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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial


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  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother


Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)







A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

Fig. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. 2. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. as shown in Fig. The pieces are then dressed round. E. 2 -. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. A piece of plank 12 in. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. distant. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. until it is bound as shown in Fig. To throw a boomerang. Noble. as shown in Fig. wide and 2 ft. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. 1. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. apart. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps.Fig. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. Toronto. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. --Contributed by J. 2. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . 1. grasp it and hold the same as a club. with the hollow side away from you. It is held in this curve until dry. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. 1. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. long will make six boomerangs. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. Ontario. away. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft.

The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. blocks . however. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. A very light. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. and with a movable bottom. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. 6 in. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. or rather no bottom at all. minus the top. long. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. forcing it down closely. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. the block will drop out. thick. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. which makes the building simpler and easier. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. high and 4 or 5 in. it is not essential to the support of the walls. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. A wall. and it may be necessary to use a little water. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. If the snow is of the right consistency. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. one inside of the circle and the other outside. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. First. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. made of 6-in. but about 12 in. dry snow will not pack easily.

The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. 3. There is no outward thrust. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. or an old safe dial will do. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. C. --Contributed by Geo. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. which is about 1 ft. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. Fig. It also keeps them out. D. Fig. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. Union. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. A nail. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. 1. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. which can be made of wood.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. and the young architect can imitate them. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. 2. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. above the ground. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. a. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. 2. Fig. 1. The piece of wood. long and 1 in. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. wide. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. 3 -. is 6 or 8 in. Goodbrod. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . Ore. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up.

--Contributed by R. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. New York.When taking hot dishes from the stove. the box locked . and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. Merrill. Syracuse. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. as the weight always draws them back to place. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. S. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. says the Sphinx. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. If ordinary butts are used. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. one pair of special hinges.

and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. -Contributed by L. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. as shown in Fig. If the measuring has been done properly. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. To make a design similar to the one shown. If they do not. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. proceed as follows: First. 3. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. Alberta Norrell. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. With the metal shears. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel.and the performer steps out in view. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. about 1-32 of an inch. All . The four pieces should be worked at the same time. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. as shown. 2. It remains to bend the flaps. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. Place the piece in a vise. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. When the sieve is shaken. 1. on drawing paper. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. one for each corner. Ga. Fig. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. draw one-half of it. smooth surface. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. as shown in Fig. Augusta. allowing each coat time to dry. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation.

The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. If a touch of color is desired. if rolled under the shoe sole. and in the positions shown in the sketch. 25 German-silver wire. A resistance. causing it to expand. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. To keep the metal from tarnishing. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. about 6 in. C. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. is fitted tightly in the third hole. as shown at AA. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. The common cork. B. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. After this has dried. Galbreath. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. which is about 6 in. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. When the current is turned off. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E.the edges should be left smooth. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. in diameter. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. Colo. --Contributed by R. in passing through the lamp. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. long. H. of No. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. heats the strip of German-silver wire. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. from the back end. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. The current. Denver. used for insulation. A piece of porcelain tube. should be in the line. 25 gauge German-silver wire. In boring through rubber corks. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. R.

A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. 2. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. with thin strips of wood. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. Kansas City. 3.bottom ring. --Contributed by David Brown. as shown in Fig. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. Mo. 1. Purchase two long book straps. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. leaving a space of 4 in. between them as shown in Fig. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. Fig. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. .

which is the right weight for family use. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. long. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig.An ordinary electric bell. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. are mounted on the outside of the box. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. having a gong 2-1/2 in. A. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. Fig. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. Kane. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. as . 3. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. to form a handle. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. 1. Y. Morse. The folds are made over the string. 2. one weighing 15 lb. and a pocket battery. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. and one weighing 25 lb. --Contributed by Katharine D. Fig. --Contributed by James M. Doylestown. These are shown in Fig. 1. When the aeroplane tips. B are mounted on the bottom of the box.. just the right weight for a woman to use. Pa. C. Two strips of brass. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. Syracuse. 1. N. Fig. and tack smoothly.. 4. in diameter. 36 in. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. The string is then tied. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package.

the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. The saw. 3/32 or 1/4 in. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Louis J. 2. bent as shown in Fig. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. 1. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. long. Y. if once used. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. and many fancy knick-knacks. Frame Made of a Rod . such as brackets. four washers and four square nuts. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. machine screws. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. Floral Park. Day.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. AA. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. in diameter. two 1/8 -in. 2. N.

The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. File these edges. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. Watch Fob For coloring silver. allowing each time to dry. Michigan. therefore. of course. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. Silver is the most desirable but. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. Drying will cause this to change to purple. Scranton. copper. green and browns are the most popular.may be made of either brass. An Austrian Top [12] . the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. 1 part sulphuric acid. treat it with color. of water. if copper or brass. or silver. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. For etching. of water in which dissolve. use them in place of the outside nuts. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. be covered the same as the back. it has the correct strength. If it colors the metal red. though almost any color may be obtained. after breaking up. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. as well as brass and copper. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. 1 part nitric acid. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. the most expensive.. as well as the depth of etching desired. In the design shown. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. Rub off the highlights. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. The buckle is to be purchased. Of the leathers. A. Apply two coats. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. using a swab and an old stiff brush. Detroit. --Contributed by W.

hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. The handle is a piece of pine. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. 1-1/4 in. set the top in the 3/4 -in. pass one end through the 1/16-in. When the shank is covered. wide and 3/4 in. allowing only 1-1/4 in. Ypsilanti. Michigan. 3/4 in. . A 1/16-in. long. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. hole. thick.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. is formed on one end. in diameter. Bore a 3/4-in. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously.F. 5-1/4 in. long. --Contributed by J. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. starting at the bottom and winding upward. Parts of the Top To spin the top. hole in this end for the top. Tholl. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. A handle. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft.

Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. Alberta Norrell.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. --A. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. Mich. A. . A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. tarts or similar pastry. Northville. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. Augusta. --Contributed by Miss L. Ga. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. Houghton. The baking surface. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. having no sides. For black leathers. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown.

Mo. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. says Studio Light. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. When you desire to work by white light. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . the same as shown in the illustration. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. two turns will remove the jar. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. glass fruit jar. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. Centralia.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. then solder cover and socket together. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. Stringing Wires [13] A. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp.

4 Braces. square by 12 in. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. so it can be folded up. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. . Wis. Janesville. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. 16 Horizontal bars. as shown in the cross-section sketch. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. square by 62 in. 1-1/4 in. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp.for loading and development. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. 4 Vertical pieces. 1-1/4 in. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. and not tip over. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. They are fastened. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom.

Phillipsburg. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. The whole. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. --Contributed by Dr. O. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. Cincinnati. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. C.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. If the loop is tied at the proper place. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. Rosenthal. and a loop made in the end. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. New York. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. H. after filling the pail with water. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. from scrap material. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. The front can be covered . the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. -Contributed by Charles Stem. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. After rounding the ends of the studs.

If the gate is raised slightly. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. the mouth of which rests against a. The results will be poor. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. the color will be an undesirable. Develop them into strong prints. 1 FIG. FIG. principally mayonnaise dressing. if you try to tone them afterward. you are. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. Wehr. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. sickly one. In my own practice. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. by all rules of the game. says a correspondent of Camera Craft.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. By using the following method. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. Baltimore. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. Md. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. thoroughly fix. --Contributed by Gilbert A. either for contact printing or enlargements. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. The . and.

San Francisco..... as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away. this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain..... when it starts to bleach. An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in.... long to admit the angle support. as it will appear clean much longer than the white... L.. Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete.....bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison.... The blotting paper can .... Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper.... 1 and again as in Fig.... Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig. Iodide of potassium . transfer it to a tray of water. Gray. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder. 2... without previous wetting.. The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone. 20 gr. 5 by 15 in... to make it 5 by 5 in.. With a little practice.. preferably the colored kind. 16 oz. thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses. The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished.... When the desired reduction has taken place.. It will bleach slowly and evenly.. The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table....... Water . etc... in size. A good final washing completes the process... A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes. where it will continue to bleach. Cal.. three times." Cyanide of potassium ... being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects. but.. stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax. in this solution.... This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print. Put one on each corner of the blotting paper. Place the dry print.... --Contributed by T. wide and 4 in. 2 oz..

and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. wide. and a length of 5 in. the shaft 1 in. --Contributed by J. Monahan. Make a design similar to that shown. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. Canada. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. Corners complete are shown in Fig. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. --Contributed by L. Wisconsin. Wilson Aldred Toronto.J. 3. wide below the . The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. the head of which is 2 in. 20 gauge. having a width of 2-1/4 in. Oshkosh.

1 part nitric acid. as shown in Fig. Trace the design on the metal. Pierce a hole with a small drill. After this has dried. then coloring. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. but use a swab on a stick. Apply with a small brush. With files. With the metal shears. 2. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. 1 part sulphuric acid. which gives the outline of the design Fig. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. using turpentine. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. . smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. For coloring olive green. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. Fig. 3. After the sawing. using carbon paper.FIG. then trace the other half in the usual way. after folding along the center line. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. 4. 1. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. deep. Do not put the hands in the solution. using a small metal saw. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. Make one-half of the design. then put on a second coat. Allow this to dry. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. freehand. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. 1 Fig. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. The metal must be held firmly. being held perpendicular to the work. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work.

The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. on a chopping board. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. East Hartford. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. it does the work rapidly. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. Ii is an ordinary staple. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. New York. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. Morse. Cal. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. thick. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. . When this is cold. Conn. Richmond. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. Syracuse. --Contributed by Katharine D. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. M. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. --Contributed by M. After the stain has dried. then stain it a mahogany color. --Contributed by H. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. Burnett. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. as shown. Carl Cramer. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. attach brass handles.

A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. square. thick and 4 in. Florida. A. as shown in Fig. L. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. thick. or tin. also locate the drill holes. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. 53 steel pens.. Richmond. and several 1/8-in. Kissimmee. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. 1/4 in. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. not over 1/4 in. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. Jaquythe. Cal. brass. Fig. as shown at A. . sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. WARNECKE Procure some brass. about 3/16 in. saucers or pans. indicating the depth of the slots. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. H. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. Atwell. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. holes. two enameled. in width at the shank. 4. 1. some pieces of brass. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. one shaft. machine screws. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. --Contributed by Mrs. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. --Contributed by W.

and pins inserted. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. about 1/32 in. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. each about 1 in. These are connected to a 3/8-in. long by 3/4 in. 2. A 3/4-in. using two nuts on each screw. as in Fig. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. as shown in Fig. If the shaft is square. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. can be procured. with 1/8-in. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. The shaft hole may also be filed square. 1. into the hole. wide and bend as shown in Fig. hole is drilled to run off the water.. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. brass and bolted to the casing. 7. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. 3. wide. 2. with the face of the disk. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. machine screws and nuts. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. hole. Fig. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. in diameter and 1/32 in. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. thick. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. a square shaft used. There should be a space of 1/16 in. with a 3/8-in. and the ends filed round for the bearings. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. If metal dishes. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. hole in the center. 6. Bend as shown in Fig. Fig. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. long and 5/16 in. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. thick. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. as shown. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. Fig. 5. supply pipe. lead should be run into the segments. 3. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. machine screws. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw.

we will call the basket. Cooke. When assembling. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. high and 15 in. 8-1/2 in. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. Hamilton. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. or more in diameter. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. Canada. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. deep and 1-1/4 in. from the top of the box. La Salle. Smith. With a string or tape measure. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. --Contributed by S. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. to make the bottom. deep over all. The lower part. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. The four legs are each 3/4-in. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. square and 30-1/2 in. long. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. make these seams come between the two back legs. Ill. --Contributed by F. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. Fasten with 3/4-in. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. Now you will have the box in two pieces. V.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. from the bottom end of the legs. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. Be sure to have the cover. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. three of which are in the basket. using four to each leg. Stain the wood before putting in the . screws.

How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. -Contributed by Stanley H. as shown in the sketch. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer.lining. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. wide and four strips 10 in. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. The side. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. 2. you can. Baltimore. If all the parts are well sandpapered. Cover them with the cretonne. wide. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. The folded part in the center is pasted together. and gather it at that point. 1. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. When making the display. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. Fig.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. Md.2 Fig. Packard. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. Mass. Sew on to the covered cardboards. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. --also the lower edge when necessary. sewing on the back side. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. Boston. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite.

A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. It is not difficult to . N. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. with slight modifications. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. Crockett. --Contributed by B. It is cleanly. and. Mo. Cross Timbers. When through using the pad. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. Orlando Taylor. Gloversville. saving all the solid part. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. L. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. Fig. 3. --Contributed by H. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. Y. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel.

Mount the shell on a small card with glue. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. --Contributed by Edith E. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. -Contributed by C. are shown in the diagram. El Paso. Texas. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. or if desired. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. Lowell. If a file is used. it should be new and sharp. and secure it in place with glue or paste. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. Bourne. remove the contents. S. Mass. After stirring. and scrape out the rough parts. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. across the face. Lane. After this is done. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. Both of these methods are wasteful.

--Contributed by Marion P. He captured several pounds in a few hours. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. The insects came to the light. Turl. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. A Postcard Rack [25]. Des Moines. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. Oak Park. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. F. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. Ill. Wheeler. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. --Contributed by Loren Ward. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. Oregon. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. As these were single-faced disk records. Iowa. circled over the funnel and disappeared.cooking utensil. The process works well and needs no watching. After several hours' drying. --Contributed by Geo. Greenleaf. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. Those having houses . If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. Ill. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. Canton.

boards are preferable.. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. --Contributed by Wm. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. 6 in. by 2 ft. not even with the boards themselves. the bottom being 3/8 in. and the second one for the developing bench. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. Only three pieces are required. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. 6 in.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. Worcester. and both exactly alike. Both sides can be put together in this way. Rosenberg. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. --Contributed by Thomas E. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. the best material to use being matched boards. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. plane and pocket knife. thick. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. Conn. Lay the floor next. Mass. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. one on each side of what will be the . and as they are simple in design.. will do as well. material. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. Dobbins. Glenbrook. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. but for cheapness 3/4 in. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. The single boards can then be fixed. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them.

6) and another as F in the same drawing. as shown in Figs. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. below which is fixed the sink. It is shown in detail in Fig. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door.doorway. In hinging the door. brown wrapping paper. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. 9 by 11 in. which is fixed on as shown . 6. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. 10). A shelf for bottles and another for plates. 2 in section. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. so that the water will drain off into the sink. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. 5. hinged to it. and should be zinc lined. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. so that it will fit inside the sink. is cut. wide. etc.. and act as a trap for the light. 7. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. of the top of the door for the same reason. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. 8. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. 6 and 9. and to the outside board of the sides. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. by screwing to the floor. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. and the top as at C in the same drawing. 9). nailing them to each other at the ridge.. 11. 3 and 4. the closing side as at B. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. 6. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. Fig. The roof boards may next be put on. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. and in the middle an opening. The developing bench is 18 in.. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. At the top of the doorway. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room.

Details of the Dark Rook .

6. these being shown in Fig. 16. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. 18. A circular piece about 2 in. In use. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. but not the red glass and frame. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. mixing flour and water. Karl Hilbrich. --Contributed by W. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. as shown in the sections. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. as at I. Fig. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. as in Fig. The handle should be at least 12 in. 19. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. 20. 13. hole bored in the center for a handle. or the room may be made with a flat roof. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. For beating up an egg in a glass. four coats at first is not too many. or red light as at K. Fig. as at M. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. which makes it possible to have white light. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. screwing them each way into the boards. and a 3/8-in. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. 2. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. preferably maple or ash. Fig. after lining with brown paper. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. as shown in Fig. Pennsylvania. 13. 14. 16. though this is hardly advisable. if desired. it is better than anything on the market. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. 17. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . 1. and a tank stand on it. are fastened in the corners inside.in Fig. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. Erie. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. 15. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. Fig. The house will be much strengthened if strips.

about 3/8 in. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. for a handle. Schweiger. Yonkers. Mo. when put together properly is a puzzle. long. -Contributed by E. L. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. --Contributed by Wm. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. To operate. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. D. Smith.copper should be. Eureka Springs. as shown in the sketch. Mitchell. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. Ark. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. G. Kansas City. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. which. New York. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. --Contributed by L. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size.

A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. for the moment. to make it set level. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. The corks in use are shown in Fig. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. The design shown in Fig. After the box is trimmed. as is usually the case. . The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. Each cork is cut as in Fig. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. 3. which binds them together. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. holes should be drilled in the bottom. the box will require a greater height in front. need them. 1. 3. as shown in Fig. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. as well as improve its appearance. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. Having completed the bare box. in order to thoroughly preserve it. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. 2. the rustic work should be varnished. especially for filling-in purposes. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. If the sill is inclined. A number of 1/2-in. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. as shown in Fig. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box.

The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. and observe results. as shown in Fig. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. etc. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. . cabbages. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. being partly eaten into. share the same fate. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. drilled at right angles. Each long projection represents a leg. 2. F. 4. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. life in the summer time is a vexation. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. too dangerous. 1. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. But I have solved the difficulty. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. it's easy. can't use poison. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. Traps do no good. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. When the corn is gone cucumbers. 3..

as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. -. If. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. of No. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. The solution can be used over and over again. cut in 1/2-in. the coil does not heat sufficiently. cut some of it off and try again. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. Iowa. strips. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. by trial. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. About 9-1/2 ft. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. . Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. long. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. and made up and kept in large bottles. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid.

spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. is a good size--in this compound. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. Dallas. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. 1) removed. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. but with unsatisfactory results. Doylestown. Texas. Pa. coffee pot. as shown in the sketch. Fig 2. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. . --Contributed by James M. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. Do not wash them. Y. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. forks. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. In cleaning silver. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. and a strip. Knives. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. of gasoline. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. Kane. Syracuse. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. Stir and mix thoroughly. of oleic acid with 1 gal. it falls to stop G. N. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. D. Morse. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. --Contributed by Katharine D.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. of whiting and 1/2 oz. C. to cause the door to swing shut. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. hot-water pot.

The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. which is. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. New Orleans. Sprout. later fixed and washed as usual. Harrisburg. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. . using the paper dry. of course. --Contributed by Oliver S. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. Waverly.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. Fisher. --Contributed by Theodore L. but unfixed. Pa. La. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. negatives. Ill. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier.

is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. 1. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. In this uncertainty lies the charm. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. To obviate this difficulty. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. metal. Fig. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. The harmonograph. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. a harmonograph is a good prescription. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. then . No two hamonograms are exactly alike.

The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak..-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. Punch a hole. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. Chicago. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. that is. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. provides a means of support for the stylus. Another weight of about 10 lb. Arizona. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. as shown in the lower part of Fig. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. one-fourth. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. K. what is most important.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. Rosemont. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. makes respectively 3. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. in the center of the circle to be cut. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and.. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. and unless the shorter pendulum is. etc. 1-3/4 by 2 in. one-fifth. which can be regulated. R. A pedestal. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . Holes up to 3 in. A small weight. --Contributed by James T. --Contributed by Wm. A length of 7 ft. is attached as shown at H. exactly one-third. of about 30 or 40 lb. as long as the other. such as a shoe buttoner. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. ceiling. as shown in Fig. A small table or platform. Gaffney. J. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. in diameter. with a nail set or punch. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. or the lines will overlap and blur. The length of the short pendulum H. is about right for a 10-ft. 1. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. to prevent any side motion. G. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. Ingham. A weight. for instance. 1.

Morey. of course. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. Chicago. 4. then 3 as in Fig. The two key cards are made alike. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. N. and 4 as in Fig. distributing them over the whole card. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual.H. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. --Contributed by J. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. Fig. 1. 6. Cruger. Fig. one for the sender and one for the receiver. -Contributed by W. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. 5. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block.J. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. and proceed as before. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. a correspondent of . 3. Cape May City.J. dividing them into quarters. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. The capacity of the vise. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. 2. then put 2 at the top. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side.

6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. acetic acid and 4 oz. long. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. the portion of the base under the coil. citrate of iron and ammonia. deep. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. Alberta Norrell. 1/2 oz. says Popular Electricity. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. wood-screws. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. respectively. from the top and bottom. 1/4 in. To assemble. Augusta. drill 15 holes. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. If constructed of the former. 22 gauge German-silver wire. Cut through the center. After securing the tint desired. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. of the uprights. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. Ga. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. of water. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. After preparing the base and uprights. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. of ferricyanide of potash. --Contributed by L. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. Asbestos board is to be preferred. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. Wind the successive turns of . 6 gauge wires shown. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. 30 gr. remove the prints. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. sheet of well made asbestos paper. of 18-per-cent No.

as they are usually thrown away when empty.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. then fasten the upright in place. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. Ward. rivets. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. if one is not a smoker. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. Y. Small knobs may be added if desired. etc. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. 14 gauge. N. which. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. screws. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. Ampere. but these are not necessary. Labels of some kind are needed. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. --Contributed by Frederick E. The case may be made of 1/2-in. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. cut and dressed 1/2 in.. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. square. 16 gauge copper wire. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place.

Copper. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant.. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. being careful about the heat. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. tinner's acid. Jaquythe. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. S. or has become corroded. --Contributed by W. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. The parts are put together with dowel pins. tin. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. Eureka Springs. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. it must be ground or filed to a point. --C. --Contributed by A. If the soldering copper is an old one. D. B. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. of glycerine to 16 oz. C. Ark. E and F. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. and rub the point of the copper on it. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. A. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. . Kenosha. then to the joint to be soldered. This is considerable annoyance. G. the pure muriatic acid should be used. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. The material can be of any wood. and labeled "Poison. particularly so when the iron has once been used. Wis. and one made of poplar finished black. galvanized iron. zinc. of water. lead. especially if a large tub is used.14 oz. Richmond. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. In soldering galvanized iron. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. brass. sandpaper or steel wool. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. a piece of solder. Larson. California. Heat it until hot (not red hot). a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. as shown in the sketch.

W.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. N. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. which gives two bound volumes each year. however. Fig. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. round iron. Place the band. B. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . This will leave a clear hole. -Contributed by H. thick and 1-1/4 in. D. such as copper. Hankin. Fig. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. 7/8 in. brass and silver. C. with good results. wide. and drill out the threads. nut. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. Apart from this. Take a 3/4-in. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. Y. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. Troy. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. Brass rings can be plated when finished. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. in diameter. 2. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. The punch A. Six issues make a well proportioned book. The covers of the magazines are removed. 1. The disk will come out pan shaped. a ring may be made from any metal. This completes the die. I bind my magazines at home evenings. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. The dimensions shown in Fig. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. in diameter.

If started with the January or the July issue.4. Coarse white thread. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. Start with the front of the book.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. is used for the sewing material. which is fastened the same as the first. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. . The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. deep. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. is nailed across the top. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. 1/8 in. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. 2. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. and place them against the strings in the frame. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. The sections are then prepared for sewing. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. allowing about 2 in. Five cuts. using . as shown in Fig. of the ends extending on each side. 5. and then to string No. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. 1 in Fig. The covering can be of cloth. 1. then back through the notch on the right side. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. 2. size 16 or larger. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. through the notch on the left side of the string No. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. C. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. After drawing the thread tightly. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. The string No. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. 1. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. Place the cardboard covers on the book. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. and a third piece. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. 1. The covering should be cut out 1 in. threaded double. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. on all edges except the back. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied.

--Contributed by Clyde E. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. and mark around each one. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. For the blade an old talking-machine . How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. Nebr. and. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. Place the cover on the book in the right position. Tinplate. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. at opposite sides to each other.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. on which to hook the blade. Divine. Encanto. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. round iron. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. College View. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. Cal. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in.

Make the blade 12 in. with a steel sleeve. at the same end. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in.. by 4-1/2 in. Ohio. as shown.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. and 1/4 in. and file in the teeth. or double extra heavy. C. Hays. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. hydraulic pipe. and another piece (B) 6 in. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. Summitville. thick. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. and a long thread plug. fuse hole at D. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. by 1 in. as it is sometimes called. E.. long. On the upper side. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. bore. thick. Moorhead. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. Miss. F. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. Then on the board put . Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). A. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. B. in order to drill the holes in the ends. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. and 1/4 in. -Contributed by Willard J. with 10 teeth to the inch.

raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. the jars need not be very large. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. H. 4 jars. If you are going to use a current of low tension. Boyd. some sheet copper or brass for plates. and some No. Connect up as shown. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. A lid may be added if desired. high around this apparatus. of rubber-covered wire. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. as from batteries. --Contributed by Chas. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. about 5 ft. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. of wire to each coil. using about 8 in.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. Philadelphia.

C.the way. 11 in. Z. 3 and No. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. A variation of 1/16 in. On the door of the auto front put the . gives full current and full speed. steel rod makes a good steering rod. 2. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. sheet brass 1 in. 27 B. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. The stock required for them is oak. 3. An iron washer. wide by 3/4 in. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. C. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. thick. 1. No.. B and C. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. is used to reduce friction. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. by 2 in. & S.. as they are not substantial enough. square by 14 ft. by 5 in. beginning at the rear. 34 in. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. long. B. 1 is connected to point No.. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. by 6 in. and plane it on all edges. 4. however. direct to wire across jars. 2. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. First sandpaper all the wood. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. 16-1/2 in. At the front 24 or 26 in. 4) of 3/4-in. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. 2. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. Fig. by 5 in. 1 on switch. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. wide and 2 in. with the cushion about 15 in. 2 and 3. 5 on switch. by 1-1/4 in. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. by 1 in. For the brass trimmings use No. wide and 3/4 in. two for each jar. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. and bolt through. The connection between point No. 1 and so on for No. long. Construct the auto front (Fig. as they "snatch" the ice.. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. The sled completed should be 15 ft. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. To wire the apparatus. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. 4 in. apart. 2 is lower down than in No. 7 in.. Their size also depends on the voltage. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. and four pieces 14 in. For the front runners these measurements are: A. by 1-1/4 in. wide. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. are important. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. long. 30 in. Equip block X with screw eyes. thick. two pieces 30 in. The illustration shows how to shape it.. two pieces 14 in. In proportioning them the points A. 15-1/2 in. oak boards. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. two pieces 34 in. The current then will flow through the motor. and for the rear runners: A. long by 22 in. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. long. The top disk in jar No.. 3 in. by 2 in. Put arm of switch on point No. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. . 2 in. B. making them clear those in the front runner. Use no nails. Use no screws on the running surface. or source of current. See Fig. then apply a coat of thin enamel. A 3/4-in. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. on No. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. above the ground.

cheap material. If the expense is greater than one can afford. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. to the wheel. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. by 1/2 in. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. a brake may be added to the sled. Then get some upholstery buttons. long. etc. Fasten a horn. If desired. such as used on automobiles. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. to improve the appearance. If desired. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. overshoes. lunch. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. fasten a cord through the loop. which is somewhat moist. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. by 30 in. such as burlap. cutting it out of sheet brass. or with these for $25. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. may be stowed within. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. parcels. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. a number of boys may share in the ownership. brass plated. The best way is to get some strong. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled.

tree and bring. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. Lexington. Ill. --Contributed by Stewart H. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. Leland. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. . The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks.

3. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. E. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. some files. a compass. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. made from 1/16-in. from F to G. by drawing diameters. First take the case of a small gearwheel. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. thick. with twenty-four teeth. sheet metal. when flat against it. the same diameter as the wheel. Draw a circle on paper. With no other tools than a hacksaw. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. 2. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. so that the center of the blade. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. CD. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. Fig. The first tooth may now be cut. will be over the line FG. London. The Model Engineer. say 1 in. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. though more difficult. This guide should have a beveled edge. FC. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. which. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. mild steel or iron. 4). says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. 1. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. A small clearance space. the cut will be central on the line. The straight-edge.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. outside diameter and 1/16 in. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. Fig. Fig. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness.

as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. some wire and some carbons. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. and the other outlet wire. 1. B. . 2. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. ground it with a large piece of zinc. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. 1. transmitter. R. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. If there is no faucet in the house. A bright. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. electric lamp. Focus the camera in the usual manner. Then take one outlet wire. each in the center. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. Make a hole in the other.Four Photos on One Plate of them. as shown in Fig. hold in one hand. No shock will be perceptible. either the pencils for arc lamps. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. or several pieces bound tightly together. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. B.

and about that size. J. Ashland. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. They have screw ends. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. One like a loaf of bread. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. and again wind the wire around it. If desired. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. Slattery. at each end for terminals. leaving about 10 in. Emsworth. a transmitter which induces no current is used. and will then burn the string C. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. D D are binding posts for electric wires. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. Wrenn. one at the receiver can hear what is said. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. Several battery cells. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. Then set the whole core away to dry. or more of the latter has been used. But in this experiment. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. 36 wire around it. A is a wooden block. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. --Contributed by Geo. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. B. Dry batteries are most convenient. Ohio. as shown. serves admirably. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. are also needed. by 1 in. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. under the gable. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. as indicated by E E. For a base use a pine board 10 in. of course. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. Pa. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. by 12 in. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient.

run a No. Turn on switch. and switch. At one side secure two receptacles. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. connecting lamp receptacles. B B. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. The oven is now ready to be connected. until the hand points to zero on the scale. D. as shown. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. and the lamps. Connect these three to switch. The apparatus is now ready for operation. Newark. First make a support. Place 16-cp. while C is open. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. B B. in series with bindingpost. in parallel. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. Fig. for the . The coil will commence to become warm. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. as shown. Jr. Ohio. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. C.wire. These should have hollow ends. 2. C. D. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. From the other set of binding-posts. E. 14 wire. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. 12 or No. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. the terminal of the coil. and one single post switch. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. F.. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. 1. Fig.

3 amperes. Fig. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. 6. The core.. drill in only to the opening already through.E. 4 amperes. This may be made of wood. although copper or steel will do. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. is then made and provided with a glass front. as shown in the cut. long. remove the valve. although brass is better. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. Fig. A wooden box. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. 5. 36 magnet wire instead of No. 5. To make one. E. but if for a 4way. a standard ammeter.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. 4 in. 4. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. 1/4 in. drill a hole as shown at H. The pointer or hand. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. deep. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. 10 turns to each layer. At a point a little above the center. is made of iron. 14. 14 wire. Fig. 3. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. Mine is wound with two layers of No. until the scale is full. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. 1. to prevent it turning on the axle. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. Fig. a battery. long and make a loop. a variable resistance. high. wide and 1/8 in. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. from the lower end. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. It is 1 in. D. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. After drilling. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. thick. wide and 1-3/4 in. Montreal. B. The box is 5-1/2 in. drill through the entire case and valve. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. Dussault. is made of wire. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through.or 4-way valve or cock. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. and D. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. etc. inside measurements. where A is the homemade ammeter. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. If for 3-way. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. 1. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. This is slipped on the pivot. long. --Contributed by J. 7. C. 1/2 in. wind with plenty of No. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. D. 2.

To start the light. provided with a rubber stopper. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. and the other connects with the water rheostat. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. and a metal rod. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. in diameter. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. making two holes about 1/4 in. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. and the arc light. A. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. F. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. By connecting the motor. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. This stopper should be pierced. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. One wire runs to the switch.performing electrical experiments. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. in thickness . From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. high. as shown. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. which is used for reducing the current. D. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. B. E. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple.

Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. 1. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. 1. 2. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. A piece of wood. As there shown.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. Fig. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. Jones. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. --Contributed by Harold L. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. B. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. 2. If all adjustments are correct. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. Having fixed the lead plate in position. where he is placed in an upright open . Fig. To insert the lead plate. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. A. Fig. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. Turn on the current and press the button. Carthage. as shown in C. Having finished the interrupter. 1. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. If the interrupter does not work at first. Fig. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. N. long. Y. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. as shown in B. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose.

The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. is constructed as shown in the drawings. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. Its edges should nowhere be visible. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. loosejointed effect. The skeleton is made of papier maché. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. within the limits of an ordinary room. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. A white shroud is thrown over his body. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. If everything is not black. The lights. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. The glass should be the clearest possible. especially L. If it is desired to place the box lower down. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. by 7 in. to aid the illusion. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. All . should be colored a dull black. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. They need to give a fairly strong light. and wave his arms up and down. with the exception of the glass. light-colored garments. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. especially the joints and background near A. as the entire interior. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. and must be thoroughly cleansed. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. figures and lights. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. by 7-1/2 in. dressed in brilliant. high. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. which can be run by three dry cells. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. The model. L and M. the illusion will be spoiled. until it is dark there. from which the gong has been removed. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. inside dimensions. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary.. giving a limp. and can be bought at Japanese stores. could expect from a skeleton. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view.coffin. A. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. should be miniature electric lamps.

Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. placed about a foot apart. as shown in the sketch. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. Two finishing nails were driven in. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. after which it assumes its normal color. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. Fry. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. Cal.that is necessary is a two-point switch. W. If a gradual transformation is desired. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. square block. San Jose. fat spark. --Contributed by Geo. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery.

consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. with two tubes. -Contributed by Dudley H. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. Cohen. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. This is a wide-mouth bottle. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. by small pieces of wood. as shown. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. The plates are separated 6 in.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. soldered in the top. or a solution of sal soda. New York. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. 1. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. One of these plates is connected to metal top. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. A (see sketch). to make it airtight. If a lighted match . The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. hydrogen gas is generated. the remaining space will be filled with air. B and C. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. F. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. and should be separated about 1/8 in. In Fig. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. into the receiver G. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. In Fig.

1. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. B. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. which forms the vaporizing coil. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. A 1/64-in. then a suitable burner is necessary. Fig. P. is then coiled around the brass tube. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. from the bottom. by means of the clips. which is plugged up at both ends. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. 1-5/16 in. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. A. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. and the ends of the tube. 2 shows the end view. If desired. as is shown in the illustration. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. Fig. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. A. A. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. says the Model Engineer. long. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. The distance between the nipple. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. One row is drilled to come directly on top. is made by drilling a 1/8in. London. should be only 5/16 of an inch. in diameter and 6 in. of No. N. long. N. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. 1/2 in. A nipple. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. A. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of .is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. copper pipe. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. 36 insulated wire. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. or by direct contact with another magnet. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. copper pipe. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. C C. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. either by passing a current of electricity around it. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. A piece of 1/8-in. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in.

this makes a much nicer book. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. 2). It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. larger all around than the book. about 8 or 10 in. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. 1. Cut four pieces of cardboard. boards and all. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. Turn the book over and paste the other side. longer and 1/4 in. Take two strips of stout cloth. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. at the front and back for fly leaves. duck or linen. smoothly. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. Fig. leaving the folded edge uncut. Fig.lamp cord. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. should be cut to the diameter of the can. taking care not to bend the iron. trim both ends and the front edge. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. but if the paper knife cannot be used. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. A disk of thin sheet-iron. 1/4 in. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. 3. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). fold and cut it 1 in. Fig. with a fine saw. cut to the size of the pages.

This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. Toronto. deep. is fitted in it and soldered. Another tank. is turned on it. is made the same depth as B. 18 in. 4). the joint will be gas tight. H. as shown in the sketch. .Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. as shown. Bedford City. Ont. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. in diameter and 30 in. pasting them down (Fig. and a little can. Va. Parker. A gas cock. In the bottom. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. --Contributed by Joseph N. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. is soldered onto tank A. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. of tank A is cut a hole. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. without a head. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. A. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. E. --Contributed by James E. Noble. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. C. is perforated with a number of holes. Another can. This will cause some air to be enclosed. or rather the top now. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. but its diameter is a little smaller. which will just slip inside the little can. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. B. D.

which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. Beverly. B. E. should be 3/8 in. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. basswood or white pine. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. The small guards. B. which moves to either right or left. J. If the back armature. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. when finished. If the pushbutton A is closed. thus adjusting the . 1. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. and about 26 in. making the width. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. should be cut a little too long. with an electric-bell magnet. long. as shown at C. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. are shown in detail at H and J. and the four diagonal struts. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. which may be either spruce. Bott. A A. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. should be 1/4 in.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. -Contributed by H. B. shows how the connections are to be made. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. Fig. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. fastened in the bottom. long. The armature. H is a square knot. D. The diagonal struts. D. A. by 1/2 in. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. and sewed double to give extra strength. The wiring diagram. S. tacks. 2. The bridle knots. exactly 12 in. to prevent splitting. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. Fig. square by 42 in. The longitudinal corner spines.. N. C.

however. to prevent slipping. Clay Center. E. Closing either key will operate both sounders. can be made of a wooden . D. A bowline knot should be tied at J. and if a strong wind is blowing. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. for producing electricity direct from heat. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. with gratifying results. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. and. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. --Contributed by Edw. Stoddard. Chicago. that refuse to slide easily.lengths of F and G. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. If the kite is used in a light wind. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. thus shortening G and lengthening F. the batteries do not run down for a long time. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. shift toward F. as shown. Kan. --Contributed by A. Harbert.

A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. B. F.. When the cannon is loaded. D. by means of machine screws or. Then. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current.frame. A and B. or parallel with the compass needle. in position. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. C. C. Chicago. 14 or No. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. with a pocket compass. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. with a number of nails. and also holds the pieces of wood. E. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. and the current may then be detected by means. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. C. to the cannon. A. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . The wood screw. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. A. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. A. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. Fasten a piece of wood. which conducts the current into the cannon. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. placed on top. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. 16 single-covered wire. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. E. --Contributed by A. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. spark.

D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. To unlock the door. in this position the door is locked. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. To lock the door. --Contributed by Joseph B. Bend the strips BB (Fig. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. H. --Contributed by Henry Peck. Connect as shown in the illustration. Ohio. Keil. requiring a strong magnet. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. L. within the reach of the magnet. Mich. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. square and 3/8 in. . press the button. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. A and S. To reverse. with the long arm at L'. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. Chicago. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. In Fig. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. now at A' and S'. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. A and S. A hole for a 1/2 in. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. Big Rapids. when in position at A'. but no weights or strings. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. to receive the screw in the center. Marion. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. 1. Fig. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. where there is a staple. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. B.the current is shut off. screw is bored in the block. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. 1. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. A. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. 1. Fig.

The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. if enameled white on the concave side. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. or for microscopic work. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. and C is a dumbbell. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. The standard and base. and if desired the handles may . consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. Rand. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. When ready for use. and may be made at very slight expense. gas-pipe. J. are enameled a jet black. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. When the holes are finished and your lines set. pipe with 1-2-in. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. Mass. West Somerville. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. about 18 in. long. put in the handle. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. Thread the other end of the pipe. --Contributed by C.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. hole. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task.

A. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. with a cover. D. --Contributed by C. long and 8 in. inside the pail. M. across. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. 1. across. which shall project at least 2 in. 8 in. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. Mass. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. Make a cylindrical core of wood. as shown at A in the sketch.. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. Fig. This peculiar property is also found in ice.be covered with leather. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. high by 1 ft. Fig. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. 1. E. North Easton. B. Warren. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln .

file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in.. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. which is the hottest part. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. the firing should be gradual. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. pack this space-top. It is placed inside the kiln. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. If the cover of the pail has no rim. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. carefully centering it. hotel china. Cover with paper and shellac as before. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. 1390°-1410°. C. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. 25%. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. The 2 in. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. and graphite. and cut it 3-1/2 in. When lighted. and 3/8 in. if there is to be any glazing done. pipe. thick. such . as dictated by fancy and expense. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. 2 in. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. say 1/4 in. and your kiln is ready for business. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. strip of sheet iron. 2. hard porcelain. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. Set aside for a few days until well dried. L. C. layer of the clay mixture. if you have the materials.mixture of clay. 1). C.. long over the lid hole as a chimney. thick. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. but will be cheaper in operation. in diameter. and 3/4 in. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. 3) with false top and bottom. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. and with especial caution the first time. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. let this dry thoroughly. as is shown in the sketch. 60%.. This done. 1). diameter. sand. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. bottom and sides. cutting the hole a little smaller. passing wire nails through and clinching them. projecting from each end (Fig. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in.-G. Wind about 1/8 in. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. the point of the blue flame. 15%. E. 1330°. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. and on it set the paper wrapped core. but it will burn a great deal of gas. full length of iron core. make two wood ends. long. Line the pail. Whatever burner is used. or make one yourself. in diameter. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. Fit all the parts together snugly. and varnish. Fig. of fine wire. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. about 1 in. pipe 2-ft. After removing all the paper. wider than the kiln. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. After finishing the core. to hold the clay mixture. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. W.

one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. and discharges into the tube. . The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. T. Take the red cards. procure a new deck.53 in. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. as in Fig. length of . Chicago. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. about 1/16 in.. as in Fig. The funnel. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. square them up. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. 2. You can display either color called for. red and black. 2. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. 2). so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. Washington. --Contributed by J. around the coil. diameter. A. and so on. R. taking care to have the first card red. all cards facing the same way. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. the next black. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. and plane off about 1/16 in. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. B. and divide it into two piles.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. C. C. with a plane. Next restore all the cards to one pack. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. C. Then. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. bind tightly with black silk. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. 8 in. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. leaving long terminals. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. overlaps and rests on the body. Then take the black cards. 1. as shown in the sketch herewith. D. every alternate card being the same color. Of course. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. square them up and place in a vise.

is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. stove bolts. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. Fig. of the frame. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. A. E. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. B. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. about 20 in. Drill all the horizontal pieces. and this is inexpensive to build. through the holes already drilled. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. The upright pieces. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. All the horizontal pieces. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. so that when they are assembled. E. and then the frame is ready to assemble. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. It should be placed in an exposed location. When the glass is put in the frame a space. B. 1 gill of litharge. The bottom glass should be a good fit. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. F. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. thus making all the holes coincide. the same ends will come together again. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. D. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. C. Long Branch.C. 1.J. 1 gill of fine white sand. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. to form a dovetail joint as shown. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. A. B. N. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. The cement.. To find the fall of snow. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. stove bolts. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. Let . Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. angle iron for the frame. the first thing to decide on is the size. as the difficulties increase with the size.

a centerpiece (A. Fig. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. to the door knob. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. having a swinging connection at C. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . B. A.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. Fasten the lever. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. and. Aquarium Finished If desired. if desired. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. on the door by means of a metal plate. D.

E. another. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. White. with a water pressure of 70 lb. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. Fig. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. to form the slanting part. 1. long. N. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. A small piece of spring brass. AA. according to the slant given C. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. Fig. Fig. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. To make the frame. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. Fig. Two short boards 1 in. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. 1 . long. soldered to the end of the cylinder. long. long. D. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. will open the door about 1/2 in. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. and Fig. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. Cut two of them 4 ft. 3 shows one of the paddles. which is 15 in. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. Do not fasten these boards now. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. for the top.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. I referred this question to my husband. wide . 2 is an end view. to keep the frame from spreading. They are shown in Fig. but mark their position on the frame. thus doing away with the spring. hoping it may solve the same question for them. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. 1 is the motor with one side removed. from the outside top of the frame. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. as at E. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. to form the main supports of the frame. C.. 6 in. Fig. Fig. Buffalo. several lengths of scantling 3 in. showing the paddle-wheel in position. and another. approximately 1 ft. --Contributed by Orton E. PAUL S. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. B. Y. 2 at GG. Cut two pieces 30 in. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. 1. 26 in. another. screwed to the door frame. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. 2 ft. wide by 1 in. F. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley.

This is best done by using a square taper reamer. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. 2) and another 1 in. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. remove the cardboard. 1. and a 1/4 -in. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. long to the wheel about 8 in. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. after which drill a 5/8 in. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. thick (HH. with the wheel and shaft in place. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. 24 in. iron. Fig. (I. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. iron 3 by 4 in. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. Next secure a 5/8-in. GG. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. tapering from 3/16 in. Make this hole conical. Drill 1/8-in. Take the side pieces. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. 2) form a substantial base. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. hole through them. These are the paddles. by 1-1/2 in. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). hole through their sides centrally. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. hole through the exact center of the wheel. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. pipe. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. long and filling it with babbitt metal. holes. When it has cooled.along the edges under the zinc to form . Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. then drill a 3/16-in. hole through its center. take down the crosspieces. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. Now block the wheel. Tack one side on. and drill a 1/8-in.burlap will do -. hole from the tops to the 1-in. from one end by means of a key. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. and drill a 1-in. Fasten them in their proper position. to a full 1/2 in. that is. in diameter. Fig. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. as shown in Fig. steel shaft 12 in. Fig. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. hole to form the bearings. thick. 2) with a 5/8-in. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. 4.

and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. sewing machine. The best plate to use is a very slow one. If sheet-iron is used. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. Correct exposure depends. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation.a water-tight joint. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. If the bearings are now oiled. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. drill press. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. but as it would have cost several times as much. ice-cream freezer. Darken the rest of the window. of course.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. or what is called a process plate. as this makes long exposure necessary. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. place the outlet over a drain. start the motor. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. but now I put them in the machine. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. on the lens. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. remove any white curtains there may be. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. Focus the camera carefully. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. Do not stop down the lens. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. and the subject may move. as shown in the sketch at B. says the Photographic Times. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. . Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. and as near to it as possible. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. it would be more durable. Drill a hole through the zinc. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. Raise the window shade half way. shutting out all light from above and the sides. any window will do. and leave them for an hour or so. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. light and the plate. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. It is obvious that.

which is made of iron and cork. The current required is very small. the core is drawn down out of sight. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. D. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. full of water. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. C. an empty pill bottle may be used. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. A. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. 2. or wood. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. The glass tube may be a test tube. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. until the core slowly rises. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. and a base. without detail in the face. as shown in Fig. by twisting. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. hard rubber. 2. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. a core. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. or an empty developer tube. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. B. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. and without fog. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. a glass tube. With a piece of black paper. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. or can be taken from an old magnet. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. On completing . The core C. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. as a slight current will answer. with binding posts as shown.

1 pt. and one not easy to explain. is Benham's color top. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. finest graphite. and are changed by reversing the rotation. This is a mysterious looking instrument. 1 lb. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. 1. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. The colors appear different to different people. and make a pinhole in the center. white lead. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. whale oil. water and 3 oz. according to his control of the current. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored.

A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. deuce. before cutting. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc.. especially if the deck is a new one. Chicago. when the action ceases. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. In prize games. As this device is easily upset. A. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. C.B. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. or three spot. B. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. -Contributed by D. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. 2 can cut the cards at the ace.L. nearly every time. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. thus partly filling bottles A and C. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. In making hydrogen. fan-like. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner.

connecting the bottom by cross pieces. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. 9 in. . 10 in. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. Bently. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. 3). long and 3 in. in diameter. --Contributed by F. J. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. 1. 2. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. S. Dak. S. W. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. long. Huron. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. Jr. 12 in. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. in length and 3 in. that will fit loosely in the tube A. as shown in Fig. 4. Form a cone of heavy paper.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. Detroit. Detail of Phonograph Horn . Fig. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. Fig.. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. --Contributed by C.. Make a 10-sided stick. (Fig.

Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. Cut out paper sections (Fig. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. E. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. Fig. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. long. C. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . about the size of a leadpencil. it is equally easy to block that trick. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. push back the bolt. with a pin driven in each end. allowing 1 in. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. Remove the form. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. Denver. A. Fortunately. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. 6. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. A second piece of silk thread. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. on one side and the top.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. bend it at right angles throughout its length. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. --Contributed by Reader. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. will cause an increased movement of C. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. making it three-ply thick. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. but bends toward D. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. and walk in. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. A piece of tin. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry.

S S. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. W.. long. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. is connected each point to a battery. or left to right. as shown. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. The feet. West St. long. are 7 ft. S. put together as shown in the sketch. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. and rest on a brick placed under each end. posts. are made 2 by 4 in. The 2 by 4-in. S. Two wood-base switches. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . The reverse switch.strip. 4 ft. A. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. Jr.. B. while the lower switch. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. The upper switch. Paul. --Contributed by J. R. Fremont Hilscher. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. B. will last for several years. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. By this arrangement one. Minn. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire.

or anything available. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. FF.every house. 2. cut in half. the size of the hole in the bearing B. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. 3/8 in. which will be described later. Fig. and valve crank S. 1. thick. the other parts being used for the bearing B. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. which is made of tin. is an old bicycle pump. The valve motion is shown in Figs. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. H and K. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. E. pulley wheel. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. In Fig. and a cylindrical . and the crank bearing C. The steam chest D. 2 and 3. either an old sewing-machine wheel. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. The hose E connects to the boiler. and in Fig. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. and has two wood blocks. The base is made of wood. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. with two washers. Fig. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. The piston is made of a stove bolt. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B.

W. as it is merely a trick of photography. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. at that. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. of Cuba. 4. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. . Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. This engine was built by W. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. to receive the connecting rod H. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. The valve crank S. Eustice. is cut out of tin. using the positive wire as a pen. --Contributed by Geo. San Jose. and saturated with thick oil. 1. First. or galvanized iron. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. and the desired result is obtained. The boiler. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. Wis. can be an old oil can. G. 3. as shown in Fig. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. Fig. Fig. Schuh and A. This is wound with soft string. Fry. G. Cal. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man.piece of hard wood. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. powder can. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. J. C. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. and a very amusing trick. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it.

The smaller wheel. C. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. B. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. as shown at AA. as shown. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. and Fig. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. Cut half circles out of each stave. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. Fig. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. Fig. diameter. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. and place a bell on the four ends. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. They may be of any size. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. to cross in the center. Fig. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. 1 will be seen to rotate. B. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. 1 by covering up Figs. When turning. and pass ropes around .

When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. St. produces a higher magnifying power). but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. but not on all. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. as shown in the illustration. --Contributed by H. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. which accounts for the sound.M. procure a wooden spool. From a piece of thin .. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. Louis. W. from the transmitter. long. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones.G. Mo. which allows the use of small sized ropes.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. To make this lensless microscope. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. A (a short spool. such as clothes lines. This in turn will act on the transmitter. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in.

darting across the field in every direction. D. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. A. and at the center. The pivot. held at arm's length. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. or 64 times. The lever. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. by means of brads. 1. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. To use this microscope. e. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. . from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. cut out a small disk. H. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. place a small object on the transparent disk. C.. fastened to a wooden base.) But an object 3/4-in. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. the diameter will appear twice as large. i. the object should be of a transparent nature. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. is fastened at each end by pins. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder.. B. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. Fig. the diameter will appear three times as large. D. as in all microscopes of any power. if the distance is reduced to one-third. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. and so on. in which hay has been soaking for several days. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. and look through the hole D. (The area would appear 64 times as large. otherwise the image will be blurred. which are pieces of hard wood. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. if the distance is reduced to one-half. 3. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. 2. bent as shown. B. Viewed through this microscope. An innocent-looking drop of water. C. E. can be made of brass and the armature. is made of iron. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. The spring. which costs little or nothing to make.

wide and set in between sides AA.SOUNDER-A. D. which are made to receive a pivot. The back. A switch. 26 wire: E. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. HH. fastened near the end. D. D. or taken from a small one-point switch. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. E. The door. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. The binding posts. brass. Each side. DD. B. B. brass: E. Fig. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. brass or iron soldered to nail. wide. C. binding posts: H spring The stop. soft iron. similar to the one used in the sounder. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. Cut the top. long. A. connection of D to nail. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. wide. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. and are connected to the contacts. long by 16 in. between the armature and the magnet. 16 in. KEY-A. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. thick. The base of the key. . The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. AA. Fig. wide and about 20 in. should be about 22 in. FF. can be made panel as shown. 2. brass: B. is cut from a board about 36 in. nail soldered on A. K. 1. in length and 16 in. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. F. 16 in. K. C. coils wound with No. wood: C. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. or a single piece. long and 14-1/2 in. wood. wide. wood: F. wide. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern.

the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. E. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. Garfield. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. cut in them. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. 2 and made from 1/4-in. Ill. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. as shown in the sketch. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . When the electrical waves strike the needle. AA. brads.. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. 13-1/2 in. long.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. material. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. with 3/4-in. In operation. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. as shown. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. Make 12 cleats.

A fairly stiff spring. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. and thus decreases the resistance. in order to increase the surface. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. pulls down the armature. Y. and. When the pipe is used. F. Ridgewood. A. the magnet. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. Fairport. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. A. N. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. down into the water increases the surface in contact. B. through which a piece of wire is passed. The cord is also fastened to a lever. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. --Contributed by John Koehler. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. Pushing the wire.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. A (see sketch). J. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. Brown. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. filled with water. will give a greater speed. C. --Contributed by R. N. E. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. when used with a motor.

the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . Borden. even those who read this description. B. if desired.for the secret contact. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. --Contributed by Perry A. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. N. Of course. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. Gachville. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other.

Mangold. East Orange. thick and 12-in. wide. From a piece of brass a switch. Washington. N. . A. C. D. records and 5-5/8 in. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. where the other end of wire is fastened. for 6-in. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. long and full 12-in. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. Connect switch to post B.whenever the bell rings. Nails for stops are placed at DD. records. Two drawers are fitted in this space. wide. wide bore holes about 1/4 in.. from the bottom. 1. long and 5 in. Jr. as shown in Fig. Dobson. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. C. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. The three shelves are cut 25-in. --Contributed by H. as shown in Fig. Cal. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. The top board is made 28-in. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. Compton. apart. for 10in. H. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. --Contributed by Dr. With about 9 ft. wide. and on both sides of the middle shelf. in a semicircle 2 in. J. 2. wide. wide. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. deep and 3/4 in. E.

Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] .Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. When the cord is passed over pulley C. to which is fastened a cord. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. B. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. as shown in Fig. Roanoke. E. A. closed. 1. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. which in operation is bent. as shown by the dotted lines. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. Va. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C.

in diameter. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. is compressed by wheels. Figs. wide. long. Cut two grooves. in diameter. Notice the break (S) in the track. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. in diameter. 1 in. excepting the crank and tubing. Fig. against which the rubber tubing. Put the rubber tube. but a larger one could be built in proportion. Now put all these parts together.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. square and 7/8 in. through one of these holes. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. In the sides (Fig. 3. The crankpin should fit tightly. If the wheels fit too tightly. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. 4 shows the wheel-holder. it too loose. deep and 1/2 in. which should be about 1/2 in. apart. 5) when they are placed. holes (HH. wide. in diameter. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. thick. they will bind. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. In these grooves place wheels. one in each end. thick (A. These wheels should be 3/4 in. Fig. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. as shown in the illustration. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. D. Bore two 1/4 in. 3). B. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. Do not fasten the sides too . Fig. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. to turn on pins of stout wire. 1 in. E. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. they will let the air through. E. deep. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. Figs. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. 1. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. CC.

Then turn the crank from left to right. though a small iron wheel is better. In the two cross bars 1 in. costing 10 cents. Two feet of 1/4-in. because he can . and mark for a hole. Fig. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. of material. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. the other wheel has reached the bottom. long. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. the pump will give a steady stream. The animal does not fear to enter the box.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. Cut six pieces. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. iron. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. from each end. Fig. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. Take the center of the bar. mark again. as it gives steadiness to the motion. 1. The three legs marked BBB. Kan. a platform should be added. 2. AA. mark for hole and 3 in. from that mark the next hole. Fig. 17-1/2 in. is all the expense necessary. 1. tubing. as shown in Fig. Idana. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. from the bottom and 2 in.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. AA. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. B. --Contributed by Dan H. To use the pump. The screen which is shown in Fig. Fig. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. If the motion of the wheels is regular. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. beyond each of these two. 2. 15 in. from each end. Hubbard. 1. For ease in handling the pump. 1. and are 30 in. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. A in Fig. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. 1. and 3-1/2 in. from each end. stands 20 in. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright.

silvery appearance. there is too much liquid in the jar. If it is wet. Meyer. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. however. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. Place the carbon in the jar. and touches the bait the lid is released and. If the battery has been used before. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. To cause a flow of electricity. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. 14 copper wire. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. or small electric motors. . some of it should be poured out. stirring constantly. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. or. 2). This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. potassium bichromate. When through using the battery. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. 4 oz. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. until it is within 3 in. acid 1 part). 1) must be prepared. rub the zinc well. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. and the solution (Fig. but if one casts his own zinc. --Contributed by H. sulphuric acid. shuts him in. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. long having two thumb screws. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. It is useful for running induction coils. The battery is now ready for use. dropping. Philadelphia. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. The mercury will adhere. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. The truncated. of the top. When the bichromate has all dissolved. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. giving it a bright. The battery is now complete. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. C. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid.see through it: when he enters. If the solution touches the zinc. of water dissolve 4 oz. add slowly. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful.

The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. the battery circuit. while the coal door is being opened. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. pressing the pedal closes the door. Madison. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. Wis. e.Fig. i. The price of the coil depends upon its size. If. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. --Contributed by Edward Whitney.. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. with slight changes. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. the jump-spark coil . After putting in the coal.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. which opens the door. however.

It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. 6. which is made of light copper wire. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. . 7). After winding. Fig. in a straight line from top to bottom.7. and closer for longer distances. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. diameter. apart. in a partial vacuum. coil. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. Now for the receiving apparatus. as shown in Fig. Change the coil described. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. W W. 5. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp.described elsewhere in this book. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. 6. being a 1-in. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. W W. while a 12-in. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. the full length of the coil. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. 7. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". This coil. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. made of No. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. This will make an excellent receiver. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. as shown in Fig. 7. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water.

To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. Figs. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. after all. are analogous to the flow of induction. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. to the direction of the current. using an electric motor and countershaft. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. being vertical. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. may be easily made at very little expense. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. as it matches the color well. at any point to any metal which is grounded. and hence the aerial line. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. A.The aerial line. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. . The writer does not claim to be the originator. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. but simply illustrates the above to show that.6 stranded. only. being at right angles. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. 1). Run a wire from the other binding post. I run my lathe by power. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. B the bed and C the tailstock. 1 to 4. These circles. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). 90°. above the ground. A large cone pulley would then be required. No. 90°. but it could be run by foot power if desired. where A is the headstock. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. in the air. For an illustration. which will be described later.

6 Headstock Details D. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. If the bearing has been properly made. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. The bolts B (Fig. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. Heat the babbitt well. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. one of which is shown in Fig. The headstock. deep. and runs in babbitt bearings. B. 4. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. which are let into holes FIG. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. After pouring. on the under side of the bed. just touching the shaft. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. and Fig. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. Fig. and it is well to have the shaft hot. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . Fig. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. Fig. pitch and 1/8 in. steel tubing about 1/8 in. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. but not hot enough to burn it. 2 and 3. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. too. 4. thick. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. 6. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. The bearing is then ready to be poured. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. A. which pass through a piece of wood. 5.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. Fig. tapered wooden pin. 5. To make these bearings.

of the walk . B. If not perfectly true. N.other machines. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. Newark. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. embedded in the wood. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. The tail stock (Fig. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. A. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. they may be turned up after assembling. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. Oak Park. lock nut.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. If one has a wooden walk. This prevents corrosion. FIG. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. so I had to buy one. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. Ill. the alarm is easy to fix up. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest.J. Take up about 5 ft. and a 1/2-in. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock.

water. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. to roughen the surface slightly. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. hang the articles on the wires. S. Minn. to remove all traces of grease. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. before dipping them in the potash solution. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. 2). copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. leaving a clear solution. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. Do not touch the work with the hands again. Fig. Finally. To avoid touching it. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. Connect up an electric bell. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. Jackson. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. save when a weight is on the trap. and the alarm is complete. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. --Contributed by R. of water. add potassium cyanide again. (A. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. so that they will not touch. Then make the solution . Minneapolis. silver or other metal. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. clean the articles thoroughly. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash.

zinc. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. 1 not only unlocks. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. B should be of the same wood. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. Fig. which is advised. which . A (Fig. long. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. A 1/4 in. Fig. when the point of the key touches the tin. with the pivot 2 in. 1). this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. To provide the keyhole. hole in its center. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. Then. Repeat six times. Before silver plating. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. but opens the door. and then treated as copper. This solution. 1). With an electric pressure of 3. about 25 ft. a hand scratch brush is good. must be about 1 in. which is held by catch B. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. and the larger part (F. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. with water. a circuit is completed. thick by 3 in. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. German silver. will serve for the key. with water. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. light strokes. saw a piece of wood. and 4 volts for very small ones. square. pewter. Screw the two blocks together. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. 3) strikes the bent wire L. Fig. When all this is set up. Fig. an old electric bell or buzzer. On brass. The wooden catch. long. if one does not possess a buffing machine. Where Bunsen cells are used. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. Make a somewhat larger block (E. If accumulators are used. lead. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. piece of broomstick. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. I. 3. make a key and keyhole. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. The wooden block C. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. shaking. --Model Engineer. 1 in. Take quick. as shown in Fig. 3) directly over the hole. copper. nickel and such metals.5 to 4 volts. such metals as iron. silver can be plated direct. Can be made of a 2-in. If more solution is required. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. of clothesline rope and some No. 10 in. Having finished washing the precipitate. as at F. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. also. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. 1. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz.up to 2 qt. 18 wire. of water. use 2 volts for large articles. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. In rigging it to a sliding door. from the lower end.

Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. no painting inside is required. some black cloth. the box should be painted black both inside and out.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. H. He removes the bowl from the black box. and a slit. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. B. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. The interior must be a dead black. The box must be altered first. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. Klipstein. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. In front of you. sides and end. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. The magician stands in front of this. 2. or cave. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. East Orange. he tosses it into the cave. 2. New Jersey. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. in his shirt sleeves. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. H. enlarged. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. 0. spoons and jackknives. . with a switch as in Fig. One end is removed. On either side of the box. with the lights turned low. One thing changes to another and back again. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. 3. between the parlor and the room back of it. he points with one finger to the box. Fig. Next. 1. 1. should be cut a hole.. Fig. such as forks. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. 116 Prospect St. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. --Contributed by E. some black paint. top. Fig. and plenty of candles. Thus. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. Objects appear and disappear. To prepare such a magic cave. although a little more trouble. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. Receiving the bowl again. is the cut through which the rope runs. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. floor. Next. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). Heavy metal objects. and finally lined inside with black cloth. the illumination in front must be arranged. H. heighten the illusion. cut in one side. a few simple tools. the requisites are a large soap box. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. one-third of the length from the remaining end. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. Fig. shows catch B. which unlocks the door. half way from open end to closed end. and hands its contents round to the audience. so much the better. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. and black art reigns supreme. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. surrounding a perfectly black space. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. to throw the light toward the audience.

The exhibitor should be . the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. which can be made to dance either by strings. into the eyes of him who looks. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. the room where the cave is should be dark. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. But illusions suggest themselves. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. which are let down through the slit in the top. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. was identical with this. of course. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants.Finally. only he. The illusion. one on each side of the box. is on a table) so much the better. his confederate behind inserts his hand. in which are oranges and apples. and several black drop curtains. had a big stage. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. of course. Consequently. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. and pours them from the bag into a dish. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. as presented by Hermann. The audience room should have only low lights. if. and if portieres are impossible. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. a screen must be used. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. you must have an assistant. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding.

and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. Finally. so arranged that. respectively. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. b1. terminal c3 will show . with three brass strips. vice versa. b2. FIG. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. 2. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. 1. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. respectively. b3. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . when handle K is turned to one side. held down by another disk F (Fig. or binding posts.a boy who can talk. at L. b3.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. by 4 in. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. e1 and e2. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. held down on it by two terminals. making contact with them as shown at y. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). is shown in the diagram. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. c1. or b2. Then. their one end just slips under the strips b1. c4. and c1 – electricity. by means of two wood screws. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. square. d. 2). A. c3.. and a common screw. On the disk G are two brass strips. held down on disk F by two other terminals. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. if you turn handle K to the right. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. as shown in Fig. f2. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. 1. A represents a pine board 4 in. making contact with them. and c4 + electricity. terminal c3 will show +. c2. b2.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. and c2 to the zinc. About the center piece H moves a disk. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. respectively. 2. Fig.

and C and C1 are binding posts. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. and then hold the receiver to your ear. from five batteries. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. from four batteries. . from three batteries. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. when A is on No. thus making the message audible in the receiver. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). Joerin. 1. you have the current of one battery. Jr. B is a onepoint switch. -Contributed by A. When switch B is closed and A is on No. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. 3. Newark. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. E. jump spark coil. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. when on No. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. when on No. 4. and when on No. --Contributed by Eugene F. 5. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. Ohio.. Tuttle. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) .

will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. and supporting the small weight. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. as shown in the sketch.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. per second. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. A. La. mark. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. Redmond. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. E. rule. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. so one can see the time. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. A. per second for each second. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. Wis. A. The device thus arranged. which may be a button or other small object. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. B. mark. over the bent portion of the rule.. is the device of H. traveled by the thread. Handy Electric Alarm . indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. When you do not have a graduate at hand. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. of Burlington. Thus. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. New Orleans. P. and placed on the windowsill of the car.

I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. soldered to the alarm winder.which has a piece of metal. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. Pa. C. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. Instead. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. Crafton. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. Then if a mishap comes. and with the same result. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. --C. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. . At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. S. wrapping the wire around the can several times. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. but may be closed at F any time desired. --Contributed by Gordon T. When the alarm goes off. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. which illuminates the face of the clock. for a wetting is the inevitable result. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. Lane. B. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. thus turning on the small incandescent light G.

the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. 1. which may.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. Two cleats. It is possible to make molds without a bench. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. If there is no foundry Fig. and many other interesting and useful articles. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. when it is being prepared. ornaments of various kinds. C. as shown. but it is a mistake to try to do this. New York City. The first thing to make is a molding bench. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. binding posts. L. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. battery zincs. With the easily made devices about to be described. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. small machinery parts. A. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. --Contributed by A. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. models and miniature objects. Macey. and duplicates of all these. engines. BE.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. as shown in Fig. bearings. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. whence it is soon tracked into the house. cannons. 1 . should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. AA.

1. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. 2. 1. A slight shake of the bag Fig. A wedge-shaped piece. makes a very good sieve. DD. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. The cloth bag. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. D. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. If the box is not very strong. as shown. high. say 12 in. and a sieve. is made of wood. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. is nailed to each end of the cope. and saw it in half longitudinally. A A.near at hand. white metal. J. which should be nailed in. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. 2 . After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. the "cope. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. is about the right mesh. G." or upper half. CC. by 8 in. and the lower pieces. previous to sawing. H. II . will be required. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. The rammer. a little larger than the outside of the flask. Fig.How to Make a Mold [96] . as shown. and the "drag. is shown more clearly in Fig. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. Fig. but this operation will be described more fully later on. F. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. The dowels. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. and this. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. which can be made of a knitted stocking. try using sand from other sources. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. The flask. It is made of wood and is in two halves. is filled with coal dust. An old teaspoon. by 6 in." or lower part. E. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. If desired the sieve may be homemade. CC. which can be either aluminum. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds.

When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. the surface of the sand at . It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed." in position. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. After ramming. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. The sand is then ready for molding. as described. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. and if water is added. where they can watch the molders at work. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. as shown at D. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. in order to remove the lumps. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. turn the drag other side up. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. and then more sand is added until Fig. as shown at C. In finishing the ramming. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. as it is much easier to learn by observation. Place another cover board on top. It is then rammed again as before. as shown at E. or "cope. and thus judge for himself. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. or "drag. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. and by grasping with both hands. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. and scatter about 1/16 in. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. as shown. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting.

in diameter. deep. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. as shown at J. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. made out of steel rod. Fig. The "sprue. as shown at H. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. as shown in the sketch.E should be covered with coal-dust. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. After drawing the pattern. as shown at G. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes." or pouring-hole. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. and then pour. III. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. This is done with a spoon. place the cope back on the drag. to give the air a chance to escape. is next cut. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. it shows that the sand is too wet. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. Place a brick or other flat. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. . The pattern is then drawn from the mold. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. thus making a dirty casting. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. as shown at H. in order to prevent overheating. thus holding the crucible securely. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. wide and about 1/4 in. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. the next operation is that of melting and pouring.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. as shown at F. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. after being poured.

and the casting is then ready for finishing. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. but any reasonable number may be used. Minneapolis. white metal and other scrap available. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. 15% lead. Morton. In my own case I used four batteries. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. may be used in either direction. the following device will be found most convenient. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. If a good furnace is available. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. --Contributed by Harold S. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. Although the effect in the illustration . is very desirable.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. or from any adjacent pair of cells. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. and. although somewhat expensive. Referring to the figure. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. battery zincs. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. babbitt. used only for zinc.

To make it take a sheet-iron band. Chicago. A. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. --Contributed by Draughtsman. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. Fig. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. Then replace the table. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. By replacing the oars with paddles. B. as shown at A. Put a sharp needle point. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. 3/4 in. The brass rings also appear distorted. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. shaft made. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. He can easily steer the boat with his feet.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. which will be sufficient to hold it. Make one of these pieces for each arm. Then walk down among the audience. outward. 2. may be made of hardwood. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . to prevent them from rubbing the hands. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. The bearings. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. backward. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. B. as shown in the illustration. If desired. connected by cords to the rudder.

is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. being simply finely divided ice. 1. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. In the same way. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. spoiling its appearance. as shown in Fig. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. and a weight. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. A. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. should be made of wood. 2. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. E. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. A block of ice. when it will again return to its original state. 3. Fig. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. If galvanized iron is used. as shown in Fig. 1. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. or the paint will come off. but when in motion. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. The hubs. C. Snow. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. It may seem strange that ice . 1. W. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. or under pressure. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. If babbitt is used. The covers. 2 and 3. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. D.melted babbitt. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles.

or supporting it in some similar way. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. brass. which resembles ice in this respect. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. P. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. as shown on page 65. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. Lane. B. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. by 1/4. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. and assume the shape shown at B.. Pa. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. Pressing either push button. it will gradually change from the original shape A. in. as per sketch. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. The rate of flow is often very slow. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. thus giving a high resistance contact. square. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. but by placing it between books. whenever there is any connection made at all. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax.should flow like water. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. by 5 in. by 2 in. by 1/2 in. Crafton. sometimes only one or two feet a day. --Contributed by Gordon T. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. but. no matter how slow the motion may be. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it.

as shown. B. F. G. J. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. wooden supports. and C. K . cord. Indianapolis. the battery.thumb screws. furnace. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. and five dry batteries.000 ft. I. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. B. vertical lever. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. D. Wilkinsburg. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. the induction coil. alarm clock. horizontal lever. C. E. about the size used for automobiles. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. Ward. draft. The success depends upon a slow current. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. as shown. G. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. Pa. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. The parts are: A. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. draft chain. --Contributed by A. weight. pulleys. H. A is the circuit breaker. In the wiring diagram.

on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. Mich. will fit nicely in them. Artistic Window Boxes The top. 2 are dressed to the right angle. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . The frame (Fig. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. Kalamazoo. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. where house plants are kept in the home. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. which will provide a fine place for the plants. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. 3.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. such as used for a storm window. as well as the bottom. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. material framed together as shown in Fig. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open.

Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. Thus. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. and the instrument will then be complete. this must be done with very great caution. a cork and a needle. one can regulate the batteries as required. which sells for 25 cents. for some time very satisfactorily. A certain number of these. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. but maintain the voltage constant. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. This is more economical than dry cells.. as indicated by Fig. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. e. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. 1. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. since a battery is the most popular source of power. and will give the . Canada. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. in diameter. can be connected up in series. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. is something that will interest the average American boy. where they are glad to have them taken away. by connecting them in series. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. 1 each complete with base. However. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. in any system of lamps. S. Halifax. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. The 1/2-cp. as if drawn upon for its total output. --Contributed by Wm. However. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. and a suitable source of power.. N. and cost 27 cents FIG.. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. so as to increase the current. Grant. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. multiples of series of three. after a rest. W.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. 1 cp. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. i. Push the needle into the cork. in this connection. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. It must be remembered. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts.

for display of show cases. FIG. where the water pressure is the greatest. lamp. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. . it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. although the first cost is greater. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. by the proper combination of these. and then lead No. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. 11 series. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. we simply turn on the water.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. double insulated wire wherever needed. 1-cp. which is the same as that of one battery. or 22 lights. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. each. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. and running the series in parallel. and for Christmas trees. and diffused light in a room. 18 B & S. These will give 3 cp. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. Thus.proper voltage. Chicago. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge.. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. if wound for 6 volts. generates the power for the lights. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. especially those of low internal resistance. Thus. as in Fig. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. according to the water pressure obtainable. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. 3. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. If wound for 10 volts. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. In conclusion. to secure light by this method. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. So. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. However. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. making. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. lamps. 2 shows the scheme. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. lamps. Fig.

CC. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. . a bait of meat. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. simply change the switch. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. Parker. center points of switch. we were not bothered with them. switch. Santa Clara. field of motor. as shown in the sketch. AA. and the sides. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. and C. thus reversing the machine. BB. Plymouth. B. Ind. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. To reverse the motor. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. Cal. A indicates the ground. bars of pole-changing switch. the letters indicate as follows: FF. brushes of motor. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. --Contributed by Leonard E. or from one pattern. or a tempting bone. B. DD. outside points of switch. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. A. are cut just alike.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. After I connected up my induction coil. Emig. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. --Contributed by F. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn.

a hammer. thus locking the door. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. 903 Vine St. and a table or bench. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. -Contributed by Claude B. Cal. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. as it is the key to the lock. one cell being sufficient. Hutchinson. San Jose. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. A. If it is not. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. The button can be hidden. W. Fry. The experiment works best . The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. which is in the door. Minn. attached to the end of the armature B. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. merely push the button E. When the circuit is broken a weight. a piece of string. or would remain locked. To unlock the door.. Melchior.

Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. W. P. where it will remain suspended as shown.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. A. attached at the other end. 3.. 18 Gorham St. the key turns. When the alarm rings in the early morning. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. forming a loop.Contributed by F. C. . Culebra. run through a pulley. D. the stick falls away. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. --Contributed by Geo. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. 4). Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. Schmidt. Wis. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. which pulls the draft open. On another block of wood fasten two wires. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. 2. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. Tie the ends of the string together. Canada. Madison. as shown in Fig. -. releasing the weight. in the ceiling and has a window weight. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. Brockville. I. 1). Crawford Curry. 3. Porto Rico. Ontario. the current flows with the small arrows. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig.

which fasten to the horn. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. Camden. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. R. running one direct to the receiver.. --Contributed by Wm. get two pieces of plate glass. or from a bed of flowers.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. or tree. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. thence to a switch. Connect two wires to the transmitter. J. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. thick. The cut shows the arrangement. S. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. Jr. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. and the other to the battery. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. D. J. 6 in. made with his own hands. First. and . a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. Farley. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. square and 1 in. and then to the receiver. Use a barrel to work on. and break the corners off to make them round. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. N. including the mouthpiece.

. so the light . and is ready for polishing. while walking around the barrel. In a dark room. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. the coarse grinding must be continued. 2. with 1/4-in. and a large lamp. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. Fig. and spread on the glass. of water. a round 4-in. A. then take 2 lb. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. wetting it to the consistency of cream. also rotate the glass. wide around the convex glass or tool. When dry. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. and the under glass or tool convex. When done the glass should be semitransparent. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. twice the focal length away. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. Use a binger to spread it on with. Then warm and press again with the speculum. 2. unless a longer focal length is wanted. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. Fig. When polishing the speculum. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. Fasten. by the side of the lamp. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. 1. or it will not polish evenly. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. Have ready six large dishes. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. using straight strokes 2 in. then 8 minutes. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. or less. melt 1 lb.. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. wet till soft like paint. set the speculum against the wall. and label. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. spaces. L. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. as in Fig. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. with pitch. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. in length.

face down. 4 oz. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. long to the back of the speculum. Place the speculum S. Two glass or earthenware dishes. Fig. 4 oz. 840 gr. in the bath and leave until the silver rises.. When dry. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. Fig. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke.. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum).………………………………. 2. then ammonia until bath is clear.100 gr. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. if a hill in the center.. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. If not. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right.……………. 39 gr. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. the speculum is ready to be silvered. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. Silver nitrate …………………………….. 25 gr. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. Now add enough of the solution A. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in.. that was set aside. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. Place the speculum. from the lamp.. and pour the rest into the empty dish. Then add 1 oz. or hills. The knife should not be more than 6 in. 2. the speculum will show some dark rings. add the ammonia solution drop by drop. With pitch. fill the dish with distilled water. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. with distilled water.. as in K. 100 gr. cement a strip of board 8 in. must be procured. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. Solution D: Sugar loaf . as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. deep... Alcohol (Pure) ……………. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. longer strokes. also how the rays R from a star . The polishing and testing done.. Nitric acid . Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. touched with rouge.……………………………. Then add solution B. When the focus is found. Fig.

I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass.John E. Place over lens. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. long and cost me just $15. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. Mellish. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. is a satisfactory angle. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. Make the tube I of sheet iron. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. which proves to be easy of execution. Thus an excellent 6-in.. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. deg. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. . using strawboard and black paper. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. stop down well after focusing. My telescope is 64 in.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. with an outlay of only a few dollars. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. telescope can be made at home. Then I made the one described. and proceed as for any picture. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. cover with paper and cloth. two glass prisms. slightly wider than the lens mount. The flatter they are the less they will distort. About 20.

Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. Boody. push the button D. through the lens of the camera and on the board. complete the arrangement. Zimmerman. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. D. B. or powdered alum. . 2. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. instead of the contrary. Fig. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. then add a little sulphate of potash. A. -Contributed by A. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. The paper is exposed. and reflect through the negative. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. To unlock. Do not stir it. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. Ill. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. unobstructed light strike the mirror. 1. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. as shown in Fig. The rays of the clear.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. says the Master Painter. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. but will not preserve its hardening. add the plaster gradually to the water. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board.

2. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. as at A and B. use a string. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. To reverse. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. Fig. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. Fasten on the switch lever. but will remain suspended without any visible support. as shown in the sketch. also provide them with a handle. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. as in Fig. 1). so that it can rotate about these points. throw . Then blow through the spool.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. 3. 2.

as shown in the sketch. Push one end of the tire into the hole. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. Tex. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. although this is not necessary. A is the electricbell magnet. San Marcos.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. wash in running water. B. C C. and rub dry with linen cloth. North Bend. Thomas. --Contributed by Geo. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. binding posts. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. -Contributed by Morris L. Go McVicker. Take out. . carbon sockets. the armature. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. and E E. --Contributed by R. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. In the sketch. San Antonio. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. Neb. L. Levy. carbons. rinse in alcohol. D. Tex. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds.

14 or No. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. By means of two or more layers of No. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. 16 magnet wire. Bell. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. long or more.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . Divested of nearly all technical phrases. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. --Contributed by Joseph B. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. wound evenly about this core. Brooklyn. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. 36 magnet wire. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on.

This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. 2 yd. the entire core may be purchased readymade. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. This makes a condenser which may be folded. as the maker prefers. in length. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. or 8 in. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. and the results are often unsatisfactory. a box like that shown in Fig. wide. making two layers. in diameter. then the strip of tin-foil. 4. The following method of completing a 1-in. diameter. which is an important factor of the coil. as shown in Fig. A 7/8-in. and finally the fourth strip of paper. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. After the core wires are bundled. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. with room also for a small condenser. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. hole is bored in the center of one end. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. No. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. one piece of the paper is laid down. about 6 in. coil illustrates the general details of the work. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. 1. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. long and 5 in. The primary is made of fine annealed No. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. at a time. which is desirable.which would be better to buy ready-made. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. long and 2-5/8 in. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. When cut and laid in one continuous length. The condenser is next wrapped . In shaping the condenser. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. Beginning half an inch from one end. but if it is not convenient to do this work. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired.

copper lever with 1-in. I. by 12 in. and the other sheet. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. round so that the inside . in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. forms the other pole or terminal. ready for assembling. one from bell.. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. V-shaped copper strip. the letters indicate as follows: A.) The wiring diagram. 4 in. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes.securely with bands of paper or tape. go. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. 3. C. which is insulated from the first. open switch C. The alarm key will turn and drop down. E. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. wide. long and 12 in. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. and one from battery. bell. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. whole length. long to key. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. B. shows how the connections are made. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. spark. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. which allows wiring at the back. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. B. D. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. A. flange turned on one side. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. Fig. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. switch. G. F. lines H. shelf for clock. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. to the door. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. battery .

says the Model Engineer. . Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. This is for blowing. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. but add 5 or 6 oz. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. 2 in. of zinc sulphate.. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. Line the furnace. That is what they are for. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. but with the circuit. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. London. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole.diameter is 7 in. Short-circuit for three hours. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. Use a glass or metal shade. instead of close to it. of blue stone. from the bottom. The circuit should also have a high resistance. If desired for use immediately. and the battery is ready for use. and then rivet the seam. do not shortcircuit. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results.

enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. as in the other movement. g. grip the stick firmly in one hand. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. or think they can do the same let them try it. below the bottom of the zinc. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. 1. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. for others the opposite way. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. imparting to them a violet tinge. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood..Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. If too low. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath.9 of a volt. To operate the trick. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. square and about 9 in. At least it is amusing. and therein is the trick. If any or your audience presume to dispute. oxygen to ozone. affects . Try it and see. Outside of the scientific side involved." which created much merriment. the second finger along the side. thus producing two different vibrations. and then. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. long. Ohio. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. 2. Enlarge the hole slightly. This type of battery will give about 0. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. but the thing would not move at all. for some it will turn one way. changes white phosphorus to yellow. while for others it will not revolve at all. porcelain and paper. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. herein I describe a much better trick. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top.

When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. but small flowers. earth. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . a means for holding it vertical. insects. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. if possible. To the front board is attached a box. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. says the Photographic Times.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. an old tripod screw. however. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. but not essential. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. but this is less satisfactory. a short-focus lens. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. and. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. and one of them is photomicrography.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. chemicals. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces.

The following table will give the size. 8 ft. Boston. CD. 7-1/2 in. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. 113 7 lb. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. A line. 7 ft. Cap. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. 10 ft 523 33 lb. 1.--Contributed by George C. wide from which to cut a pattern. and a line. or 31 ft. If the balloon is 10 ft. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. 5 ft. 65 4 lb. which is 15 ft. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. or 3 ft. while it is not so with the quill. 12 ft. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. Divide one-quarter of the circle . How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. long and 3 ft. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. Mass. balloon. 11 ft. Fig. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. Madison. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. Ft Lifting Power. 5 in. 697 44 lb. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. in Cu. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. 7-1/2 in. 268 17 lb. in diameter. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. 6 ft. 9 ft. AB. 381 24 lb. 179 11 lb. 905 57 lb.

until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. keeping the marked part on the outside. This test will show if the bag is airtight. Repeat this operation four times. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. 2. The cloth segments are sewed together. and so on. The amounts necessary for a 10- . 4. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. 3. of beeswax and boil well together. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. using a fine needle and No. of the very best heavy body. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. cutting all four quarters at the same time. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. making a double seam as shown in Fig. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. Procure 1 gal. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. 70 thread. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. on the curved line from B to C. The pattern is now cut.

When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. using a fine brush. 150 gr. if it is good it will dry off. capacity and connect them. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. ft. pipe. leaving the hand quite clean. until no more dirt is seen. of iron borings and 125 lb. B. as shown in Fig. ]. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. . How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. B. or a fan. should not enter into the water over 8 in. it is not fit to use. When the clock has dried. The 3/4-in. About 15 lb. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. or dusting with a dry brush. a clean white rag.Green Iron ammonium citrate . with the iron borings. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. which may sound rather absurd. with water 2 in. oil the spindle holes carefully. above the level of the water in barrel A. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. Fill the other barrel. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. All FIG. A. to the bag.ft. After washing a part. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. balloon are 125 lb. A. Vegetable oils should never be used. of water will make 4 cu. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. by fixing. In the barrel. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. but if any grease remains on the hand. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. of sulphuric acid. A.. 5. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. this should be repeated frequently. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. 1 lb. C. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. B. 1 lb. of gas in one hour. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. of iron. with 3/4in. 5 . The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. The outlet. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. . Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. Water 1 oz. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. C. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts.

A longer exposure will be necessary. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. and a vigorous negative must be used. and keep in the dark until used.. or battery. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. The miniature 16 cp. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. fix in hypo. keeping the fingers out of the solution. Printing is done in the sun. of any make. The negative pole. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. at the time of employment. to avoid blackened skin. 20 to 30 minutes. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp.Water 1 oz. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. The positive pole. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. of the cell is connected to a ground wire.000 ft. Exposure. Dry the plates in the dark. . Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. A cold. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. says the Moving Picture World. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. Port Melbourne. . toning first if desired. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. Dry in the dark. or carbon. dry atmosphere will give best results. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. This aerial collector can be made in . 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. or zinc. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1.

5 in. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. The storage cell. If the waves strike across the needle. holes . File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. in diameter. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. long. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. making a ground with one wire. This will complete the receiving station. a positive and a negative. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. If the wave ceases. and as less current will flow the short way. will soon become dry and useless. lay a needle. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. forming a cup of the pipe.various ways. As the telephone offers a high resistance. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. the resistance is less. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. when left exposed to the air. and have the other connected with another aerial line. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. both positive and negative. as described below. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. lead pipe.

one to the positive. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. This support or block. says the Pathfinder. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. D. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. of course. by soldering the joint. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. an oblong one and a triangular one.as possible. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. on each end. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. or tube C. This box can be square. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. does not need to be watertight. Two binding-posts should be attached. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. except for about 1 in. or tube B. a round one. namely: a square hole. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. This. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. When mixing the acid and water. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. and the other to the negative. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. The other plate is connected to the zinc. B.

These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. is built 15 ft. 2. 2. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. 1. deep and 4 ft. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. as shown in Fig. The third piece of brass. Only galvanized nails should be used. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. as it is not readily overturned. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. This punt. and has plenty of good seating capacity. C. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. Ill. . The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. as shown in Fig. long. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. wide. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. about 20 in. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. and match them together. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. were fitted by this one plug. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. back and under. in place on the wood. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. leaving about 1/16 in. Chicago. A and B. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. wide. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. thick cut two pieces alike. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. C. 1. 3. all around the edge.

Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. square (Fig 2). rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. Tacoma. B. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . A. is cut 1 in.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. thick and 3-1/2 in. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. Wash. A piece of 1/4-in. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. gas pipe. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. In Fig.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill.

--Contributed by Charles H. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. it had to be borne in mind that. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . says the Model Engineer. The winding of the armature. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens." has no connection with the outside circuit. or "rotor.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. no more current than a 16-cp. no special materials could be obtained. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. which the writer has made. without auxiliary phase. if possible. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. H. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. with the exception of insulated wire. Wagner. and to consume. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. lamp. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. In designing. which can be developed in the usual manner. may be of interest to some of our readers.

were then drilled and 1/4-in. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. in diameter were drilled in the corners. about 2-1/2 lb.the field-magnet. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. no steel being obtainable. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. A. and all sparking is avoided. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. holes. or "stator. while the beginnings . but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. with the dotted line. as shown in Fig. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. also varnished before they were put in. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. and filled with rivets. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. C. to be filed out after they are placed together. After assembling a second time. wrought iron. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. Unfortunately. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. B. thick. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. this little machine is not self-starting. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. Holes 5-32 in. The stator is wound full with No. They are not particularly accurate as it is. being used. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. 4. 1. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. as shown in Fig. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. 2. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. 5. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. 3. bolts put in and tightened up.

N. Jr. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. having no commutator or brushes. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. and the other by reduction in the camera. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. and would not easily get out of order. as shown in Fig. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. The image should . No starting resistance is needed. Newark. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. if applied immediately. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. In making slides by contact.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover.. J. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. as before stated. 2. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. a regulating resistance is not needed. as a means of illustrating songs. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. The rotor is wound with No. and as the motor runs at constant speed. 3-Contributed by C. and all wound in the same direction. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. it would be very simple to build. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. and especially of colored ones. E. If too late for alcohol to be of use. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. One is by contact. film to film. and as each layer of wire was wound. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. McKinney. The lantern slide is a glass plate. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. 1. This type of motor has drawbacks.

1. a little extra work will be necessary. except that the binding is different. C. to use a plain fixing bath. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. B. 4. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. 5. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. Draw lines with a pencil. Fig. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. about a minute. they are much used by travelers. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. and development should be over in three or four minutes. as shown in Fig. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. Select a room with one window. 3. These can be purchased from any photo material store.appear in. Being unbreakable. if possible. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. the formulas being found in each package of plates. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. and then a plain glass. over the mat. also. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. D. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. A. 2. It is best. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. as shown in Fig. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. If the exposure has been correct. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used.

Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. long. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. from the end piece of the chair. in diameter and 20 in. holes bored in the end pieces. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. Vt. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. as shown in Fig. wide and 50 in. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. If the star is in front of the left eye. known as rods and cones. while the dot will be in front of the other. long. 1. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. Fig. in diameter and 40 in. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. 16 in. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. 2.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. or other stout cloth. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. long. as shown at A. is to be used for the seat. 1. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. These longer pieces can be made square. from the ends. as shown at B. from the center of this dot draw a star. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. Hastings. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. Corinth. Fig. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. A piece of canvas. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in.

in thickness and 10 in. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. per square inch. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. Auburn. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. . and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. A disk 1 in. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. as shown in Fig. O'Gara. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. as shown in Fig. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. as well as to operate other household machines. A pitman was attached to the large pulley.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. 1. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. 2. Cal. A belt. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. J. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. made from an ordinary sash cord. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely.-Contributed by P. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed.

or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. fairly accurate. Cut out a piece from the block combination. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. Bore a 1/4-in. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. . 3/4 in. with as fine a thread as possible. and counting the threads in an inch of its length.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. thick and 2-1/2 in. leaving it shaped like a bench. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. A simple. Put the bolt in the hole. will be the thickness of the object. long. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. square for a support. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. to the top of the bench. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. says the Scientific American. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. or inconvenient to measure. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. it serves a very useful purpose. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. The part of a rotation of the bolt. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. divided by the number of threads to the inch. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. wide. screwing it through the nut. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. then removing the object. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. and the construction is complete. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. direction.

which show up fine at night. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. beyond the end of the wood. Santa Maria.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. Place a 3/4-in. Bore a 3/4-in. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. piece of wood 12 ft. material 12 ft. bolt in each hole. long. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. globe that has been thrown away as useless. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. long is used for the center pole. Oal. The wheel should be open . leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets.

is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. long. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. wide and 1/8 in. P. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. C. The spool . The width should be about 5-1/4 in. thick is used for the armature. thick. is soldered. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. at the top and 4 in. at the bottom. and on its lower end a socket. The boards may be nailed or bolted. C. and the lower part 61/2 in. to be operated by the magnet coil. long. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. A piece of brass 2 in. wide and 1/8 in. A cross bar. thick. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. which should be 1/4 in. Tex. long. Fort Worth. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. long. square and 3 or 4 in. from the ends. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. Graham.Side and Top View or have spokes. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. A. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. O.-Contributed by A. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. B. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. pieces used for the spokes. H and J. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. of the ends with boards. in diameter. 1/2 in. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. The coil. made of the same material. from the top end. L.

B. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. When you slide the pencil along the casing. which is also connected to the brass ferrule.--A.J. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. S. At the bottom end of the frame. A. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. then with a firm. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. . S. Bradlev. 2. making a hole just a little larger than the rod.is about 2-1/2 in. long. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. one without either rubber or metal end. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. for insulating the brass ferrule. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. Randolph. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. This is a very neat trick if performed right. D and E. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. and in numerous other like instances. do it without any apparent effort.000 for irrigation work. A soft piece of iron. by soldering. R. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. Mass.000. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. that holds the lower carbon. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. --Contributed by Arthur D. which may be had by using German silver wire. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. and directly centering the holes H and J.E. and place it against a door or window casing. is drilled. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. C. 2 the hat hanging on it. or a water rheostat heretofore described. This tie can be used on grain sacks. 1. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. The armature. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. F.

about 1 in. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. in diameter and 2 in. F. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. about 1/8 in.500 turns of No. The vibrator B. is connected to a flash lamp battery. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. About 70 turns of No. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. and then 1. B. long. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. thick. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. with a 3/16-in. S. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. wide. long and 1 in. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. in diameter and 1/16 in. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. The coil ends are made from cardboard. hole in the center. leaving the projections as shown. about 3/16 in. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. 2. The vibrator. for the secondary. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. A.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. The core of the coil. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. 1. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. for adjustment. Fig. in diameter. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. C. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. in diameter. from the core and directly opposite. may be made from a 3/8-in. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. Experiment with Heat [134] . mixed with water to form a paste. S. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. D. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. Fig. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. is constructed in the usual manner. The switch. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. 1. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. for the primary.

with which to operate the dial. wide. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. . 2 to fit the two holes. which is cut with two holes. The hasp. board. which seemed to be insufficient.Place a small piece of paper. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. it laps down about 8 in. as shown in the sketch. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. lighted. Fig. The three screws were then put in the hasp. brass plate. as shown. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. 16 in. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. 1. which is only 3/8-in. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. 1. was to be secured by only three brass screws. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. and the same distance inside of the new board. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. in an ordinary water glass. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. between the boards. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. long and when placed over the board. thick on the inside. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. The lock. and then well clinched. The knob on the dial extends out too far. The tin is 4 in.

square and 10-1/2 in. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. not shiny. If the box is made large enough. When making of wood. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. or in the larger size mentioned. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. which completely divides the box into two parts. high for use in window displays. and the back left dark. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. When the rear part is illuminated. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. clear glass as shown. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . any article placed therein will be reflected in. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. but when the front part is illuminated. black color.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. one in each division. the glass. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. square and 8-1/2 in. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in.

or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. as shown at A in the sketch. When there is no electric current available. as shown in the sketch. When using as a window display. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. wide will be about the right size. alternately. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. .Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. as it appears. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator.. a tank 2 ft. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. long and 1 ft. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. and with the proper illumination one is changed. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. into the other. above the top of the tank.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

A small platform. is built on the front. high. square. and boring two holes with a 1-in. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. each. 1 in. from the ground. bore from each end. Columbus. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. The 13-in. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. lines gauged on each side of each. Three windows are provided. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. radius. one for each side. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. is the green vitriol. O. gauge for depth. hole bored the full length through the center. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. with a length of 13 in. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. 5 ft. 2 ft. square and 40 in. wide. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. long. and a solution of iron sulphate added. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. Shape the under sides first. or ferrous sulphate. but with a length of 12 in. This precipitate is then washed. Iron sulphate. and a door in front. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. thick and 3 in. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. This hole must be continued . all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. wide. and 6 ft. using a 3/4-in. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. however. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. under sides together. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. 6 in. long. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. bit. dried and mixed with linseed oil. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. as shown. If a planing mill is near. two pieces 1-1/8 in. The pieces can then be taken out. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. hole. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. then use a red-hot iron to finish.

Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. three or four may be attached as shown. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. A better way. Saw the two blocks apart. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. square and drawing a diagonal on each. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. apply two coats of wax. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. Directions will be found on the filler cans.through the pieces forming the base. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. if shade is purchased. thick and 3 in. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. When this is dry. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. If the parts are to be riveted. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. For art-glass the metal panels are . The sketch shows one method of attaching. hole in each block. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. When the filler has hardened. Electric globes--two.

and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. as brass.Construction of Shade . METAL SHADE . such as copper. Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade.The Completed Lamp cut out.

It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. 2 the front view of this stand. as in ordinary devices. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. the object and the background. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. the other. one way and 1/2 in. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . and Fig. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. as shown in the sketch. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. Figure 1 shows the side. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. The arms holding the glass.

as shown in the sketch. outside diameter. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. as it is very poisonous. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. Before mounting the ring on the base. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. about 1-1/4 in. as shown in the cut. in diameter for a base. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. uncork and recork again. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. pointing north and south. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. An ordinary pocket compass. If the light becomes dim. thus forming a 1/4-in. wide and 6-5/16 in. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. in diameter. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. wide and 11 in. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. Cut another circular piece 11 in. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. thick 5/8-in. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. Put the ring in place on the base. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. long. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. and swinging freely. channel in the circumference of the ring. and an inside diameter of 9 in. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in.

088 . The results given should be multiplied by 1. to which a wire has been soldered for connections.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes . above the half can. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through.500 . The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago.600 .289 . of the top. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg.420 . EE. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. CC. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. in diameter and 8 in. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings.715 .182 . 1 oz. AA. into these cylinders. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. black oxide of copper. and mirrors.865 1. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. are mounted on a base. Corresponding mirrors. from the second to the third. and north of the Ohio river. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other. B. Place on top the so- .

It makes no difference which way the wind blows. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. which otherwise remains clear. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. slender bottle. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. University Park. 62 gr. Colo. In Fig. 31 gr. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. of pulverized campor. Put the solution in a long. always remove the oil with a siphon. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . then they will not rust fast. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. little crystals forming in the liquid. When renewing. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. alcohol. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. says Metal Worker. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. the wheel will revolve in one direction.

This is used in place of the spoon. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. on the under side of the cork. will allow the magnet to point north and south. If zinc and copper are used.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. about 1-1/4 in. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. If two of them are floating on the same solution. --Contributed by C. Solder in the side of the box . The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. floating on a solution. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. Attach to the wires. If zinc and carbon are used. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. Lloyd Enos. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. A paper-fastener box. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core.

Rhamstine.1-in. brass tubing. away.in. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. thick. long that has about 1/4-in. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. wide and 2-1/2 in. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. A. C. The base. Take a small piece of soft iron. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. If the hose is not a tight fit. hole. long. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. 1. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid.not shorter than 18 in. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire.Contributed by J. is made from a piece of No. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. long. 3 in. Thos. wide and 6 in. The spring should be about 1 in. to it. A circular piece of cardboard. F. B. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. B. 10 wire about 10 in. G--No. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. as shown in Fig. A. Bore holes for binding-posts. one on each side of the board. stained and varnished. 1/2. D. and then solder on the cover.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. C. and on the other around the glass tube. of No. 1-1/4 in. D. . This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. Wind evenly about 2 oz. E. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. H. glass tubing . E. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. Use a board 1/2. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. Put ends. or made with a little black paint. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. piece of 1/4-in. C. D. and connect the two wires from the coil to them.in. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. To this standard solder the supporting wire. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. The standard. 14 wire will do. of wire on each end extending from the coil. The bottom of the box. can be made of oak.

The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. The iron plunger. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in.--Contributed by R. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. 2. as shown in Fig. Y. long.--Contributed by Edward M. long. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. 5. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. Wis. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. long are used for the legs. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. 3 in. canvas. long. . About 1-1/2 lb. E. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. 3. about 1 in. J. 1. long. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. two pieces 2 ft. N. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. long. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. When the glass becomes soft. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. four hinges. Milwaukee. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. Teasdale. is drawn nearer to the coil. D. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. Cuba. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. in diameter. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. Smith. from the right hand. 3-in.of the coil. of mercury will be sufficient. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. making a support as shown in Fig. of No. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. of 8-oz. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in.

4. 2. --Contributed by David A. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. thus leaving a. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. Fig. The tube now must be filled completely.. Keys. small aperture in the long tube. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . although nearly any size could be made in the same way.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. Can. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. This tube as described will be 8 in. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. of vacuum at the top. Break off the piece of glass. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. 6.. 3. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. Take 1/2 in. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. Toronto. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. long. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. leaving 8 in. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. holding in the left hand. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. Measure 8 in. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. expelling all the air. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. 5. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner.

1 in. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. 6. thick. wide and 3 in.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. thick. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. wide and 12 in. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. but yellow pine is the best. 3 in. in diameter. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. 4 in. These are bent and nailed. A crosspiece 3/4-in. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. This forms a slot. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work.6 -. 1 in. as shown in Fig. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. material 2 in. wide and 5 ft. as in Fig. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. wide and 5 ft. joint be accurately put together. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. long. and the single projection 3/4 in. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. 3 in. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. 2. long. 1. as shown in Fig. thick. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . from the end of same. and 1/4 in. with each projection 3-in. 5. Fig. thick. 7. The large pulley is about 14 in. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. wide and 5 ft. long. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. thick. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. long. 9 in. wood screws. 4. 3. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. FIG. Four blocks 1/4 in. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. cut in the shape shown in Fig.

The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. by 1-in. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. . The runners can be made from 1/4-in. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. first removing the crank. --Contributed by C. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. above the runner level. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. says Photography. Manhattan. attach runners and use it on the ice. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. Water 1 oz. Kan. R. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. Welsh.

as shown in Fig. of water. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. --Contributed by Wallace C. also. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. Printing is carried rather far. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. Newton. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. 2. and very much cheaper. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. 3. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. Leominster. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. Mass. The print is washed. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. . fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. 1. 1 oz. --Contributed by Edward M.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. Treasdale. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. from an ordinary clamp skate. as shown in Fig. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. This is done with a camel's hair brush. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat.

How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. long. --Contributed by H. Fig. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. Alexandria. and to the bottom. about 10 in. Church. wide. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. Take two glass tubes. and bend them as shown in the sketch. say. A. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. extending the width of the box. The thread is broken off at the . also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. with about 1/8-in. fasten a 2-in. square piece. high. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. which represents the back side of the door. from one end. The swing door B. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. causing the door to swing back and up. Place a 10-in. 1. high for rabbits. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. Va. too. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. 2. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. 1 ft. Fig. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. hole. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. and 3 ft. Then. F. 1. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. as shown in the sketch. 1-1/2 ft. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. wide and 4 in. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow.

long. C. inside of the opening.by 5-in. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. camera and wish to use some 4. Jr. but cut it 1/4 in. 3. shorter. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. in size. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. being 1/8 in. Take two pieces of pasteboard. automobiles. Crilly. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in.by 7-in. in size. D. Fig. to be used as a driving pulley. Out two rectangular holes. Fig. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools.proper place to make a small hole. from the edge on each side of these openings. black surfaced if possible. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. Cut an opening in the other piece. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. -Contributed by William M. long. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. Paste a piece of strong black paper. 2. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. plates. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. wide. This opening. Chicago. wide. wide and 5 in. horses and dogs. A and B. .. 1 in. says Camera Craft. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. 10 in. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. say 8 in. and go in the holder in the same way. B. shorter at each end. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. 1. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. trolley cars. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. as shown in Fig. high and 12 in. and exactly 5 by 7 in. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in.

if it has previously been magnetized. in diameter. long and 6 in. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2.in. The needle will then point north and south. wide will be required. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. A cell of this kind can easily be made.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. making a . The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod.. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. into which the dog is harnessed. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it.

This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated.in. for a connection. . sal ammoniac. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. and a notch between the base and the pan. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. A is a block of l-in. pull out the wire as needed. zinc oxide. Pack the paste in. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. of rosin and 2 oz. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. only the joints. long which are copper plated. fodder. plaster of paris. of water. under the spool in the paraffin. Place the pan on the stove. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. of the plate at one end. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. 1 lb. This makes the wire smooth. with narrow flanges. when the paraffin is melted.watertight receptacle. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. File the rods to remove the copper plate. 1/4 lb. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. beeswax melted together. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. fuel and packing purposes. in diameter and 6 in. of the top. says Electrician and Mechanic. filter. one that will hold about 1 qt. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. F is a spool. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. pine. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. short time. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. Do not paint any surface. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. in which P is the pan. Form a 1/2-in. B is a base of 1 in. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. leaving about 1/2-in. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. 3/4 lb. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T.

Very few can make it turn both ways at will. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. long. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. and he finally. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. square and about 9 in. while for others it will not revolve at all. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. for some it will turn one way. but the thing would not move at all. for others the opposite way. or think they can do the same. 2. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. Toledo. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee.. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. and one friend tells me that they were . Try it and see. g. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. as in the other movement. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. and then. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. Enlarge the hole slightly. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. If any of your audience presume to dispute. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement." which created much merriment. At least it is amusing. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. Ohio. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. and therein is the trick. by the Hindoos in India. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. from vexation. let them try it. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. grip the stick firmly in one hand. thus producing two different vibrations.

If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. gave the best results. 2. rotation was obtained. and I think the results may be of interest. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. 4. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. 5. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. secondly. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. 6. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. Thus a circular or . one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. 7. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. no rotation resulted. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. A square stick with notches on edge is best. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. and.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. by means of a center punch. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. Speeds between 700 and 1. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. If the pressure was upon an edge. m. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. 3.100 r. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. To operate. p. The experiments were as follows: 1. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. the rotation may be obtained. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand.

graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. Lloyd. Washington. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. Duluth.D. . Minn. as shown. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. D. Ph. so far as can be seen from the photographs." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. and the height of the fall about 6 in. a piece of wire and a candle.. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. is driven violently away. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. A wire is tied around the can. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward).elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. A. forming a handle for carrying. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. G. at first. --Contributed by M. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. it will be clockwise. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. unwetted by the liquid. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. Sloan. --Contributed by G. and the resultant "basket splash. C. the upper portion is. if the pressure is from the left. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. is proved by experiments 3 and 4.. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. or greasy.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. long. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. flange and a 1/4-in. axle. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. 1. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. as shown in Fig. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. as shown. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. Each wheel is 1/4 in. in diameter. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. about 2-5/8 in." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. thick and 1 in. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. hole drilled in the center. with a 1/16-in.

so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. 2. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. Fig. as shown in Fig. is made from brass. lamp in series with the coil. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. of No. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame.50. bottom side up. long. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. as shown in Fig. are shown in Fig. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. Texas. Fuller. bent as shown. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. The current. 4. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . --Contributed by Maurice E. 3. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. 1 from 1/4-in. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. 2. The parts. or main part of the frame. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. holes 1 in. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. put together complete. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. wide and 16 in. 3. which must be 110 volt alternating current. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. 5. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail.brass. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. each in its proper place. The motor is now bolted. San Antonio. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. 6. The first piece. This will save buying a track. and the locomotive is ready for running. with cardboard 3 in. wood. is made from a piece of clock spring. Fig. 3/4 in. If the ends are to be soldered. A trolley. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. These ends are fastened together.

1. the length of a paper clip. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. 2. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. as shown in Fig. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. then continue to tighten much more. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. and as this end . Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. but do not heat the center.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. O. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. and holes drilled in them. as shown in Fig. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. Fig. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. When cold treat the other end in the same way. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. The quarter will not go all the way down. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. 3. Fig 1. Cincinnati. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a.

In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. or apparent security of the knot. In the sketch. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. and adjusted . square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. When the cutter A. or should the lathe head be raised. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. A pair of centers are fitted. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. When the trick is to be performed. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. 2 and 1 respectively. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. has finished a cut for a tooth. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel.

tea cosey.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. --Contributed by Howard S. book mark. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. (4. (3. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter.) Make on paper the design wanted. blotter back. 2.to run true. (6. trace the outline. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. In this manner gears 3 in. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. coin purse. (2. if but two parts. note book. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. long. or one-half of the design. Second row: -Two book marks.) Place the paper design on the leather and. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. --Contributed by Samuel C. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). Bott. N. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. at the same time striking light. The frame holding the mandrel. above the surface. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. holding it in place with the left hand. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. such as brass or marble. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. twisted around itself and soldered. (1. draw center lines across the required space. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. 1. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. gentleman's card case or bill book. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. Fig. (5. Fold over along these center lines. lady's card case. An ordinary machine will do. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. Brooklyn. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. tea cosey. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. if four parts are to be alike.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. and a nut pick. dividing it into as many parts as desired. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. swing lathe. watch fob ready for fastenings. Y. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. When connecting to batteries. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. lady's belt bag. about 1-1/2 in. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). Bunker.

and an ordinary bottle. Secure .How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. some heavy rubber hose.

Florida. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. The electrodes are made . If the needle is not horizontal. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. from Key West. and bore a hole through the center. a distance of 900 miles.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm.C. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. B. and push it through a cork. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. C.. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. into which fit a small piece of tube. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. D. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. A. where it condenses. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. Thrust a pin. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls.

The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. Powell. 1-1/4 in. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. wide and 3 ft. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. D. 3. Four long beams 3/4 in. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. or flying-machine. as shown in Fig. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. Washington. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. long. 2 arm sticks 1 in. wide and 3 ft. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. slacken speed and settle. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. long. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. 16 piano wire. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. 2. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. apart and extend 1 ft. wide and 4 ft. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. thick. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. The operator can then land safely and . propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. All wiring is done with No. long. as shown in Fig. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. 1. thick. wide and 4 ft long. 2 in. 1/2.in. If 20-ft. 2. long. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. which is tacked to the front edge. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. C. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. 12 uprights 1/2 in. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. long. Connect as shown in the illustration. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. wide and 20 ft. thick.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. thick. long for the body of the operator. use 10-ft. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. both laterally and longitudinally. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. 3/4 in. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. as shown in Fig. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. and also to keep it steady in its flight. lengths and splice them. 1. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. thick. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. several strips 1/2 in. 1-1/2 in. lumber cannot be procured. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. free from knots. To make a glide. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. 1. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. --Contributed by Edwin L. by 3/4 in. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. take the glider to the top of a hill. using a high resistance receiver. wide and 4 ft. square and 8 ft long.

Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. Glides are always made against the wind. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly.gently on his feet. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. Of course. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. but this must be found by experience. Great care should be .

which causes the dip in the line. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. 1.exercised in making landings. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. When heated a little. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. Bellingham. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. M. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. as shown in Fig. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. --Contributed by L. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. Olson. half man and half horse. 2. a creature of Greek mythology. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes.

at the other. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. of small rubber tubing. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. square. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. long. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. about the size of door screen wire. this will cost about 15 cents. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. making it 2-1/2 in. While at the drug store get 3 ft. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. a piece of brass or steel wire. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. long and about 3/8 in. outside the box. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. 14 in. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. will complete the material list. about the size of stove pipe wire. The light from the . in diameter. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen.

If done properly the card will flyaway. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. O. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. as shown in Fig. This is very simple when you know how. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. Dayton. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. while others will fail time after time. 1. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. Hunting. --Photo by M. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. as shown in Fig. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. 2. as shown in the sketch. M.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. .Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot.

Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. Cool in water and dry. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. as before. as described. If a certain color is to be more prominent. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. place the other two. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. When the desired shape has been obtained. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. This game is played by five persons. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. as shown. hold the lump over the flame. closing both hands quickly. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax." or the Chinese students' favorite game. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure .How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. then put it on the hatpin head.

and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. these sectors. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. or more in width. passing through neutralizing brushes. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. distribute electric charges . Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera.

are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. 1. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. in diameter. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. the side pieces being 24 in. in diameter. Two solid glass rods. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. long and the shank 4 in. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. and pins inserted and soldered. long. as shown in Fig. 2. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. in diameter and 15 in. in diameter. RR. or teeth. These pins. The fork part is 6 in. wide. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. D. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. Fig. and of a uniform thickness. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. Two pieces of 1-in. in diameter. The collectors are made. 1-1/2 in. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. free from wrinkles. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. Fig. 3. material 7 in. and 4 in. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. and the outer end 11/2 in. The two pieces. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. after they are mounted. The drive wheels. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. brass tubing and the discharging rods. EE. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. C C. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. in diameter. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. 3/4 in. to which insulating handles . copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. wide at one end. are made from solid.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. GG. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. The plates are trued up. 4. from about 1/4-in. long and the standards 3 in. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. and this should be done before cutting the circle. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. are made from 7/8-in. turned wood pieces. 3. The plates. as shown in Fig. long. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. 1 in. at the other. in diameter.

These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. --Contributed by C. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. in diameter. one having a 2-in. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. ball and the other one 3/4 in. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. Lloyd Enos. KK. wide and 22 ft.are attached. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. which are bent as shown. Colo.. long. 12 ft. Colorado City. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. D. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. and the work was done by themselves. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes.

HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. They can be used to keep pins and needles. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. yet such a thing can be done. string together. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. and bore a hole 1/2 in. using a 1-in. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. pens . the boards are then put in a vise as shown. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up.is a good one. deep. The key will drop from the string. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. as at A. bit. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch.

23 gauge. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. Proceed as follows: 1. 7. flat and round-nosed pliers. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. Draw one-half the design free hand. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. inside the first on all.. 8. then the other side. also trace the decorative design. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. above the metal. using a nail filed to chisel edge.. unless it would be the metal shears. The second oblong was 3/4 in. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. they make attractive little pieces to have about. Raise the ends. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. Use . two spikes. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. etc.and pencils. extra metal on each of the four sides. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. When the stamping is completed. 5. stamp the background promiscuously. 3. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. slim screw. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. sharp division between background and design. inside the second on all. about 3/4-in. above the work and striking it with the hammer. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. Having determined the size of the tray. very rapid progress can be made. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. and the third one 1/4 in. This is to make a clean. 6. file. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. 2. 4. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. etc. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. or cigar ashes. They are easily made. 9. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. Inside this oblong.

put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. first fingers. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. 9.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. In the first numbering. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. and the effect will be most pleasing. third fingers. 10. 6. 8. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. 7. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . second fingers. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. The eyes. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. and fourth fingers. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine.

Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. the product of 12 times 12. renumber your fingers. which would be 70. thumbs. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. first fingers. as high as you want to go. and the six lower fingers as six tens. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right.. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. there are no fingers above. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. 400. or the product of 6 times 6. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. or 80. Put your thumbs together. etc. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. 2 times 2 equals 4. Let us multiply 12 by 12. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. .. or 60. etc. 11. 600. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. which tens are added. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. or the product of 8 times 9. viz. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. Still. 12. above 15 times 15 it is 200. In the second numbering. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. At a glance you see four tens or 40. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. or numbers above 10. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. Two times one are two. 25 times 25. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. above 20 times 20. which would be 16. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. etc.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten.. but being simple it saves time and trouble. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. if we wish. below the thumbs are four units on each hand.

the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. the lump sum to add. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. etc. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. For figures ending in 6. thirties. as one might suppose. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. forties. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. Take For example 18 times 18. 75 and 85. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. It takes place also. or what. adding 400 instead of 100.. For example. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. or from above or from below. the revolution seems to reverse. which is the half-way point between the two fives. 3. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. the value of the upper fingers being 20. the value which the upper fingers have. first finger 17. 21. beginning the thumbs with 16. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. 2. lastly. at the will of the observer. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. when he removes his spectacles. . and. 8. further. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. about a vertical axis. thumbs. however. Proceed as in the second lumbering. The inversion and reversion did not take place. first fingers 22. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. the inversion takes place against his will. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. not rotation. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. And the lump sum to add. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. and so on. 7. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. being 80). in the case of a nearsighted person. any two figures between 45 and 55. whether the one described in second or third numbering. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. twenties.

sometimes the point towards him. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. Looking at it in semidarkness. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. as . when he knows which direction is right. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. The ports were not easy to make. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. tee.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. and putting a cork on the point. the other appearance asserts itself. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. A flat slide valve was used. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side.

Next take a block of wood. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. about 2 in. deep. across the head. and make in one end a hollow. across and 1/2 in. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. saw off a section of a broom handle. inexpensive. . apart. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. it is easily built. Kutscher. Ill.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. pipe 10 in. While this engine does not give much power. The steam chest is round. Beating copper tends to harden it and. Fasten the block solidly. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. The tools are simple and can be made easily. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. such as is shown in the illustration. -Contributed by W. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. If nothing better is at hand. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. Springfield. bottom side up. secure a piece of No. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection.. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. H. as in a vise. The eccentric is constructed of washers. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. in diameter. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. pipe. if continued too long without proper treatment. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in.

Hay. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. --Contributed by W. To produce color effects on copper. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. O. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. Vinegar. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. the other to the left. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. and. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. especially when the object is near to the observer. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. To overcome this hardness. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. S. This process is called annealing.will cause the metal to break. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. C. Camden. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. as it softens the metal. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object.

It is just as though they were not there. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. with the stereograph. in the proper choice of colors. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. they must be a very trifle apart. . although they pass through the screen. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. because of the rays coming from them. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. not two mounted side by side. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. that for the right. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture.stereoscope. The red portions of the picture are not seen. the left eye sees through a blue screen. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. and lies to the right on the picture. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. disappears fully. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. diameter. But they seem black. however. while both eyes together see a white background. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. because. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. only the orange rays may pass through. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. the one for the left eye being blue. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. it. would serve the same purpose. from the stereograph. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. and without any picture. The further apart the pictures are. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. So with the stereograph. In order to make them appear before the card. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. the further from the card will the composite image appear. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. as for instance red and green. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. orange. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed.

12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. etc. 1/4 in. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. thick. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. Cal. or the middle of the bottle. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. San Francisco. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. wireless. in the shape of a crank. 12 gauge wire. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. wide and 1 in. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. Place a NO. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. This should only be bored about half way through the block. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. A No. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. long and a hole drilled in each end. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. The weight of the air in round . Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. in diameter.

will calibrate itself. Only redistilled mercury should be used. long. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. square. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. But if a standard barometer is not available.numbers is 15 lb. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. a bottle 1 in. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. the contrary. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. square. wide and 40 in. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. In general. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. or. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. thick. Before fastening the scale. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. the instrument. and a slow fall. high. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. long. wide and 4 in. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end.. inside diameter and 2 in. high. internal diameter and about 34 in. 34 ft. pine 3 in. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. if accurately constructed. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. . The 4 in. a glass tube 1/8 in. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in.6) 1 in. 30 in. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. high. but before attempting to put in the mercury. if you choose. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. or a column of mercury (density 13. long.

and place them as shown in Fig. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. long. 2. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . Procure a metal can cover. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. 3. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. 6 and 7. wide and 10 in.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. a cover from a baking powder can will do. which is slipped quickly over the end. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. Number the pieces 1. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. 5. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. thick. Mark out seven 1-in. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. 1. the size of the outside of the bottle. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support.

Position of the Men move only one at a time. Move 5-Jump No. 1. Move 4-Jump No. 3. 7 over No. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. 1. 6 over No. Make 22 sections.-Contributed by W. 6 in. as shown in Fig. 2 . N. 2 over No. l over No. Move 9-Jump No. in diameter. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. 1 to No. 6 into No. 5. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. 7's place. long and 2 ft. procure unbleached tent duck. Move 7-Jump No. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. 5's place. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. 5's place. Move 15-Move No. each 10 ft. shaped like Fig. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. 3 into No. 6 to No. 2. Woolson. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces.J. Move 12-Jump No. This can be done on a checker board. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. 6. 1 into No. 2's place. L. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. using checkers for men. To make such a tent. 2. 6. Move 10-Move No. 2 over No. 7 over No. 5 over No. which is the very best material for the purpose. 3. 3 to the center. Move 2-Jump No. Move 3-Move No. Move ll-Jump No. Move 13-Move No. 2's place. 3. 5 over No. 3 over No. 7. Cape May Point. Move 14-Jump No. Move 8-Jump No. Move 6-Move No.

will do. Use blocks. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing.in. Emsworth. Tress. 3 in. leaving the rest for an opening. made in two sections. wide by 12 in. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. Pa. added.J. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. long. As shown in the sketch. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. wide at the bottom. These are ventilators. Fig. 2 in. Have the tent pole 3 in. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. 6-in. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. high. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig.. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. as in Fig. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. round galvanized iron. wide at the bottom. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. 5. from the top. to a smooth board of soft wood. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. Punch holes in the brass in . At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. fill with canvas edging. in diameter. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. long and 4 in. diameter. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. Nail a thin sheet of brass. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. Fig. 5) stuck in the ground. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. 2. 9 by 12 in. 6. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. After transferring the design to the brass. In raising the tent. --Contributed by G. about 9 in. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine.

around the outside of the pattern. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. but before punching the holes. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. Chicago. When all the holes are punched. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. . fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. It will not. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. cut out the brass on the outside lines. apart. The pattern is traced as before. bend into shape. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. excepting the 1/4-in.the spaces around the outlined figures. Corr. When the edges are brought together by bending. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone.

the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. between which is placed the fruit jar. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. or center on which the frame swings. Que. better still. or. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. E. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. --Contributed by H. These pipes are . allowing 2 ft. G. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. A cast-iron ring. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. partially filled with cream. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. Oregon. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. Badger. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. pipe.. --Contributed by Geo. If a wheel is selected. or less. pipe is used for the hub. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. Stevens. Mayger. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank.however. Dunham. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. A 6-in. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil.

An extra wheel 18 in. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] .The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. bent to the desired circle. pipe clamps. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. pipe. Four braces made from 1/2-in. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse.

The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. and dropped on the table. as shown in Fig. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. while doing this. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. The performer. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. which was placed in an upright position. 1. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. 3. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. and the guide withdrawn. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within.

it requires no expensive condensing lens. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. Mo. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. -Contributed by C. Colo. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. Denver. D. Louis. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. in a half circle. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. F. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. 1. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. Harkins. The box can be made of selected oak or . first. and second. 2. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. St. in diameter on another piece of tin. --Contributed by H. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. White. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box.

Two or three holes about 1 in. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. high and 11 in. 2. but not tight. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. 5-1/2 in. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. high and must . If a camera lens is used. from each end. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. This will be 3/4 in. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. AA. from each end of the outside of the box. wide. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. long. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. wide and 6-1/2 in. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. and. wide and 5 in. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. 1. An open space 4 in. as shown in Fig. focal length. wide by 5 in. The door covering this hole in the back. wide and 6-1/2 in. long and should be placed vertically. long. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. and 2 in.mahogany. 3-1/2 in. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. fit into the runners. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. represented by the dotted line in Fig. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in.

Ohio. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. provided it is airtight. This process is rather a difficult one. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. and extending the whole height of the lantern. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. West Toledo. Bradley. June and November.. calling this February.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. calling that knuckle January. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. C. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. 1. the article may be propped up . The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. --Contributed by Chas. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. as it requires an airtight case. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece." etc. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. then the second knuckle will be March. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. and so on. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. April.

the lid or cover closed. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. 2. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. N. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. but waxed. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. taking care to have all the edges closed. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. in. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. fruit jars are required. running small motors and lighting small lamps. or suspended by a string. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. giving it an occasional stir. H. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one.with small sticks. 1. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. and set aside for half a day. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. . The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. Y. The top of a table will do. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. --Contributed by J. in. Pour in a little turpentine. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. Schenectady. 1 and 2. In each place two electrodes. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. one of lead and one of aluminum. In both Fig. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. and the lead 24 sq. Crawford.

A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in.. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. as well as others. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. This trick is very simple. he throws the other. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. Cleveland. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. You have an understanding with some one in the company. you remove the glass. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. He. which you warm with your hands. as you have held it all the time. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. After a few seconds' time. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. O.

Victor. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. on a table. near a partition or curtain. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. . and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. if any snags are encountered. Colo. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table.take the handiest one. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. Pull the ends quickly. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. Be sure that this is the right one. but by being careful at shores. put it under the glass. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. but in making one. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. Crocker. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. in diameter in the center. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. J. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole.-Contributed by E. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear.

. 3 in. from each end to 1 in. apart. clear pine. one 6 in. for the bow. from the stern. Both ends are mortised. of 1-1/2-yd. 11 yd. by 2 in. for the stern piece. by 8 in. 1 piece. 1/4 in. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe.. from the bow and the large one. for cockpit frame. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. drilled and fastened with screws. and. wide unbleached muslin. 2 in. 1 piece. 14 rib bands. long. 1/8 in. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. 8 in. wide and 12 ft. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. square by 16 ft. 1 in. by 16 ft. and is removed after the ribs are in place. 4 outwales. and fastened with screws. 50 ft. 1. wide 12-oz. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . 1 mast. as illustrated in the engraving. of 1-yd. 3 in. long. are as follows: 1 keelson. is 14 ft. The keelson. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. Fig. long. by 12 in. 1 in. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. for center deck braces. long. by 10 ft. 8 yd. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. of rope. 1 in. wide and 12 ft. 1 in. by 15 ft. selected pine. screws and cleats. by 16 ft. by 2 in. at the ends. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. 2 gunwales. thick and 3/4 in. ducking. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. 9 ft. wide. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. the smaller is placed 3 ft. and the other 12 in. 7 ft. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. 3 and 4. 2 and braced with an iron band. Paint. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown.

Fig. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. wide and 3 ft. thick and 12 in. long. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. These are put in 6 in. is cut to fit under the top boards. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. 6 and 7. from the bow. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. also. They are 1 in. A piece of oak. and fastened to them with bolts. long is well soaked in water. thick. gunwales and keelson. wood screws. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. 1 in. apart. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. Fig. 6 in. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. wide. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. Before making the deck. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. 1/4 in. thick. is a cube having sides 6 in. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. This block. thick 1-1/2 in. Figs. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. wide and 14 in. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. The trimming is wood. 1 in. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. length of canvas is cut in the center. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. A seam should be made along the center piece. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. Braces. 7 and 8. 6. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. long. A 6-in. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. corner braces. wide. The block is fastened to the keelson. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. a piece 1/4 in. A block of pine. wide and 24 in. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. 4 in. screws. 3-1/2 ft. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. long. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. The 11-yd. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. in diameter through the block. The deck is not so hard to do. thick and 1/2 in. 9. . doubled. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. 5.

The inside of the rooms should be stained black. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. The mast has two side and one front stay. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. 10 with a movable handle. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. thick by 2 in. The keel. Fig. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. long. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. Tronnes.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. are used for the boom and gaff. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. each 1 in. at the other. apart in the muslin. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. A strip 1 in. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. wide at one end and 12 in. Wilmette. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. The house will accommodate 20 families. long. . A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. 12. The sail is a triangle. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. --Contributed by O. 11. wide. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. Ill. E. is 6 in. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. in diameter and 10 ft. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig.

One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. 1 yd. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. flat headed screws.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. thick. long. as shown in Fig. 2-1/2 in. long. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. 4. Ill. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. five 1/2-in. Wilmette. and the other 18 in. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. Bevel both sides of the pieces. wide. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. with the ends and the other side rounding. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. E. long and five 1/2-in. --Contributed by O. Cut the maple. flat on one side. 2. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. wide and 2 ft. 1. 2 in. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. one 11-1/2 in. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. thick. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. wide and 30 in. Fig. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. long. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. Tronnes. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one.into two 14-in. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. wide. 3. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. square. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. thick. flat-headed screws. and 3 ft. about 5/16 in. Take this and fold it over . 5. 2-1/2 in.

with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. Mo. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. long. D. After the glue. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. 3 in. about 3/8 in. and make a turn in each end of the wires. Glue a three cornered piece. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. forming an eye for a screw. wide and 2-3/4 in. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. 6-1/2 in. Cut another piece of board. When the glue is set. The bag is then turned inside out. leaving a small opening at one corner. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. Wind three layers of about No. If carefully and neatly made.once. wide and 5 in. 2 and 3. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. C. soaked with water and blown up. E. wide and 4-1/2 in. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. A. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. square. long. B. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. as well as the edges around the opening. of each end unwound for connections. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. long. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. Another piece. pieces 2-5/8 in. thick. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. wide and 2-1/2 in. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. wide and 3 ft. long. Louis. The sides are 3-1/4 in. and the four outside edges. 1-1/4 in. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. are rounded. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. wide and 6-3/4 in. and take care that the pieces are all square. long. A. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. Fig. 1. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. but can be governed by circumstances. --Contributed by W. Bliss. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. is set. wide and 6-1/2 in. 3/8 in. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. Figs. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. 5 from 1/16-in. long. square. About 1/2 in. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. long. then centered. F. 3-1/4 in. Make a double stitch all around the edge. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. thick. wide . the top and bottom. The front. St. C. this square box is well sandpapered. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. thick and 3 in. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. long. the mechanical parts can be put together. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen.

is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. thick. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. A pointer 12 in. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. When the current flows through the coil. 1/4 in. the same size as the first. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. the part carrying the pointer moves away. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B.A. long. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. 5. from the spindle. --Contributed by George Heimroth. wide and 9 in. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. 1/16 in. The base is a board 5 in. C. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. R. F. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. in diameter. 4. showing a greater defection of the pointer. 4. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. W. wide and 2-1/2 in. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. 4 is not movable. from one end. Chapman.R. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . board. bored in the back. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. that has the end turned with a shoulder. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. L. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. The resistance is now adjusted to show . A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. hole is fastened to the pointer. I. so it will just clear the tin. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. Fig. These wires should be about 1 in. The end of the polar axis B. long. 5-1/2 in. and fasten in place. Richmond Hill. Another strip of tin. and as the part Fig. G. Yorkshire. long. Like poles repel each other. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in.and 2-5/8 in. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. and the farther apart they will be forced. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. Austwick Hall. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. Place the tin. The stronger the current. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark.S. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. Fig. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass.

Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. shows mean siderial. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. 10 min. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. 10 min. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. say Venus at the date of observation. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. The following formula will show how this may be found. M. 1881. and vice . Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. at 9 hr. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. A. 30 min. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. thus: 9 hr.

if one of these cannot be had. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection.m. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. and then verify its correctness by measurement. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. .The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid.f. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. Conn. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. owing to the low internal resistance. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. Hall. or. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. New Haven. --Contributed by Robert W.

of alum and 4 oz. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. When the follower is screwed down. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. 1-3/4 in. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. Wet paper will answer. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . cover up with the same. as shown in the accompanying picture. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. long. leaves or bark. and heap the glowing coals on top. The boring bar. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. especially for cooking fish. 3/8 in. Fig. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. Then. thick. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. fresh grass. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. arsenic to every 20 lb. inside diameter and about 5 in. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. put the fish among the ashes. 1. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb.

bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. thick. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . and threaded on both ends. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. about 1/2 in. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. when they were turned in. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. pipe. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. fastened with a pin. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. pipe. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in.

30 in. Fig. Iowa. thick and 3 in. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. and which gave such satisfactory results. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. 4.valve stems. bent in the shape of a U. was then finished on an emery wheel. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. Clermont. a jump spark would be much better. It . The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. the float is too high. 3. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. Fig. however. If the valve keeps dripping. then it should be ground to a fit. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. as the one illustrated herewith. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. The rough frame. but never one which required so little material. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. wide. A 1-in. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. long. labor and time. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. 5. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. 2. square iron. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. This plate also supports the rocker arms. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. Fig. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing.

being held in position by spikes as shown. The crosspiece is 2 in. extending above. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. Use a heavy washer at the head. The illustration largely explains itself. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. W. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. Nieman. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . If it is to be used for adults." little and big. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. As there is no bracing. rope is not too heavy. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. 3/4 in. hole bored in the post. from the center. It looks like a toy. strong clear material only should be employed. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. in fact. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. --Contributed by C. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. square and 2 ft. for the "motive power" to grasp. long. A malleable iron bolt. A 3/4 -in. timber. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. set 3 ft. so it must be strong enough. completes the merry-go-round. square. The seats are regular swing boards. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. long. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. in the ground with 8 ft. square and 5 ft. This makes an easy adjustment. 12 ft. and. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. long. strengthened by a piece 4 in. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. in diameter and 15 in. and a little junk. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. butting against short stakes. no matter what your age or size may be. from all over the neighborhood. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. long is the pivot. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. with no trees or buildings in the way.

This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. 4. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. 1/4 by 3/32 in. light and strong. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. long. one for the backbone and one for the bow.2 emery. if nothing better is at hand. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. Both have large reels full of .the fingers. square. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. The backbone is flat. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. 2. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. 1. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. To wind the string upon the reel. The bow is now bent. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. then it is securely fastened. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. away. These ends are placed about 14 in. and sent to earth. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. as shown in Fig. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. A reel is next made. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. a wreck. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. and 18 in.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. Having placed the backbone in position.

First. Bunker. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. Brooklyn. N.-Contributed by S.string. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. often several hundred yards of it. Newburyport. the balance. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. or glass-covered string. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. The handle end is held down with a staple. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. Moody. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. Mass. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. C. If the second kite is close enough. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. Y. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. common packing thread. --Contributed' by Harry S. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. he pays out a large amount of string.

must be attached to a 3-ft. length of 2-in. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. each the size of half the table top. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. then draw the string up tight. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. If the table is round. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. lengths (Fig. square (Fig. such as mill men use. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. then a dust protector. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . 1) which will make five layers of cloth. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. --Contributed by Earl R. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. make the pad as shown in the illustration. cutting the circular piece into quarters. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. Hastings. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. Corinth. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. Vt.

Use a smooth. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. Oakland. from E to F. Moisten the .. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together.. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather.-Contributed by H. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. 6-1/4 in. 17-1/2 in. from C to D. which spoils the leather effect. hard pencil. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. . 2-1/4 in. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. G to H. 16-1/4 in. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. Wharton. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. and E to G. trace the design carefully on the leather. Calif.. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. E. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless.9-1/4 in.

G-J. and corresponding lines on the other side. apart. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. Cut it the same size as the bag. H-B. Trace the openings for the handles. is taken off at a time. if not more than 1 in. with the rounded sides of the tools. get something with which to make a lining. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. also lines A-G. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. I made this motor . A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. wide. about 1/8 in. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. and lace through the holes. Now cut narrow thongs. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. place both together and with a leather punch. To complete the bag. and E-G.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather.

Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. D. --Contributed by J. as shown in Fig.M. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. 2-1/4 in. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. B. 24 gauge magnet wire. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. 2. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. Calif. in length. each being a half circle. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. 1. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. 1. . long. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. of No. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. Pasadena. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. iron. Shannon.

This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. 1. The gores for a 6-ft. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. are the best kind to make. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. balloon should be about 8 ft. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. pasted in alternately.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. high. near the center. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . The widest part of each gore is 16 in. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. and the gores cut from these. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. from the bottom end.

using about 1/2-in. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. A. B. Fig. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. In starting the balloon on its flight. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. somewhat larger in size. If the gores have been put together right. as shown in Fig. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. so it will hang as shown in Fig. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. The steam. 4. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. As the boat is driven forward by this force. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. 3. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. lap on the edges. E. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. 1. --Contributed by R. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. 2. These are to hold the wick ball. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. 5. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. Staunton. in diameter. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. leaving the solution on over night. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . In removing grease from wood.widest point. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. as shown in Fig. leaving a long wake behind. after which the paint will adhere permanently. After washing. coming through the small pipe A. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. saturating it thoroughly. The boat soon attains considerable speed.

The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. high and 8 in. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. There are three ways of doing this: First. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. The blocks are about 6 in. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. Third. Second. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. apart on these lines. if you have several copies of the photograph. In using either of the two methods described. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. long.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. long and each provided with a handle. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. in bowling form. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. 1. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. as is shown in Fig. wide by 6 in. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin.

thick. not pointed down at the road at an angle. Albany.Fig. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . being careful not to dent the metal. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. --Contributed by John A. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. Y. Rinse the plate in cold water. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. 2. Fig. N. Hellwig. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch.

which is 4 in. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. long for the base. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. 6 in. S. --Contributed by R. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. wide and of any desired height. In Fig. are screwed to the circular piece. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. Richmond. 1 Fig. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. A circular piece of wood. and not produce the right sound. with a set screw. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. 5 in. B. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. 2 the front view. in diameter. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. A. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. and Fig. These corner irons are also screwed to. Paine. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. and. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. through which passes the set screw S. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. Corner irons. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can.upon any particular object. With this device. is fastened to a common camera tripod. A. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. CC. thick. Va. Break off the frame. wide and 8 in.

Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. This will make a very compact electric horn. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. This horn. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. La Salle. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. S. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. as only the can is visible. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. I made a wheel 26 in. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. D. . in diameter of some 1-in. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. pine boards. thus producing sound waves. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. -1. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. Kidder. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. Ill. R. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. Lake Preston. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator.

and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. Ghent. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. If there is a large collection of coins. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. If the collection consists of only a few coins. thick and 12 in. B. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. Kane. square. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. The frame is made of a heavy card. Doylestown. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] .Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. A. Feet may be added to the base if desired. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. 1. the same thickness as the coins. --Contributed by James R. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. O. --Contributed by C. Fig. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. Purdy. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. 2. 1. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. The drawers can be taken out and turned over.

cut and grooved. If desired. of developer. Wis. though not absolutely necessary. A lead pencil. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. Toronto. --Contributed by J. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful.J. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. several large nails. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. Cal. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. thick. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in.E. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. a hammer or mallet. Neyer. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. melted and applied with a brush. --Contributed by August T. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. Smith. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. plus a 3/8-in. A rivet punch is desirable. into which to place the screws . This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. The material required is a sheet of No. One Cloud. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. --Contributed by R. and then glued together as indicated. for after the slides have been shown a few times. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. border all around.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. Noble. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. Milwaukee. It will hold 4 oz. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. Canada. they become uninteresting.

also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . draw one part. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. Remove the screws. like the one shown. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. both outline and decoration. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. never upon the metal directly. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. There are several ways of working up the design. using 1/2-in.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. screws placed about 1 in. and file it to a chisel edge. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. Take the nail.

each 1 in. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. l-1/8 in. and two lengths. for the top. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. square and 11 in. long. being ball bearing. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. Provide four lengths for the legs. of 11-in. up from the lower end. square. 1. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. About 1/2 yd. for the lower rails. as shown in Fig. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close.wall. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. square and 181/2 in. using a 1/2in. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. Do not bend it over or flatten it. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. The pedal. two lengths. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. long. 3/4 in. long. in the other. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. . 2. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. Rivet the band to the holder. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. 3. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor.

It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. F. Ala.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. having quite a length of threads. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. --Contributed by John Shahan. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. Attalla. Quackenbush. New York City. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. --Contributed by W.

This novelty watch fob is made from felt. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. Ironwood.. long. one about 1 in. D. initial. wide and 8-1/4 in. Luther. Two pieces of felt. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. Purchase a 1/2-in. and two holes in the other. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. making a lap of about 1 in. and the other 2-3/4 in. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. from one end. each 1-1/4 in. wide and 4-1/4 in. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. Mich. from the end. in depth. stitched on both edges for appearance. long. college or lodge colors. and 3/8 in. long. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. the end of the other piece is folded over. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. Assemble as shown in the sketch. something that is carbonated. The desired emblem. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. --Contributed by C. using class.

Schatz. Indianapolis. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. or more in height. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. 2. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. from the center and opposite each other. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. Ind. which can be procured from a plumber. This method allows a wide range of designs. as shown in the sketch. Fig. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. as shown at B. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. and the cork will be driven out. if desired by the operator. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. 1. 1/4 in. in diameter and 2 in. Punch two holes A. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. --Contributed by John H. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. about 2 in. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. in the cover and the bottom. or a pasteboard box.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. A piece of lead.

but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. Fig. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. as shown in Fig. are turned up as in Fig. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. putting in the design. 1. metal. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. allowing the two ends to be free. on both top and bottom. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. The pieces of tin between the holes A. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. 3. Columbus. 4.Rolling Can Toy lead. 5. it winds up the rubber band. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. A piece of thick glass. When the can is rolled away from you. or marble will serve. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. . --Contributed by Mack Wilson. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. and the ends of the bands looped over them. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. O.

--Contributed by Henry Schaefer.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. and. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. thick. deep in its face. from each end. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. long and bored a 1/2-in. 3 in. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. 1 in. thicker than the pinion. After this has been done. Next place the leather on the glass. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. New York City. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. or more thick on each side. I secured a board 3/4 in. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. wide and 20 in. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. hole through it. face up. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . mark over the design. If it is desired to "line" the inside. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. A pencil may be used the first time over. The edges should be about 1/8 in.

The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. and fit it in place for the side vise. 3 by 3 by 6 in. 2 by 12 by 77 in. M. N. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. 1 by 9 by 80 in. 1 top board. Fig. Cut the 2-in. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. much of the hard labor will be saved. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. 1 piece. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. pieces for the vise slides. in diameter. 1 piece for clamp. 3 by 3 by 36. 2 crosspieces. 2 side rails. --Contributed by A. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. Now fit up the two clamps. countersinking the heads of the vise end. Syracuse. 1 piece for clamp. Make the lower frame first. 1. 1 by 12 by 77 in. 4 guides. lag screws as shown. Y. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. 1 top board. 1 screw block. Brooklyn. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. thick top board. 3 by 3 by 20 in. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. New York. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. Rice. 2. 2 end rails. 1 back board. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time.in the board into the bench top. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. 2 by 2 by 18 in. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time.

They can be purchased at a hardware store. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. 1 cross cut saw. 1 countersink. 1 claw hammer. 1 nail set. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. 1 set gimlets. 1 bench plane or jointer. 24 in. as well as the pattern maker. 1 pocket level. 1 monkey wrench. The bench is now complete.. 1 pair pliers. 24 in. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. 1 set chisels.. 2 screwdrivers. The amateur workman. 1 brace and set of bits. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. If each tool is kept in a certain place. 1 pair dividers. 1 marking gauge. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. 1 wood scraper. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. 1 compass saw.screws. 1 2-ft. in diameter. 3 and 6 in. it can be easily found when wanted. rule. 1 jack plane or smoother. . After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. 1 rip saw. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need.. Only the long run.

Fig. Kane. Pa. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. try square. 1 oilstone. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. The calf skin. Doylestown. 2. Fig. Fig.1 6-in.1. 1. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. becomes like A. the projecting point A. 2 and 00 sandpaper. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. but will not make . 3. No. 1. being softer. Fig. will sink into the handle as shown at D. ---Contributed by James M. after constant use. will be easier to work.

There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. cover it completely with water enamel and. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. Having prepared the two sides. If cow hide is preferred. After the outlines are traced. such as copper or brass. First draw the design on paper. but a V-shaped nut pick. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. water or heat will not affect. the same method of treatment is used. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. Turn the leather. lay the design on the face. which steam. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. Two pieces will be required of this size. and the length 6-5/8 in. This will make a perfectly impervious covering.as rigid a case as the cow skin. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. The form can be made of a stick of wood. then prepare the leather. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. secure a piece of modeling calf. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. If calf skin is to be used. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. when dry. will do just as well. White. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. -Contributed by Julia A. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. New York City. .

Herrman. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. A. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. Portland. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. Maine. --Contributed by Chas. Cal. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. and an adjustable friction-held loop. . Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. Cobb. Jaquythe. C. New York City. --Contributed by W. as shown in the sketch. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. --Contributed by Chester L. Richmond.

--Contributed by Geo.. Cambridge. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. for instance. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. Conn. an inverted stewpan. --Contributed by Wm. A thick piece of tin. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. Middletown. Wright. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. Mass. was marked out as shown. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. Roberts. This was very difficult. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. . B. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop.

but not running over. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. apply powdered calcined magnesia. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. F. A beautifully bound book. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. pulverized and applied. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. such as chair seats. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. but only an odor which soon vanished. face down. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. used as part of furniture. and quite new. If the article is highly polished. When dry. The next morning there was no trace of oil. .. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. Ind. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. which has been tried out several times with success. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. L. Indianapolis. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. of boiling water. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. Illinois. There was no quicklime to be had. well calcined and powdered. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. --Contributed by C. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. Bone. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. and the grease will disappear. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. on a clear piece of glass. Herbert. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. --Contributed by Paul Keller. so some bones were quickly calcined. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. Chicago. If any traces of the grease are left. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. as shown.

Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired.. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. says Scientific American. Howe. If properly adjusted. the pieces . How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. This coaster is simple and easy to make. wide and 12 in. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. New York. 2 in. long. The pieces marked S are single. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in.. --Contributed by Geo. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. soft steel with the opening 6 in. deep and 5 in. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. thick. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. 6 in. high and are bolted to a block of wood. Tarrytown. A. set and thumbscrews.

During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. Their size depends on the plate used. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. says Camera Craft. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. albums and the like. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. they will look remarkably uniform. E.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. no doubt. A sharp knife. for sending to friends. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. If the letters are all cut the same height. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. to the underside of which is a block. The seat is a board. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules.

and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. In cutting out an 0. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. So made. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. and. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. mount them on short pieces of corks. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. for example. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. So arranged. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. after. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. using care to get it in the right position. The puzzle is to get . and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. pasting the prints on some thin card. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. photographing them down to the desired size. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background.

says the American Thresherman. squeezes along past the center of the tube. G. so they will lie horizontal. snow or anything to hide it. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. Cape May Point. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. long that will just fit are set in.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. Bayley. N. He smells the bait. A hole 6 or 7 in. of its top. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. hung on pivots.-Contributed by I. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. with the longest end outside. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . Old-Time Magic .J. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion.

faced up. Szerlip. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. Parker. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. Y. Press the hands together. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. --Contributed by Charles Graham. Pawtucket. N. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. or rub the hands a little before doing so. Brooklyn. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. Idaho. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. then expose again. E. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. Pocatello. Rhode Island. then spread the string. --Contributed by L. --Contributed by L.

4 on the blade. The blade should be about 27 in. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. end of the blade. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. When the whole is quite dry. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. When the glue is thoroughly dry. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. dark red.. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. The pieces. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. in building up his work from the illustrations. 2 Fig. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. or green oil paint. says the English Mechanic. in width. Glue the other side of the blade. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip.Genuine antique swords and armor. wide and 2 in. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. long. near the point end. and if carefully made. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. wipe the blade . if any. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. full size. whether he requires a single sword only. The handle is next made. thick. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. or a complete suit of armor. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. narrower. they will look very much like the genuine article. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. 1 Fig. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. 1.. 3 Fig. using a straightedge and a pencil. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in.

1. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. of course. In the finished piece. 3. 2. In making. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. 2. should be about 9 in. In making this scimitar. the other is flat or half-round. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. the other two are identical. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. 4. 1. as it is . the length of the blade 28 in. 3. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. 1. take two pieces of wood. follow the directions as for Fig. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. thick and 5 in. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord.. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. 1/8 in. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. the illustration. square and of any length desired. The length of the handle. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. about 1-1/2 in. not for use only in cases of tableaux.. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. allowing for a good hold with both hands. the other is flat or halfround. Both edges of the blade are sharp. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. shows only two sides. and 3 in. preferably of contrasting colors. in the widest part at the lower end. This sword is about 68 in. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia.with light strokes up and down several times. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. in diameter. Fig. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. 1. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. long. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose.

can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. as can the pitch bed or block. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. --Contributed by John Blake. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. Syracuse. Both can be made easily. N. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. --Contributed by Katharine D. On each edge of the board. and if so. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. as there was some at hand. long. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. Mass. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. Doctors probed for the button without success. each about 1 ft. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. and. The thinness of the plank. A cold . took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. Franklin. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. about 3/8 in. A piece of mild steel. square. Y. in an attempt to remove it. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. 2 in. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. as shown in the sketch. or an insecure fastening. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. however. Morse.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. piping and jackets by hard water. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. at the lower end. It is made of a plank.

chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous.. When the desired form has been obtained. To put it in another way. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. design down. plaster of Paris. secure a piece of brass of about No. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. on the pitch. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. 5 lb. Trim up the edges and file them . Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. To remedy this. tallow. 5 lb. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch.. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. When this has been done. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. a file to reduce the ends to shape. 18 gauge. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. using a small metal saw. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees.

Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. or fraction of a horsepower. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. 30 ft.000 lb. 3. using powdered pumice with lye. and hang a bird swing. make an unusual show window attraction. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. This in turn divided by 33. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. That is lifting 33. per minute. to keep it from floating. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. 1) and the other 12 in. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. lb. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. lb. in one minute or 550 lb. but not to stop it. or 550 ft. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. 2). one 18 in. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. in diameter (Fig. and still revolve. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. in diameter (Fig. in one second. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. 1 ft. over the smaller vessel.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. --Contributed by Harold H. . Before giving the description. The smaller is placed within the larger. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. it may be well to know what horsepower means. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. Fig. per second. living together in what seems like one receptacle.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. 1 ft. A. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. in the center. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. space between the vessels with water. Clean the metal thoroughly. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. Cutter. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. Fill the 3-in. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30.000 ft.smooth.

To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. The effect is surprising. Campbell. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. Y. N. Somerville. --Contributed by J. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. --Contributed.18 in. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. by L. Diameter 12 in.3 Fig. 2 Fig. 1 Fig. Diameter Fig. Szerlip. or on a pedestal.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. Mass. F. Brooklyn.

Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. then by drawing a straightedge over it. is. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. as a rule. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. to keep the metal from tarnishing. keeping the center high. This compound is impervious to water. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. with the pliers.copper of No. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. unsatisfactory. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. In riveting. with other defects. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. after which it is ready for use. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. and the clay . and cut out the shape with the shears. the same as removing writing from a slate. and then. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. Do not be content merely to bend them over. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. Polish both of these pieces. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. using any of the common metal polishes. which. often render it useless after a few months service. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. which may be of wood or tin. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. Rivet the cup to the base. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. away from the edge. Trim the sharp corners off slightly.

2. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. 1. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. A. --Contributed by A. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. It is made of a glass tube. Mich. Scotland. long. . Grand Rapids. --Contributed by John T. -Contributed by Thos. Shettleston. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. the device will work for an indefinite time. Northville. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. Mich. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. Houghton. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. as shown in Fig. 3/4 in. Dunlop.can be pressed back and leveled. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. in diameter and 5 in. DeLoof. The siphon is made of glass tubes. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig.

long. As the handle is to . stilettos and battle-axes. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. London. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. put up as ornaments. This sword is 4 ft. 1. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color.1 FIG. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle.FIG. in width and 2 in. long with the crossguard and blade of steel.

and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. Three large. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. studded with brass or steel nails. 11 were used. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. narrower. This weapon is also about 1 ft. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. glue and put it in place. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. very broad. is shown in Fig. A German stiletto. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. In Fig. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. This axe is made similar to the one . The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. small rope and round-headed nails. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. in length. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. 7. The lower half of the handle is of wood. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. which is about 2-1/2 ft. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. When dry. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. These must be cut from pieces of wood. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. 5. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. This weapon is about 1 ft. Both handle and axe are of steel. one about 1/2 in. firmly glued on. 6. in width. This sword is about 4 ft. the same as used on the end of the handle. In Fig. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. 4. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. The handle is of wood. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. The sword shown in Fig. The crossbar and blade are steel. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. in length. 9. When the glue is thoroughly dry. A German poniard is shown in Fig. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. with wire or string' bound handle. with both edges sharp. long. with both edges of the blade sharp. In Fig. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. 8. Cut two strips of tinfoil. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. the axe is of steel. 20 spike. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. sometimes called cuirass breakers. string. When the whole is quite dry. the upper part iron or steel. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. wood with a keyhole saw. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge.represent copper. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. paint it a dark brown or black. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. sharp edges on both sides. This stiletto has a wood handle. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. The ball is made as described in Fig. long with a dark handle of wood. 3 is shown a claymore. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. then glued on the blade as shown.

--Contributed by E. the ends are tied and cut off. . use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. so the contents cannot be seen. This will make a very good flexible belt. When wrapped all the way around. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. high. Davis. 2. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. W. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. Old-Time Magic . 10. such as braided fishline. Chicago. together as shown in Fig. will pull where other belts slip. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand.described in Fig.

Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof.J. an acid. These wires are put in the jar. in a few seconds' time. Before the performance. held in the right hand. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. about one-third the way down from the top. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. N. some of the liquid. Calif. causing the flowers to grow. Macdonald. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. 2. --Contributed by A. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. The dotted lines in Fig. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. S. with the circle centrally located. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. Oakland. filled with water. 1 and put together as in Fig. apparently. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. four glass tumblers. As zinc is much lighter than iron. Bridgeton. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. or using small wedges of wood. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. To make the flowers grow in an instant. There will be no change in color.

the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. which are numbered for convenience in working. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. says a correspondent of Photo Era. --Contributed by W. unless some special device is used. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. If the size wanted is No. This outlines the desired opening. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. and equally worthy of individual treatment. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. and kept ready for use at any time. 2 for height. Jaquythe. 4 for width and No. A. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . Cal. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. Richmond. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. When many slides are to be masked. practical and costs nothing. not only because of the fact just mentioned.

all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. too. about half and half. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. and do not inhale the fumes. not the water into the acid. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. Secure a sheet of No. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. The one shown is merely suggestive. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. The decoration. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. With a stick. is about right for the No. using the carbon paper. which is dangerous.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. Draw a design. may be changed. a little less acid than water. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. and the extreme length 7 in. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. or a pair of old tongs. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. but they can be easily revived. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. When etched to the desired depth. the paper is folded along the center line. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. the margin and the entire back of the metal. This done. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. 16 gauge. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. or. possibly. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. paint the design.

and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. about 2-1/2 in. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. about 3 ft. It may be either nailed or screwed down. thick. 2. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. Fig. wide and of the same length as the table. so that when it is pressed down. Paint the table any color desired. Fig. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. C and D. Fig. When the button S is pressed. The connections are simple: I. 3. about 8 in. to the table. 3/8 in. 1. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. 24 parts water. and bore two holes. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. Cut out a piece of tin. as shown in Fig. high. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. Fig. repeat as many times as is necessary. A. the bell will ring. with the wires underneath. 4. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. 2. as shown in the illustration. as in Fig. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. . 5. in diameter and 1/4 in. 5. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. Nail a board. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. 0 indicates the batteries. long and 1 ft. long. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. 2. Fig. it will touch post F. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. or more wide. as at H. about 1 in. and about 2-1/2 ft. wide. through it. J is another wire attached in the same way. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. attached to a post at each end. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. Then get two posts. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next.

The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. handle and all. The circle is marked out with a compass. A wood peg about 2 in.Imitation Arms and Armor . An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. The entire weapon. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. thick. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. but they are somewhat difficult to make. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. 1. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. This weapon is about 22 in. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. says the English Mechanic. These rings can be carved out. 2. the wood peg inserted in one of them. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. such as . The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. long.. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. After the glue is dry. is to appear as steel. long serves as the dowel.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. The imitation articles are made of wood.

A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. 8. studded with large brass or steel nails. The upper half of the handle is steel. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. 6. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. The axe is shown in steel. The entire handle should be made of one piece. used at the end of the fifteenth century. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. also. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. as before mentioned. the hammer and spike. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. is shown in Fig. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. If such a tool is not at hand. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. . sharp-pointed and coneshaped. The handle is of wood. All of these axes are about the same length. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. leaves. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. The lower half of the handle is wood. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. etc. long. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. flowers. covered with red velvet. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. Its length is about 3 ft. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. The spikes are cut out of wood. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. 3. with a sharp carving tool. 5. The handle is of steel imitation. 2. as described in Fig. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. as shown. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. This weapon is about 22 in.ornamental scrolls. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. or the amateur cannot use it well.

. calls for a home run. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. Chicago. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. Each person plays until three outs have been made. 4). and so on for nine innings. 1. as in Fig. 7) calls for one out. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. a three-base hit. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. then the other plays. 2. the knife resting on its back. The knife falling on its side (Fig. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. 5. 3. 6. Fig. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. as shown in Fig. A foul ball is indicated by Fig.

Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. It may be found that the negative is not colored. Campbell.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. Old-Time Magic . The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. 2. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. If it is spotted at all. while the committee is tying him up. of water for an hour or two. Somerville. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. with the rope laced in the cloth. hypo to 1 pt. of the rope and holds it. as shown in Fig. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make.-Contributed by J. This he does. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. one of them burning . 3. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. 1.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. as shown in Fig. F. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. Mass.

shades the light for a few seconds. --Contributed by C. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. invisible to them (the audience). in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. with which he is going to light the other candle. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. The magician walks over to the burning candle. Brown. Louisville. Ky. Thome. He then walks over to the other candle. bolt. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. Evans. Lebanon. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. 4 oz. New York City. and. Drill Gauge screw. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. of water and 1 oz.Contributed by Andrew G.. thick. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. --Contributed by L. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. . of sugar. and the audience gaze on and see nothing.brightly. thus causing it to light. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. B. showing that there is nothing between them. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. etc. the other without a light. 4 oz. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. 3/4 in. of plumbago. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. of turpentine. Ky. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper.

with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. In making up the solution. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. Its current strength is about one volt. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. long. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. --Contributed by C. thick. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. steady current. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. Y.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. about 5 in. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. into a tube of several thicknesses. H. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. 5 in. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. but is not so good. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. Do not add water to the acid. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. which will give a strong. N. or blotting paper. To make the porous cell. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. Pulteney. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. for the material. diameter. Denniston. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's .

The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. To insure this. steel. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. One hole was bored as well as possible. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. steel. steel. the other holding them apart. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. one drawing them together. long with a bearing at each end. After much experimentation with bearings. As to thickness. a positive adjustment was provided. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground.station. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. carrying the hour circle at one end. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. but somewhat lighter. The . it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer.) may be obtained. Finally. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. while the other end is attached by two screws. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft.

" Only a rough setting is necessary. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. is provided with this adjustment. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. If the result is more than 24 hours. Cassiopiae. in each direction from two points 180 deg. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar.. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. turn the pointer to the star. 45 min. excepting those on the declination axis. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. Instead. and if it is not again directed to the same point. Set the declination circle to its reading. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. It is. and 15 min. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes." When this is done.. Each shaft. When properly set it will describe a great circle. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . need not be changed. All set screws. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. The pole is 1 deg. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. are tightened. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. All these adjustments. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. subtract 24. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. To locate a known star on the map. save the one in the pipe. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. once carefully made. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. Declination is read directly. Point it approximately to the north star. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. apart. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. To find a star in the heavens. The aperture should be 1/4 in. The pointer is directed to Alpha.

3 or 4 in. as shown in the sketch. Strosnider. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. then add 1 2-3 dr. cannon balls. is folded several times.. New Orleans. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. In reality the first ball. -Contributed by Ray E. Ohio. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. is the real cannon ball. taking care not to add too much. Plain City. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. The ball is found to be the genuine article. If this will be too transparent. of ether. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. The dance will begin. the others . add a little more benzole. which is the one examined. La. benzole. a great effect will be produced. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. long. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper.

Mass. Somerville.. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. Wis. taps. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. small brooches. etc. without taking up any great amount of space. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. F. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. In boxes having a sliding cover. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . Fig.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. Return the card to the pack. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. as shown in the illustration. Milwaukee. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. 2. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. 1). --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. --Contributed by J. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. Campbell. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. San Francisco. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. Cal. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards.

The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. This box has done good service. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. thus giving ample store room for colors. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. round pieces 2-1/4 in. . Hartford. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. as shown in the illustration. from the bottom of the box. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. Connecticut. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. Beller. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. prints. slides and extra brushes.

Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. Mass. FIG. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. holes in the bottom of one. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. Fill the upper tub. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. O. tacking the gauze well at the corners. When the ends are turned under. will answer the purpose. -Contributed by C. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. about threefourths full. . This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. West Lynn. or placed against a wall. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. with well packed horse manure. 2). The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. Darke. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. 1). costing 5 cents.

he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. if this is not available.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. If the following directions are carried out. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. M. when they are raised from the pan. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. and each bundle contains . A pair of these shields will always come in handy. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. cutting the cane between the holes. oil or other fluid. --Contributed by L. If plugs are found in any of the holes. Chicago. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. they should be knocked out. Eifel.

In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. as it must be removed again.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. 1. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. No plugs . then across and down. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. as shown in Fig. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. In addition to the cane. it should be held by a plug. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. after having been pulled tight. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. put about 3 or 4 in. and. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. a square pointed wedge. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. held there by inserting another plug.

From table No. and for 1° it would be . No weaving has been done up to this time. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. stretch the third one. R. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. 41°-30'. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes.= 4. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. 4. trim off the surplus rosin. as shown in Fig. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. 1. as shown in Fig. 41 °-30'. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. the next smallest.42 in. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place.075 in. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. If you have a table of natural functions. 42° is 4. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding.2 in. the height of the line BC. the height of which is taken from table No. 5 in.5 in. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . for 2°.15 in. or the style. 3. is the horizontal dial. Fig.075 in. When cool. -Contributed by E. Detroit. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. The style or gnomon. 1. 1 lat. If handled with a little care. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. It consists of a flat circular table. is the base (5 in. and for lat. Michigan. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. as the height of the line BC for lat. Even with this lubrication. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. 5. as it always equals the latitude of the place. During the weaving. W. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. --Contributed by M. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving.2+. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. called the gnomon. D. Patrick. using the same holes as for the first layer. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. All added to the lesser or 40°. in this case) times the . 1. 40°. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. 3. This will make three layers. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. we have 4. it is 4. lat. as for example. There are several different designs of sundials. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. Fig. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. After completing the second layer. but the most common.3 in.15+. Their difference is . and the one we shall describe in this article.

87 1.79 4. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No. gives the 6 o'clock points. Draw the line AD. base.66 48° 5. which will represent the base in length and thickness.89 50° 5. Table NO. if of metal.29 4-30 7-30 3.55 30° 2.66 1.91 58° 8. according to the size of the dial.97 5 7 4. an inch or two.30 2.03 3.40 34° 3.93 2.94 1. A line EF drawn through the points A and C. 1. and perpendicular to the base or style. Height of stile in inches for a 5in. .56 . with a radius of 5 in.00 40° 4.88 36° 3. Fig.06 2.02 1. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks.50 26° 2. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style.81 4.20 60° 8.55 4. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in.66 latitude. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed.10 6.46 3. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight.37 5. Its thickness.85 1.44 44° 4. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points.28 .16 40 .82 2.49 30 .99 2. and intersecting the semicircles.tangent of the degree of latitude.83 27° 2. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial. To layout the hour circle. long.32 6.19 1. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2. Chords in inches for a 10 in. and for this size dial (10 in. or if of stone.18 28° 2.30 1.38 .42 . Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 .26 4.77 2. circle Sundial.46 .41 38° 3.87 4.40 1.82 5. using the points A and C as centers. For latitudes not given.93 6.42 45 .39 .55 46° 5. Draw two semi-circles.16 1.49 3. 2. 2.57 1.33 . 2 for given latitudes.76 1. or more. draw two parallel lines AB and CD.64 4 8 3.14 5.11 3.59 2.55 5.96 32° 3.63 56° 7.68 5-30 6-30 5.42 1.23 6.37 54° 6.27 2. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown.57 3.33 42° 4.12 52° 6. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No.07 4.85 35 .82 3.

49 5. --Contributed by J.21 2.14 1. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York. The + means that the clock is faster. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No.50 55 . E. 3 Corrections in minutes to change. then the watch is slower. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. and for the difference between standard and local time. As they are the genuine reproductions.24 5. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds.08 1. 900 Chicago. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time.57 1.87 6. April 16.93 6.from Sundial lime. each article can be labelled with the name. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco.19 2.means that the dial is faster than the sun. it will be faster. will enable one to set the dial. and the . Sioux City. 3.34 5. Sun time to local mean time. and on these dates the dial needs no correction. June 15. London.01 1.06 2.54 60 .10 4. Iowa.add those marked + subtract those Marked . changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached.50 . with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole.30 2.12 5. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year.89 3. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen. after allowing for the declination. 2 and Dec. if west. Each weapon is cut from wood.79 6.52 Table No.82 3.49 3. adding to each piece interest and value..72 5.46 4. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the .71 2. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker. 3. An ordinary compass. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3.98 4.46 5. Mitchell. 25.53 1. Sept. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality.68 3.77 3. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15. says the English Mechanic.63 1. This correction can be added to the values in table No.37 2. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid.60 4.

brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. . wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. 1. The spear head is of steel about 15 in.. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. When putting on the tinfoil. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. the length of which is about 5 ft. Glaive and Voulge brass nails.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. 3. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. Partisan. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in.

with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. 5.which is square. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. which are a part of the axe. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. The extreme length is 9 ft. long. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. 8. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. A gisarm or glaive. the holes being about 1/4 in. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. long. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown.. used about the seventeenth century. The edges are sharp. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. in diameter. . It is about 6 ft. press it well into the carved depressions. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. The length of this bar is about 5 in. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. long with a round wooden handle. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. This weapon is about 6 ft. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. 6 ft. sharp on the outer edges. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. about 4 in. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. 7. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. is shown in Fig. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. The spear is steel. long with a round staff or handle. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel.

Ohio.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. apart. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. Workman. Cut all the cords the same length. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. used for spacing and binding the whole together. Loudonville. 5. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. B. They can be made of various materials. H. In Figs. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. 4. Substances such as straw. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. or in holes punched in a leather strap. the cross cords. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. the most durable being bamboo. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. 1. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. and if placed from 6 to 12 in.-Contributed by R. are less durable and will quickly show wear. The twisted cross cords should . It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. as shown in Fig. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. are put in place. 2 and 3. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. This is important to secure neatness. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig.

This was turned over the top of the other can. shaped as shown at C. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. Four V-shaped notches were cut. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the .be of such material. as shown at B. New York. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. below the top to within 1/4 in. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. for a length extending from a point 2 in. Lockport. A slit was cut in the bottom. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. M. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. New Orleans. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. in which was placed a piece of glass. of the bottom. bamboo or rolled paper. To remedy this. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. wide. The first design shown is for using bamboo. 3 in. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. Harrer. La. -Contributed by Geo.

giving the appearance of hammered brass. Newburgh. the brass is loosened from the block. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. and two along the side for attaching the staff. wide. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. Pasadena. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. N. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. Shay. It would be well to polish the brass at first. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. --Contributed by Joseph H. Sanford. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. turned over but not fastened. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . This plank. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. --Contributed by W. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. Y.tape from sticking to the carpet. is shown in the accompanying sketch. Ill. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. about 1/16 in. This should be done gradually. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. Maywood. Schaffner. Cal. --Contributed by Chas. After this is finished. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. do not throw away the gloves. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. H. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall.

in diameter. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. the pendulum swings . --E. Unlike most clocks. A. Oak Park. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. -Contributed by W. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. bent as shown. Cal. Marshall.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. Richmond. K. Jaquythe. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. Ill.

Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. bar. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. wide. such as this one. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. --Contributed by V. B. away. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. on the board B. bearing on the latter. are secured in the base bar. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. is an electromagnet. the center one being 2-3/4 in. only have the opposite side up. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. C. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in.. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. high. . letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. Secure a board. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. in diameter. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. says the Scientific American. by 1-5/16 in. 3/4 in. 5/16 in. high and 1/4 in. long and at each side of this. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. about 6 in. high. Two uprights. Fasten another board. Now place the board to be joined. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. high. 6 in. about 12 in. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. thick. In using this method. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. The construction is very simple. to the first one with screws or glue. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. wide that is perfectly flat. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. Chicago. Metzech. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. 7-1/2 in. A. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. and the other two 2-5/8 in. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets.

A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. plates should be made 8 in. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. as shown at A. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. 1. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. wide and 5 in. The trigger. Fig. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. 1. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. by driving a pin through the wood. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. from one end. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. wide and 1 in. --Contributed by Elmer A. Phoenixville. . or more. Fig. whose dimensions are given in Fig. 2. Vanderslice. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. long. square inside. is fastened in the hole A. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. 3. square. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. 1. Pa. 4. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig.

which allows 1/4 in. Fostoria. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull.A. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. rubbing varnish and turpentine. Ohio. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. Simonis. 2 parts of whiting. as shown in the illustration. -Contributed by J. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. 5 parts of black filler. by weight. if only two bands are put in the . square. one-half the length of the side pieces. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin.

A piece of metal. in the opposite end of the box. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. is necessary. which may be either of ground or plain glass. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. and the picture can be drawn as described. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. 8 in. is set at an angle of 45 deg. It must be kept moist and well . If a plain glass is used. In use. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. Michigan. DeLoof. A mirror. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. Grand Rapids. Shaw. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. London. A double convex lens. In constructing helmets. Dartmouth. long. 1. place tracing paper on its surface. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. says the English Mechanic. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. II. wide and about 1 ft. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. deep. --Contributed by Thos. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. Mass. G. -Contributed by Abner B. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. No. preferably copper. keeps the strong light out when sketching. and it may be made as a model or full sized. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. as shown in Fig.lower strings. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff.

After the clay model is finished. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. 3. joined closely together. with a keyhole saw. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. the clay model oiled.kneaded. take. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. will be necessary. on which to place the clay. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. a few clay-modeling tools. Scraps of thin. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . as shown in Fig. and the deft use of the fingers. and left over night to soak. This being done. 2. as in bas-relief. All being ready. 1. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. brown. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. and over the crest on top. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. and continue until the clay is completely covered. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. or some thin glue. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. The clay. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. 1. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. shown in Fig.

should be modeled and made in one piece. will make it look neat. as seen in the other part of the sketch. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. the skullcap. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. When perfectly dry. Before taking it off the model. with the exception of the vizor. When the helmet is off the model. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. 5. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. When dry. 7. owing to the clay being oiled. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. which should be no difficult matter. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. one for each side. Indiana. and so on. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. The center of the ear guards are perforated. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife.as possible. The whole helmet. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. 1. They are all covered with tinfoil. and the ear guards in two pieces. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. then another coating of glue. This contrivance should be made of wood. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. a few lines running down. 9. In Fig. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. as shown: in the design. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. In Fig. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. square in shape. a crest on top. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. Indianapolis. the piecing could not be detected. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. or. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . The band is decorated with brass studs. --Contributed by Paul Keller.

one fuse block.same size. or. about 1/4 in. screws. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. high. of No. 1 in. JJ. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. which can be bought from a local druggist. Fig. if this cannot be obtained. 12 in. If a neat appearance is desired. The mineral wool. AA. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. Fig. The reverse side of the base. 1. This will allow the plate. thick. also the switch B and the fuse block C. 1. GG. of the top. as shown in Fig. AA. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. Fig. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. The holes B and C are about 3 in. 2. 3 in. Fig. 4. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . FF. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. This will make an open space between the plates. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. and two large 3in. and. when they are placed in opposite positions. 1. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. 2. Fig. 4. one glass tube. Fig. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. 1. 22 gauge resistance wire. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. 1. AA. is then packed down inside the collar. above the collar. 3. should extend about 1/4 in. E and F. 1. 2. 4 lb. one small switch. as it stands a higher temperature. 4. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. in diameter and 9 in. Fig. the fuse block. 4. Fig. to receive screws for holding it to the base. 4. Fig. until it is within 1 in. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. The plate. long. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. Fig. 4. long. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. If asbestos is used. German-silver wire is better. about 1 lb. The two holes. wide and 15 in. as shown in Fig. Fig. is shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. Fig. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. 4. the holes leading to the switch. if the measurements are correct. of mineral wool. each 4-1/2 in. Fig. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. of fire clay. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. are allowed to project about 1 in. A round collar of galvanized iron. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. with slits cut for the wires. long. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. thick sheet asbestos. two ordinary binding posts. for connections. about 80 ft. one oblong piece of wood. and C.

apart. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. 4.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. Cal. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. St. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. as the turns of the wires. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. when heated. When this is done. Cover over about 1 in. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. above the rim. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. It should not be left heated in this condition. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. Cnonyn. more wire should be added. Jaquythe. then. Can. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. 2. The clay. Fig. allowing a space between each turn. causing a short circuit. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. Cut a 1/2-in. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. Catherines. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. A file can be used to remove any rough places. As these connections cannot be soldered. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. KK. --Contributed by R. deep. and pressed into it. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. If it is not thoroughly dry. Next. This point marks the proper length to cut it. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. when cool. II. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. While the clay is damp. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. If this is the case. This completes the stove. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. When the tile is in place. H. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. Fig. so that the circuit will not become broken. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. it leaves a gate for the metal. using care not to get it too wet. steam will form when the current is applied. It should not be set on end. A. will slip and come in contact with each other. --Contributed by W. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. Richmond.

The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. but 12 by 24 in. says the Photographic Times. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. the air can enter from both top and bottom. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. square material in any size. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. Then clip a little off the . is large enough. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. and the frame set near a window. Ky. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. Thorne. constructed of 3/4-in. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. Louisville. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. as shown. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. the pie will be damaged. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. --Contributed by Andrew G. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. and the prints will dry rapidly.

in diameter. Iowa. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. long. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. Figs. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. 1. 2-1/2 in. Herron. 3. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. wide and 7 in. as shown. each 1 in. As the shaft revolves. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. thick and 3 in. 1/2 in. wide. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. 14 in. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. long. 2. high. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. thick and 3 in. Fig. 1 and 3. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. W. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. 1. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. wide and 3 in. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. allowing each end to project for connections. The board can be raised to place . 1. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. which gives the shaft a half turn. long. An offset is bent in the center. The connections are made as shown in Fig. thick. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. high. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. -Contributed by S. The driving arm D. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. for the crank. high. Fig. thereby saving time and washing. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. The connecting rod E. Fig. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. at GG. in diameter and about 4 in. 4 in. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. 1. open out. 1/2 in. Two supports. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty.Paper Funnel point. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. 22 gauge magnet wire. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. which are fastened to the base. A 1/8-in. long. causing a break in the current. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. The upright B. slip on two cardboard washers. Le Mars. each 1/2 in. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig.

in height. as shown in the sketch. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. on a board. In designing the roost. Mass. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. bottom side up. Place the pot. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. . Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. 3 in. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. Stecher.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. Dorchester. One or more pots may be used. making a framework suitable for a roost. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. --Contributed by William F. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot.

windows. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. shelves. odd corners.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. that it is heated. ordinary glue. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. and give it time to dry. paraffin and paint or varnish. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which.. 1. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. when combined. preferably. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. without any corresponding benefit. adopt the method described. if it is other than straight lines. etc. F. Wind the . F. The bottom part of the sketch. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. grills and gratings for doors.. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. in diameter. Fig. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. The materials required are rope or. 1. as shown in Fig. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. will produce the pattern desired. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg.

I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. Lockport. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . M.Fig. Fig. 2. Y. six designs are shown. cut and glue them together. Harrer. -Contributed by Geo. N. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry.

Pour the water in until the filter is filled. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. chips of iron rust. and the sides do not cover the jaws. says the English Mechanic. which was used in front of a horse's head. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. but no farther. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers.. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches.. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. etc. 1. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. will be retained by the cotton. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. As the . London. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. etc..Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. when it will be observed that any organic matter. This piece of horse armor.

but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. except the thumb and fingers. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. and the clay model oiled. and therefore it is not described. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. the same as in Fig. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. the rougher the better. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. then another coat of glue. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. This being done. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. This can be made in one piece. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. which is separate. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. 2. but for . which can be made in any size. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. This will make the model light and easy to move around. but the back is not necessary. 2. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. 6 and 7. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. with the exception of the thumb shield. This triangularshaped support. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. All being ready. The armor is now removed from the model. An arrangement is shown in Fig. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. as shown in the sketch. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. as the surface will hold the clay. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. 4. 8. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. In Fig. and will require less clay.

Buxton. two for the jaws and one a wedge. Redondo Beach. and the instrument is ready for use. Fasten a polished brass ball to. long. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. Goshen. in depth. but 3-1/2 in. the top of the rod. running down the plate. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. --Contributed by John G. 2. the two pieces of foil will draw together. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. A piece of board. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. are glued to it. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. La Rue. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. Calif. are better shown in Fig. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. . --Contributed by Ralph L. If it does not hold a charge. will be about right. 9. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. each about 1/4 in. the foils will not move. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. When locating the place for the screw eyes. 1/2 in. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. cut into the shape shown in Fig. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. wide and 1/2 in. two in each jaw. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. The two pieces of foil. N.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. fastened to the rod. Y.

the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. Bryan. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. enameled or otherwise decorated. hole bored through it. At a point 6 in. pine board. about 15 in. as shown in the illustration. as indicated in the . A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. is made of a 1/4-in. The can may be bronzed. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. from the smaller end. silvered. Corsicana. Texas. M. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. 2-1/2 in. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. --Contributed by Mrs. A. When a fish is hooked. as this will cut under the water without splashing. long. thus making it ornamental as well as useful.

When it has dried over night. using a piece of carbon paper. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. thick. 22 is plenty heavy enough. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. 3/8 or 1/4 in. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. using powdered pumice and lye. put a coat or two of wax and polish . long over all. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. will do as well as the more expensive woods. such as basswood or pine was used. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. A good size is 5 in. Basswood or butternut. or even pine. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. as shown. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. take a piece of thin wood. wide by 6 in. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. Having completed the drawing. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. and trace upon it the design and outline. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. If soft wood. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. Polish the metal.Match Holder accompanying sketch. punch the holes. Next prepare the metal holder. Any kind of wood will do. then with a nail.

Cal. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. 2 in. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. If carving is contemplated. each 1 in. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. is used for the base of this instrument. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. It is useful for photographers. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. Richmond. the whole being finished in linseed oil. can be made on the same standards. Two wire nails. long. Jaquythe. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. . Instead of the usual two short ropes. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. wide and 5 in. If one has some insight in carving. A. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. thick. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. of pure olive oil. long. --Contributed by W. are used for the cores of the magnets. 1/2 in. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in.

behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. . the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. about No. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. leaving about 1/4 in. 3. when the key is pushed down. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. 1. at A. cut in the shape of the letter T. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. similar to that used in electric bells. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. --Contributed by W. except that for the legs. as shown in Fig. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. Lynas. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. A rubber band. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. the paper covering put on. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. then covered with red. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. in the shape shown in the sketch. A piece of tin. as shown by the dotted lines. acts as a spring to keep the key open. London. About 1 in.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. 25 gauge. cloth or baize to represent the legs. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. All of the parts for the armor have been described. says the English Mechanic. H.

These can be purchased at a stationery store. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. Fig. 1 in. one to another . A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. holes. or ordinary plaster laths will do. long. 2. The two pieces are bolted together. Secure two strips of wood. hole in the center. flat headed carriage bolt. Silver paper will do very well. By moving the position of the bolt from. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. make the same series of eight small holes and. says Camera Craft. Take the piece shown in Fig. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. and eight small holes. for the sake of lightness. completes the equipment. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. 1 and drill a 1/4in. at each end. about 1 in. not too tight. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. Cut them to a length or 40 in. Instead of using brass headed nails. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. apart. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. In one end of the piece.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. A 1/4-in. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. in the other end. 3 in. drill six 1/4-in. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts.. So set up. apart. can be made in a few minutes' time.

in Fig. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. A round fob is made in a similar way. 2. Fig. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. 2. 2. 4. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. as in portraiture and the like. then B over C and the end stuck under A. of the ends remain unwoven. the one marked A. Then draw all four ends up snugly. D over A and C. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. and lay it over the one to the right. Start with one end. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. lay Cover B and the one under D. 1. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. and the one beneath C. Then take B and lay it over A. In this sketch. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. taking the same start as for the square fob. as shown in Fig.of the larger holes in the strip. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. for instance. but instead of reversing . doubled and run through the web of A. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. C over D and B. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. A is the first string and B is the second. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. long. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel.

1-1/2 in. --Contributed by John P. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. 5. the design of which is shown herewith. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. long. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. The round fob is shown in Fig. Ohio. Rupp. as B. as at A in Fig. is to be made of leather. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. Monroeville. is left out at the center before starting on one side. as in making the square fob. always lap one string. over the one to its right. Other designs can be made in the same manner. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. A loop. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. 3. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . especially if silk strings are used. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer.

A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. A. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. using the reverse side. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. Houghton. door facing or door panel. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. it can be easily renewed. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. filling them with wax. Any smooth piece of steel. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. -Contributed by A. Mich. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. such as a nut pick. pressing it against the wood. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. beeswax or paraffin. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. . Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. Northville. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. When the supply of wax is exhausted.

Select the print you wish to mount. nearly as wide as the envelope is long.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. although tin ones can be used with good success. apart and driven in only part way. long. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. it is best to leave a plain white margin. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. thick. Petersburg. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. The tacks should be about 1 in. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. leaving about 1/4 in. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. Fold together on lines C. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. Enough plaster should. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. Ill. . Y. remaining above the surface of the board. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. but any kind that will not stick may be used. --Contributed by O. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. says Photographic Times. place it face down in the dish. and about 12 in. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. Thompson. if blueprints are used. those on matte paper will work best. E and F. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. New York. and after wetting. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. N. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. J. D.

filling the same about onehalf full. One of the . and this will crystallize the same as the other solution.. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. as shown in the right of the sketch. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. as shown at the left in the sketch.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. bell flowers. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. without mixing the solutions. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. roses. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. will be rendered perfectly white. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. violets. etc. Lower into the test tube a wire.

as shown. thick. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. not too tightly. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . made of heavy tin. turned a little tapering. Fig. Millstown. L. about 1/8s in. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. 3. 1-7/8 in. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. as shown in the sketch. and at the larger end. South Dakota. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. to keep the core from coming off in turning.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. The tin horn can be easily made. should be soldered to the box. A rod that will fit the brass tube. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. but which will not wobble loose. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. is about 2-1/2 in. or delicate tints of the egg. When soldering these parts together. long. The sound box. shading. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. --Contributed by L. Shabino.. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. 2. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. 1. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. The first point should be ground blunt. The diaphragm. long and made of wood. in diameter and 1 in. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing.

Ill. Chicago. and weighted it with a heavy stone. Colo.Contributed by E. E. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. Gold. Victor.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. Jr. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. mice in the bottom. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. and. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. wondering what it was. put a board on top. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. says the Iowa Homestead. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand.

Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. N. . Pereira. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. Y. Can. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. Buffalo. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. Ottawa. --Contributed by Lyndwode. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset.

The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. Mich. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. as it can be made quickly in any size. longer than the length of the can. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. as shown. by means of a flatheaded tack. De Loof. Put a small nail 2 in. above the end of the dasher. Grand Rapids. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. Richmond. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. --Contributed by Thos. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . cut round. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. and at one end of the stick fasten. This cart has no axle. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. Jaquythe. Cal. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. a piece of tin. --Contributed by W. through which several holes have been punched. A. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels.

Fig. cut in the center of the rounding edge. thick. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. board. --Contributed by James M. Notches 1/8 in. 2. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. I reversed a door gong. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. wide and 1/8 in. as shown. deep and 3 in. 1. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Kane. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. The baseboard and top are separable. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. 2. wide. 2 in.1. were below the level of the bullseye. long. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. of course. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. screwed it on the inside of a store box. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. 2. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. wide and as long as the box. La. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. A wedge-shaped piece of . The strip of wood is 1/4 in. 1-1/2 in. apart. Pa. 1/4 in. The candles. Doylestown. 1 ft. New Orleans. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. wide and 3 ft.

West Union. etc. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. Worcester. the reason being that if both were solid. This device is very convenient for invalids. as shown in Fig. it can be removed without marring the casing. stone or wood. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. For the handle. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. the shelf could not be put on the window. After the glue has dried. After completing the handle. Cover the block with rubber.. --Contributed by G. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. will. Mass. 1. take two pieces of hard wood. scissors. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. can be picked up without any trouble. by cutting away the ends. Needles. dressing one surface of each piece. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade.Book Back Holders metal. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. when placed as in Fig. When not in use. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. A. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. The block can also be used as a paperweight. Ia. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. wide rubber bands or felt. 3. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. Wood. to prevent its scratching the desk top. the blade is put back into the groove . I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. wide into each side of the casing.

-Contributed by W. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. A notch is cut in one side. --Contributed by H. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. A. S. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. --Contributed by Maud McKee. Malden. Mass. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. square and 4 in. 1 in.and sharpened to a cutting edge. 1. Each one is made of a hardwood block. Pa. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. Erie. Cleveland. Hutchins. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. 2. is shown in the accompanying sketch. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. If desired. thus carrying the car up the incline. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. Jacobs. Ohio. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. long. . a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block.

N. and an awl and hammer. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing.J. Cape May Point.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. The letters can be put on afterward. If one such as is shown is to be used. . a board on which to work it. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material.. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. 6 by 9-1/2 in. will be needed. Prepare a design for the front. This will insure having all parts alike. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. One sheet of metal.

or. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. If any polishing is required. behind or through the center of a table leg. only the marginal line is to be pierced. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. which is desirable. The music will not sound natural. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. if desired. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand." In all appearance. varnish. turpentine. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. applied by means of a brush. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. that can be worked in your own parlor. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. flat brush. mandolin or guitar. So impressive are the results. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick.Fasten the metal to the board. 1/4 part. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. Remove the metal. in the waste metal. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. says Master Painter. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. 2 parts white vitriol. One coat will do. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. as shown. to right angles. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. but weird and distant. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. The stick may be placed by the side of. paste the paper design right on the metal. On the back. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. a violin. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. . 1 part. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. placed on a table. 3/4 part.

One thing is always at hand and that is wood. is bent square so as to form two uprights. wide. across the top. round-head machine screws.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. apart. London. without them. are shaped as shown in Fig. The longest piece. long and measuring 26 in. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. square bar iron. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. 3. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. With proper tools this is easy. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. each 6 in. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. each 28 in. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. Two pairs of feet. long. long and spread about 8 in. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. it might be difficult. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. says Work. . The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. and is easy to construct. 2. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. thick by 1/2 in.

Place the corner piece of glass. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. C. lead. as shown in Fig. After the joints are soldered. The design is formed in the lead. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. better still. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. 7. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. While the piece of lead D. 6. 4. The glass. B. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. A. D. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. or. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. Fig. After the glass is cut. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. is held by the brads. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. The brads are then removed.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. cut a long piece of lead. 5. in the grooves of the borders. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. Fig. on it as shown. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. and the base border. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. special flux purchased for this purpose. using rosin as a flux. the latter being tapped to . border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. 5.

rounded at the top as shown. then drill a 3/4-in. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. 8. then flatten its end on the under side. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. holes through their centers. and two wood blocks. Two styles of hand holds are shown. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. wood screws in each washer. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. in diameter and about 9 in. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. N. plank about 12 ft. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in.. Secure a post. Camden. in diameter and 1/4 in. This ring can be made of 1-in. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. square and of the length given in the drawing. --Contributed by W. This . not less than 4 in. long. one on each side and central with the hole. Dreier. thick and drill 3/4-in. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. rocker bolt.the base of the clip. H. and round the corners of one end for a ring. Jr. A and B. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. long. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. plates. as shown in Fig. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. Make three washers 3-in. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. Bore a 5/8-in. Bore a 3/4-in. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. J. The center pin is 3/4-in. Fasten the plates to the block B. bolt. bolt. long.

the money outlay will be almost nothing. can make a first class gymnasium. horse and rings. by 6-1/2 ft. The four 7-in. 1-1/4in. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. hickory. long and 1 piece. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. 50 ft. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . because it will not stand the weather. square by 5 ft. long. 7 in. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. in diameter and 7 in. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. boards along the side of each from end to end. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. bit. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. 4 in. long. 1 by 7 in. of 1/4-in. chestnut or ash. from one edge. 16 screws. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. 3 in. 2 by 4 in. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. New Orleans. by 3 ft. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. La. 2-1/2 in. 4 filler pieces. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. apart for a distance of 3 ft.will make an excellent cover for a pot. bolts and rope. 9 in. by 2 ft. If trees are convenient. 1. 4 pieces. screws. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. long. long. and some one can swing an axe. Draw a line on the four 7-in. 4 in. square by 9-1/2 ft. 1/2 in. 4 pieces. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. To substitute small. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. straight-grained hickory. long. maple. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. shanks. 3/4 by 3 in. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. long. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier.

bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. deep and remove all loose dirt. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. 8 in. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft.bored. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in.. each 3 ft. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . apart. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. apart. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. Bore a 9/16-in. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. piece of wood. boards coincide. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. at each end. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. so the 1/2-in. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft.. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. 2. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. from the end. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each.

a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. passing through a screweye at either end. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. was at its height. If the tumbler is rotated. and ascends the stem. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. not much to look at in daytime. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. but most deceptive at dusk. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. not even the tumbler. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. it follows the edge for about 1 in. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. and materially heightened the illusion. and then passes in a curve across the base. He stretched the thread between two buildings. about 100 ft. just visible against the dark evening sky. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. . which at once gathered. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. W..platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. the effect will be as shown in the illustration." which skimmed along the distant horizon. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. When the interest of the crowd. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. in an endless belt. it is taken to the edge of the foot. disappearing only to reappear again. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. apart. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. And all he used was a black thread. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. the effect is very striking. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end.

and turned in a spiral D. by 7 ft. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. 8 in. square and 51/2 ft. preferably cedar. To make the apparatus. long. New Orleans. 2 cross braces. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. La. 8 in. 2 by 4 in. 4 in. long. 4 knee braces. large spikes. wide and 1 in. The cork will come out easily. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. square and 6 ft. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. long. beginning at a point 9 in. by 2 ft. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. 2 in. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. 7 in. 6 in. 2 by 3 in. by 3 ft. Bevel the ends of . Fig. long. from either side of the center. long. 4 in. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. 8 bolts. long and 1 doz. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 2 by 4 in. by 10 ft. deep. long. long. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. 2 side braces. 1. 2 base pieces. 4 wood screws. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. Chisel out two notches 4 in. A wire about No. 8 in. long. 4 bolts. so the point will be on top. 2 by 4 in.

additional long. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. A large sized ladle. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. and countersinking the heads. etc. After the trenches are dug. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt.the knee braces. leaving the strainer always in position. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. which face each other. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. A. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. If using mill-cut lumber.. Cal. save the bars. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. equipped with a strainer. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. Richmond. of 7 ft. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. Jaquythe. ( To be Continued. The wood so treated will last for years. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. as shown in the diagram. so the bolts in both will not meet. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. Two endpieces must be made. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. screws. but even unpainted they are very durable. These will allow the ladle to be turned. except the bars. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. leave it undressed. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. . --Contributed by W. jellies. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. using four of the 7-in bolts. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in.

partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. A. In order to accomplish this experiment. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. partly a barrier for jumps. it is necessary to place a stick. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. milling machine. thus holding the pail as shown. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. . Oil. of sufficient 1ength. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. drill press or planer. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. or various cutting compounds of oil. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. which seems impossible.

scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. long. wood yard or from the woods. ten 1/2-in. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. long. The round part of this log must be planed. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . bolts. projections and splinters. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. 7 in. bolts. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. 2 adjusting pieces. long. long. by 3 ft. by 3 ft. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. apart in a central position on the horse. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. 4 in. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. square by 5 ft. long. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. 1 cross brace. bolts. 4 in. 3 in. and free from knots. to fasten the knee braces at the top. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. from each end. 4-1/2 in. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. square by 5-1/2 ft. bolt. stud cut rounding on one edge. is a good length. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. 2 bases. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. in diameter--the larger the better. long. Procure from a saw mill. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. 4 knee braces. in the ground. 2 by 4 in. beginning 1-1/2 in. apart. 2 by 4 in.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. piece of 2 by 4-in. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in.. These are placed 18 in. 4 in. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces.. by 3 ft. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. The material required is as follows: Two posts. long. Hand holds must be provided next. long. 2 by 4 in. To construct. 1 in. but 5 ft. two 1/2-in. These are well nailed in place.

such as a dent. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. no one is responsible but himself. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. Also. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating.--Contributed by W. Jaquythe. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. A. over and around. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. snow. water. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant.horse top. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. etc. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. then bending to the shape desired. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. it is caused by an overloaded shell. pipe and fittings. Cal. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. but nevertheless. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. it is caused by some obstruction. Such a hand sled can be made in a . one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. Richmond. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber.

Paris. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. thick. is much better than a wood sled. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. The end elevation. --Contributed by J. 1. when complete. --Contributed by James E. which. 2. France. then run a string over each part. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. W. These. Mass.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. Noble. Ontario. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. will give the length. in width and 1/32 in. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. 1/4 or 3/16 in. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. --Contributed by Arthur E. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. Boston. are all the tools necessary. Vener. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. . This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. Joerin. at E and F. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. Toronto. when straightened out.

AA and BB. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. nor that which is partly oxidized. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. 4. 3. It is best to use soft water. . The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. The method shown in Figs. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. and the latter will take on a bright luster. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. are nailed. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs.

3. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. Percy Ashley in Rudder. as shown in Fig. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. 1). If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. Broad lines can be made. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. 2. . or various rulings may be made. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. as shown in Fig. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. class ice-yacht. 8 and 9. 4. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. The materials used are: backbone. 2. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. or unequal widths as in Fig. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. The headstock is made of two tees. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. It can be made longer or shorter. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. 1-Details of Lathe sort. A good and substantial homemade lathe. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. but if it is made much longer. pipe. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. 1. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. pins to keep them from turning.Fig. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. a tee and a forging. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. a larger size of pipe should be used. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. out from the collar. long. Both the lower . bent and drilled as shown. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. The point should extend about 11/2 in. about 30 in. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe.

thick as desired. 2. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. Laporte. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. else taper turning will result. Fruitvale. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. a straight line should be scratched Fig. Held. 1. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. --Contributed by W. It is about 1 in. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. UpDeGraff. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. M. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. Cal. and will answer for a great variety of work. W. --Contributed by M. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. Man. 2. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. Boissevain. 3/4 or 1 in. 2.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. or a key can be used as well. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. a corresponding line made on this. . Indiana. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. but also their insulating properties. Musgrove. --Contributed by W. To do this.

The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. The handle is of pine about 18 in. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] .Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. --Contributed by E. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. In use. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. To obviate this. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. Ft. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. as shown. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. long. Smith. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. J. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. Ark. Cline.

To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. --Contributed by Walter W. centering is just one operation too many. Colo. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. take . making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. the drill does not need the tool. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. This prevents the drill from wobbling. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. La. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. After being entered. on starting the lathe. if this method is followed: First. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. Denver. face off the end of the piece. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. New Orleans. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. which should be backed out of contact. and when once in true up to its size. White. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs.

a long piece of glass tubing. The glass tube B. after being shown empty. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. In doing this. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. The handkerchief rod. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. After the wand is removed. the cap is placed over the paper tube. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. shown at C. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. says the Sphinx. and this given to someone to hold. and can be varied to suit the performer. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. a bout 1/2 in. by applying caustic soda or . vanishing wand. as shown in D. is put into the paper tube A. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. shorter t h a n the wand. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. all the better. It can be used in a great number of tricks. unknown to the spectators.

A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. 1 Bottom. End. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. 1 End. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. As the cement softens. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. With care and patience. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. 1/4 in. and glue it to the neck at F. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. The brace at D is 1 in. long. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. can be made by the home mechanic. with the back side rounding. by 14 by 17 in. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. This dimension and those for the frets . and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. and if care is taken in selecting the material. preferably hard maple. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. square and 1-7/8 in. 3/16. Cut a piece of hard wood.potash around the edges of the letters. 2 Sides. as shown by K. 1 Neck. 1. Glue the neck to the box. thick. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. The sides. cut to any shape desired. across the front and back to strengthen them. Glue strips of soft wood. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in.

but it is not. When it is completed you will have a canoe. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. toward each end. 3/16 in.should be made accurately. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. -Contributed by J. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. E.Pa. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. Carbondale. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. or backbone. Norwalk. in diameter. 1) on which to stretch the paper. --Contributed by Chas. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. wide and 11-1/2 ft. H. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. Stoddard. O. Six holes. and beveled . This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. Frary. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. thick and about 1 ft. long is used for a keel. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. A board 1 in.

Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. Shape these as shown by A. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. Fig. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. . For the ribs near the middle of the boat. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. 1 and 2. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. The cross-boards (B. as shown in Fig. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. 1. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. as they are apt to do. and. such as is used for making chairbottoms. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. Any tough. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame.) in notches. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. two strips of wood (b. In drying. or similar material. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. 2). thick. b.. and notched at the end to receive them (B. B. probably. 2). procure at a carriage factory. some tight strips of ash. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. Fig. Fig. slender switches of osier willow. as shown in Fig. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. C. 4. b. by means of a string or wire. C. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. Green wood is preferable. but before doing this. 3/8 in. and so. but twigs of some other trees. Fig. Fig. buy some split cane or rattan. as before described. long. two twigs may be used to make one rib. 13 in. 3). the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. 3. the loose strips of ash (b. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. For the gunwales (a. a. These are better. 4). long are required. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. Fig. Fig. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. Osiers probably make the best ribs. with long stout screws. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. or other place. in such cases. will answer nearly as well. wide by 26 in. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. 2. in thickness and should be cut. such as hazel or birch. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. Fig. 3). which are easily made of long. 3. when made of green elm. b. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. thick. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. apart. The ribs. Fig. twigs 5 or 6 ft. are next put in. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. and are not fastened.

it can be obtained in almost any length desired. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. and held in place by means of small clamps. The paper is then trimmed. preferably iron. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. but with less turpentine. Then take some of the split rattan and. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. and light oars. if it has been properly constructed of good material. When thoroughly dry. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. and as soon as that has soaked in. Being made in long rolls. wide. If the paper be 1 yd. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. 5). b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. Fig. You may put in . Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. It should be drawn tight along the edges. It should be smooth on the surface. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. tacking it to the bottom-board. but neither stiff nor very thick. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. of very strong wrapping-paper. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. If not. after wetting it. When the paper is dry. B. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. and very tough. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. and steady in the water. however. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. apply a second coat of the same varnish. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine.

and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. to fit it easily. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. fore and aft.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. We procured a box and made a frame. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. they will support very heavy weights. 1 and the end in . 1. Fig. 5). allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. and make a movable seat (A. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. Fig. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. 5. Drive the lower nail first. and if driven as shown in the cut. 2. Fig.

and melt it down and close the end at the same time. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. Pa. Pittsburg.Fig. 3. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. 5. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. 4. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. A good way to handle this work. this makes the tube airtight. This way has its drawbacks. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. and the glass. and the result is. Close the other end with the same operation. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. being softer where the flame has been applied. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. This is an easy .

stamp the background of the design promiscuously. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. -Contributed by A. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. Give the metal a circular motion. then reverse. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. very rapid progress can be made. above the metal. with a piece of carbon paper. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. Sixth. extra metal all around. or six arms. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. 23 gauge. thin screw. above the work and striking it with the hammer. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No.way to make a thermometer tube. four. metal shears. second. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. fourth. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. three. Oswald. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. third. file. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. flat and round-nosed pliers. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. also trace the decorative design. rivet punch. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. The candle holders may have two. fifth. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. After the bulb is formed. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. Seventh.

Having pierced the bracket. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. and holder. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. drip cup. Metal polish of any kind will do. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. Small copper rivets are used.

and it will be ready for future use. I steer with the front wheel. A saw. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. smooth it down and then remove as before. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. using a steel pen. and brace and bit were the tools used. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. if it has not absorbed too much ink. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. except they had wheels instead of runners. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. Twenty cents was all I spent. and in a week . I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. Heat 6-1/2 oz. and other things as they were needed. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. deep. the stick at the bottom of the sail. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. glycerine 4 parts. thus it was utilized. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. is a broomstick. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. Fifty. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. when it will be ready for use. of glycerine to about 200 deg. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. Shiloh. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. J. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. sugar 1 part. all the rest I found. winding the ends where they came together with wire. Mother let me have a sheet. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. they were like an ice boat with a sail. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. Soak 1 oz. on a water bath. and water 24 parts. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. hammer. alcohol 2 parts. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. N. F. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. and add the gelatine. The gaff. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. The boom. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription.

Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly. a projecting lens . Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up.

slide to about 6 ft. E. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. 3. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. long. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. provided the material is of metal. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. about 2 ft. G. and. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. 8 in. or glue. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. A and B. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. DD. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. A table. or a lens of 12-in. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. are . focus enlarging a 3-in. 1. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. and 14 in. at a distance of 24 ft. wide and 15 in. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. but if such a box is not found. and a projecting lens 2 in. wire brads. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. If a small saw is used. at a point 1 in. describe a 9-in. This ring is made up from two rings. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen..Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. The slide support. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. The board is centered both ways. as desired. 1/2 to 3/4 in. above the center. Fig. and the lens slide. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. high. well seasoned pine. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. and the work carefully done. H. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. thick. wide.

Minn. A sheet . B. Paul. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. E. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. The arrangement is quite safe as. the strips II serving as guides. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. P. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. placed on the water. and when the right position is found for each. Small strips of tin. To reach the water. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. but not long enough.constructed to slip easily on the table. light burning oil. apply two coats of shellac varnish. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. the water at once extinguishes the flame. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. of safe. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. St. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick.-Contributed by G. should the glass happen to upset. JJ. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations.

Crawford. 4. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . Schenectady. to cover the mattresses. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. 9 in. 3. Fig. then the corners on one end are doubled over. by 12 ft. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. 3. 1. Fig. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. 2. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. If one of these clips is not at hand. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. 3 in. --Contributed by J. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. from a tent company. N. form a piece of wire in the same shape. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. I ordered a canvas bag..H. Y. 12 ft.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded.

The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. Fasten the wire with gummed label. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. drill two 3/16 in. for amperes and the other post. 2. 3/4 in. A rubber band. 1/2 in. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. 3 to swing freely on the tack. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. first mark the binding-post A. so as to form two oblong boxes. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. 1. Fold two strips of light cardboard. 3/4 in. 1. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. To calibrate the instrument. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. Warren. through which the indicator works. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. 2. Attach a piece of steel rod. insulating them from the case with cardboard. 1/2 in. Teasdale. --Contributed by Walter W. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. Fig. apart. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. in the center coil. --Contributed by Edward M. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. Fig. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. An arc is cut in the paper. open on the edges. V. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. A Film Washing Trough [331] . 2. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. Do not use too strong a rubber.each edge. wide. C. to the coil of small wire for volts. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. long. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. thick. Pa. Colo. and insert two binding-posts. as shown in Fig. White. Denver. D. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. holes in the edge. long and 3/16 in. to keep it from unwinding.

M. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. Dayton. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. Hunting. as shown. Cut a 1/4-in. O. --Contributed by M. with the large hole up. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. Wood Burning [331] . Place this can on one end of the trough.

Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. then into this bottle place. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . mouth downward. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top.

as shown in the sketch. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. --Contributed by John Shahan. wide and 4 in. 3/4 in. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. Ala. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. long. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. 1.Y. If the small bottle used is opaque. Upper Troy. Place the small bottle in as before. This will make a very pretty ornament. thick. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. 2. but not very thick. N. Whitehouse. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. many puzzling effects may be obtained. provided the bottle is wide. If the cork is adjusted properly. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. --Contributed by Fred W. Auburn. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume.

by the method shown in Fig. was keyed to shaft C. 1. iron rod. The 21/2-in. If a transmitter is used. Fig. sugar pine on account of its softness. which gave considerable power for its size. B. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. pulley F. I. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. 3. On a 1000-ft. 1. high without the upper half. such as blades and pulleys. even in a light breeze. pulley. was 1/4in. Fig. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. Milter. line. W. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. as shown in Fig. G. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. thick and 3 in. 1. Fig. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. 2 ft. Fig. which was nailed to the face plate. 4. to the shaft. A staple. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. 2. or ordinary telephone transmitters. which was 6 in. 1 in. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. thick. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. K. thick. The shaft C. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. Both bearings were made in this manner. which extended to the ground. Fig. The wire L was put . long. were constructed of 1-in. Its smaller parts. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. wide. 1. --Contributed by D. in diameter and 1 in. 1. The bearing blocks were 3 in.

wide and 1 in. 0. a 1/2-in. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. Fig. long. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. hole for the shaft G was in the center. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. pine 18 by 12 in. 1. with brass headed furniture tacks. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. strips. 1) 4 in. long. There a 1/4-in. long and bend it as shown at A. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. The bed plate D. Fig. 25 ft. G. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. Two washers were placed on shaft C.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. through the latter. and was cut the shape shown. in the center of the board P. with all parts in place. providing one has a few old materials on hand. apart in the tower. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. long and 1/2 in. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. as. Fig. was 2 ft. This completes the receiver or sounder. 1. hole was bored for it. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. 1. cut out another piece of tin (X. for instance. 5. This board was 12 in. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. in diameter. H. 6. If you have no bell. long and bend it as . long and 3 in. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. R. top down also. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. square to the board P at the top of the tower. 6. The other lid. Fig. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. To lessen the friction here. The smaller one. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. was tacked. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. when the windmill needed oiling. washers were placed under pulley F. The power was put to various uses. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. across the thin edge of a board. To make the key. 2. 3 in. Fig. Fig. so that the 1/4-in. Fig. This fan was made of 1/4-in. 1.

The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. Going back to Fig. 1.shown. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. and. fitted with paddles as at M. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. Before tacking it to the board. after the manner of bicycle wheels. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. at the front. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. as indicated. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. although it can be made with but two. using cleats to hold the board frame. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. McConnell. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. as shown at Water. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. -Contributed by John R. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. The rear barrels are. leaving the other wire as it is. Now. When tired of this instrument. By adjusting the coils. like many another device boys make. Thus a center drive is made. 2. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. causing a buzzing sound.

just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. 3. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. feet on the pedals. which will give any amount of pleasure. can be built. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. as shown in Fig. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. 1. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. If the journals thus made are well oiled. there will not be much friction. copper piping and brass tubing for base. To propel it. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. The speed is slow at first.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. There is no danger. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . or even a little houseboat.

D. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. Fig. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. 2. If it is desired to make the light very complete. Fig. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. 1. Turn a small circle of wood. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. Shape small blocks of boxwood. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. then the glass disc and then the other ring. Fig. Place one brass ring in cylinder. 2. 1. Fig. Then melt out the rosin or lead. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. C. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished.of pleasure for a little work. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. If magnifying glass cannot be had. 2. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. or it may be put to other uses if desired. and so creating a false circuit. B. 1. A. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it.

Brinkerhoff. such as is used for cycle valves. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. shelf. by having the switch on the baseboard. wide and 1/16 in. if too small. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . and pulled tight. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. S. Chatland. wire from light to switch. or 1/4in. wire from batteries to switch. The parts indicated are as follows: A. J.india rubber tubing. near the bed. Pa. after two turns have been made on the key. bracket. set alarm key as shown in diagram. --Contributed by Geo. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. F. bell. which stops bell ringing. thick. dry batteries. long. I. X. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. To get the cylinder into its carriage. When alarm goes off. contact post. brass rod. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. Throw lever off from the right to center. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. To throw on light throw levers to the left. In placing clock on shelf.. To operate this. Swissvale. C. Utah. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. switch. 4-1/2 in. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. 5-1/4 by 10 in. H. --Contributed by C. Ogden. long. B. D. 4 in. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. some glue will secure them. C. key of alarm clock. brass strip. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. T. wire from bell to switch. E. G. after setting alarm. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. while lying in bed. 3/8 in. copper tubing. The contact post may be of 1/4-in.

will do the heating. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. about 3-1/2 in. Make the spindle as in Fig. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. as in Fig. from one end. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. which can be made of an old can. Having finished this. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. 1/4 in. in diameter. as . letting it extend 3/4 in. Pull out the nail and stick. about 6 in.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. making it as true and smooth as possible. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. Make a shoulder. in diameter. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. 3. S. A flannel bag. as at A. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. Lanesboro. as at B. All that is required is a tin covering. 1. Fig. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. --Contributed by Chas. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. Fig. long. 2. Fig. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. Chapman. 2. a bed warmer. A small lamp of about 5 cp. for instance. 4 in. Minn. This is to form the fuse hole. place stick and all in a pail of sand. as at A. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. wide. beyond the end of the spindle. being careful not to get the sand in it. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. 1. gives the heater a more finished appearance.

5/8 in. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. wide and 3/8 in. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. thick. The illustration shows how this is done. long. 3/8 in. long. wide and 3 ft. this is to keep the edges from splitting. 1. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. ash. A piece of tin.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. Joerin. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. long. spring and arrows. 6 in. 11/2 in. thick. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. 1 in. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. good straight-grained pine will do. will be sufficient to make the trigger. wide and 6 ft. or hickory. deep. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. A piece of oak. but if this wood cannot be procured. thick. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . The material must be 1-1/2 in. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. --Contributed by Arthur E. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock.

wide at each end. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. having the latter swing quite freely. 6. The bow is not fastened in the stock. 3. from the opposite end. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. 8. Trownes. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. When the trigger is pulled. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. or through the necessity of. which is 1/4 in. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. better still. from the end of the stock. Fig. 4. it lifts the spring up. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. Such a temporary safe light may be . Fig. as shown in Fig. in diameter. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. The stick for the bow. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. 9. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. as shown in Fig. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. E. A spring. 7. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. place the arrow in the groove. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. Ill. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. Wilmette. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. and one for the trigger 12 in. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. --Contributed by O. To shoot the crossbow. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. 2. thick. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. To throw the arrow. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. The trigger. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. Fig.

It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. Moreover. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. is used as a door. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. C. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. the bark lean-to is a . while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. make the frame of the wigwam. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. or only as a camp on a short excursion. Remove the bottom of the box. says Photo Era. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. and replace as shown at B. and nail it in position as shown at A. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. This lamp is safe. from the ground. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. The hinged cover E. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. it is the easiest camp to make. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. making lighting and trimming convenient. apart. By chopping the trunk almost through. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. Remove one end. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. from the ground. respectively. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. since the flame of the candle is above A. The cut should be about 5 ft.

so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. and split the tops with an ax. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. For a foot in the middle of the stick. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. are a convenient size for camp construction. deep and covered with blankets. 6 ft. . and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. long and 2 or 3 ft. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. make the best kind of a camp bed. makes a good pair of tongs. will dry flat. long. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. A piece of elm or hickory. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. piled 2 or 3 ft. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. and cedar. spruce. Tongs are very useful in camp. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. long and 1-1/2 in. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. In the early summer. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. wide.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. selecting a site for a camp. wide and 6 ft. Sheets of bark. For a permanent camp. thick. Where bark is used. a 2-in. and when the camp is pitched. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. nails are necessary to hold it in place. 3 ft. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock.

and affording accommodation for several persons. hinges. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. . Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. or even a rough lock for the camp larder. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried.

At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. wide. about 4 in. Doylestown. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. the interior can.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. A. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. Pa. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. B. I drove a small cork. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. Fig. deep and 4 in. 1. to another . changing the water both morning and night. --Contributed by James M. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place.. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. Kane. and provide a cover or door. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. B.

care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. to pass through an increasing resistance. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. 3. for instance. limit. 2. fused into one side. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. 2. Fig. a liquid. if necessary. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. 4 and 5). The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. which project inside and outside of the tube. such as ether. The current is thus compelled. E. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. C. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. for instance. until. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted.glass tube. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. This makes . which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. The diagram.

which are fitted on the studs in the frame. When the frame is finished so far. tap. therefore. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. screws. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. After cleaning them with the solution. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. These holes are for the bearing studs. in diameter. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. thicker. Then the field can be finished to these marks. If the thickness is sufficient. or pattern. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. A 5/8in. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. as shown in the left-hand sketch. in diameter.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. on a lathe. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. by turning the lathe with the hand. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. but merely discolored. Fig. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. thick. set at 1/8 in. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. cannot be used so often. making it 1/16 in. 2. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. After the template is marked out. 1. Alpena. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. 3-3/8 in. Before removing the field from the lathe. clamp the template. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. 3. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. two holes. between centers. which may be of any thickness so that. drill the four rivet holes. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. Fig. larger than the dimensions given. Michigan. as shown in Fig. bent at right angles as shown. 3-3/8 in. 4-1/2 in. hole is . are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. which will make it uniform in size. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. is composed of wrought sheet iron. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. assemble and rivet them solidly. when several pieces are placed together. to allow for finishing. brass. The bearing studs are now made. they will make a frame 3/4 in. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. brass or iron. or even 1/16 in. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. A. mark off a space. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. and for the outside of the frame. thick.

Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. or otherwise finished. brass rod is inserted. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. The shaft of the armature. into which a piece of 5/8-in. Fig. file them out to make the proper adjustment. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. soldered into place. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . solder them to the supports. and build up the solder well. When the bearings are located. is turned up from machine steel. 4.

thick. as shown in Fig. When this is accomplished. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. and held with a setscrew. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. threaded. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. 3/4 in. brass rod. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. thick and 1/4 in. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. 6. Armature-Ring Core. wide. After they . 3/4 in. 3. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. as shown in Fig. thick. After the pieces are cut out. Procure 12 strips of mica. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. The pins are made of brass. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. 8. deep and 7/16 in. sheet fiber. as shown in Fig. 5. by 1-1/2 in. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. 1-1/8 in. as shown in Fig. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. hole and tap it for a pin. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. inside diameter. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. 3.. Find the centers of each segment at one end.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. washers. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. being formed for the ends. thick. 6. to allow for finishing to size. and then they are soaked in warm water. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. 9. then drill a 1/8-in. Rivet them together. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. Make the core 3/4 in. wide. 7. When annealed. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. holes through them for rivets. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. The sides are also faced off and finished. or segments. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. as shown m Fig. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. 1/8 in. thick are cut like the pattern. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. as shown in Fig.

Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. The source of current is connected to the terminals. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. 5. Run one end of the field wire. long. wide and 1 in. of the end to protrude. This winding is for a series motor. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. yet it shows a series of . of No. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. The two ends are joined at B. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. To connect the wires. In starting to wind. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. All connections should be securely soldered. or side. by bending the end around one of the projections. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. are soldered together. of the wire. 8 in. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. until the 12 slots are filled. After one coil. thick. shown at A. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. the two ends of the wire. shown at B. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in.have dried. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. which will take 50 ft. and bring the end of the wire out at B. and wind on four layers. they are glued to the core insulation. The field is wound with No. Fig. sheet fiber. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. about 100 ft. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. Fig. 1. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. being required. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. sheet fiber. The winding is started at A. When the glue is set. 6 in. after the motor is on the stand. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. 1. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire.

you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. A 1/2-in. as in the case of a spiral. still more simply. is fastened to the metallic body. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. Nine wires run from the timer. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. and one. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . one from each of the eight contacts. or. which serves as the ground wire.

It should be . This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. 45 deg. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. Without this attachment. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. long. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. thus giving 16 different directions. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. board. Covering these is a thin. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. of the dial. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. circle. 6 in. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration.The Wind Vane. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing.

Place the leather on some level. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. high. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. making it heavy or light. if not too high. To work these outlines. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. To make it. Blackmer. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. also a piece of new carpet. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. will be enough for the two sides. according to who is going to use it. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. Cut 3-in. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. thus making a universal joint. though a special knife. called a chip carving knife. Y. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. or. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in.about 6 ft. 14 by 18 in. N. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. however. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. is most satisfactory. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. . The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. Buffalo. Fill the box with any handy ballast. and about 6 in. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. will answer the purpose just as well. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. will be sufficient. long to give the best results. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. and securely nail on the top of the box. -Contributed by James L. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. Before tacking the fourth side. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together.

A good leather paste will be required. An ordinary sewing-machine .Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine. Paste the silk plush to the inner side. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining.

and tie them together securely at the bottom. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. rather than the smooth side. of water. away from it. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. as in cases of a sprained ankle. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. --Contributed by Katharine D. Syracuse. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C.will do if a good stout needle is used. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. Y. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. temporary lameness. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. N. If a fire breaks out. of common salt and 10 lb. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. B. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. a needle and some feathers. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. or a hip that has been wrenched. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. Morse. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. square and tying a piece of . Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. can be thrown away when no longer needed. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. and fasten the feathers inside of it. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire.

The diaphragm C. Paterson. --Contributed by John A. and tacked it to the boards. and a coil of wire. Ashland. The body of the receiver. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. long.. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. is cut on the wood. . It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. wide and 1/16 in. Gordon Dempsey. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. A small wooden or fiber end. The end is filed to an edge. deep. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. Wis.J. G. made up of four layers of No. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. wound on the head end. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. cut to the length of the spool. letting it go at arm's length. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. board all around the bottom on the inside. B. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. E. the corners being wired.string to each corner. commonly called tintype tin. which is the essential part of the instrument. Y. The strings should be about 15 in. Hellwig. Albany. One end is removed entirely. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. --Contributed by J. etc. long. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. F. as shown. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. high. This not only keeps the rats out. laying poisoned meat and meal. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. and the receiver is ready for use. setting traps. N. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. but not sharp. The coil is 1 in. thus helping the rats to enter. A. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. There is a 1-in. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. 1/8 in. N. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration.

As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. to . a piece of small wire. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. A single line will be sufficient. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. wide. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. gold. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. The vase is to have three supports. Take a piece of string or. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. better still. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. To clean small articles. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. and bend each strip in shape. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. begin with the smallest scrolls.

making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. 4-1/4 in. from the lines EF on the piece. After taking off the pattern. wide when stitching up the purse. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. 3-1/4 in. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. through which to slip the fly AGH. Press or model down the leather all around the design. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. About 1 in. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. from C to D. Fold the leather on the line EF. 6-3/8 in. thus raising it. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard.which the supports are fastened with rivets. 3-1/2 in. as shown in the sketch. using a duller point of the tool. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. Work down the outside line of the design. Trace also the line around the purse.. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. . sharp pencil. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. and does not require coloring. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. from E to F..

or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. 1 was cut. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. square. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. with the open side down. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. It can be made without the use of a lathe. and the projections B. leaving the lug a. with pins or small nails. all the way around. b. thick. as well as useful. and. deep. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. and which will be very interesting. around the wheel. Then nail the wheel down firmly. deep. 2. Make the lug 1/4 in. It is neat and efficient. and cut it out as shown in Fig. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. 1/2 in. Fit this to the two . with a compass saw. being cast in wooden molds. as shown in Fig. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. Now take another piece of wood. First. following the dotted lines. then place the square piece out of which Fig. the "open" side. and a model for speed and power. by 12 ft. 1. and cut out a wheel. 3. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. with the largest side down. and tack the other piece slightly. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. long.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. Cut off six pieces 12 in. This also should be slightly beveled. When it is finished. then nail it.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in.

and clean all the shavings out of it. in the center of it. then bolt it together. bolts. place it between two of the 12-in. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. holes through it.pieces just finished. slightly beveled. 1. After it is finished. and cut it out as shown in Fig. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. Take the mold apart. Now put mold No. 4. hole entirely through at the same place. and boring a 3/8-in. as shown by the . hole bored through its center. and bore six 1/4-in. one of which should have a 3/8-in. and lay it away to dry. Now take another of the 12-in. deep. hole 1/4 in. as shown by the black dots in Fig. square pieces of wood.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. square pieces of wood.

and lay it away to dry. 4. This will cast a paddle-wheel.2. This is for a shaft. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. see that the bolts are all tight. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. so that it will turn easily. until it is full. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. take an ordinary brace. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. A piece of mild steel 5 in. 1. true it up with a square. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. only the one is left-handed. place it under the drill. as shown in illustration. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. and run in babbitt metal again. put the top of the brace through this hole.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. Now take mold No. and drill them in the same manner. Let it stand for half an hour. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. 6. instead of the right-handed piece. Fig. This is mold No. B. screw down. one in the projections. and the exhaust hole in projection b. as shown by the black dots in Fig. and pour babbitt metal into it. Using the Brace . long. After it is fitted in. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. Then bolt the castings together. and connect to the boiler. and bore three 1/4-in. place the entire machine in a vise. holes at d. and pouring metal in to fill it up. and the other in the base. lay it on a level place. fasten a 3/8-in. in diameter must now be obtained. and 3/8-in. and two 1/4-in. Put this together in mold No. This is the same as Fig. long. d.2. over the defective part. Pour metal into mold No. 5. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. one in the lug. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. where the casting did not fill out. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. wide and 16 in. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. and drill it entirely through. drill in it. Now cut out one of the 12-in. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel.1.black dots in Fig. Commencing 1-1/2 in. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. 6. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. b. the other right-handed. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. from the one end.1. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. holes.

or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. At each end of the 6ft. while it is running at full speed. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. turn the wheel to the shape desired. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. will do good service. long. and the other 8 ft. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. Plan of Ice Boat . with a boss and a set screw. piece and at right angles to it. one 6 ft. and if instructions have been carefully followed. Then take a knife or a chisel. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing.. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. and. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. and with three small screw holes around the edge.

plank. at the top. 1. so much the better will be your boat. as the runners were fastened. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. where they often did considerable damage. and about 8 in. plank nail 8-in. in diameter in the center. To the under side of the 8-ft. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. Over the middle of the 6-ft. piece and at right angles to it. in front of the rudder block. which may come in handy in heavy winds. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. 3. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. at the end. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. Fig. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. long and 2-1/2 in. Make your runners as long as possible. in diameter. long. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . bolt the 8-ft. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. Fig. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. distant. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. long. This fits in the square hole. Details of Ice Boat Con