint. Place the leather on some level. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover.

A good leather paste will be required. An ordinary sewing-machine . Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. Paste the silk plush to the inner side. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing.

Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. a needle and some feathers. and fasten the feathers inside of it. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. away from it. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. Y. temporary lameness. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. Syracuse. B. rather than the smooth side. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. square and tying a piece of . Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. of water. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. and tie them together securely at the bottom. N. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. or a hip that has been wrenched. Morse. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. If a fire breaks out. --Contributed by Katharine D. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. as in cases of a sprained ankle. can be thrown away when no longer needed. of common salt and 10 lb.will do if a good stout needle is used.

and a coil of wire. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. Paterson. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. One end is removed entirely. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. This not only keeps the rats out. and tacked it to the boards. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. but not sharp. is cut on the wood. setting traps. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. thus helping the rats to enter. etc. which is the essential part of the instrument. laying poisoned meat and meal. long. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. high. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. The diaphragm C.string to each corner. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. G. commonly called tintype tin. made up of four layers of No. Albany. letting it go at arm's length. The strings should be about 15 in. wound on the head end. F. Ashland. the corners being wired. --Contributed by John A. wide and 1/16 in. Hellwig. deep. board all around the bottom on the inside. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. E. The end is filed to an edge. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. as shown. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. Y. --Contributed by J. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. N.. N. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. B. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. and the receiver is ready for use. The coil is 1 in. . cut to the length of the spool. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. A small wooden or fiber end. 1/8 in. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. A. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. The body of the receiver. There is a 1-in. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. Gordon Dempsey. long. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. Wis.J.

it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. gold. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. The vase is to have three supports. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. begin with the smallest scrolls. wide. a piece of small wire. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. to . and bend each strip in shape. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. Take a piece of string or. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. A single line will be sufficient. better still. To clean small articles.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver.

Work down the outside line of the design. using a duller point of the tool. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. sharp pencil.. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. 3-1/2 in. and does not require coloring. wide when stitching up the purse. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. from the lines EF on the piece.which the supports are fastened with rivets. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. About 1 in. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. 3-1/4 in. 6-3/8 in. through which to slip the fly AGH. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. thus raising it. Trace also the line around the purse. from E to F. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct.. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. After taking off the pattern. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. 4-1/4 in. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. as shown in the sketch. Fold the leather on the line EF. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. from C to D. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. . Press or model down the leather all around the design.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber.

with pins or small nails. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. following the dotted lines. and cut out a wheel. with the largest side down. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. around the wheel. leaving the lug a. deep. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. When it is finished. the "open" side. Then nail the wheel down firmly. as shown in Fig. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. by 12 ft. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. and which will be very interesting. long. and cut it out as shown in Fig. and. 2. and tack the other piece slightly. Now take another piece of wood. Fit this to the two . 1. First. 3. It can be made without the use of a lathe. as well as useful. deep. with the open side down. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. and a model for speed and power. Make the lug 1/4 in. being cast in wooden molds. b. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. and the projections B. all the way around. with a compass saw. then nail it. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. This also should be slightly beveled.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. thick. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. then place the square piece out of which Fig. 1/2 in. square. 1 was cut. It is neat and efficient.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. Cut off six pieces 12 in.

hole 1/4 in. and bore six 1/4-in. holes through it. as shown by the black dots in Fig. one of which should have a 3/8-in. slightly beveled. in the center of it. deep. hole bored through its center. place it between two of the 12-in. Now take another of the 12-in. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. and lay it away to dry.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. Take the mold apart.pieces just finished. square pieces of wood. bolts. 4. as shown by the . Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. hole entirely through at the same place. square pieces of wood. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. Now put mold No. After it is finished. then bolt it together. and clean all the shavings out of it. and boring a 3/8-in. and cut it out as shown in Fig. 1.

Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. 4. and two 1/4-in. as shown in illustration. 1. This is for a shaft. true it up with a square. and lay it away to dry. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. until it is full. 5. and pouring metal in to fill it up.black dots in Fig. and the other in the base. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. d. 6. screw down. long. b. B. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. from the one end. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. Commencing 1-1/2 in. Pour metal into mold No. This will cast a paddle-wheel.1. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. lay it on a level place. fasten a 3/8-in. and connect to the boiler. instead of the right-handed piece. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. and drill it entirely through. and run in babbitt metal again. one in the lug.1. where the casting did not fill out.2. one in the projections. This is the same as Fig. and drill them in the same manner. Now cut out one of the 12-in. take an ordinary brace. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. Let it stand for half an hour. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. holes. wide and 16 in. place it under the drill. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. 6. only the one is left-handed.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. After it is fitted in. so that it will turn easily. Fig. the other right-handed. and the exhaust hole in projection b. put the top of the brace through this hole. drill in it. Using the Brace . in diameter must now be obtained. as shown by the black dots in Fig. and 3/8-in. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. Then bolt the castings together. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in.2. place the entire machine in a vise. holes at d. Now take mold No. This is mold No. Put this together in mold No. long. see that the bolts are all tight. and bore three 1/4-in. over the defective part. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. and pour babbitt metal into it. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. A piece of mild steel 5 in. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing.

Plan of Ice Boat . and. while it is running at full speed. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. will do good service. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. and if instructions have been carefully followed. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. and the other 8 ft. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. with a boss and a set screw. At each end of the 6ft. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. long.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. turn the wheel to the shape desired. Then take a knife or a chisel. and with three small screw holes around the edge. piece and at right angles to it. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. one 6 ft. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned..

On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in. Fig.These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used. at the top. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. 8 a reef point knot. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. 1. projecting as in Fig. long. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. long. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. piece and at right angles to it. boards to make the platform. so much the better will be your boat. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. distant. 2 by 3 in. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. which may come in handy in heavy winds. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. where they often did considerable damage. Fig. long and 2-1/2 in. The tiller. The spar should be 9 ft. 1. Run the seam on a machine. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. in diameter at the base. tapering to 1-1/2 in. should be of hardwood. Make your runners as long as possible. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. in front of the rudder block. in the top before the skate is put on. and about 8 in. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. plank nail 8-in. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. bolt the 8-ft. 3. in diameter. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. at the end. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . Figure 2 shows the rudder post. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. This fits in the square hole. leaving 1 ft. in diameter in the center. To the under side of the 8-ft. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. plank. as the runners were fastened. at the butt and 1 in. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. Over the middle of the 6-ft. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft.

Adams. The . and place it behind a stove. block of wood nailed to A. wide. so that they come in contact at C. W is a piece of wax crayon just long enough to break the contact at C when inserted as shown in the illustration. bent into a hook at each end. To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359] This is a very simple device. When these parts have been put together in the manner described. B. and when we pushed the button up in the shop the rat would be thrown 2 or 3 ft. Electric Rat Trap How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359] A fire alarm which is both inexpensive and simple in construction is shown in the illustration. --Contributed by J. connect the device in circuit with an electric bell. The arrangement proved quite too effective. Simple Fire Alarm When the stove becomes too hot the wax will melt at the ends. Comstock. for after a week the rats all departed and the boys all regretted that their fun was at an end. small piece of wood. to block B. It is quite evident that when a rat put its two fore feet on the edge of the pan in order to eat the mush which it contained. and the alarm bell will ring. A good sized induction coil was through connected with these wires and about six dry batteries were used to run the induction coil whenever a push button was manipulated. Phoenix. but one that will afford any amount of amusement. that an electrical connection would be made through the body of the rat. in the air and let out a terrific squeak. S S. P. binding-posts fastening the springs S S. Pa.another from the zinc plate through the intervening yard and into the shop. P. Its parts are as follows: A. two pieces of sheet brass about 1/4 in. Ariz. Mechanicsburg. R. --Contributed by John D. allowing the springs to contact at C.

in diameter. Put the works back in the metal shell and solder it to the frying pan by the pieces turned out as in Fig. 6 in. Take the glass. high. The wheel is anchored out by several guy Home-Made Merry-Go-Round wires. A passenger rides in each seat and the motorman takes his station at the middle. 2. says the American Boy. and make it into a clock to hang on the wall. The stump makes the best support. Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360] An inexpensive and easy way to make an unique ornament of a clock The Clock with Holder for kitchen use is to take an old alarm clock or a new one if preferred. An old wheel is mounted at the top of the pole. Arbor Wheels [359] Emery wheel arbors should be fitted with flanges or washers having a slight concave to their face. and drill a hole in the center so the shaft for the hands will easily pass through and extend out far