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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial


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  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother


Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)







A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

--Contributed by J. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. wide and 2 ft. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. distant. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. E. 1. with the hollow side away from you. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. 2. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. 2 -. Noble. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. as shown in Fig. 2. To throw a boomerang. It is held in this curve until dry. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. apart. The pieces are then dressed round. Toronto. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. A piece of plank 12 in. grasp it and hold the same as a club. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. Fig. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. long will make six boomerangs. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . 1. until it is bound as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. Ontario. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. 1. away.Fig.

and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. which makes the building simpler and easier. it is not essential to the support of the walls. A wall. If the snow is of the right consistency. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. the block will drop out. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. made of 6-in. but about 12 in. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. however. long. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. First. thick. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. one inside of the circle and the other outside. forcing it down closely. 6 in. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. and with a movable bottom.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. minus the top. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. dry snow will not pack easily. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. blocks . Larger or smaller blocks can be used. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. or rather no bottom at all. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. A very light. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. and it may be necessary to use a little water. high and 4 or 5 in. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter.

Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. 3. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. C. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. Fig. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. The piece of wood. is 6 or 8 in. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. D. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. 3 -.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. 2. --Contributed by Geo. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. A nail. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. which can be made of wood. Ore. or an old safe dial will do. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. long and 1 in. 1. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. Union. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. which is about 1 ft. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. above the ground. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. There is no outward thrust. and the young architect can imitate them. a. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. It also keeps them out. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. Fig. Goodbrod. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . 1. Fig. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. 2. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. wide.

The bolts are replaced in the hinges. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. S. --Contributed by R. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. as the weight always draws them back to place. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. New York. Merrill. the box locked . The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. says the Sphinx. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. If ordinary butts are used. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. Syracuse. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight.When taking hot dishes from the stove. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. one pair of special hinges.

which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. 3. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece.and the performer steps out in view. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. allowing each coat time to dry. as shown in Fig. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. Augusta. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. on drawing paper. If they do not. With the metal shears. It remains to bend the flaps. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. -Contributed by L. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. If the measuring has been done properly. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. one for each corner. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. 2. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. draw one-half of it. Ga. When the sieve is shaken. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. as shown. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. as shown in Fig. Alberta Norrell. proceed as follows: First. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. All . about 1-32 of an inch. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. Place the piece in a vise. To make a design similar to the one shown. smooth surface. 1. Fig. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side.

The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. from the back end. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. R. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. 25 gauge German-silver wire. After this has dried. 25 German-silver wire. long. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. A piece of porcelain tube. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. in passing through the lamp. A resistance. The current. should be in the line. if rolled under the shoe sole. causing it to expand. heats the strip of German-silver wire. about 6 in. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. --Contributed by R. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. To keep the metal from tarnishing. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. used for insulation. Denver. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. and in the positions shown in the sketch.the edges should be left smooth. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. as shown at AA. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . which is about 6 in. is fitted tightly in the third hole. The common cork. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. B. Galbreath. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. C. in diameter. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. When the current is turned off. In boring through rubber corks. H. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. Colo. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. If a touch of color is desired. of No. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. cover it with banana-oil lacquer.

Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. between them as shown in Fig. --Contributed by David Brown. 2. leaving a space of 4 in. Mo. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. 3. Purchase two long book straps. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. 1. Fig. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. . A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. Kansas City.bottom ring. as shown in Fig. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. with thin strips of wood.

Fig.. and tack smoothly.An ordinary electric bell. The string is then tied. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. --Contributed by James M. one weighing 15 lb. Fig. N. to form a handle. having a gong 2-1/2 in. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. and one weighing 25 lb. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. Y. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. are mounted on the outside of the box. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. Doylestown. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. --Contributed by Katharine D. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. 2. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. as . 1. Kane. and a pocket battery. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. Pa. which is the right weight for family use. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. in diameter. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. 36 in. just the right weight for a woman to use. Syracuse. The folds are made over the string. Two strips of brass. long.. A. Fig. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. 4. Morse. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. C. 3. 1. These are shown in Fig. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. When the aeroplane tips. 1.

These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. --Contributed by Louis J. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. 3/32 or 1/4 in. two 1/8 -in. Day. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. Frame Made of a Rod . Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. long. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. four washers and four square nuts. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. bent as shown in Fig. in diameter. 2. 2. Y. and many fancy knick-knacks. machine screws. The saw. 1. AA. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. N. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. such as brackets. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. if once used. Floral Park.

as well as the depth of etching desired. For etching. the most expensive. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. using a swab and an old stiff brush. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. Silver is the most desirable but. use them in place of the outside nuts. Of the leathers. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. copper. If it colors the metal red. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. as well as brass and copper. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. of course. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. File these edges. be covered the same as the back. Detroit. The buckle is to be purchased. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. Drying will cause this to change to purple. An Austrian Top [12] . The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. allowing each time to dry. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish.may be made of either brass. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. 1 part nitric acid. if copper or brass. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. In the design shown. or silver. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. it has the correct strength. Scranton. though almost any color may be obtained. therefore. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. Rub off the highlights. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. Apply two coats. A. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. of water. Michigan. Watch Fob For coloring silver.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. 1 part sulphuric acid.. of water in which dissolve. --Contributed by W. treat it with color. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. after breaking up. green and browns are the most popular.

long. long. . take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. 1-1/4 in.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. allowing only 1-1/4 in. When the shank is covered. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. 3/4 in. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. A handle. in diameter. --Contributed by J. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. pass one end through the 1/16-in. Bore a 3/4-in. wide and 3/4 in. hole in this end for the top. thick. set the top in the 3/4 -in. A 1/16-in. Tholl. The handle is a piece of pine. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. Parts of the Top To spin the top.F. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. hole. Ypsilanti. starting at the bottom and winding upward. 5-1/4 in. is formed on one end. Michigan. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown.

A. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. For black leathers. Augusta. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. Ga. tarts or similar pastry. --Contributed by Miss L. The baking surface. Houghton. Northville. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. --A. Alberta Norrell. . Mich. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. having no sides. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous.

says Studio Light. Mo. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. Centralia. then solder cover and socket together. the same as shown in the illustration. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. Stringing Wires [13] A. When you desire to work by white light. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . two turns will remove the jar. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. glass fruit jar. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper.

Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. as shown in the cross-section sketch. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. They are fastened. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. square by 12 in. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. 4 Vertical pieces. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. . 1-1/4 in. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. 4 Braces. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. Wis. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. so it can be folded up. Janesville. 16 Horizontal bars. square by 62 in. and not tip over. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. 1-1/4 in.for loading and development.

The front can be covered . Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. New York. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. O. The whole. H. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. Rosenthal. --Contributed by Dr. and a loop made in the end. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. from scrap material. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. Cincinnati. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. After rounding the ends of the studs. C. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. -Contributed by Charles Stem. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. If the loop is tied at the proper place. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. after filling the pail with water. Phillipsburg. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig.

In my own practice. FIG. if you try to tone them afterward. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. Baltimore. principally mayonnaise dressing. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. 1 FIG. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. sickly one. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. Develop them into strong prints.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. thoroughly fix. Wehr. Md. The results will be poor. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. The . and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. and. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. you are. --Contributed by Gilbert A. the color will be an undesirable. either for contact printing or enlargements. If the gate is raised slightly. the mouth of which rests against a. by all rules of the game. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. By using the following method.

The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper. 16 oz. 1 and again as in Fig.. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper.. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes. 20 gr.. wide and 4 in.. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig... this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain...bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison.. The blotting paper can .... 2 oz...... --Contributed by T. The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished. in this solution.... stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax. three times. as it will appear clean much longer than the white.. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table. thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses. preferably the colored kind. but. A good final washing completes the process...... etc...... Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete. Water . transfer it to a tray of water.. Gray.. in size.. With a little practice.. Iodide of potassium .... Place the dry print... to make it 5 by 5 in. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder. An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in.. Put one on each corner of the blotting paper. L." Cyanide of potassium . Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper..... where it will continue to bleach. The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone. Cal.... without previous wetting... When the desired reduction has taken place. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects.. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away. when it starts to bleach......... long to admit the angle support. It will bleach slowly and evenly. 2.. This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print.. San Francisco... 5 by 15 in.

Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. Wisconsin. --Contributed by L. the head of which is 2 in. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. Canada. the shaft 1 in. Wilson Aldred Toronto. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. Make a design similar to that shown. wide. --Contributed by J. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. 20 gauge. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. Oshkosh. and a length of 5 in. Corners complete are shown in Fig.J. having a width of 2-1/4 in. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. Monahan. wide below the . 3.

being held perpendicular to the work. as shown in Fig. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. For coloring olive green. Allow this to dry. then put on a second coat. 4. using carbon paper. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. freehand. 1 part sulphuric acid. With files. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. Make one-half of the design. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. Do not put the hands in the solution. 2. Pierce a hole with a small drill. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. 1 part nitric acid. using a small metal saw. 1 Fig. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. using turpentine. Trace the design on the metal. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. after folding along the center line. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. With the metal shears. Apply with a small brush. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. then trace the other half in the usual way. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. 3. deep. The metal must be held firmly. . which gives the outline of the design Fig. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. then coloring. After the sawing. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. Fig. but use a swab on a stick. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water.FIG. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. 1. After this has dried. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke.

. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. Syracuse. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. it does the work rapidly. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. then stain it a mahogany color. M. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. --Contributed by M. Morse. After the stain has dried. When this is cold.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. Ii is an ordinary staple. Richmond. Conn. attach brass handles. --Contributed by H. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. New York. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. Carl Cramer. as shown. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. Burnett. Cal. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. on a chopping board. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. thick. East Hartford. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. --Contributed by Katharine D. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier.

Cal. Richmond. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. thick. indicating the depth of the slots. 1/4 in. WARNECKE Procure some brass. some pieces of brass. 1. L. or tin. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. Atwell. as shown in Fig. A. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. holes. Kissimmee. two enameled. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. thick and 4 in.. square. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. machine screws. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. brass. about 3/16 in. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. and several 1/8-in. --Contributed by W. 4. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. Fig. saucers or pans.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. . in width at the shank. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. H. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. Florida. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. one shaft. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. not over 1/4 in. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. as shown at A. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. also locate the drill holes. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. 53 steel pens. Jaquythe. --Contributed by Mrs. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk.

each about 1 in. as shown. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. long by 3/4 in. wide. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. Fig. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. long and 5/16 in. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. as in Fig. Bend as shown in Fig. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. 7. and pins inserted. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. with 1/8-in. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. into the hole. wide and bend as shown in Fig. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. lead should be run into the segments. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. machine screws and nuts. about 1/32 in. There should be a space of 1/16 in. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. with a 3/8-in. 3. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. with the face of the disk. thick. 2. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. 6. and the ends filed round for the bearings. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. supply pipe. Fig. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. in diameter and 1/32 in. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. A 3/4-in. machine screws. can be procured.. 1. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. 3. If metal dishes. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. brass and bolted to the casing. Fig.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. thick. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. 2. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. using two nuts on each screw. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. hole is drilled to run off the water. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. If the shaft is square. The shaft hole may also be filed square. 5. hole in the center. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. as shown in Fig. hole. a square shaft used. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. These are connected to a 3/8-in.

A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. or more in diameter. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. 8-1/2 in. V. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. The lower part. Now you will have the box in two pieces. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. Cooke. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. La Salle. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. to make the bottom. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. square and 30-1/2 in. Stain the wood before putting in the . The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. Hamilton. --Contributed by S. Canada. using four to each leg. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. Fasten with 3/4-in. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. from the bottom end of the legs. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. deep over all. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. --Contributed by F. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. screws. Smith. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. With a string or tape measure.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. long. we will call the basket. high and 15 in. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. from the top of the box. deep and 1-1/4 in. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. make these seams come between the two back legs. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. Be sure to have the cover. The four legs are each 3/4-in. three of which are in the basket. Ill. When assembling. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in.

Sew on to the covered cardboards. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. If all the parts are well sandpapered. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . Baltimore. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. wide and four strips 10 in. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. Fig. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. The folded part in the center is pasted together. -Contributed by Stanley H. and gather it at that point. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. 1. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. wide. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. as shown in the sketch. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. The side. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining.2 Fig. When making the display. Cover them with the cretonne. 2. sewing on the back side. Mass.lining. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. --also the lower edge when necessary. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. Packard. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. Boston. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. you can. Md. with the crudest of tools and a little practice.

saving all the solid part. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. N. --Contributed by H. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. and. 3. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. Gloversville. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. Y. When through using the pad. It is not difficult to . --Contributed by B. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. with slight modifications. Orlando Taylor. Mo. L. Crockett. It is cleanly. Fig. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. Cross Timbers.

Lane. S. remove the contents. -Contributed by C. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . are shown in the diagram. or if desired. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. After stirring. across the face. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. El Paso. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. --Contributed by Edith E. Mass. Both of these methods are wasteful. and secure it in place with glue or paste. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. Texas. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. After this is done. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. If a file is used. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. Bourne. Lowell. it should be new and sharp. and scrape out the rough parts.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell.

I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. The insects came to the light. Oak Park. The process works well and needs no watching. Iowa. Wheeler. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. Oregon. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. Ill. Turl. As these were single-faced disk records. --Contributed by Loren Ward. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. circled over the funnel and disappeared. After several hours' drying. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. Canton. He captured several pounds in a few hours. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. F. Greenleaf. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. Those having houses .cooking utensil. Ill. --Contributed by Geo. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. Des Moines. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. --Contributed by Marion P. A Postcard Rack [25].

by 2 ft. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. 6 in. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. Conn. --Contributed by Thomas E. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. not even with the boards themselves. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch.. will do as well. Both sides can be put together in this way. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. and both exactly alike. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. Lay the floor next. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. Rosenberg. and the second one for the developing bench. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. one on each side of what will be the . the best material to use being matched boards. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. Worcester. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. Dobbins. boards are preferable. Glenbrook. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. but for cheapness 3/4 in. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. and as they are simple in design. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. the bottom being 3/8 in.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. thick. 6 in. material. plane and pocket knife. Only three pieces are required. Mass. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. The single boards can then be fixed. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft.. --Contributed by Wm. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner.

by screwing to the floor. 9). and shown to a larger scale in Fig. and in the middle an opening. so that it will fit inside the sink. of the top of the door for the same reason.. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. as shown in Figs.. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. and act as a trap for the light. so that the water will drain off into the sink. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. hinged to it. 6. 6. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. below which is fixed the sink. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. At the top of the doorway. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. 2 in section. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. Fig.doorway. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. 8. the closing side as at B. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. 6 and 9. 11. nailing them to each other at the ridge. which is fixed on as shown . The roof boards may next be put on.. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. etc. 5. 3 and 4. 10). brown wrapping paper. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. In hinging the door. is cut. and should be zinc lined. It is shown in detail in Fig. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. The developing bench is 18 in. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. 7. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. wide. 9 by 11 in. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. and to the outside board of the sides. and the top as at C in the same drawing. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves.

Details of the Dark Rook .

as at M. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. mixing flour and water. though this is hardly advisable. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. or the room may be made with a flat roof. as shown in Fig. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. as shown in the sections. A circular piece about 2 in. hole bored in the center for a handle. Fig. 16. The handle should be at least 12 in. Fig. For beating up an egg in a glass.in Fig. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. 19. Pennsylvania. preferably maple or ash. as at I. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. In use. are fastened in the corners inside. Fig. 20. Karl Hilbrich. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. 1. or red light as at K. which makes it possible to have white light. screwing them each way into the boards. 6. 15. after lining with brown paper. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. --Contributed by W. it is better than anything on the market. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. 14. Fig. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. Erie. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. 13. 13. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. 18. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. 2. as in Fig. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. and a tank stand on it. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. 17. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. The house will be much strengthened if strips. 16. if desired. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. these being shown in Fig. four coats at first is not too many. and a 3/8-in. but not the red glass and frame.

A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. as shown in the sketch. Yonkers. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. Smith. New York.copper should be. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. --Contributed by L. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. L. --Contributed by Wm. -Contributed by E. Eureka Springs. when put together properly is a puzzle. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. long. which. G. Mo. for a handle. Ark. Kansas City. Schweiger. To operate. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. D. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. about 3/8 in. Mitchell. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] .

The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. After the box is trimmed. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. 1. the rustic work should be varnished. especially for filling-in purposes. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. The design shown in Fig. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. 3. for the moment. Having completed the bare box. holes should be drilled in the bottom. in order to thoroughly preserve it. as shown in Fig. 2.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. which binds them together. The corks in use are shown in Fig. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. If the sill is inclined. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. A number of 1/2-in. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. 3. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. to make it set level. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. the box will require a greater height in front. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. . Each cork is cut as in Fig. need them. as well as improve its appearance. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. as shown in Fig. as is usually the case.

and observe results. cabbages. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. can't use poison. 4. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. share the same fate. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. being partly eaten into. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. life in the summer time is a vexation.. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. it's easy. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. too dangerous. 1. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. When the corn is gone cucumbers. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. But I have solved the difficulty. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. Traps do no good. Each long projection represents a leg. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. F. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. drilled at right angles. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. 2. as shown in Fig. etc. 3. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. . Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections.

Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. of No. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. and made up and kept in large bottles. -. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. strips. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. cut in 1/2-in. the coil does not heat sufficiently. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. cut some of it off and try again. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. Iowa. If. The solution can be used over and over again. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. . by trial. long. About 9-1/2 ft.

Fig 2. Texas. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. to cause the door to swing shut. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. In cleaning silver. of whiting and 1/2 oz. 1) removed. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. forks. and a strip. Dallas. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. Morse. C. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. Doylestown. as shown in the sketch. Y. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. --Contributed by Katharine D. Pa. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. Knives. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. it falls to stop G. D. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. but with unsatisfactory results. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. Kane. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. hot-water pot. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. is a good size--in this compound.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. --Contributed by James M. Do not wash them. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. Stir and mix thoroughly. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. of oleic acid with 1 gal. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. coffee pot. of gasoline. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. N. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. Syracuse. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. .

the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. using the paper dry. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. of course. . negatives. Waverly. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. later fixed and washed as usual. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. Ill. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. Sprout. but unfixed. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. Pa. --Contributed by Theodore L. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. --Contributed by Oliver S. Fisher. Harrisburg. La. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. New Orleans. which is. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand.

then . The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. a harmonograph is a good prescription. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. To obviate this difficulty.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. In this uncertainty lies the charm. metal. Fig. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. 1. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. The harmonograph. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis.

for instance. --Contributed by Wm. Punch a hole. as shown in the lower part of Fig. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. to prevent any side motion. J. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. Another weight of about 10 lb. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. Holes up to 3 in. with a nail set or punch. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. 1. one-fifth. G. Ingham. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. as long as the other. and unless the shorter pendulum is. --Contributed by James T.. which can be regulated. in the center of the circle to be cut. K. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. ceiling. A small weight. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. as shown in Fig. what is most important. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. one-fourth.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. etc. exactly one-third. A length of 7 ft. Gaffney. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. A small table or platform. makes respectively 3. A pedestal. Chicago. R. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . of about 30 or 40 lb. is about right for a 10-ft. provides a means of support for the stylus.. The length of the short pendulum H. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. Rosemont. or the lines will overlap and blur. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. Arizona. such as a shoe buttoner. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. 1. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. is attached as shown at H. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. that is. A weight. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. in diameter. 1-3/4 by 2 in. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass.

Cape May City. 3.H.J. N. of course. then put 2 at the top. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. and proceed as before. and 4 as in Fig. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. The two key cards are made alike.J. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. 2. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. Chicago. Fig. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. The capacity of the vise. 4. distributing them over the whole card. --Contributed by J. a correspondent of . The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. 6. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. Fig. 5. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. one for the sender and one for the receiver. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. then 3 as in Fig. Morey. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. Cruger. dividing them into quarters. -Contributed by W. 1.

remove the prints. Asbestos board is to be preferred. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. 1/2 oz. 6 gauge wires shown. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. After preparing the base and uprights. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. Wind the successive turns of . Alberta Norrell. deep. --Contributed by L. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. the portion of the base under the coil. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. of ferricyanide of potash. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. of 18-per-cent No. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. drill 15 holes. After securing the tint desired. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. acetic acid and 4 oz. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. To assemble. says Popular Electricity. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. wood-screws. sheet of well made asbestos paper. of the uprights. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. Ga. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. If constructed of the former.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. long. Cut through the center. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. 30 gr. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. 1/4 in. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. from the top and bottom. Augusta. 22 gauge German-silver wire. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. citrate of iron and ammonia. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. respectively. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. of water. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make.

Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. as they are usually thrown away when empty. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. screws. Small knobs may be added if desired. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. Y. 14 gauge. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. Ward.. Labels of some kind are needed.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. --Contributed by Frederick E. if one is not a smoker. but these are not necessary. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. The case may be made of 1/2-in. Ampere. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. square. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. then fasten the upright in place. 16 gauge copper wire. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. N. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. etc. which. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. cut and dressed 1/2 in. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. rivets.

In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. particularly so when the iron has once been used. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. zinc. Richmond. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. lead. Heat it until hot (not red hot). gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. or has become corroded. D. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. and rub the point of the copper on it.. Jaquythe. being careful about the heat. and one made of poplar finished black. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. Eureka Springs. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. Copper. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. sandpaper or steel wool. The parts are put together with dowel pins. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. tin. California. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. The material can be of any wood. In soldering galvanized iron. of glycerine to 16 oz. and labeled "Poison. tinner's acid. it must be ground or filed to a point. G. C. S. Ark. If the soldering copper is an old one. the pure muriatic acid should be used. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. especially if a large tub is used. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. --C. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. Wis. . After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. of water. --Contributed by W. as shown in the sketch. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. brass. Larson. A. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. B. E and F. then to the joint to be soldered. --Contributed by A. This is considerable annoyance. a piece of solder. Kenosha.14 oz. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. galvanized iron. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color.

How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. B. round iron. Six issues make a well proportioned book. Fig. a ring may be made from any metal. with good results. however. such as copper. and drill out the threads. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. 7/8 in. The dimensions shown in Fig. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. Take a 3/4-in. Hankin. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. thick and 1-1/4 in. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. -Contributed by H. in diameter. N. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. The covers of the magazines are removed. W. This will leave a clear hole. I bind my magazines at home evenings. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. C. nut. which gives two bound volumes each year. Troy. wide. Apart from this. The disk will come out pan shaped. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. 2. Place the band. Fig. The punch A. in diameter. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. This completes the die. if such metals are in plate or sheet form.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. 1. Brass rings can be plated when finished. Y. D. brass and silver.

2 before the work can be continued on the book. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. The covering can be of cloth. and then to string No. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. 1. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. through the notch on the left side of the string No. Place the cardboard covers on the book. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. and a third piece. size 16 or larger. allowing about 2 in. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. Start with the front of the book. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. 1 in Fig.4. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. then back through the notch on the right side. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. 1. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. of the ends extending on each side. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. 1/8 in. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. using . on all edges except the back. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. Five cuts. 1. The string No. After drawing the thread tightly. is used for the sewing material. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. is nailed across the top. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. 5. threaded double. If started with the January or the July issue.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. as shown in Fig. 2. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. The covering should be cut out 1 in. which is fastened the same as the first. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. Coarse white thread. . Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. C. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. 2. and place them against the strings in the frame. deep. The sections are then prepared for sewing. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in.

at opposite sides to each other. Place the cover on the book in the right position. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. Nebr. Tinplate. round iron. and. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. on which to hook the blade. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. and mark around each one. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. Encanto. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. For the blade an old talking-machine . Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. Cal. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. Divine. --Contributed by Clyde E. College View. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal.

or double extra heavy. by 4-1/2 in. On the upper side. and a long thread plug. Hays. and 1/4 in. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. B. F. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. by 1 in. E. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush.. hydraulic pipe.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. at the same end. Make the blade 12 in. with a steel sleeve. -Contributed by Willard J. as shown. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. C. Miss. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. and 1/4 in. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). and file in the teeth. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. Then on the board put . If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. with 10 teeth to the inch. long. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. Summitville. as it is sometimes called. and another piece (B) 6 in. in order to drill the holes in the ends. thick. Ohio. Moorhead. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. thick. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. A.. bore. fuse hole at D. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise.

If you are going to use a current of low tension. Connect up as shown. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. some sheet copper or brass for plates. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. the jars need not be very large. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. --Contributed by Chas. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. H. of rubber-covered wire. and some No. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . of wire to each coil. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. as from batteries. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. about 5 ft. A lid may be added if desired. Boyd. using about 8 in. high around this apparatus. Philadelphia. 4 jars. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. 18 gauge wire for the wiring.

C. and for the rear runners: A.. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. At the front 24 or 26 in. 1 is connected to point No. Construct the auto front (Fig. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. 1. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. 5 on switch. Their size also depends on the voltage. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. The sled completed should be 15 ft. beginning at the rear. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered.. 4. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. wide. on No. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. 3 in. making them clear those in the front runner. 2. thick. 27 B. by 2 in. thick. two pieces 14 in. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. . 1 and so on for No. 2 and 3. On the door of the auto front put the . Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. For the front runners these measurements are: A. sheet brass 1 in. 4 in. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. Use no screws on the running surface. wide and 3/4 in. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. The connection between point No. & S. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. above the ground. two pieces 34 in. by 1 in. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. long by 22 in. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. apart. 4) of 3/4-in. and four pieces 14 in. An iron washer.. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. 30 in. or source of current. wide by 3/4 in. To wire the apparatus. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. long. The current then will flow through the motor. oak boards. C. Fig. See Fig. by 1-1/4 in.. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. and bolt through. The top disk in jar No. Equip block X with screw eyes. A 3/4-in. 3 and No. by 2 in. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. 2. 11 in. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in.the way. Z. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. 16-1/2 in. No. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. 3. 2 is lower down than in No. are important. Use no nails. B. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. long. Put arm of switch on point No. direct to wire across jars. 2.. wide and 2 in. then apply a coat of thin enamel. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. The stock required for them is oak. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. by 5 in. B and C. First sandpaper all the wood. 15-1/2 in.. 1 on switch. B. For the brass trimmings use No. 2 in. 7 in. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. 34 in. by 6 in. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. A variation of 1/16 in. long. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. two pieces 30 in. long. steel rod makes a good steering rod. however. by 1-1/4 in.. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. as they are not substantial enough. as they "snatch" the ice. is used to reduce friction. The illustration shows how to shape it. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. and plane it on all edges. gives full current and full speed. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. two for each jar. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. In proportioning them the points A. with the cushion about 15 in. by 5 in. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. square by 14 ft.

brass plated. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. The best way is to get some strong. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . If the expense is greater than one can afford. a number of boys may share in the ownership. by 1/2 in. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. cutting it out of sheet brass. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. If desired. parcels. lunch.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. to improve the appearance. Then get some upholstery buttons. etc. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. may be stowed within. or with these for $25. cheap material. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. long. overshoes. Fasten a horn. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. such as burlap. fasten a cord through the loop. which is somewhat moist. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. a brake may be added to the sled. If desired. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. by 30 in. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. to the wheel. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. such as used on automobiles. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating.

Ill. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. Leland. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. Lexington. --Contributed by Stewart H. . The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks.tree and bring. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long.

from F to G. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. First take the case of a small gearwheel. Fig. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. when flat against it. The first tooth may now be cut. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . 1. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. The straight-edge. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. the cut will be central on the line. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. The Model Engineer. A small clearance space. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. FC. mild steel or iron. This guide should have a beveled edge. thick. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. made from 1/16-in. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. London. say 1 in. sheet metal. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. 3. will be over the line FG. 4). either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. Fig. outside diameter and 1/16 in. E. 2. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. a compass. Fig. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. Draw a circle on paper. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. CD. With no other tools than a hacksaw. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. which. the same diameter as the wheel. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. though more difficult. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. by drawing diameters. some files. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. with twenty-four teeth. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. so that the center of the blade.

A bright. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. B. either the pencils for arc lamps. Make a hole in the other. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. each in the center. No shock will be perceptible. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. If there is no faucet in the house. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. as shown in Fig. B. R. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. electric lamp. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. ground it with a large piece of zinc. 1. Then take one outlet wire. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal.Four Photos on One Plate of them. as shown in Fig. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. . hold in one hand. as shown in Fig. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. transmitter. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. 1. some wire and some carbons. and the other outlet wire. Focus the camera in the usual manner. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. or several pieces bound tightly together. 2.

A is a wooden block. as indicated by E E. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. Several battery cells. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. or more of the latter has been used. --Contributed by Geo. and will then burn the string C. as shown. serves admirably. Then set the whole core away to dry. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. B. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. are also needed. leaving about 10 in. Ohio. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. D D are binding posts for electric wires. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. 36 wire around it. Pa. of course. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. One like a loaf of bread. Wrenn. by 1 in. a transmitter which induces no current is used. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. under the gable. Slattery. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. at each end for terminals. and again wind the wire around it. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. Dry batteries are most convenient. Ashland. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. by 12 in. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. But in this experiment. and about that size. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. For a base use a pine board 10 in. If desired. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. Emsworth. They have screw ends. one at the receiver can hear what is said. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. J. even though there are no batteries in the circuit.

The coil will commence to become warm. E. until the hand points to zero on the scale. as shown. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. as shown. At one side secure two receptacles. C. B B. Jr. 2. run a No. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. and switch. Ohio. F. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. the terminal of the coil. 1. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. for the . How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. These should have hollow ends. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. Place 16-cp. D. Newark. The oven is now ready to be connected. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. From the other set of binding-posts. in parallel. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. and one single post switch. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. C. Fig.. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. and the lamps. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. Fig. The apparatus is now ready for operation. connecting lamp receptacles. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. D. B B.wire. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. 14 wire. First make a support. Turn on switch. Connect these three to switch. in series with bindingpost. 12 or No. while C is open.

2. At a point a little above the center. 3. Fig. until the scale is full. 10 turns to each layer. 4 in. Dussault. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . D. drill in only to the opening already through. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. 4 amperes. 1. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. C. The pointer or hand. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. --Contributed by J. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. 1/4 in. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. 5. 1/2 in. To make one. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. E. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. If for 3-way. as shown in the cut. is made of wire. wide and 1/8 in. 4. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. and D. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. inside measurements. 14. remove the valve. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. A wooden box.. The box is 5-1/2 in. etc. wind with plenty of No. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. After drilling. long. thick. The core. 5. 3 amperes. Fig. deep. This may be made of wood. long and make a loop. a battery. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. where A is the homemade ammeter.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. B. 6. a standard ammeter. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. It is 1 in. D.or 4-way valve or cock. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. although copper or steel will do. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. This is slipped on the pivot. 7. 14 wire. long. Montreal. but if for a 4way. Fig. a variable resistance. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. from the lower end. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. Fig. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. is then made and provided with a glass front.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. although brass is better. drill through the entire case and valve. to prevent it turning on the axle. 36 magnet wire instead of No. wide and 1-3/4 in. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. drill a hole as shown at H. Mine is wound with two layers of No. 1.E. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. high. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. is made of iron. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw.

First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. D. in thickness . From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. high. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. and a metal rod. in diameter. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. By connecting the motor. One wire runs to the switch. and the other connects with the water rheostat. provided with a rubber stopper. making two holes about 1/4 in. as shown. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. E. and the arc light. This stopper should be pierced. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. which is used for reducing the current. B. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. To start the light. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket.performing electrical experiments. A. F. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained.

A. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. where he is placed in an upright open . and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. 1. As there shown. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. 1. 2. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. as shown in C. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. Having finished the interrupter. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. --Contributed by Harold L. Jones. To insert the lead plate. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. Y. B. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. Carthage. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. Fig. 1. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. A piece of wood. long. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. as shown in B. Fig. If all adjustments are correct. Having fixed the lead plate in position. N. Turn on the current and press the button. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. If the interrupter does not work at first. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. Fig. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. Fig. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. 2.

which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. within the limits of an ordinary room. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. from which the gong has been removed. especially L. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. by 7-1/2 in. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. giving a limp. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. Its edges should nowhere be visible. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. The lights. until it is dark there. All . The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. figures and lights. loosejointed effect. inside dimensions. They need to give a fairly strong light. L and M. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. to aid the illusion. especially the joints and background near A. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. by 7 in. should be miniature electric lamps. The glass should be the clearest possible. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. light-colored garments. A white shroud is thrown over his body. dressed in brilliant. is constructed as shown in the drawings. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. should be colored a dull black. The skeleton is made of papier maché. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. high. If everything is not black. and can be bought at Japanese stores.coffin. which can be run by three dry cells. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. The model. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. the illusion will be spoiled. and wave his arms up and down. with the exception of the glass. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. as the entire interior. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. and must be thoroughly cleansed. A. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. could expect from a skeleton. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. The box containing the stage should be 14 in.. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. If it is desired to place the box lower down.

hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. as shown in the sketch. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. placed about a foot apart. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. Cal. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. after which it assumes its normal color. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . If a gradual transformation is desired. San Jose. Two finishing nails were driven in. Fry. --Contributed by Geo. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. fat spark. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second.that is necessary is a two-point switch. square block. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. W.

1. In Fig. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. into the receiver G. the remaining space will be filled with air. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. B and C. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. This is a wide-mouth bottle. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. In Fig. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. soldered in the top. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. Cohen. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. A (see sketch). It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. -Contributed by Dudley H. New York. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. One of these plates is connected to metal top. by small pieces of wood. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. or a solution of sal soda. The plates are separated 6 in. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. to make it airtight. with two tubes. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. F. and should be separated about 1/8 in. If a lighted match . The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. as shown. hydrogen gas is generated.

A nipple. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. A. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. and the ends of the tube. 1/2 in. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. If desired. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. P. 1-5/16 in. A 1/64-in.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. A. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. long. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. in diameter and 6 in. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. of No. One row is drilled to come directly on top. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . A. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. Fig. is made by drilling a 1/8in. 36 insulated wire. either by passing a current of electricity around it. London. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. The distance between the nipple. 1. copper pipe. N. then a suitable burner is necessary. long. 2 shows the end view. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. A. by means of the clips. says the Model Engineer. is then coiled around the brass tube. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. Fig. C C. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. B. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. N. copper pipe. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. or by direct contact with another magnet. as is shown in the illustration. A piece of 1/8-in. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. which is plugged up at both ends. which forms the vaporizing coil. should be only 5/16 of an inch. from the bottom.

fold and cut it 1 in. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. cut to the size of the pages. boards and all. Fig. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. should be cut to the diameter of the can. about 8 or 10 in. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. 1/4 in. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. Turn the book over and paste the other side. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. 1. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. trim both ends and the front edge. A disk of thin sheet-iron. Cut four pieces of cardboard. smoothly. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. larger all around than the book. 3. duck or linen. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. longer and 1/4 in. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. but if the paper knife cannot be used. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . this makes a much nicer book. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. with a fine saw. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. at the front and back for fly leaves. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. Fig. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. taking care not to bend the iron. Take two strips of stout cloth. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper.lamp cord. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. Fig. leaving the folded edge uncut. 2). Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards.

Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. without a head. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. Va. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. is soldered onto tank A. Another can. . Ont. Toronto. A gas cock. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. Another tank. deep. as shown in the sketch. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. is perforated with a number of holes. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. but its diameter is a little smaller. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. --Contributed by James E. 4). which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. In the bottom. A. of tank A is cut a hole. B. as shown. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. H. --Contributed by Joseph N. the joint will be gas tight. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. is made the same depth as B. Bedford City. 18 in. and a little can. which will just slip inside the little can. C. is turned on it. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. E. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. in diameter and 30 in. D. is fitted in it and soldered. This will cause some air to be enclosed. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. or rather the top now. pasting them down (Fig. Noble. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. Parker.

J. D. B. The armature. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. and about 26 in. The small guards. to prevent splitting. S. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. exactly 12 in. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. square by 42 in. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. The bridle knots. as shown at C. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. which moves to either right or left. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. B. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. are shown in detail at H and J. A. -Contributed by H. Fig. A A. Bott. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. basswood or white pine. by 1/2 in. making the width. long. D. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. N. should be cut a little too long. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. tacks. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. 2. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. should be 3/8 in. fastened in the bottom. and the four diagonal struts. H is a square knot. C. E. should be 1/4 in. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. long. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. shows how the connections are to be made. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. and sewed double to give extra strength. The longitudinal corner spines. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. The diagonal struts.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. 1. B. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. thus adjusting the .. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. If the back armature. when finished. The wiring diagram. which may be either spruce. If the pushbutton A is closed. Fig. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. Beverly. with an electric-bell magnet.

Clay Center. and if a strong wind is blowing. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. the batteries do not run down for a long time. --Contributed by A. Stoddard. A bowline knot should be tied at J. can be made of a wooden .lengths of F and G. with gratifying results. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. --Contributed by Edw. D. and. Harbert. shift toward F. however. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. to prevent slipping. thus shortening G and lengthening F. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. Chicago. If the kite is used in a light wind. E. for producing electricity direct from heat. that refuse to slide easily. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. as shown. Kan. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. Closing either key will operate both sounders. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with.

C. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. which conducts the current into the cannon. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. by means of machine screws or.. Fasten a piece of wood. and the current may then be detected by means. and also holds the pieces of wood. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. B. C. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. 14 or No. Chicago. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. in position. When the cannon is loaded. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. spark.frame. E. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. Then. A and B. --Contributed by A. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. to the cannon. The wood screw. E. C. D. F. or parallel with the compass needle. with a pocket compass. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. 16 single-covered wire. with a number of nails. A. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. placed on top. A. A.

where there is a staple. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. requiring a strong magnet. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. when in position at A'. Bend the strips BB (Fig. now at A' and S'. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. Keil. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. in this position the door is locked. 1. B. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse.the current is shut off. H. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. but no weights or strings. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. --Contributed by Joseph B. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. Big Rapids. with the long arm at L'. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. within the reach of the magnet. square and 3/8 in. A. To lock the door. L. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. Fig. A and S. To reverse. 1. screw is bored in the block. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. Marion. 1. press the button. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. A hole for a 1/2 in. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. --Contributed by Henry Peck. To unlock the door. In Fig. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. Fig. Connect as shown in the illustration. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. Ohio. A and S. to receive the screw in the center. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. Mich. Chicago. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. .

or for microscopic work. When ready for use. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. pipe with 1-2-in. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. hole. and C is a dumbbell. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. gas-pipe. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. West Somerville. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. When the holes are finished and your lines set. The standard and base. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. Thread the other end of the pipe. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. --Contributed by C. Rand. put in the handle. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. and if desired the handles may . Mass. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. long. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. about 18 in. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. and may be made at very slight expense. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. J. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. are enameled a jet black. if enameled white on the concave side. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit.

To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. high by 1 ft. B. across. inside the pail. across. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln .be covered with leather. Fig. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. which shall project at least 2 in. 1. 8 in. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. D.. with a cover. E. A. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. Make a cylindrical core of wood. Mass. Warren. North Easton. long and 8 in. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. --Contributed by C. M. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. This peculiar property is also found in ice. 1. as shown at A in the sketch. Fig. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B.

of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. if there is to be any glazing done. long over the lid hole as a chimney. This done. It is placed inside the kiln. After finishing the core. If the cover of the pail has no rim. and graphite. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. full length of iron core. After removing all the paper. and 3/8 in. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. cutting the hole a little smaller. and your kiln is ready for business. pipe 2-ft. bottom and sides. The 2 in. thick. 3) with false top and bottom. and on it set the paper wrapped core. Fit all the parts together snugly. 1). of fine wire. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. Fig. and cut it 3-1/2 in. say 1/4 in. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. but it will burn a great deal of gas. When lighted. if you have the materials. passing wire nails through and clinching them. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. 1330°. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. carefully centering it. C. diameter. and with especial caution the first time. 25%. L. 60%. the point of the blue flame. hard porcelain. the firing should be gradual. Line the pail. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. make two wood ends. to hold the clay mixture. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. 1390°-1410°. Whatever burner is used. pack this space-top. Cover with paper and shellac as before. hotel china. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. 2. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. and varnish. as is shown in the sketch. long.-G. 1). and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. pipe. C. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. and 3/4 in. Wind about 1/8 in. in diameter.. strip of sheet iron. which is the hottest part. in diameter. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. C.mixture of clay. Set aside for a few days until well dried. E. or make one yourself. projecting from each end (Fig. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. thick. let this dry thoroughly. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. as dictated by fancy and expense. sand. wider than the kiln. about 1 in. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. 2 in. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. but will be cheaper in operation.. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. such .. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. 15%. W. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. layer of the clay mixture. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in.

Then take the black cards. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. around the coil. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. C. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. diameter. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. procure a new deck. D. Then. and divide it into two piles. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch.. Chicago. the next black. 2). 2. as in Fig. C. You can display either color called for. A. every alternate card being the same color. as in Fig. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. all cards facing the same way. square them up and place in a vise. square them up. 1. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. Washington. R. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. Next restore all the cards to one pack. about 1/16 in. C. taking care to have the first card red. Take the red cards. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. The funnel. and plane off about 1/16 in. 8 in. leaving long terminals. with a plane. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. as shown in the sketch herewith. overlaps and rests on the body. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. . a regulator must be had for the vibrator. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. length of .53 in. 2.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. Of course. red and black. and discharges into the tube. B. bind tightly with black silk. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. T. --Contributed by J. and so on. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed.

First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. N. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. It should be placed in an exposed location. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. of the frame. through the holes already drilled. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. thus making all the holes coincide. A. Let . The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. All the horizontal pieces. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. B. and this is inexpensive to build. 1 gill of litharge. and then the frame is ready to assemble. so that when they are assembled. Long Branch. The upright pieces. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. D. Drill all the horizontal pieces. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. about 20 in. angle iron for the frame.J. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces.C. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. 1 gill of fine white sand. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. stove bolts. stove bolts. B. C. the first thing to decide on is the size. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. A. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. Fig. 1. E. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. The bottom glass should be a good fit. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. as the difficulties increase with the size. When the glass is put in the frame a space. E. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. to form a dovetail joint as shown. F.. The cement. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. To find the fall of snow. B. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. the same ends will come together again.

Aquarium Finished If desired. if desired. on the door by means of a metal plate. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. Fasten the lever. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. A. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. a centerpiece (A. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. B. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. and. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. D. to the door knob. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. having a swinging connection at C. Fig.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium.

2 at GG. Buffalo. They are shown in Fig. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS.. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. as at E. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. another. long. E. PAUL S. screwed to the door frame. will open the door about 1/2 in. from the outside top of the frame. AA. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. to keep the frame from spreading. 1 is the motor with one side removed. 1.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. Fig. N. with a water pressure of 70 lb. 6 in. which is 15 in. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. another. soldered to the end of the cylinder. A small piece of spring brass. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. Y. I referred this question to my husband. 1 . long. Cut two of them 4 ft. 1. Cut two pieces 30 in. White. several lengths of scantling 3 in. long. long. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. hoping it may solve the same question for them. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. Fig. according to the slant given C. C. to form the main supports of the frame. --Contributed by Orton E. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. and another. to form the slanting part. Fig. To make the frame. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. B. 26 in. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. and Fig. showing the paddle-wheel in position. Fig. wide by 1 in. 3 shows one of the paddles. F. D. thus doing away with the spring. but mark their position on the frame. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. 2 ft. for the top. wide . Fig. Fig. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. approximately 1 ft. Two short boards 1 in. Do not fasten these boards now. 2 is an end view.

deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. steel shaft 12 in. take down the crosspieces. 2) form a substantial base. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. with the wheel and shaft in place. then drill a 3/16-in. thick (HH. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. Fig. These are the paddles. hole through the exact center of the wheel. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. hole to form the bearings. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. thick. Drill 1/8-in.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. Take the side pieces. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. that is. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place.along the edges under the zinc to form . Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. to a full 1/2 in. from one end by means of a key. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. hole through their sides centrally. When it has cooled. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). Fasten them in their proper position. 24 in. holes. and drill a 1-in. iron. Fig. Make this hole conical. hole through its center. long to the wheel about 8 in. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. 4. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. 2) with a 5/8-in. 2) and another 1 in. remove the cardboard. by 1-1/2 in. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. hole through them. tapering from 3/16 in. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. 1. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. long and filling it with babbitt metal. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. hole from the tops to the 1-in. Fig. Now block the wheel. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. as shown in Fig. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. after which drill a 5/8 in.burlap will do -. GG. iron 3 by 4 in. Next secure a 5/8-in. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. Tack one side on. pipe. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. in diameter. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. (I. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. and drill a 1/8-in. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. and a 1/4 -in.

At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp.a water-tight joint. as shown in the sketch at B. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. Focus the camera carefully. Drill a hole through the zinc. it would be more durable. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. or what is called a process plate. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. on the lens. ice-cream freezer. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. Do not stop down the lens. remove any white curtains there may be. Correct exposure depends. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. but as it would have cost several times as much. drill press. as this makes long exposure necessary. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. If the bearings are now oiled. but now I put them in the machine. It is obvious that. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. any window will do. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. shutting out all light from above and the sides. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. and leave them for an hour or so.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. says the Photographic Times. If sheet-iron is used. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. sewing machine. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. and the subject may move. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. place the outlet over a drain. The best plate to use is a very slow one. light and the plate. Darken the rest of the window. start the motor. . it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. Raise the window shade half way. and as near to it as possible. of course.

The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. without detail in the face. as shown in Fig. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. The core C. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. On completing . Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. a glass tube.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. 2. or wood. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. With a piece of black paper. A. as a slight current will answer. The current required is very small. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. with binding posts as shown. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. hard rubber. by twisting. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. the core is drawn down out of sight. and without fog. B. or can be taken from an old magnet. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. or an empty developer tube. until the core slowly rises. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. full of water. D. which is made of iron and cork. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. a core. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. and a base. an empty pill bottle may be used. The glass tube may be a test tube. C. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. 2.

is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. and make a pinhole in the center.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. and are changed by reversing the rotation. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. The colors appear different to different people. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. This is a mysterious looking instrument. 1 pt. 1. whale oil. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. finest graphite. according to his control of the current. is Benham's color top. white lead. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. and one not easy to explain. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. water and 3 oz. 1 lb. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part.

as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. fan-like. thus partly filling bottles A and C. A. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C.. As this device is easily upset. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time.L. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. deuce. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. when the action ceases. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. or three spot. especially if the deck is a new one. In making hydrogen. nearly every time. -Contributed by D. Chicago. B. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out.B. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. In prize games. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. C. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. before cutting.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles.

. Detroit. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. 3). . 2 is also an enlarged sketch.. --Contributed by F. in length and 3 in. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. Fig. Fig. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. 9 in. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. Form a cone of heavy paper. that will fit loosely in the tube A. 10 in. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. W. 1.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. Dak. --Contributed by C. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. 4. Detail of Phonograph Horn . long and 3 in. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. Huron. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. in diameter. Jr. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. long. (Fig. Bently. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. Make a 10-sided stick. J. S. S. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. 2. 12 in.

Cut out paper sections (Fig. allowing 1 in. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. making it three-ply thick. C. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. Remove the form. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. bend it at right angles throughout its length. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. with a pin driven in each end. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. E.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. long. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. push back the bolt. Denver. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. Fortunately. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. A. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. A second piece of silk thread. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. on one side and the top. it is equally easy to block that trick. will cause an increased movement of C. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. Fig. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. 6. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. and walk in. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. but bends toward D. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. A piece of tin. about the size of a leadpencil. --Contributed by Reader. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course.

are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. Minn. A. The feet. The upper switch.. 4 ft. The 2 by 4-in. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. posts. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. and rest on a brick placed under each end. Paul. as shown. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. Fremont Hilscher.. while the lower switch. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . S S. The reverse switch. R.strip. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. Jr. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. Two wood-base switches. will last for several years. are 7 ft. is connected each point to a battery. long. B. --Contributed by J. S. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. West St. long. S. put together as shown in the sketch. are made 2 by 4 in. W. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. By this arrangement one. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. B. or left to right.

The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. H and K. and valve crank S. Fig. and in Fig. and has two wood blocks. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. cut in half. either an old sewing-machine wheel. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. The base is made of wood. 2. and the crank bearing C. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. E. and a cylindrical . which will be described later. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. the other parts being used for the bearing B. or anything available. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood.every house. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. 3/8 in. which is made of tin. the size of the hole in the bearing B. 1. The piston is made of a stove bolt. 2 and 3. Fig. In Fig. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. FF. with two washers. The steam chest D. The hose E connects to the boiler. thick. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. is an old bicycle pump. The valve motion is shown in Figs. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. pulley wheel.

as it is merely a trick of photography. G. powder can. C. and a very amusing trick. San Jose. J. as shown in Fig. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. W. Eustice. of Cuba. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. This engine was built by W. at that. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. and the desired result is obtained. --Contributed by Geo. This is wound with soft string. Cal. Wis. Fig. Fig. 4. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. First. is cut out of tin. 3. The boiler. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. 1. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. . and saturated with thick oil. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. using the positive wire as a pen.piece of hard wood. The valve crank S. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. Fry. to receive the connecting rod H. or galvanized iron. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. can be an old oil can. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. Schuh and A. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. G. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft.

and place a bell on the four ends. Cut half circles out of each stave. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. B. When turning. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. B. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. to cross in the center. 1 will be seen to rotate. Fig. C. and Fig. Fig. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. Fig. They may be of any size. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. diameter. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. The smaller wheel.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. 1 by covering up Figs. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. and pass ropes around . considering the nature of the material employed in making it. as shown. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. as shown at AA.

. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter.G. long. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. produces a higher magnifying power). A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. St. as shown in the illustration. which allows the use of small sized ropes. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. W.M. --Contributed by H. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. A (a short spool. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. but not on all. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. which accounts for the sound. Mo. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. Louis.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. This in turn will act on the transmitter. from the transmitter. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. To make this lensless microscope. From a piece of thin . procure a wooden spool. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. such as clothes lines.

It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. E. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. which costs little or nothing to make. as in all microscopes of any power. 3. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. the diameter will appear three times as large. the object should be of a transparent nature. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. 2. 1. if the distance is reduced to one-third. is fastened at each end by pins. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. if the distance is reduced to one-half. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. An innocent-looking drop of water. The spring. C. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. bent as shown. D. (The area would appear 64 times as large. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A.. H. To use this microscope. and so on. in which hay has been soaking for several days.. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. The pivot. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. Viewed through this microscope. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. e. i. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. the diameter will appear twice as large. Fig. D. cut out a small disk. is made of iron. held at arm's length. otherwise the image will be blurred. darting across the field in every direction. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. or 64 times. A. B. . place a small object on the transparent disk. by means of brads. C. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. fastened to a wooden base. B. and at the center. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. which are pieces of hard wood.) But an object 3/4-in. The lever. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. and look through the hole D. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. can be made of brass and the armature. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed.

in length and 16 in. or taken from a small one-point switch.SOUNDER-A. wide. HH. long. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. is cut from a board about 36 in. 16 in. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. K. DD. B. should be about 22 in. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. FF. F. C. soft iron. wide. wide and about 20 in. long and 14-1/2 in. fastened near the end. The binding posts. 16 in. wide. . or a single piece. nail soldered on A. B. C. The back. wood: F. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. between the armature and the magnet. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. 26 wire: E. brass. AA. D. and are connected to the contacts. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. can be made panel as shown. wood. brass: E. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. D. binding posts: H spring The stop. similar to the one used in the sounder. brass or iron soldered to nail. 2. brass: B. wide and set in between sides AA. Fig. long by 16 in. The base of the key. Fig. K. KEY-A. thick. A switch. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. A. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. Cut the top. 1. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. E. D. wood: C. wide. coils wound with No. which are made to receive a pivot. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. The door. connection of D to nail. Each side.

from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. brads. Make 12 cleats. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. When the electrical waves strike the needle.. Ill. as shown in the sketch. with 3/4-in. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. In operation. E. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. 2 and made from 1/4-in. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. cut in them. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. 13-1/2 in. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. material. as shown. Garfield. long. AA.

through which a piece of wire is passed. A (see sketch). which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. N. E. filled with water. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. pulls down the armature. F. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. Brown. down into the water increases the surface in contact. Ridgewood. --Contributed by R. Pushing the wire. B. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. N. when the coil is not provided with a regulator.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. the magnet. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. and. and thus decreases the resistance. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. The cord is also fastened to a lever. will give a greater speed. C. Fairport. When the pipe is used. A. Y. A fairly stiff spring. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . J. in order to increase the surface. when used with a motor. A. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. --Contributed by John Koehler. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell.

thus discharging the contents of the hopper. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. --Contributed by Perry A. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other.for the secret contact. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . Borden. B. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. Gachville. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. even those who read this description. Of course. if desired. N.

of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. C. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. N. as shown in Fig. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. The three shelves are cut 25-in. 2. deep and 3/4 in. With about 9 ft. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. and on both sides of the middle shelf. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. --Contributed by H. in a semicircle 2 in. wide. 1. thick and 12-in. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. long and 5 in. . Mangold. apart. Washington. Connect switch to post B. --Contributed by Dr. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. long and full 12-in. for 10in. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in.. records and 5-5/8 in. J. from the bottom. Two drawers are fitted in this space. wide. C. Nails for stops are placed at DD. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. The top board is made 28-in. wide. where the other end of wire is fastened. Dobson. East Orange. wide. A.whenever the bell rings. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. E. H. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. D. as shown in Fig. From a piece of brass a switch. for 6-in. Jr. records. wide. Compton. Cal. Cut the end pieces each 36-in.

as shown in Fig. Va. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. to which is fastened a cord. 1.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. as shown by the dotted lines. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. closed. which in operation is bent. Roanoke. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. E. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . B. A. When the cord is passed over pulley C.

in diameter. 3). wide. If the wheels fit too tightly. In the sides (Fig. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. The crankpin should fit tightly. Figs. as shown in the illustration. CC. long. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. 5) when they are placed. Notice the break (S) in the track. These wheels should be 3/4 in. Bore two 1/4 in. Fig. In these grooves place wheels. 1 in. D. E. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. thick. they will let the air through. deep. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. excepting the crank and tubing. deep and 1/2 in. square and 7/8 in. it too loose. Now put all these parts together. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. one in each end. 4 shows the wheel-holder. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. in diameter. but a larger one could be built in proportion. in diameter. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. thick (A. Fig. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. Figs. which should be about 1/2 in. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. Fig. Cut two grooves. they will bind. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. in diameter. to turn on pins of stout wire. 1. holes (HH. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. apart. against which the rubber tubing. E. Put the rubber tube. B. 3. Do not fasten the sides too . 1 in. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. through one of these holes. is compressed by wheels. wide.

beyond each of these two. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. Fig. --Contributed by Dan H. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. Take the center of the bar. A in Fig. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. AA. as it gives steadiness to the motion. from the bottom and 2 in. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. mark again. Cut six pieces. 1. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. Then turn the crank from left to right. The three legs marked BBB. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. Idana. 1. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. from each end. Fig. is all the expense necessary. stands 20 in. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. the pump will give a steady stream. 2. from that mark the next hole. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. as shown in Fig. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. In the two cross bars 1 in. 17-1/2 in. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. If the motion of the wheels is regular. Two feet of 1/4-in. because he can . To use the pump. The animal does not fear to enter the box. the other wheel has reached the bottom. long. from each end. Fig.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. 1. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. AA. of material. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. and 3-1/2 in. a platform should be added. B. tubing. 2. The screen which is shown in Fig. though a small iron wheel is better. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. from each end. 1. and are 30 in. iron. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. For ease in handling the pump. Fig. and mark for a hole. 1. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. Hubbard. costing 10 cents. 15 in. Kan. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. mark for hole and 3 in.

and the solution (Fig. When the bichromate has all dissolved. and touches the bait the lid is released and. shuts him in. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. sulphuric acid. . This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. It is useful for running induction coils. C. or. If it is wet. add slowly. there is too much liquid in the jar. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. 1) must be prepared. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. 14 copper wire. of the top. Meyer. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. When through using the battery. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. 2). some of it should be poured out. The battery is now ready for use. Philadelphia. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. If the solution touches the zinc. 4 oz. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. long having two thumb screws. To cause a flow of electricity. The mercury will adhere. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. however. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. stirring constantly. but if one casts his own zinc. --Contributed by H. silvery appearance. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. potassium bichromate. or small electric motors. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. giving it a bright. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts.see through it: when he enters. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. of water dissolve 4 oz. The battery is now complete. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. until it is within 3 in. rub the zinc well. The truncated. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. acid 1 part). Place the carbon in the jar. If the battery has been used before. dropping. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution.

in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. Madison. however. e.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. with slight changes. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. which opens the door. pressing the pedal closes the door. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. the battery circuit. After putting in the coal. Wis. The price of the coil depends upon its size. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. the jump-spark coil . The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. while the coal door is being opened. i. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. If.Fig.. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted.

and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. W W. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. Change the coil described. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. in a straight line from top to bottom. 6. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. apart. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. W W. 7. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. in a partial vacuum. This coil. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. diameter. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. 7). the full length of the coil. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. as shown in Fig. being a 1-in. 5. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. 6. which is made of light copper wire.7. 7.described elsewhere in this book. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. Now for the receiving apparatus. After winding. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. This will make an excellent receiver. and closer for longer distances. made of No. while a 12-in. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. coil. . Fig. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. as shown in Fig.

suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. No.The aerial line. as it matches the color well. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. which will be described later. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. in the air. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. I run my lathe by power. using an electric motor and countershaft. The writer does not claim to be the originator. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. 90°. Run a wire from the other binding post. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. at any point to any metal which is grounded. above the ground. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. but simply illustrates the above to show that. 90°. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. may be easily made at very little expense. A. being vertical. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. These circles. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. to the direction of the current. 1). and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. being at right angles. only. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. Figs. For an illustration. where A is the headstock. B the bed and C the tailstock. but it could be run by foot power if desired. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. are analogous to the flow of induction. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. 1 to 4. A large cone pulley would then be required.6 stranded. and hence the aerial line. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. . and for best results should extend up 50 ft. after all.

2 and 3. on the under side of the bed. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. The bolts B (Fig. The headstock. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. 6 Headstock Details D. If the bearing has been properly made. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. The bearing is then ready to be poured. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. tapered wooden pin. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. and Fig. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. and it is well to have the shaft hot. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. Fig. Fig. 5. 4. Fig. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. 4. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. which pass through a piece of wood. too. and runs in babbitt bearings. After pouring. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. 5. thick. just touching the shaft. but not hot enough to burn it. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. deep. 6. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . Heat the babbitt well. Fig. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. which are let into holes FIG. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. To make these bearings. steel tubing about 1/8 in. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. one of which is shown in Fig. B. A. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. pitch and 1/8 in.

The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. of the walk . The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. embedded in the wood. the alarm is easy to fix up. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. so I had to buy one. If not perfectly true. and a 1/2-in. This prevents corrosion. they may be turned up after assembling. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. N. If one has a wooden walk. FIG. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest.other machines. Take up about 5 ft. The tail stock (Fig. Ill. A.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. lock nut. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them.J. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. B. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. Oak Park. Newark. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft.

Minneapolis. Finally. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. to roughen the surface slightly. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. to remove all traces of grease. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. To avoid touching it. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. --Contributed by R. hang the articles on the wires. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. Connect up an electric bell. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. and the alarm is complete. Do not touch the work with the hands again. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. add potassium cyanide again. Then make the solution . Minn. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. save when a weight is on the trap. so that they will not touch. S. 2). silver or other metal. of water. leaving a clear solution. clean the articles thoroughly. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. water. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. Fig. Jackson. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. before dipping them in the potash solution. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. (A. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in.

allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. Make a somewhat larger block (E. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. will serve for the key. from the lower end. 3. Fig. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. with the pivot 2 in. If accumulators are used. and then treated as copper. 1 not only unlocks. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. On brass. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. 1). being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. must be about 1 in. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. Screw the two blocks together. German silver. To provide the keyhole. Where Bunsen cells are used. piece of broomstick. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. which is advised. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. Repeat six times.5 to 4 volts. and 4 volts for very small ones. long. hole in its center. long. saw a piece of wood. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. This solution. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. light strokes. Fig. which is held by catch B. when the point of the key touches the tin. 18 wire. B should be of the same wood. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. thick by 3 in. Before silver plating. shaking. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. The wooden catch. copper. make a key and keyhole. a hand scratch brush is good. use 2 volts for large articles. 3) directly over the hole. as shown in Fig. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. of water. as at F. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. Take quick. if one does not possess a buffing machine. 1). and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. A 1/4 in. In rigging it to a sliding door. lead. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. nickel and such metals. --Model Engineer. and the larger part (F. a circuit is completed. Having finished washing the precipitate. with water. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. which . If more solution is required. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. Can be made of a 2-in. With an electric pressure of 3. Fig. of clothesline rope and some No. square. such metals as iron. with water. pewter. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. but opens the door. 1.up to 2 qt. about 25 ft. zinc. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. Fig. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. an old electric bell or buzzer. also. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. 1 in. 3) strikes the bent wire L. The wooden block C. 10 in. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. When all this is set up. I. Then. silver can be plated direct. A (Fig.

In front of you. some black cloth. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. shows catch B. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. 1. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. --Contributed by E. is the cut through which the rope runs. with a switch as in Fig. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. To prepare such a magic cave. or cave. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. He removes the bowl from the black box. between the parlor and the room back of it. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. . and black art reigns supreme. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. Fig. East Orange. 3. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. One end is removed. a few simple tools. fly about in the box at the will of the operator.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. in his shirt sleeves. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). Next. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. Receiving the bowl again. B. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. top. enlarged. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. H. Fig.. The box must be altered first. heighten the illusion. floor. Next. the box should be painted black both inside and out. H. to throw the light toward the audience. 2. and hands its contents round to the audience. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. some black paint. sides and end. cut in one side. so much the better. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. such as forks. spoons and jackknives. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. no painting inside is required. New Jersey. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. 116 Prospect St. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. with the lights turned low. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. should be cut a hole. Objects appear and disappear. Klipstein. one-third of the length from the remaining end. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. Fig. The interior must be a dead black. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. he tosses it into the cave. 0. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. One thing changes to another and back again. half way from open end to closed end. The magician stands in front of this. Thus. Heavy metal objects. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. and plenty of candles. and finally lined inside with black cloth. 2. he points with one finger to the box. H. the requisites are a large soap box. Fig. and a slit. surrounding a perfectly black space. which unlocks the door. On either side of the box. the illumination in front must be arranged. 1. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. although a little more trouble.

while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. was identical with this. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. The exhibitor should be . while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. is on a table) so much the better. The illusion. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants.Finally. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. The audience room should have only low lights. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. which can be made to dance either by strings. and pours them from the bag into a dish. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. a screen must be used. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. which are let down through the slit in the top. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. only he. had a big stage. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. you must have an assistant. and several black drop curtains. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. of course. of course. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. But illusions suggest themselves. his confederate behind inserts his hand. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. and if portieres are impossible. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. Consequently. the room where the cave is should be dark. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. as presented by Hermann. one on each side of the box. if. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. in which are oranges and apples. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. into the eyes of him who looks.

respectively. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1.a boy who can talk. their one end just slips under the strips b1. respectively. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. and a common screw. b3. b1. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. vice versa. and c1 – electricity. at L.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. On the disk G are two brass strips.. as shown in Fig. A. held down by another disk F (Fig. b2. b2. c4. is shown in the diagram. A represents a pine board 4 in. square. when handle K is turned to one side. About the center piece H moves a disk. and c4 + electricity.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. f2. 2. Then. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. c2. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. terminal c3 will show +. or binding posts. Fig. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. held down on it by two terminals. if you turn handle K to the right. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. respectively. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. c1. and c2 to the zinc. with three brass strips. b3. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . 1. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. d. held down on disk F by two other terminals. 2. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. terminal c3 will show . or b2. making contact with them as shown at y. FIG. making contact with them. c3. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. 2). Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. by means of two wood screws. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. so arranged that. 1. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. by 4 in. e1 and e2. Finally.

2 you receive the current from two batteries. jump spark coil. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. Tuttle. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . thus making the message audible in the receiver. 1. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. when on No. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. you have the current of one battery.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. . when on No. and C and C1 are binding posts. from three batteries. 5.. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. B is a onepoint switch. when A is on No. -Contributed by A. When switch B is closed and A is on No. 3. Ohio. E. and when on No. Joerin. Newark. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. and then hold the receiver to your ear. 4. from five batteries. from four batteries. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. --Contributed by Eugene F. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. Jr.

a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. Thus. is the device of H. per second for each second.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. and supporting the small weight. B. Redmond. so one can see the time. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. traveled by the thread. A. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. New Orleans. A. A. The device thus arranged. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. and placed on the windowsill of the car. of Burlington. per second. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. Handy Electric Alarm . Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. over the bent portion of the rule. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. La. which may be a button or other small object. mark. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. as shown in the sketch. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. rule. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. Wis. E.. mark. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. When you do not have a graduate at hand. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. P. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in.

C. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. B. for a wetting is the inevitable result. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. Pa. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone.which has a piece of metal. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. Then if a mishap comes. S. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. Lane. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. When the alarm goes off. Instead. --Contributed by Gordon T. --C. . then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. which illuminates the face of the clock. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. but may be closed at F any time desired. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. soldered to the alarm winder. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. Crafton. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. wrapping the wire around the can several times. and with the same result.

Two cleats. --Contributed by A. and duplicates of all these. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. It is possible to make molds without a bench. as shown in Fig. bearings. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. battery zincs. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. whence it is soon tracked into the house. AA. which may. binding posts. The first thing to make is a molding bench. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. 1. engines. BE. as shown. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. models and miniature objects. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. C. L. New York City. when it is being prepared. A. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. If there is no foundry Fig. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. small machinery parts. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. ornaments of various kinds. 1 . cannons. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. With the easily made devices about to be described. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . but it is a mistake to try to do this. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. and many other interesting and useful articles. Macey.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay.

" or lower part." or upper half. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. and this. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. 1. which can be made of a knitted stocking. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. the "cope. and the lower pieces. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. say 12 in. D. 2 . A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. G. CC.near at hand. The rammer. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. a little larger than the outside of the flask. previous to sawing. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. makes a very good sieve. by 8 in. try using sand from other sources. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. Fig. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. F. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. by 6 in. DD. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. is about the right mesh. and a sieve. which can be either aluminum. E. white metal. will be required. A wedge-shaped piece. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. If desired the sieve may be homemade. The dowels. is shown more clearly in Fig. A A. as shown. high.How to Make a Mold [96] . J. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. If the box is not very strong. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. H. as shown. but this operation will be described more fully later on.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. Fig. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. The flask. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. which should be nailed in. and the "drag. II . is filled with coal dust. 1. and saw it in half longitudinally. It is made of wood and is in two halves. A slight shake of the bag Fig. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. is made of wood. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. CC. is nailed to each end of the cope. 2. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. An old teaspoon. The cloth bag.

Place another cover board on top. or "cope. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. as shown at D." in position. the surface of the sand at . as shown at C. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. as shown at E. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. and thus judge for himself. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. and if water is added. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. in order to remove the lumps. as it is much easier to learn by observation. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. turn the drag other side up. and scatter about 1/16 in. and by grasping with both hands. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. or "drag. and then more sand is added until Fig. It is then rammed again as before. The sand is then ready for molding. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. In finishing the ramming. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. After ramming. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. as described. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. where they can watch the molders at work. as shown. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask.

Fig." or pouring-hole. is next cut. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. and then pour. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. made out of steel rod. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. as shown at H. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. After drawing the pattern. Place a brick or other flat. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. deep. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. This is done with a spoon. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. wide and about 1/4 in. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. as shown at G. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. . in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. in order to prevent overheating. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag.E should be covered with coal-dust. as shown in the sketch. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. as shown at H. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. to give the air a chance to escape. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. as shown at J. The "sprue. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. in diameter. thus making a dirty casting. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. it shows that the sand is too wet. as shown at F. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. after being poured. III. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. thus holding the crucible securely. place the cope back on the drag. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask.

the following device will be found most convenient. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. or from any adjacent pair of cells. 15% lead. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. Minneapolis. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. If a good furnace is available. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. --Contributed by Harold S. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. may be used in either direction. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. and the casting is then ready for finishing. battery zincs. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. although somewhat expensive. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. Although the effect in the illustration . 5% zinc and 5% antimony. and. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. but any reasonable number may be used. babbitt. is very desirable. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. Morton. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. In my own case I used four batteries. used only for zinc. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. white metal and other scrap available. Referring to the figure.

2. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . B.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. as shown at A. B. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. By replacing the oars with paddles. --Contributed by Draughtsman. connected by cords to the rudder. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. The brass rings also appear distorted. 3/4 in. Fig. Then walk down among the audience. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. Put a sharp needle point. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. Then replace the table. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. Chicago. Make one of these pieces for each arm. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. A. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. may be made of hardwood. To make it take a sheet-iron band. backward. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. which will be sufficient to hold it. The bearings. shaft made. If desired. outward. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. as shown in the illustration.

for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. If galvanized iron is used. 2 and 3. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. In the same way. The covers. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. C. but when in motion. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. or the paint will come off. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. as shown in Fig. E. D. when it will again return to its original state. 2. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. as shown in Fig. 3. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. should be made of wood. Fig.melted babbitt. 1. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. If babbitt is used. 1. The hubs. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. A block of ice. W. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. A. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. and a weight. It may seem strange that ice . The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. or under pressure. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. 1. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. Snow. being simply finely divided ice. spoiling its appearance. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed.

Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. by 2 in.should flow like water. Lane. sometimes only one or two feet a day. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. but by placing it between books. Pa. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. which resembles ice in this respect. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. as shown on page 65. or supporting it in some similar way. and assume the shape shown at B. thus giving a high resistance contact. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. as per sketch. it will gradually change from the original shape A. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. --Contributed by Gordon T. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. Crafton. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. P. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. B. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in.. by 1/4. in. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. no matter how slow the motion may be. brass. but. Pressing either push button. square. whenever there is any connection made at all. by 1/2 in. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. by 5 in. The rate of flow is often very slow. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped .

B. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. In the wiring diagram. Indianapolis. E. G. The success depends upon a slow current. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. vertical lever. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. D. B. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. the induction coil. the battery. and C. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. G. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. furnace. pulleys.000 ft. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. Pa. F. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit.thumb screws. as shown. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. draft chain. wooden supports. cord. Ward. about the size used for automobiles. weight. draft. C. I. as shown. A is the circuit breaker. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. The parts are: A. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. and five dry batteries. K . H. horizontal lever. J. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. --Contributed by A. alarm clock. Wilkinsburg.

it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. where house plants are kept in the home. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. will fit nicely in them. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. The frame (Fig. 2 are dressed to the right angle.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. Mich. 3. material framed together as shown in Fig. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . Kalamazoo. which will provide a fine place for the plants. Artistic Window Boxes The top. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. such as used for a storm window. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. as well as the bottom. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash.

since a battery is the most popular source of power. N. in this connection. this must be done with very great caution. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. where they are glad to have them taken away. a cork and a needle. A certain number of these. This is more economical than dry cells. in any system of lamps. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. 1 each complete with base. W. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. as if drawn upon for its total output. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. so as to increase the current. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current.. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. multiples of series of three. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. --Contributed by Wm. S. by connecting them in series. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. Halifax. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. However.. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. but maintain the voltage constant. Grant. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. The 1/2-cp. i. and a suitable source of power. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. as indicated by Fig. It must be remembered. 1 cp. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. and will give the . However. for some time very satisfactorily. e. which sells for 25 cents. can be connected up in series. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. after a rest.. one can regulate the batteries as required. 1. Thus. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. and cost 27 cents FIG. in diameter. is something that will interest the average American boy. and the instrument will then be complete. Canada. Push the needle into the cork. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case.

And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. Fig. 11 series. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. lamps.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. However. FIG. to secure light by this method. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. Chicago. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt.proper voltage. if wound for 6 volts. making. or 22 lights. 1-cp. and for Christmas trees. especially those of low internal resistance. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. we simply turn on the water. double insulated wire wherever needed. 18 B & S. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. 3. which is the same as that of one battery. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. and diffused light in a room. although the first cost is greater. 2 shows the scheme. where the water pressure is the greatest. and running the series in parallel. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. for display of show cases. lamps. These will give 3 cp. by the proper combination of these. Thus. In conclusion. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. lamp.. generates the power for the lights. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. each. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. according to the water pressure obtainable. . for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. Thus. So. and then lead No. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. as in Fig. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. If wound for 10 volts. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined.

outside points of switch. as shown in the sketch. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. Santa Clara. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. To reverse the motor. switch. brushes of motor. bars of pole-changing switch. --Contributed by Leonard E. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. DD. and the sides. A indicates the ground.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. the letters indicate as follows: FF. thus reversing the machine. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. or a tempting bone. a bait of meat. CC. After I connected up my induction coil. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. or from one pattern. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. Cal. . center points of switch. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. and C. Emig. Plymouth. we were not bothered with them. B. field of motor. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. Parker. are cut just alike. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. Ind. --Contributed by F. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. A. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. BB. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. simply change the switch. AA. B. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other.

To unlock the door. When the circuit is broken a weight. -Contributed by Claude B. attached to the end of the armature B. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. Hutchinson. W. thus locking the door. Cal. a piece of string. as it is the key to the lock. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity.. Melchior. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. Fry. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. one cell being sufficient. 903 Vine St. The experiment works best . If it is not.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. or would remain locked. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. San Jose. merely push the button E. and a table or bench. a hammer. A. Minn. The button can be hidden. which is in the door.

releasing the weight. -. When the alarm rings in the early morning. W. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. Canada. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. 3. 1). Porto Rico. attached at the other end. Crawford Curry. Madison. 4).An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. A. the current flows with the small arrows. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table.. --Contributed by Geo. D. forming a loop. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. Brockville.Contributed by F. C. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. the stick falls away. Culebra. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. P. the key turns. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. 2. in the ceiling and has a window weight. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. Wis. . 3. 18 Gorham St. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. run through a pulley. where it will remain suspended as shown. I. Schmidt. Tie the ends of the string together. which pulls the draft open. Ontario. On another block of wood fasten two wires. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. as shown in Fig. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord.

and . The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. First. thick. or tree.. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. or from a bed of flowers. and then to the receiver. The cut shows the arrangement. Connect two wires to the transmitter. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. N. Use a barrel to work on. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. including the mouthpiece. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. J. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. D. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. --Contributed by Wm. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. square and 1 in. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. and break the corners off to make them round. Farley. get two pieces of plate glass. R. and the other to the battery. Jr. thence to a switch. Camden.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. S. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. made with his own hands. running one direct to the receiver. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. which fasten to the horn. J. 6 in.

then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. Have ready six large dishes. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. so the light . the coarse grinding must be continued. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. spaces. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. L. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. When polishing the speculum. 2. wet till soft like paint. while walking around the barrel. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. 2.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. set the speculum against the wall. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. Then warm and press again with the speculum. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. twice the focal length away. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. then 8 minutes. and is ready for polishing. with 1/4-in. or it will not polish evenly. and a large lamp. When dry. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. by the side of the lamp. unless a longer focal length is wanted. In a dark room. Fasten. When done the glass should be semitransparent. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. wide around the convex glass or tool. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. with pitch. also rotate the glass. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze... The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. a round 4-in. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. and spread on the glass. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. then take 2 lb. and label. wetting it to the consistency of cream. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. of water. Fig. in length. as in Fig. A. and the under glass or tool convex. Use a binger to spread it on with. 1. or less. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. melt 1 lb. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. using straight strokes 2 in. Fig.

If not.. 25 gr. 39 gr. 100 gr. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. 4 oz. Fig. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. if a hill in the center.……………………………….. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. the speculum is ready to be silvered. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water …………………………….Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass.100 gr. as in K. When the focus is found. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. then ammonia until bath is clear. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears.. The knife should not be more than 6 in. touched with rouge. must be procured. Then add 1 oz. face down. Two glass or earthenware dishes. Alcohol (Pure) …………….. The polishing and testing done. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin.. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). that was set aside. Now add enough of the solution A. Place the speculum S. longer strokes. Silver nitrate ……………………………. fill the dish with distilled water. and pour the rest into the empty dish. Fig. Fig.……………………………. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia.. the speculum will show some dark rings. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. add the ammonia solution drop by drop.. Solution D: Sugar loaf . When dry. 2. Then add solution B. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. Place the speculum. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. 840 gr. with distilled water.. from the lamp. long to the back of the speculum.. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. or hills. Nitric acid . The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. in the bath and leave until the silver rises. cement a strip of board 8 in. deep. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes.. With pitch. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. 4 oz. also how the rays R from a star . Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. 2. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside.…………….

The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. . When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. which proves to be easy of execution. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. My telescope is 64 in. using strawboard and black paper. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. Mellish. is a satisfactory angle. long and cost me just $15. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. slightly wider than the lens mount.John E. Make the tube I of sheet iron. two glass prisms. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. The flatter they are the less they will distort. Place over lens. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch.. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. with an outlay of only a few dollars. About 20. and proceed as for any picture. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. deg. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. Then I made the one described. telescope can be made at home. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. Thus an excellent 6-in. stop down well after focusing. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. cover with paper and cloth. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made.

push the button D. as shown in Fig. D. add the plaster gradually to the water. Ill. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. through the lens of the camera and on the board. Fig. or powdered alum. B. instead of the contrary. To unlock. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. Zimmerman. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. and reflect through the negative. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. then add a little sulphate of potash. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. The paper is exposed. 2. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. . 1. unobstructed light strike the mirror. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. Boody. says the Master Painter. The rays of the clear. Do not stir it. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. A. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. -Contributed by A. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. complete the arrangement. but will not preserve its hardening.

and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. Fasten on the switch lever. 1). This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. as shown in the sketch. Connect the wires as shown in Fig.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. To reverse. 2. Then blow through the spool. as at A and B. so that it can rotate about these points. use a string. 3. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. throw . A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. Fig. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. but will remain suspended without any visible support. as in Fig. 2. also provide them with a handle.

B. the armature. although this is not necessary. L. wash in running water. Levy. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. carbon sockets. . rinse in alcohol. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. as shown in the sketch. Neb. Thomas. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. C C. and E E. Take out. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. Push one end of the tire into the hole. San Antonio. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. binding posts. In the sketch. A is the electricbell magnet. D. San Marcos. and rub dry with linen cloth. --Contributed by R.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. Go McVicker. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. --Contributed by Geo. North Bend. Tex. -Contributed by Morris L. carbons. Tex.

wound evenly about this core. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. --Contributed by Joseph B. Bell. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. 36 magnet wire. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and .Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. By means of two or more layers of No. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. Brooklyn. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. long or more. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. 14 or No. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. 16 magnet wire. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp.

16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. a box like that shown in Fig. in length. which is desirable. After the core wires are bundled. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. but if it is not convenient to do this work. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. and the results are often unsatisfactory. diameter. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. wide. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. in diameter.which would be better to buy ready-made. 4. and finally the fourth strip of paper. coil illustrates the general details of the work. making two layers. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. hole is bored in the center of one end. with room also for a small condenser. the entire core may be purchased readymade. The primary is made of fine annealed No. 2 yd. In shaping the condenser. 1. No. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. A 7/8-in. about 6 in. which is an important factor of the coil. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. When cut and laid in one continuous length. as the maker prefers. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. one piece of the paper is laid down. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. at a time. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. long and 5 in. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. or 8 in. Beginning half an inch from one end. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. The condenser is next wrapped . long and 2-5/8 in. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. This makes a condenser which may be folded. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. as shown in Fig. The following method of completing a 1-in. then the strip of tin-foil. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made.

go. flange turned on one side. and one from battery. I. to the door. E. which allows wiring at the back. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. spark. ready for assembling. F. B. battery . 4 in. long and 12 in. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types.securely with bands of paper or tape.. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. open switch C. forms the other pole or terminal. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. Fig. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. D. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. shelf for clock. C. bell.) The wiring diagram. A. switch. wide. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. whole length. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. round so that the inside . Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. 3. and the other sheet. G. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. The alarm key will turn and drop down. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. shows how the connections are made. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. copper lever with 1-in. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. by 12 in. lines H. V-shaped copper strip. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. which is insulated from the first. B. long to key. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. the letters indicate as follows: A. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. one from bell.

of blue stone. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage.diameter is 7 in. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. do not shortcircuit. but add 5 or 6 oz. from the bottom. says the Model Engineer. Line the furnace. but with the circuit. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. and then rivet the seam. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. The circuit should also have a high resistance. and the battery is ready for use. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. 2 in. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. of zinc sulphate.. That is what they are for. London. instead of close to it. . Short-circuit for three hours. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. This is for blowing. If desired for use immediately. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. Use a glass or metal shade. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself.

porcelain and paper. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. To operate the trick. but the thing would not move at all. or think they can do the same let them try it. as in the other movement. g. Try it and see. grip the stick firmly in one hand.9 of a volt. changes white phosphorus to yellow. for others the opposite way. oxygen to ozone. Ohio. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. 1. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. long. If any or your audience presume to dispute. Outside of the scientific side involved. affects . siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. 2. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches.. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. imparting to them a violet tinge. thus producing two different vibrations. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. below the bottom of the zinc. and then. This type of battery will give about 0. the second finger along the side. for some it will turn one way. If too low. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. and therein is the trick. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. square and about 9 in. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. At least it is amusing. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. herein I describe a much better trick. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified." which created much merriment. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. while for others it will not revolve at all. Enlarge the hole slightly.

but this is less satisfactory. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. and. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. if possible. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. however.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. but small flowers. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. says the Photographic Times. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. chemicals. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. earth. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. a short-focus lens. and one of them is photomicrography. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . an old tripod screw. a means for holding it vertical. To the front board is attached a box. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. insects. but not essential. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner.

How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. 9 ft. 113 7 lb. 1. Boston. or 31 ft. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. The following table will give the size. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. which is 15 ft. and a line. 697 44 lb. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. balloon.--Contributed by George C. 381 24 lb. in diameter. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. long and 3 ft. or 3 ft. wide from which to cut a pattern. If the balloon is 10 ft. 5 in. 905 57 lb. 7 ft. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. 5 ft. Divide one-quarter of the circle . A line. 7-1/2 in. AB. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. 179 11 lb. 268 17 lb. while it is not so with the quill. Cap. 6 ft. Ft Lifting Power. CD. 8 ft. Madison. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. Fig. 12 ft. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. Mass. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. 10 ft 523 33 lb. 11 ft. in Cu.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. 65 4 lb. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. 7-1/2 in.

This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. and so on. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. This test will show if the bag is airtight. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. 4. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. of the very best heavy body. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. using a fine needle and No. making a double seam as shown in Fig. The amounts necessary for a 10- . until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. 2. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. The cloth segments are sewed together. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. The pattern is now cut. keeping the marked part on the outside. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. on the curved line from B to C. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. cutting all four quarters at the same time.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. of beeswax and boil well together. Repeat this operation four times. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. 3. 70 thread. Procure 1 gal. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times.

When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. should not enter into the water over 8 in. B. of gas in one hour.Green Iron ammonium citrate .The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. or a fan. to the bag. When the clock has dried. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. A. 1 lb. The outlet. C. a clean white rag. Water 1 oz. of iron. using a fine brush. leaving the hand quite clean. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. as shown in Fig. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. or dusting with a dry brush. which may sound rather absurd. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. 5 . About 15 lb. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. of water will make 4 cu. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. 150 gr. B. A. B.. with the iron borings. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. with 3/4in. 5. After washing a part. In the barrel. 1 lb. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. until no more dirt is seen. balloon are 125 lb. of iron borings and 125 lb. oil the spindle holes carefully. A. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. this should be repeated frequently. above the level of the water in barrel A. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. .ft. All FIG. but if any grease remains on the hand. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. Fill the other barrel. with water 2 in. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. capacity and connect them. Vegetable oils should never be used. pipe. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. The 3/4-in. ]. if it is good it will dry off. of sulphuric acid. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. by fixing. ft. it is not fit to use. . C.

. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. Port Melbourne. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. at the time of employment. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. Dry the plates in the dark. says the Moving Picture World. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. The positive pole. fix in hypo. and a vigorous negative must be used. The negative pole. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner.000 ft. dry atmosphere will give best results. or battery. Dry in the dark.. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. This aerial collector can be made in . A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. 20 to 30 minutes. A cold.Water 1 oz. or zinc. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. The miniature 16 cp. keeping the fingers out of the solution. or carbon. Exposure. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. and keep in the dark until used. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. of any make. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. A longer exposure will be necessary. to avoid blackened skin. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. toning first if desired. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. . Printing is done in the sun. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell.

is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. long. as described below. forming a cup of the pipe. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. will soon become dry and useless. As the telephone offers a high resistance. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. holes . In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. 5 in. lead pipe. and as less current will flow the short way. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. when left exposed to the air. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. a positive and a negative. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. This will complete the receiving station. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. making a ground with one wire. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. The storage cell. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. the resistance is less. in diameter. If the waves strike across the needle. If the wave ceases. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in.various ways. and have the other connected with another aerial line. both positive and negative. lay a needle. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water.

an oblong one and a triangular one. This support or block. of course. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. a round one. The other plate is connected to the zinc. Two binding-posts should be attached. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. or tube C. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. This box can be square. or tube B. except for about 1 in. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. and the other to the negative. says the Pathfinder. When mixing the acid and water. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. does not need to be watertight. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. D. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. one to the positive. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. This. B. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. namely: a square hole. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. by soldering the joint. on each end.as possible. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed.

This punt. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. The third piece of brass. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. as shown in Fig. 2. and match them together. in place on the wood. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. leaving about 1/16 in. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. long. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. were fitted by this one plug. back and under. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. A and B. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. 1. 3. as it is not readily overturned. Only galvanized nails should be used. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. about 20 in. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. Chicago. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. Ill. 1. deep and 4 ft. and has plenty of good seating capacity. all around the edge. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. as shown in Fig. 2. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. . C. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. thick cut two pieces alike. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. is built 15 ft. wide. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. wide. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. C.

gas pipe. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. In Fig. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . A piece of 1/4-in. Wash. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. B. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. A. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. Tacoma. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. is cut 1 in. thick and 3-1/2 in. square (Fig 2).

with the exception of insulated wire.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. or "rotor. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. which can be developed in the usual manner. In designing.--Contributed by Charles H. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. says the Model Engineer. it had to be borne in mind that. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. and to consume. which the writer has made. without auxiliary phase. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. Wagner. no special materials could be obtained. H. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. if possible. lamp. no more current than a 16-cp. may be of interest to some of our readers. The winding of the armature. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe." has no connection with the outside circuit. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens.

thick. 3. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. 2. 1. After assembling a second time. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. C. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. Holes 5-32 in. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. as shown in Fig. 5. while the beginnings . holes. as shown in Fig. They are not particularly accurate as it is. no steel being obtainable. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. or "stator. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. 4. with the dotted line. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. and all sparking is avoided. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. B. this little machine is not self-starting. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. about 2-1/2 lb. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. to be filed out after they are placed together. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. wrought iron. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. and filled with rivets. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way.the field-magnet. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. were then drilled and 1/4-in. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. in diameter were drilled in the corners. being used. Unfortunately. bolts put in and tightened up. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. The stator is wound full with No. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. A. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. also varnished before they were put in.

Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. N. The lantern slide is a glass plate. If too late for alcohol to be of use. and especially of colored ones. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. McKinney. as shown in Fig. if applied immediately. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. 2. having no commutator or brushes. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. 3-Contributed by C. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. One is by contact. a regulating resistance is not needed. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. In making slides by contact. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. Newark. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. it would be very simple to build. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. The image should . J. and as the motor runs at constant speed. film to film. and would not easily get out of order. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. E. as a means of illustrating songs. Jr. The rotor is wound with No. This type of motor has drawbacks. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. and all wound in the same direction. and the other by reduction in the camera. 1.. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. and as each layer of wire was wound. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. as before stated. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. No starting resistance is needed.

to use a plain fixing bath. If the exposure has been correct. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. 2. These can be purchased from any photo material store. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. B. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. 1. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. Being unbreakable. 4. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. also. the formulas being found in each package of plates. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. Draw lines with a pencil. if possible. over the mat. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. as shown in Fig. and then a plain glass. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. and development should be over in three or four minutes. Fig. 5. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. A. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. about a minute. Select a room with one window. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig.appear in. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. D. except that the binding is different. as shown in Fig. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. a little extra work will be necessary. they are much used by travelers. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. It is best. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. 3. C. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water.

long. 2. 1. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. Hastings. Vt. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. is to be used for the seat. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. as shown in Fig. If the star is in front of the left eye. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. A piece of canvas. long. long. or other stout cloth. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. as shown at B. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. while the dot will be in front of the other. as shown at A. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. 1. holes bored in the end pieces. in diameter and 20 in. 16 in. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. from the ends. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. from the end piece of the chair. Corinth. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. wide and 50 in.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. Fig. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. known as rods and cones. from the center of this dot draw a star. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . in diameter and 40 in. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. These longer pieces can be made square. Fig. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown.

They will be found to be exactly the same distance. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. . Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. 2. per square inch. Auburn. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. A belt. in thickness and 10 in.-Contributed by P. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. Cal. as shown in Fig. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. as well as to operate other household machines. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. 1. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. O'Gara. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. made from an ordinary sash cord. as shown in Fig. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. J. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. A disk 1 in. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed.

then removing the object. 3/4 in. and the construction is complete. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. to the top of the bench. long. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. A simple. it serves a very useful purpose. Put the bolt in the hole. divided by the number of threads to the inch. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. says the Scientific American. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. screwing it through the nut. Cut out a piece from the block combination. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. leaving it shaped like a bench. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. . direction. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. will be the thickness of the object. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. Bore a 1/4-in. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. with as fine a thread as possible. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. thick and 2-1/2 in. fairly accurate. square for a support. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. wide. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. or inconvenient to measure. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. The part of a rotation of the bolt.

piece of wood 12 ft. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. Oal. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. beyond the end of the wood. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. which show up fine at night. Santa Maria. globe that has been thrown away as useless. long. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. material 12 ft. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. Place a 3/4-in. bolt in each hole. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. long is used for the center pole. Bore a 3/4-in. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. The wheel should be open .

B. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. The boards may be nailed or bolted. at the bottom. and the lower part 61/2 in. to be operated by the magnet coil. Tex. Fort Worth. A. long. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. of the ends with boards. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. made of the same material. thick. from the top end. and on its lower end a socket. C. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. L. in diameter. The spool . H and J.-Contributed by A. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. A cross bar. 1/2 in. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. wide and 1/8 in. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. long. A piece of brass 2 in. is soldered. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. at the top and 4 in. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. square and 3 or 4 in. thick is used for the armature. from the ends. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. wide and 1/8 in. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. thick. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. Graham. long. O. P. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. C. pieces used for the spokes. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. The coil. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. long.Side and Top View or have spokes. which should be 1/4 in.

which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. that holds the lower carbon. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. or a water rheostat heretofore described. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. one without either rubber or metal end. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. then with a firm. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. At the bottom end of the frame. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. for insulating the brass ferrule. S. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. This tie can be used on grain sacks. do it without any apparent effort. is drilled. A soft piece of iron.000. S. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post.E. B. Randolph. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. and directly centering the holes H and J. 1. .J. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. Mass. C. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig.000 for irrigation work. D and E. which may be had by using German silver wire. 2. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. The armature. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. 2 the hat hanging on it. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. This is a very neat trick if performed right. and in numerous other like instances.is about 2-1/2 in. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. --Contributed by Arthur D. F.--A. Bradlev. A. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. long. When you slide the pencil along the casing. R. and place it against a door or window casing. by soldering. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig.

from the core and directly opposite. may be made from a 3/8-in. The core of the coil. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. C. for the secondary.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. B. hole in the center. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. in diameter and 2 in. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. 2. 1. F. mixed with water to form a paste. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. Fig. The switch. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. thick. with a 3/16-in. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. long. The vibrator B. in diameter. Experiment with Heat [134] . A. is connected to a flash lamp battery. The vibrator. About 70 turns of No. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. wide. in diameter and 1/16 in. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. is constructed in the usual manner. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. long and 1 in. in diameter. and the support C are made from thin spring steel.500 turns of No. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. D. for adjustment. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. 1. about 3/16 in. The coil ends are made from cardboard. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. about 1 in. about 1/8 in. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. S. and then 1. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. for the primary. S. Fig. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. leaving the projections as shown.

and the same distance inside of the new board. 2 to fit the two holes. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. it laps down about 8 in. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. in an ordinary water glass. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. The knob on the dial extends out too far. wide. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. between the boards. 16 in. was to be secured by only three brass screws. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. 1. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together.Place a small piece of paper. . An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. The hasp. The tin is 4 in. Fig. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. The three screws were then put in the hasp. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. which seemed to be insufficient. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. The lock. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. as shown in the sketch. 1. with which to operate the dial. brass plate. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. as shown. thick on the inside. long and when placed over the board. and then well clinched. board. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. which is only 3/8-in. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. which is cut with two holes. lighted.

one in each division. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. which completely divides the box into two parts. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. If the box is made large enough. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. any article placed therein will be reflected in. the glass. black color. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. and the back left dark. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. not shiny. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. When making of wood. clear glass as shown. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. or in the larger size mentioned. square and 10-1/2 in. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. square and 8-1/2 in.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. but when the front part is illuminated. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. When the rear part is illuminated. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. high for use in window displays. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in .

When using as a window display. into the other. long and 1 ft. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty.. above the top of the tank. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. and with the proper illumination one is changed. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. When there is no electric current available. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. as shown at A in the sketch. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. alternately.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. . Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. a tank 2 ft. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. as it appears. as shown in the sketch. wide will be about the right size. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

thick and 3 in. hole. two pieces 1-1/8 in. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. is built on the front. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. or ferrous sulphate. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. bore from each end. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. 2 ft. Shape the under sides first. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. The 13-in. 6 in. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. dried and mixed with linseed oil. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. high. 5 ft. wide. If a planing mill is near. long. then use a red-hot iron to finish. square. from the ground. square and 40 in. and a solution of iron sulphate added. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. 1 in. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. Columbus. wide. but with a length of 12 in. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. is the green vitriol. as shown. This precipitate is then washed. This hole must be continued . time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. using a 3/4-in. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. The pieces can then be taken out. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. Iron sulphate. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. bit. lines gauged on each side of each. and boring two holes with a 1-in. Three windows are provided. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. each. long. hole bored the full length through the center.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. gauge for depth. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. however. with a length of 13 in. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. A small platform. and 6 ft. O. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. under sides together. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. radius. and a door in front. one for each side.

Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. When the filler has hardened. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. three or four may be attached as shown. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. thick and 3 in.through the pieces forming the base. The sketch shows one method of attaching. apply two coats of wax. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. square and drawing a diagonal on each. For art-glass the metal panels are . The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. hole in each block. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. When this is dry. if shade is purchased. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. Electric globes--two. Directions will be found on the filler cans. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. A better way. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. If the parts are to be riveted. Saw the two blocks apart. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp.

Construction of Shade . the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. METAL SHADE . Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal. and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. such as copper.The Completed Lamp cut out. as brass.

and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . as in ordinary devices. 2 the front view of this stand. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. and Fig. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. one way and 1/2 in. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. Figure 1 shows the side. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. the other. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. as shown in the sketch. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. the object and the background. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. The arms holding the glass.

Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. and swinging freely. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. long. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. about 1-1/4 in. wide and 6-5/16 in. Before mounting the ring on the base. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. uncork and recork again. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. An ordinary pocket compass. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. pointing north and south. thus forming a 1/4-in. in diameter for a base. wide and 11 in. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. as it is very poisonous. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. as shown in the sketch. channel in the circumference of the ring. Cut another circular piece 11 in. If the light becomes dim. outside diameter. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. Put the ring in place on the base. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. in diameter.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. as shown in the cut. thick 5/8-in. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. and an inside diameter of 9 in.

are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. B.715 . EE. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in.182 . AA. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings.500 . The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other. from the second to the third. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye.088 . 1 oz. above the half can. into these cylinders. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes . and north of the Ohio river. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through.420 .3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. to which a wire has been soldered for connections. are mounted on a base. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders.289 . are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. in diameter and 8 in. of the top.865 1. The results given should be multiplied by 1. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. black oxide of copper. and mirrors. Place on top the so- . Corresponding mirrors. CC.600 .

alcohol. says Metal Worker. In Fig. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. slender bottle. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. Put the solution in a long. which otherwise remains clear. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. then they will not rust fast. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. the wheel will revolve in one direction. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. University Park. When renewing. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. of pulverized campor. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. 62 gr. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. always remove the oil with a siphon. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. Colo. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. 31 gr. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. little crystals forming in the liquid.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz.

floating on a solution. --Contributed by C. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. Solder in the side of the box . This is used in place of the spoon. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. Attach to the wires. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. If zinc and carbon are used. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. Lloyd Enos. A paper-fastener box. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. If zinc and copper are used. on the under side of the cork. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. If two of them are floating on the same solution. about 1-1/4 in. will allow the magnet to point north and south.

The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. Rhamstine. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. glass tubing . brass tubing. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine.1-in. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. The base. one on each side of the board. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. E.Contributed by J. Wind evenly about 2 oz. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. Put ends. H. is made from a piece of No. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. The bottom of the box. wide and 2-1/2 in. away. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. . Secure a piece of 1/4-in. or made with a little black paint. long that has about 1/4-in. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. hole. 1/2. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. long. wide and 6 in. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. B. D. long. to it. Take a small piece of soft iron. To this standard solder the supporting wire. The spring should be about 1 in. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring.in. C. Thos. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. A. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. Bore holes for binding-posts. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. D. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. 1. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. C. 14 wire will do. as shown in Fig. D. and on the other around the glass tube. of No. piece of 1/4-in. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. B. A. of wire on each end extending from the coil. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. The standard. thick.in. A circular piece of cardboard. C.not shorter than 18 in. 10 wire about 10 in. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. Use a board 1/2. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. G--No. stained and varnished. If the hose is not a tight fit. F. 1-1/4 in. 3 in. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. can be made of oak. E. and then solder on the cover. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch.

The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. long. When the glass becomes soft.of the coil. of No. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. 1. About 1-1/2 lb.--Contributed by R. 3. long. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. 5. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. is drawn nearer to the coil. Y. long. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. canvas. of mercury will be sufficient. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. four hinges. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. Milwaukee. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. making a support as shown in Fig. N. 2. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. long are used for the legs. J. 3 in. D. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. long. as shown in Fig. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. Wis. in diameter. Smith. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. long.--Contributed by Edward M. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. Teasdale. two pieces 2 ft. of 8-oz. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. Cuba. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. . about 1 in. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. from the right hand. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. The iron plunger. 3-in. E. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end.

thus leaving a. --Contributed by David A. Keys. 5. long. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle.. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. 3. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. expelling all the air. 4. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. Break off the piece of glass. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. small aperture in the long tube. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. 6. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. leaving 8 in. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. Measure 8 in. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. Fig. Take 1/2 in. 2. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. Can.. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. holding in the left hand. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . Toronto. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. of vacuum at the top. The tube now must be filled completely. This tube as described will be 8 in. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction.

Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. joint be accurately put together. wide and 5 ft. wide and 12 in. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. 9 in. 3. wide and 3 in. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. Four blocks 1/4 in. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. A crosspiece 3/4-in. 1. from the end of same. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. material 2 in. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. 3 in. in diameter. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. thick. 5. long. 1 in. 6. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. thick. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . The large pulley is about 14 in.6 -. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. cut in the shape shown in Fig. This forms a slot. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. but yellow pine is the best. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. Fig. 1 in. wide and 5 ft. 4. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. 7. as shown in Fig. thick. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. as shown in Fig. and 1/4 in. thick. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. long. as in Fig. and the single projection 3/4 in. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. long. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. FIG. 2. wood screws. 4 in. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. 3 in. These are bent and nailed. with each projection 3-in. long. thick. wide and 5 ft. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom.

. R. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. says Photography. Welsh. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. Kan. by 1-in. attach runners and use it on the ice. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. Water 1 oz. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. above the runner level. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. Manhattan. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. first removing the crank. --Contributed by C. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter.

Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. and very much cheaper. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. 2. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. . then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. 3. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. of water. as shown in Fig. from an ordinary clamp skate. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. This is done with a camel's hair brush. The print is washed. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. --Contributed by Wallace C. also. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. Mass. 1 oz. Printing is carried rather far. Treasdale. Newton. --Contributed by Edward M. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. 1. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. as shown in Fig. Leominster. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr.

Take two glass tubes. Fig. hole. as shown in the sketch. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. F. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. and 3 ft. long.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. 1 ft. Va. high. and to the bottom. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. Place a 10-in. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. high for rabbits. extending the width of the box. --Contributed by H. A. with about 1/8-in. wide and 4 in. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. fasten a 2-in. about 10 in. Then. The swing door B. The thread is broken off at the . wide. 1. Fig. from one end. 1. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. Church. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. say. square piece. 2. which represents the back side of the door. 1-1/2 ft. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. Alexandria. too. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. and bend them as shown in the sketch. causing the door to swing back and up.

Fig. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. Take two pieces of pasteboard. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. say 8 in. Crilly. This opening. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. C. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. 3. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. plates. Paste a piece of strong black paper. says Camera Craft. trolley cars. wide. Jr. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. Out two rectangular holes. wide and 5 in. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. but cut it 1/4 in. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. automobiles. camera and wish to use some 4. Cut an opening in the other piece.proper place to make a small hole. horses and dogs. long. inside of the opening.. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around.by 5-in. in size. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. and exactly 5 by 7 in. to be used as a driving pulley. long. in size. from the edge on each side of these openings. D. being 1/8 in. shorter. A and B. wide. 1. Chicago. black surfaced if possible. -Contributed by William M.by 7-in. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. 10 in. 1 in. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. 2. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. high and 12 in. Fig. B. and go in the holder in the same way. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. shorter at each end. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. as shown in Fig. .

This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. long and 6 in. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod.in. into which the dog is harnessed. wide will be required.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. in diameter. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. making a . which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. if it has previously been magnetized. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. A cell of this kind can easily be made.. The needle will then point north and south. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in.

allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. long which are copper plated. when the paraffin is melted. only the joints. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. pine. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. A is a block of l-in. zinc oxide. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. fodder. says Electrician and Mechanic. sal ammoniac. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. Do not paint any surface. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. filter. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. 1 lb. short time. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. This makes the wire smooth. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. pull out the wire as needed. 3/4 lb. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. and a notch between the base and the pan. of water. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. leaving about 1/2-in. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. under the spool in the paraffin. plaster of paris. Place the pan on the stove. of the top. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. B is a base of 1 in. in diameter and 6 in. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. in which P is the pan. . and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. fuel and packing purposes. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. The details of the construction are given in the diagram.watertight receptacle. Form a 1/2-in. Pack the paste in. one that will hold about 1 qt. of the plate at one end. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. 1/4 lb.in. with narrow flanges. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. for a connection. File the rods to remove the copper plate. of rosin and 2 oz. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. F is a spool. beeswax melted together.

so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. Toledo. let them try it. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. for some it will turn one way. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement.. and then. and he finally. square and about 9 in. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. If any of your audience presume to dispute. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. or think they can do the same. thus producing two different vibrations. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. g. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. by the Hindoos in India. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. while for others it will not revolve at all. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. as in the other movement. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. grip the stick firmly in one hand. and therein is the trick. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. Try it and see. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction." which created much merriment. At least it is amusing. Ohio. but the thing would not move at all. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. and one friend tells me that they were . and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. 2. from vexation. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. for others the opposite way. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. long. Enlarge the hole slightly.

and I think the results may be of interest. To operate. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. 5. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. A square stick with notches on edge is best. m. 3. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. 6. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. rotation was obtained. gave the best results. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. p. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. the rotation may be obtained. by means of a center punch. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. 2. Thus a circular or . and. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. 7. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. 4. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. secondly. no rotation resulted. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. Speeds between 700 and 1. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. If the pressure was upon an edge.100 r. The experiments were as follows: 1.

All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. C. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. A. --Contributed by G. Sloan. and the resultant "basket splash.. is driven violently away. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. and the height of the fall about 6 in. so far as can be seen from the photographs. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. a piece of wire and a candle. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. it will be clockwise. Ph. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. --Contributed by M. D.D. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. Lloyd. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. A wire is tied around the can. Minn. as shown. forming a handle for carrying. the upper portion is. . while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. Washington. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere.. or greasy. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. if the pressure is from the left. Duluth." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. G. unwetted by the liquid. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. at first.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

as shown. axle. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. as shown in Fig. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. with a 1/16-in. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. thick and 1 in. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. hole drilled in the center. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. Each wheel is 1/4 in. in diameter. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. about 2-5/8 in. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . long. 1. flange and a 1/4-in. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button.

Fuller. 3. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. If the ends are to be soldered.50. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. 5. --Contributed by Maurice E. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. The first piece. which must be 110 volt alternating current. 1 from 1/4-in. The motor is now bolted. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . 6. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. with cardboard 3 in. as shown in Fig. San Antonio. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. lamp in series with the coil. put together complete. 3/4 in. 3. The current. is made from brass. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. 2. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. wide and 16 in. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. bent as shown. is made from a piece of clock spring. Texas. wood. of No. Fig. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. 4. 2. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. The parts. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. each in its proper place. These ends are fastened together. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. long. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. Fig. or main part of the frame. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. The other binding-post is connected to the frame.brass. bottom side up. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. and the locomotive is ready for running. are shown in Fig. A trolley. holes 1 in. This will save buying a track.

Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. the length of a paper clip. and holes drilled in them. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. Fig 1. O. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. Fig. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. as shown in Fig. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. but do not heat the center. as shown in Fig. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. The quarter will not go all the way down. When cold treat the other end in the same way. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. and as this end . 2. Cincinnati. 1. 3. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. then continue to tighten much more.

belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. and adjusted . a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. In the sketch. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. A pair of centers are fitted. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. or apparent security of the knot. 2 and 1 respectively. When the cutter A. When the trick is to be performed. or should the lathe head be raised. has finished a cut for a tooth. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel.

(4. watch fob ready for fastenings. Brooklyn. such as brass or marble.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. 1. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). long. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. and a nut pick. (6. if but two parts.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. book mark. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. 2. lady's card case. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. note book. about 1-1/2 in. When connecting to batteries.) Make on paper the design wanted.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. Fold over along these center lines. tea cosey. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. coin purse. at the same time striking light. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. holding it in place with the left hand. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. if four parts are to be alike. In this manner gears 3 in. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. Fig. dividing it into as many parts as desired. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. (2. draw center lines across the required space. gentleman's card case or bill book. The frame holding the mandrel.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. lady's belt bag. above the surface.) Place the paper design on the leather and.to run true. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . (5. tea cosey. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. --Contributed by Howard S. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. blotter back. (3. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. (1. Bott. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. Second row: -Two book marks. trace the outline. twisted around itself and soldered. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. Y. N. or one-half of the design. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. Bunker. An ordinary machine will do. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. swing lathe. --Contributed by Samuel C.

and an ordinary bottle. Secure .How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. some heavy rubber hose.

Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. B. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. where it condenses. The electrodes are made . The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times.. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. and bore a hole through the center. C. A. Thrust a pin. If the needle is not horizontal. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. from Key West. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. a distance of 900 miles. pull it through the cork to one side or the other.C. D. into which fit a small piece of tube. Florida. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. and push it through a cork. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches.

This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. long for the body of the operator. 3. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. The operator can then land safely and . both laterally and longitudinally. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. as shown in Fig. long. All wiring is done with No. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. by 3/4 in. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. take the glider to the top of a hill. 3/4 in. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. and also to keep it steady in its flight. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. using a high resistance receiver. long. 1. several strips 1/2 in. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. C. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. D. slacken speed and settle. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. thick. 2 in. 16 piano wire. 1/2. If 20-ft. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. To make a glide. wide and 20 ft. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. 2 arm sticks 1 in. as shown in Fig. thick. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. 1. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. 1-1/2 in. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. 2. wide and 3 ft. wide and 4 ft. use 10-ft. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. wide and 4 ft. long. thick. free from knots. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. lengths and splice them. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. as shown in Fig. long. 1-1/4 in. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. which is tacked to the front edge. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. apart and extend 1 ft. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame.in. 12 uprights 1/2 in. Four long beams 3/4 in. lumber cannot be procured. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. wide and 4 ft long. Washington. thick. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. long. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. 1. Powell. or flying-machine. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. wide and 3 ft. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. Connect as shown in the illustration. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. square and 8 ft long. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. thick. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. 2. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. --Contributed by Edwin L.

The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. Great care should be . Of course. but this must be found by experience. Glides are always made against the wind.gently on his feet. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing.

A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. When heated a little. M. which causes the dip in the line. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. a creature of Greek mythology. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. half man and half horse.exercised in making landings. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. 1. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. as shown in Fig. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . 2. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. --Contributed by L. Olson. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. Bellingham.

this will cost about 15 cents. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. will complete the material list. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. The light from the . Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. square. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. a piece of brass or steel wire. long and about 3/8 in. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. about the size of stove pipe wire.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. in diameter. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. about the size of door screen wire. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. making it 2-1/2 in. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. 14 in. outside the box. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. long. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. of small rubber tubing. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. While at the drug store get 3 ft. at the other. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in.

Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. while others will fail time after time. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. --Photo by M. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. . O. M. If done properly the card will flyaway.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. 2. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. as shown in Fig. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. 1. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. as shown in the sketch. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. Hunting. as shown in Fig. This is very simple when you know how. Dayton.

When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. place the other two. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. hold the lump over the flame. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. When the desired shape has been obtained. as before. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. If a certain color is to be more prominent. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. as shown. then put it on the hatpin head. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . closing both hands quickly. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. Cool in water and dry. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. This game is played by five persons. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand." or the Chinese students' favorite game. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. as described.

these sectors. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. distribute electric charges . After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. passing through neutralizing brushes. or more in width. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in.

and pins inserted and soldered. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. from about 1/4-in. 4. These pins. The two pieces. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. The plates are trued up. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. C C. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. in diameter. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. long. long. material 7 in. The collectors are made. after they are mounted. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. close grained wood turned in the shape shown.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. The drive wheels. The plates. D. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. are made from 7/8-in. GG. Fig. 1. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. wide. wide at one end. RR. 2. and of a uniform thickness. in diameter. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. or teeth. and the outer end 11/2 in. 3. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. Fig. and this should be done before cutting the circle. The fork part is 6 in. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. long and the shank 4 in. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. in diameter. long and the standards 3 in. Two pieces of 1-in. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. to which insulating handles . in diameter. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. in diameter and 15 in. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. in diameter. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. 3. as shown in Fig. the side pieces being 24 in. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. at the other. EE. as shown in Fig. free from wrinkles. 1 in. 1-1/2 in. in diameter. brass tubing and the discharging rods. are made from solid. 3/4 in. and 4 in. Two solid glass rods. turned wood pieces.

in diameter. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. which are bent as shown. D. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. wide and 22 ft. Colorado City. --Contributed by C. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. one having a 2-in. Lloyd Enos. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. ball and the other one 3/4 in. KK. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. 12 ft.are attached. and the work was done by themselves.. Colo. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. long.

When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. bit. deep. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. The key will drop from the string. string together. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. using a 1-in. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. as at A. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold.is a good one. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. They can be used to keep pins and needles. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. yet such a thing can be done. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. pens . and bore a hole 1/2 in.

Draw one-half the design free hand. Inside this oblong. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. inside the first on all. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. 4. 2. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. 3. or cigar ashes. Use . By holding the nail about 1/4 in. 9. sharp division between background and design. about 3/4-in. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. They are easily made. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored.and pencils. then the other side. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. above the metal. etc. 7. very rapid progress can be made. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. extra metal on each of the four sides. 6. Raise the ends. flat and round-nosed pliers. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. Having determined the size of the tray. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. When the stamping is completed. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. using a nail filed to chisel edge. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. slim screw. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. Proceed as follows: 1. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in.. 23 gauge. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. file. stamp the background promiscuously. 5. This is to make a clean. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in.. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. above the work and striking it with the hammer. The second oblong was 3/4 in. they make attractive little pieces to have about. etc. two spikes. 8. unless it would be the metal shears. and the third one 1/4 in. also trace the decorative design. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. inside the second on all. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent.

On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. In the first numbering. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. 6. 7. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. The eyes. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. and fourth fingers. and the effect will be most pleasing. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. third fingers. second fingers. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . 10. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. 9. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. 8. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. first fingers.

"6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. there are no fingers above. etc. At a glance you see four tens or 40. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. Let us multiply 12 by 12. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. as high as you want to go. 11. or the product of 6 times 6. and the six lower fingers as six tens. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. which would be 70. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. . and 20 plus 16 equals 36.. if we wish. or 60. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. or numbers above 10.. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. renumber your fingers. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. which tens are added. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. etc. above 15 times 15 it is 200. first fingers. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. which would be 16. thumbs. Still. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. viz. the product of 12 times 12. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. or the product of 8 times 9. 25 times 25. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. or 80. 12. above 20 times 20.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. etc. but being simple it saves time and trouble. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. Put your thumbs together. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. 400. Two times one are two. 2 times 2 equals 4. In the second numbering. 600.. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand.

the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. the value which the upper fingers have. the inversion takes place against his will. not rotation. The inversion and reversion did not take place. thumbs. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. or from above or from below. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. at the will of the observer. And the lump sum to add. It takes place also. the value of the upper fingers being 20. in the case of a nearsighted person. the lump sum to add. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. first finger 17. about a vertical axis. thirties. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200.. For example. and so on. 75 and 85. lastly. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. when he removes his spectacles. however. any two figures between 45 and 55. adding 400 instead of 100. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. forties. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. first fingers 22. 3. beginning the thumbs with 16. Take For example 18 times 18. the revolution seems to reverse. . In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. as one might suppose. 21. further. 2. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. and. which is the half-way point between the two fives. 8. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. or what. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. etc. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. twenties. whether the one described in second or third numbering. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. Proceed as in the second lumbering. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. 7. being 80). For figures ending in 6. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200.

in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. The ports were not easy to make. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. Looking at it in semidarkness. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. as . sometimes the point towards him. the other appearance asserts itself. tee. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. when he knows which direction is right. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. and putting a cork on the point. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. A flat slide valve was used.

How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. If nothing better is at hand. Springfield. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. . Beating copper tends to harden it and. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. in diameter. across and 1/2 in. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. Ill. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. and make in one end a hollow. -Contributed by W. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. H. if continued too long without proper treatment. pipe. inexpensive. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. Fasten the block solidly. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. saw off a section of a broom handle. deep. apart. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. Kutscher.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. across the head. The tools are simple and can be made easily. such as is shown in the illustration. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. secure a piece of No. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base.. about 2 in. The eccentric is constructed of washers. as in a vise. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. Next take a block of wood. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. pipe 10 in. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. it is easily built. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. The steam chest is round. bottom side up. While this engine does not give much power. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim.

place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. To produce color effects on copper. Camden. Hay. the other to the left. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. O. S. C. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. especially when the object is near to the observer. and. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. as it softens the metal. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. --Contributed by W. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. This process is called annealing.will cause the metal to break. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. Vinegar. To overcome this hardness. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot.

and then with the left eye through the blue glass. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. But they seem black. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. in the proper choice of colors. although they pass through the screen. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. . at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. The red portions of the picture are not seen. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. only the orange rays may pass through. orange. and without any picture. because. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. because of the rays coming from them. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. not two mounted side by side. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. from the stereograph. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. they must be a very trifle apart. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. the further from the card will the composite image appear. it. The further apart the pictures are. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. the one for the left eye being blue. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. while both eyes together see a white background. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced.stereoscope. as for instance red and green. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. It is just as though they were not there. that for the right. So with the stereograph. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. diameter. and lies to the right on the picture. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. with the stereograph. however. In order to make them appear before the card. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. disappears fully. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. the left eye sees through a blue screen. would serve the same purpose.

long and a hole drilled in each end. etc.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. or the middle of the bottle. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. A No. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. in the shape of a crank. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. wide and 1 in. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. Place a NO. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. 1/4 in. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. 12 gauge wire. thick. San Francisco. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. This should only be bored about half way through the block. The weight of the air in round . in diameter. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. Cal. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. wireless.

. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. long. In general. But if a standard barometer is not available. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. a glass tube 1/8 in. a bottle 1 in. if you choose. or. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. Only redistilled mercury should be used. high. but before attempting to put in the mercury. high.. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost.6) 1 in. are marked off and divided into sixteenths.numbers is 15 lb. the contrary. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. and a slow fall. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. square. long. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. thick. if accurately constructed. Before fastening the scale. The 4 in. long. will calibrate itself. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. pine 3 in. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. 34 ft. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. wide and 4 in. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. wide and 40 in. internal diameter and about 34 in. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. or a column of mercury (density 13. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. high. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. the instrument. 30 in. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. square. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. inside diameter and 2 in.

3. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. a cover from a baking powder can will do. Mark out seven 1-in. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. wide and 10 in. Procure a metal can cover. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. 6 and 7. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. and place them as shown in Fig. 5. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. thick. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. 2. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. 1. long. the size of the outside of the bottle. Number the pieces 1. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. which is slipped quickly over the end.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle.

5. 3. 7 over No. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. 5's place. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. 7. Woolson. 5 over No. 3. 2 over No. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. which is the very best material for the purpose.J. Move 5-Jump No. 2 . Move 15-Move No. 2. To make such a tent. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. Move 3-Move No. long and 2 ft. procure unbleached tent duck. 3. Move 14-Jump No. N. 6 into No. Cape May Point. 6. 3 to the center.-Contributed by W. 7's place. 2. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. 6. 1. 5 over No. 5's place. l over No. Move 4-Jump No. 1 into No. using checkers for men. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. 7 over No. 6 to No.Position of the Men move only one at a time. in diameter. Move 7-Jump No. 6 in. Move ll-Jump No. 3 over No. Move 13-Move No. 2's place. 2 over No. 2's place. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. 6 over No. L. Move 2-Jump No. each 10 ft. as shown in Fig. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. 1. 1 to No. Move 12-Jump No. Move 9-Jump No. shaped like Fig. 3 into No. Move 10-Move No. Move 8-Jump No. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. Make 22 sections. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. This can be done on a checker board. Move 6-Move No.

The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. long and 4 in. round galvanized iron. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in.in. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. Tress. 3 in. 9 by 12 in. After transferring the design to the brass. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. 2. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. high. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. As shown in the sketch. about 9 in.J. Have the tent pole 3 in. wide by 12 in. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. --Contributed by G. These are ventilators. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. 6. In raising the tent. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. to a smooth board of soft wood.. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. made in two sections. wide at the bottom. 5. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. Use blocks. Punch holes in the brass in . a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. 5) stuck in the ground. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. in diameter. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. 6-in. fill with canvas edging. leaving the rest for an opening. added. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. diameter. Fig. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. Pa. long. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. wide at the bottom. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. Emsworth. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. Fig. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. from the top. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. 2 in. as in Fig. will do. Nail a thin sheet of brass.

. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E.the spaces around the outlined figures. When the edges are brought together by bending. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. Corr. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. When all the holes are punched. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. excepting the 1/4-in. cut out the brass on the outside lines. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. apart. bend into shape. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. around the outside of the pattern. but before punching the holes. The pattern is traced as before. It will not. Chicago.

grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil.however. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. or center on which the frame swings. pipe is used for the hub. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. E. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. Badger. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. partially filled with cream. A cast-iron ring.. G. allowing 2 ft. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. If a wheel is selected. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. or less. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. pipe. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. Que. --Contributed by Geo. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. A 6-in. Dunham. Stevens. Oregon. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. --Contributed by H. or. These pipes are . to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. better still. Mayger. between which is placed the fruit jar.

pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. pipe. Four braces made from 1/2-in. An extra wheel 18 in. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. pipe clamps. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. bent to the desired circle.

The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. as shown in Fig. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. which was placed in an upright position.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. and dropped on the table. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. 3. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. and the guide withdrawn. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. while doing this. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. 1. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. The performer.

Harkins. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. in diameter on another piece of tin. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. F. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. The box can be made of selected oak or . in a half circle. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. and second. 2.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. it requires no expensive condensing lens. Louis. White. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. first. St. 1. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. -Contributed by C. D. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. Colo. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. Denver. --Contributed by H. Mo. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. These leaves can be made up in regular book form.

The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. The door covering this hole in the back. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. from each end of the outside of the box. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. An open space 4 in. long and should be placed vertically. 5-1/2 in. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. and. wide and 6-1/2 in. AA. Two or three holes about 1 in. from each end. long. high and 11 in. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. fit into the runners. wide by 5 in. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. This will be 3/4 in. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. as shown in Fig. If a camera lens is used. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. and 2 in. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. wide. but not tight. represented by the dotted line in Fig. 3-1/2 in. high and must . focal length. 2. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. long. 1. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights.mahogany. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. wide and 5 in.

provided it is airtight. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. calling this February. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. calling that knuckle January.. and extending the whole height of the lantern. June and November. and so on." etc. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. the article may be propped up . This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. This process is rather a difficult one. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. --Contributed by Chas. West Toledo. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. as it requires an airtight case. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. 1. Ohio. April. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. C. then the second knuckle will be March. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. Bradley. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions.

and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. N. and the lead 24 sq. or suspended by a string. fruit jars are required. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. but waxed. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. Schenectady. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. In each place two electrodes. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. giving it an occasional stir. In both Fig. the lid or cover closed. taking care to have all the edges closed. The top of a table will do. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. H. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. 1 and 2. Pour in a little turpentine. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. . 2. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. running small motors and lighting small lamps. and set aside for half a day. 1. in. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. one of lead and one of aluminum. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush.with small sticks. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. Crawford. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. Y. --Contributed by J. in. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration.

You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. as well as others. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. as you have held it all the time. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. which you warm with your hands. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. O. you remove the glass. You have an understanding with some one in the company. Cleveland. He. he throws the other. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. After a few seconds' time. This trick is very simple. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in..

The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. Crocker. on a table.take the handiest one. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. Be sure that this is the right one. but in making one. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. Colo. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. J. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. in diameter in the center. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. . Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. if any snags are encountered. near a partition or curtain. but by being careful at shores. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. Pull the ends quickly. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. Victor. so it will appear to be a part of the table top.-Contributed by E. put it under the glass. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint.

Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. thick and 3/4 in. 2 and braced with an iron band. 1 mast.. 3 in. by 2 in. 1 in. 3 in. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. 9 ft. and fastened with screws. The keelson. 1 piece. long. and is removed after the ribs are in place. 11 yd. 8 in. 2 gunwales. one 6 in. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. from each end to 1 in. of rope. by 8 in. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. Paint. for the stern piece. Fig. wide unbleached muslin. by 12 in. 50 ft. long. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . drilled and fastened with screws. 1 in. selected pine. from the bow and the large one. 1 in. wide. wide and 12 ft. at the ends. 4 outwales. 1/8 in. 14 rib bands. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. by 16 ft. from the stern. 7 ft. of 1-1/2-yd. of 1-yd. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. by 2 in. by 16 ft. long. and. 8 yd. long. 3 and 4. 1 piece. screws and cleats. wide and 12 ft.. square by 16 ft. 1. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. and the other 12 in. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. Both ends are mortised. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. for the bow. 1/4 in. wide 12-oz. 1 in. apart. by 15 ft. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. as illustrated in the engraving. are as follows: 1 keelson. for center deck braces. the smaller is placed 3 ft. ducking.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. by 10 ft. is 14 ft. for cockpit frame. 2 in. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. clear pine. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge.

also. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. A block of pine. long. is a cube having sides 6 in. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. 1/4 in. wide and 14 in. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. 6 in. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. long. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. . wide. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. length of canvas is cut in the center. This block. The deck is not so hard to do. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. A 6-in. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. 6. Fig. 7 and 8. A piece of oak. A seam should be made along the center piece. and fastened to them with bolts. in diameter through the block. from the bow. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. screws. Braces. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. a piece 1/4 in. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. thick and 12 in. thick 1-1/2 in.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. 6 and 7. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. The trimming is wood. corner braces. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. 5. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. wood screws. Before making the deck. thick. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. Figs. 9. thick. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. gunwales and keelson. Fig. wide. The 11-yd. 1 in. wide and 3 ft. They are 1 in. wide and 24 in. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. These are put in 6 in. The block is fastened to the keelson. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. 1 in. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. is cut to fit under the top boards. 3-1/2 ft. long. doubled. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. thick and 1/2 in. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. 4 in. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. long is well soaked in water. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. apart. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in.

11. 12. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. apart in the muslin. wide. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. wide at one end and 12 in. Tronnes. each 1 in. --Contributed by O. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. are used for the boom and gaff. The mast has two side and one front stay. A strip 1 in. Ill. The house will accommodate 20 families. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. is 6 in. The keel.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. Wilmette. long. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. Fig. 10 with a movable handle. at the other. . A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. long. The sail is a triangle. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. thick by 2 in. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. E. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. in diameter and 10 ft. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin.

1 yd. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. long. thick. Wilmette. flat headed screws. thick.into two 14-in. five 1/2-in. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. long and five 1/2-in. and 3 ft. wide. Bevel both sides of the pieces. 5. 4. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. wide and 2 ft. with the ends and the other side rounding. and the other 18 in. Take this and fold it over . The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. Fig. --Contributed by O. one 11-1/2 in. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. 1. flat-headed screws. 3. about 5/16 in. 2. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. Tronnes. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. long. wide and 30 in. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. thick. 2-1/2 in.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. 2 in. long. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. wide. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. Ill. flat on one side. 2-1/2 in. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. square. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. Cut the maple. E.

Wind three layers of about No. wide and 5 in. long. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. long. wide and 3 ft. 6-1/2 in. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. of each end unwound for connections. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. Bliss. Make a double stitch all around the edge. 1. thick. are rounded. Figs. Louis. --Contributed by W. this square box is well sandpapered. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. long. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory.once. thick. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. the mechanical parts can be put together. thick and 3 in. wide and 4-1/2 in. but can be governed by circumstances. 3 in. C. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. long. A. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. Fig. wide and 2-3/4 in. square. wide and 2-1/2 in. long. long. Mo. is set. wide . After the glue. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. About 1/2 in. long. about 3/8 in. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. When the glue is set. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. A. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. Glue a three cornered piece. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. and the four outside edges. soaked with water and blown up. and make a turn in each end of the wires. 2 and 3. the top and bottom. The bag is then turned inside out. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. Another piece. forming an eye for a screw. as well as the edges around the opening. then centered. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. wide and 6-3/4 in. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. wide and 6-1/2 in. St. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. 5 from 1/16-in. leaving a small opening at one corner. B. long. E. and take care that the pieces are all square. 3/8 in. F. D. If carefully and neatly made. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. The sides are 3-1/4 in. pieces 2-5/8 in. square. 1-1/4 in. C. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. 3-1/4 in. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. The front. Cut another piece of board.

--Contributed by George Heimroth. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. thick. hole is fastened to the pointer. I. G. so it will just clear the tin. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. L. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. Place the tin. The base is a board 5 in. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. W. from one end. Chapman. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. and as the part Fig.and 2-5/8 in. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. These wires should be about 1 in. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. Fig. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. C. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. and fasten in place.R. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. F. Another strip of tin. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. 4 is not movable. Richmond Hill. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose.S. and the farther apart they will be forced. Austwick Hall. long. 4.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. bored in the back. R. 1/4 in. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. A pointer 12 in. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . When the current flows through the coil. wide and 2-1/2 in. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. Yorkshire. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. 1/16 in. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. 5. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. 4. 5-1/2 in.A. The resistance is now adjusted to show . A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. the part carrying the pointer moves away. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. long. long. the same size as the first. from the spindle. in diameter. showing a greater defection of the pointer. board. wide and 9 in. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. that has the end turned with a shoulder. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. Like poles repel each other. Fig. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. The end of the polar axis B. The stronger the current. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle.

10 min. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. 10 min. 1881. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. thus: 9 hr. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. and vice .and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. M. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. say Venus at the date of observation. The following formula will show how this may be found. 30 min. shows mean siderial. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. A. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. at 9 hr. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21.

Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. . if one of these cannot be had. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon.f. --Contributed by Robert W. owing to the low internal resistance. New Haven. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. Hall. or. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid.m. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. and then verify its correctness by measurement. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. Conn. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. get a glazed vessel of similar construction.

One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. and heap the glowing coals on top. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. leaves or bark. of alum and 4 oz. The boring bar. inside diameter and about 5 in. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. Fig. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. arsenic to every 20 lb. especially for cooking fish. thick. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. as shown in the accompanying picture. long. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. 1-3/4 in. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. 3/8 in. put the fish among the ashes. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. cover up with the same. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. 1. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. Then. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. fresh grass. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. When the follower is screwed down. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . Wet paper will answer. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size.

when they were turned in. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. thick. pipe.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. and threaded on both ends. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. about 1/2 in. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . pipe. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. fastened with a pin.

however. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. 2. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. square iron. thick and 3 in. It . These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. 3. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. A 1-in. as the one illustrated herewith. This plate also supports the rocker arms. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. bent in the shape of a U. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. Fig. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. Iowa. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. The rough frame. labor and time. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. was then finished on an emery wheel. a jump spark would be much better. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. wide. Fig. If the valve keeps dripping. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. then it should be ground to a fit. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. the float is too high. 5. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. but never one which required so little material.valve stems. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. Clermont. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. long. and which gave such satisfactory results. 30 in. Fig. 4.

long is the pivot. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. The seats are regular swing boards. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. square and 2 ft. long. W. from the center. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. strengthened by a piece 4 in. A 3/4 -in." little and big. and. long. so it must be strong enough. hole bored in the post. from all over the neighborhood. extending above. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. with no trees or buildings in the way. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. It looks like a toy. If it is to be used for adults. A malleable iron bolt. no matter what your age or size may be. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. --Contributed by C. The crosspiece is 2 in. and a little junk. being held in position by spikes as shown. for the "motive power" to grasp." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. in the ground with 8 ft. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. This makes an easy adjustment. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. 3/4 in. The illustration largely explains itself. Use a heavy washer at the head. set 3 ft. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. butting against short stakes. Nieman. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. completes the merry-go-round. strong clear material only should be employed. 12 ft. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . square. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. in diameter and 15 in. in fact. long. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. As there is no bracing. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. timber. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. rope is not too heavy. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. square and 5 ft. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. so that there will be plenty of "wobble.

he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. These ends are placed about 14 in. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching.the fingers. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. away. Both have large reels full of .2 emery. one for the backbone and one for the bow. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. To wind the string upon the reel. square. 4. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. and sent to earth. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. then it is securely fastened. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. 1. if nothing better is at hand. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. and 18 in. long. Having placed the backbone in position. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. light and strong. A reel is next made. The bow is now bent. 2. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. 1/4 by 3/32 in. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. as shown in Fig. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. The backbone is flat. a wreck.

The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. Mass. or glass-covered string. --Contributed' by Harry S. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. common packing thread. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. Newburyport. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. N. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. often several hundred yards of it. Bunker. The handle end is held down with a staple.-Contributed by S. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. Y.string. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. If the second kite is close enough. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. First. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . the balance. C. Brooklyn. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. Moody. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. he pays out a large amount of string. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line.

Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. Vt. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. cutting the circular piece into quarters. must be attached to a 3-ft. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. such as mill men use. square (Fig.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. lengths (Fig. If the table is round. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. then draw the string up tight. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. each the size of half the table top. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . Cut four pieces of canton flannel. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. --Contributed by Earl R. length of 2-in. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. Hastings. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. Corinth. then a dust protector. make the pad as shown in the illustration. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table.

and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. G to H. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. 6-1/4 in.. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work.. Calif. 17-1/2 in.-Contributed by H. hard pencil. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. 2-1/4 in. . which spoils the leather effect. Moisten the . 16-1/4 in. E. Wharton. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. trace the design carefully on the leather. Oakland. Use a smooth. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. from C to D. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. and E to G. from E to F.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side.9-1/4 in..

Cut it the same size as the bag. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. and lace through the holes. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. Now cut narrow thongs. I made this motor . H-B. with the rounded sides of the tools. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. Trace the openings for the handles. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. place both together and with a leather punch. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. G-J. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. about 1/8 in. apart. if not more than 1 in. To complete the bag. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. get something with which to make a lining. and corresponding lines on the other side. wide. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. is taken off at a time. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. and E-G. also lines A-G.

as shown in Fig. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. B. 1. . The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. of No. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft.M. in length. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. Calif. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. 2-1/4 in. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. Pasadena. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. iron. Shannon. 24 gauge magnet wire. 1. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. long. --Contributed by J. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. D. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. 2. each being a half circle.

Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. are the best kind to make. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. pasted in alternately. The widest part of each gore is 16 in.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. high. balloon should be about 8 ft. from the bottom end. The gores for a 6-ft. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. 1. and the gores cut from these. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. near the center. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon.

E. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. using about 1/2-in. The boat soon attains considerable speed. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. After washing. In starting the balloon on its flight. Fig. --Contributed by R. in diameter. B. The steam. leaving the solution on over night. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. If the gores have been put together right. lap on the edges. In removing grease from wood. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . These are to hold the wick ball. A. 3. so it will hang as shown in Fig. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. as shown in Fig. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. 2. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. As the boat is driven forward by this force. after which the paint will adhere permanently. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig.widest point. 1. as shown in Fig. 5. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. saturating it thoroughly. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. somewhat larger in size. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. 4. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. coming through the small pipe A. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. leaving a long wake behind. Staunton. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily.

The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. in bowling form. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. 1. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . apart on these lines. wide by 6 in. long and each provided with a handle. Second.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. In using either of the two methods described. as is shown in Fig. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. if you have several copies of the photograph. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. long. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. high and 8 in. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. There are three ways of doing this: First. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. The blocks are about 6 in. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. Third.

Albany. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. N. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. Y. not pointed down at the road at an angle. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. Fig. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. being careful not to dent the metal. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. Rinse the plate in cold water. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. 2. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal.Fig. thick. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. Hellwig. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. --Contributed by John A. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque.

S. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. In Fig. thick. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it.upon any particular object. A. 1 Fig. long for the base. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. are screwed to the circular piece. with a set screw. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. B. which is 4 in. and not produce the right sound. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. Va. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. Richmond. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. Break off the frame. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . Paine. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. wide and 8 in. wide and of any desired height. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. and. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. is fastened to a common camera tripod. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. These corner irons are also screwed to. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. With this device. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. 5 in. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. in diameter. CC. A. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. 6 in. 2 the front view. and Fig. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. --Contributed by R. Corner irons. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. A circular piece of wood. through which passes the set screw S.

it can be mounted on the inside of the can. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. pine boards. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. This horn. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. Ill. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. in diameter of some 1-in. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. . D. -1. thus producing sound waves. R. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. This will make a very compact electric horn. Kidder. as only the can is visible. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. S. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. I made a wheel 26 in. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. Lake Preston. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. La Salle.

The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. Fig. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. If there is a large collection of coins. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. 2. The frame is made of a heavy card. --Contributed by C. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. --Contributed by James R. 1. 1. Doylestown. the same thickness as the coins. A. Purdy. If the collection consists of only a few coins. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. square. thick and 12 in. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. Kane. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. O. Feet may be added to the base if desired. The drawers can be taken out and turned over.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. B. Ghent.

Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. though not absolutely necessary. --Contributed by R. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. thick. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. If desired. Cal. Toronto. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. --Contributed by August T. Wis. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch.J. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. melted and applied with a brush. One Cloud. It will hold 4 oz. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. several large nails. they become uninteresting. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. Neyer. and then glued together as indicated. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. a hammer or mallet. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. --Contributed by J. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. border all around. plus a 3/8-in. cut and grooved. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. A rivet punch is desirable. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. of developer. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. Smith. into which to place the screws . The material required is a sheet of No. Milwaukee. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. for after the slides have been shown a few times. Noble.E. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. A lead pencil. Canada. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film.

that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. Remove the screws. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. and file it to a chisel edge. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. screws placed about 1 in. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. using 1/2-in. both outline and decoration. never upon the metal directly. There are several ways of working up the design. like the one shown. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. draw one part. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. Take the nail. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. Punch rivet holes in holder and band.

long.wall. square and 181/2 in. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. in the other. 2. . Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. Rivet the band to the holder. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. and two lengths. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. Do not bend it over or flatten it. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. up from the lower end. as shown in Fig. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. Provide four lengths for the legs. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. each 1 in. square. square and 11 in. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. About 1/2 yd. of 11-in. 1. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. long. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. long. The pedal. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. for the lower rails. being ball bearing. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. l-1/8 in. 3. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. for the top. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. two lengths. using a 1/2in. 3/4 in.

--Contributed by John Shahan. F. Attalla. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. --Contributed by W. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. New York City. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. Quackenbush. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. having quite a length of threads. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. Ala.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection.

and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. college or lodge colors. initial. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. wide and 8-1/4 in. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied .This novelty watch fob is made from felt. the end of the other piece is folded over. D. long. making a lap of about 1 in. Ironwood. each 1-1/4 in. The desired emblem. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. Mich. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. wide and 4-1/4 in. and two holes in the other. and 3/8 in. --Contributed by C. Assemble as shown in the sketch. long. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. stitched on both edges for appearance.. long. one about 1 in. Two pieces of felt. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. from one end. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. and the other 2-3/4 in. in depth. using class. Luther. something that is carbonated. Purchase a 1/2-in. from the end. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class.

Punch two holes A. about 2 in. as shown at B. or more in height. which can be procured from a plumber.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. 1/4 in. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. Fig. A piece of lead. from the center and opposite each other. as shown in the sketch. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. Ind. in the cover and the bottom. This method allows a wide range of designs. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. or a pasteboard box. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. if desired by the operator. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. 1. 2. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. in diameter and 2 in. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . Indianapolis. and the cork will be driven out. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. --Contributed by John H. Schatz.

O. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. 1. The pieces of tin between the holes A. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. Fig. it winds up the rubber band. 4. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. .Rolling Can Toy lead. metal. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. as shown in Fig. on both top and bottom. 3. and the ends of the bands looped over them. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. allowing the two ends to be free. or marble will serve. are turned up as in Fig. A piece of thick glass. putting in the design. Columbus. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. 5. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. When the can is rolled away from you. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in.

allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. The edges should be about 1/8 in. from each end. face up. long and bored a 1/2-in. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. 3 in. thick. and. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. deep in its face. thicker than the pinion. If it is desired to "line" the inside. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. hole through it. 1 in. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. Next place the leather on the glass. or more thick on each side. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. I secured a board 3/4 in. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. wide and 20 in. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. After this has been done. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. A pencil may be used the first time over. New York City. mark over the design. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire.

The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. 4 guides. 1 piece for clamp. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. 1 top board. 2 end rails. countersinking the heads of the vise end. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . M. 2 by 2 by 18 in. 1 by 9 by 80 in. --Contributed by A. Brooklyn. 1 back board. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. thick top board. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. 2. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. New York. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. 2 crosspieces. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. and fit it in place for the side vise. 3 by 3 by 20 in. Fig. 1 by 12 by 77 in. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. 1 top board. 2 by 12 by 77 in. Syracuse. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. N. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. in diameter. 1 piece. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. Y. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. 2 side rails. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. Cut the 2-in. 1 piece for clamp. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. Now fit up the two clamps. 3 by 3 by 36. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. much of the hard labor will be saved. pieces for the vise slides. lag screws as shown. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. 1 screw block. Make the lower frame first. 1. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. Rice. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in.in the board into the bench top. 3 by 3 by 6 in. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in.

They can be purchased at a hardware store. 1 monkey wrench. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted.screws. 1 bench plane or jointer.. 1 set chisels. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. 24 in. 2 screwdrivers. 1 wood scraper. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. 24 in. 1 marking gauge. 1 pocket level. 1 compass saw. 1 2-ft. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. If each tool is kept in a certain place.. it can be easily found when wanted. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. rule. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view.. 1 nail set. The bench is now complete. . Only the long run. 1 cross cut saw. 1 brace and set of bits. The amateur workman. 1 countersink. 3 and 6 in. 1 jack plane or smoother. 1 claw hammer. 1 pair pliers. as well as the pattern maker. 1 rip saw. 1 set gimlets. in diameter. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. 1 pair dividers.

Fig. will sink into the handle as shown at D. 1 oilstone. being softer. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. will be easier to work. after constant use. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. 2. Fig.1. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. Fig. Fig. becomes like A. Pa. the projecting point A. but will not make . 3. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. Doylestown. The calf skin.1 6-in. Kane. 1. No. try square. 2 and 00 sandpaper. 1. ---Contributed by James M.

Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. will do just as well. when dry. then prepare the leather. After the outlines are traced. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. which steam. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. . cover it completely with water enamel and. First draw the design on paper. and the length 6-5/8 in. but a V-shaped nut pick. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. White. secure a piece of modeling calf. Two pieces will be required of this size. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. such as copper or brass. the same method of treatment is used. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. -Contributed by Julia A. The form can be made of a stick of wood. water or heat will not affect. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. lay the design on the face.as rigid a case as the cow skin. If cow hide is preferred. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. Turn the leather. New York City. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. If calf skin is to be used. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. Having prepared the two sides.

New York City.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. Herrman. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. . and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. Richmond. --Contributed by W. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. Cal. A. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. C. --Contributed by Chas. --Contributed by Chester L. Jaquythe. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. Cobb. Portland. and an adjustable friction-held loop. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. Maine. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. as shown in the sketch.

was marked out as shown. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. A thick piece of tin. This was very difficult.. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. Wright. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. Cambridge. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. an inverted stewpan. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. for instance. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. Conn. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. . in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. Roberts. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. --Contributed by Wm. Mass. --Contributed by Geo. B. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. Middletown.

Chicago. as shown. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. Bone. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. There was no quicklime to be had. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. of boiling water. Indianapolis.. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. on a clear piece of glass. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. F. face down. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. If any traces of the grease are left. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. The next morning there was no trace of oil. --Contributed by C. and the grease will disappear. such as chair seats. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. Illinois. and quite new. When dry. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. . pulverized and applied. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. used as part of furniture. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. but only an odor which soon vanished. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. but not running over. well calcined and powdered. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. Ind. L. --Contributed by Paul Keller. apply powdered calcined magnesia. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. Herbert. so some bones were quickly calcined. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. A beautifully bound book. If the article is highly polished. which has been tried out several times with success.

A. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. says Scientific American. New York. thick. The pieces marked S are single. This coaster is simple and easy to make. high and are bolted to a block of wood. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. soft steel with the opening 6 in.. 2 in. the pieces . How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. Tarrytown.. Howe. 6 in. wide and 12 in. If properly adjusted. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. --Contributed by Geo. long. deep and 5 in. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. set and thumbscrews.

says Camera Craft. no doubt. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. for sending to friends. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. A sharp knife. they will look remarkably uniform. E. albums and the like. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. to the underside of which is a block. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. Their size depends on the plate used.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. If the letters are all cut the same height. The seat is a board. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters.

What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. for example. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. The puzzle is to get . and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. using care to get it in the right position. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. mount them on short pieces of corks. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. and. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. So arranged. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. In cutting out an 0. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. pasting the prints on some thin card. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. photographing them down to the desired size. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. after. So made.

squeezes along past the center of the tube. N. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. A hole 6 or 7 in. long that will just fit are set in.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . the tube righting itself at once for another catch. Bayley. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. says the American Thresherman. He smells the bait.-Contributed by I. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. G. hung on pivots. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. snow or anything to hide it.J. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. with the longest end outside.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. so they will lie horizontal. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. of its top. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. Old-Time Magic . Cape May Point. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week.

--Contributed by Charles Graham. --Contributed by L. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. N. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole.faced up. Pocatello. Szerlip. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. then spread the string. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . Dry the stamps between two white blotters. --Contributed by L. then expose again. Y. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. Brooklyn. Press the hands together. or rub the hands a little before doing so. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. E. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. Idaho. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. Rhode Island. Parker. Pawtucket. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it.

2 Fig. they will look very much like the genuine article. if any. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. 3 Fig. near the point end. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. When the whole is quite dry. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. whether he requires a single sword only. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. full size. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make.. dark red. wide and 2 in. When the glue is thoroughly dry. wipe the blade . Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. end of the blade. narrower. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. 1. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. 4 on the blade. thick. in building up his work from the illustrations. Glue the other side of the blade. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. The blade should be about 27 in. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. using a straightedge and a pencil. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. or green oil paint. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. in width. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. or a complete suit of armor. long. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. 1 Fig. The handle is next made. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. The pieces.. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. and if carefully made. says the English Mechanic.Genuine antique swords and armor. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle.

The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. 2. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. 3. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. 1. in diameter. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. 1. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in.. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. 1/8 in. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. 2. preferably of contrasting colors. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. Both edges of the blade are sharp. the length of the blade 28 in. should be about 9 in. square and of any length desired. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. 4. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig.with light strokes up and down several times. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. The length of the handle. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. In the finished piece. and 3 in. take two pieces of wood. 1. shows only two sides. as it is . thick and 5 in. not for use only in cases of tableaux. allowing for a good hold with both hands. the other is flat or half-round. 3. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. long. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig.. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. This sword is about 68 in. follow the directions as for Fig. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. In making this scimitar. the illustration. about 1-1/2 in. of course. the other is flat or halfround. Fig. the other two are identical. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. In making. in the widest part at the lower end. 1. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood.

The thinness of the plank. --Contributed by Katharine D. Both can be made easily. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. It is made of a plank. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. each about 1 ft. N. however. piping and jackets by hard water. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. Franklin. On each edge of the board. Morse. Syracuse. and if so.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. Mass. 2 in. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. Doctors probed for the button without success. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. and. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. at the lower end. as there was some at hand. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. --Contributed by John Blake. A cold . long. about 3/8 in. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. or an insecure fastening. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. as shown in the sketch. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. A piece of mild steel. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. in an attempt to remove it. square. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. as can the pitch bed or block. Y.

Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. on the pitch. To put it in another way. 5 lb. tallow.. using a small metal saw. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. Trim up the edges and file them . design down. When the desired form has been obtained. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. 5 lb. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. plaster of Paris. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. secure a piece of brass of about No. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. When this has been done. 18 gauge. To remedy this.. a file to reduce the ends to shape. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again.

30 ft. it may be well to know what horsepower means.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. --Contributed by Harold H. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. 1) and the other 12 in. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. lb. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. in diameter (Fig.smooth. That is lifting 33. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. living together in what seems like one receptacle. Cutter. one 18 in. in diameter (Fig. 1 ft. lb. per second. or fraction of a horsepower. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. or 550 ft. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. and still revolve. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. This in turn divided by 33. over the smaller vessel. in one second. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. Fig.000 ft. which divided by 1/6 gives 180.000 lb. per minute. Fill the 3-in. 3. . Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. 2). Clean the metal thoroughly. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. and hang a bird swing. in one minute or 550 lb. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. in the center. to keep it from floating. using powdered pumice with lye.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. space between the vessels with water. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. make an unusual show window attraction. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. 1 ft. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. Before giving the description. The smaller is placed within the larger. but not to stop it. A.

A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. Y.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. --Contributed. Mass. Szerlip. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. Brooklyn. Somerville. Diameter 12 in.3 Fig.18 in. or on a pedestal. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. Campbell. F. Diameter Fig. --Contributed by J. 1 Fig. The effect is surprising. 2 Fig. by L. N.

Trim the sharp corners off slightly. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. unsatisfactory. and then. the same as removing writing from a slate. then by drawing a straightedge over it. and cut out the shape with the shears. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. as a rule. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. Polish both of these pieces. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. with other defects. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. This compound is impervious to water. often render it useless after a few months service. Rivet the cup to the base. keeping the center high. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. Do not be content merely to bend them over. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. with the pliers. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. which may be of wood or tin. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. away from the edge. is. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. In riveting. using any of the common metal polishes. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. to keep the metal from tarnishing. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. which. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter.copper of No. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. and the clay . after which it is ready for use. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed.

--Contributed by A. Dunlop. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. The siphon is made of glass tubes. Grand Rapids. 3/4 in. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. Mich. long. . in diameter and 5 in. as shown in Fig. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. Houghton.can be pressed back and leveled. the device will work for an indefinite time. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. It is made of a glass tube. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. A. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. DeLoof. --Contributed by John T. Mich. -Contributed by Thos. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. Shettleston. 2. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. Scotland. 1. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. Northville.

stilettos and battle-axes. put up as ornaments. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. 1.FIG. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. long with the crossguard and blade of steel.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. London. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. As the handle is to . thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. in width and 2 in. This sword is 4 ft. long.1 FIG. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic.

Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. paint it a dark brown or black. When the glue is thoroughly dry. 20 spike. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. wood with a keyhole saw. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. In Fig. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. 3 is shown a claymore. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. the same as used on the end of the handle. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. is shown in Fig. This weapon is about 1 ft. 9. When dry. firmly glued on. string. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. the axe is of steel. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. one about 1/2 in. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. 11 were used. This weapon is also about 1 ft. In Fig. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. The handle is of wood. Cut two strips of tinfoil. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. The lower half of the handle is of wood. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil.represent copper. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. This sword is about 4 ft. long with a dark handle of wood. The crossbar and blade are steel. small rope and round-headed nails. This axe is made similar to the one . 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. the upper part iron or steel. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. Three large. with wire or string' bound handle. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. glue and put it in place. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. with both edges sharp. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. 5. When the whole is quite dry. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. in width. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. with both edges of the blade sharp. sharp edges on both sides. narrower. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. The sword shown in Fig. sometimes called cuirass breakers. These must be cut from pieces of wood. 7. very broad. The ball is made as described in Fig. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. in length. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. then glued on the blade as shown. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. In Fig. in length. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. studded with brass or steel nails. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. 6. long. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. This stiletto has a wood handle. 8. A German poniard is shown in Fig. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. 4. which is about 2-1/2 ft. Both handle and axe are of steel. A German stiletto. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end.

1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. W. Chicago.described in Fig. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. This will make a very good flexible belt. such as braided fishline. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. Old-Time Magic . Davis. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. .The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. high. so the contents cannot be seen. the ends are tied and cut off. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. --Contributed by E. 10. 2. When wrapped all the way around. will pull where other belts slip. together as shown in Fig.

Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. These wires are put in the jar. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. Calif.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. --Contributed by A.J. about one-third the way down from the top. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. apparently. Bridgeton. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. As zinc is much lighter than iron. Before the performance. Macdonald. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. N. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. held in the right hand. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. There will be no change in color. some of the liquid. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. To make the flowers grow in an instant. S. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. filled with water. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. causing the flowers to grow. Oakland. with the circle centrally located. 2. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. an acid. 1 and put together as in Fig. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. or using small wedges of wood. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. The dotted lines in Fig. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. four glass tumblers. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. in a few seconds' time.

which are numbered for convenience in working. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . says a correspondent of Photo Era. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. 4 for width and No. not only because of the fact just mentioned. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. Richmond. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. unless some special device is used. 2 for height. This outlines the desired opening. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. Jaquythe. and equally worthy of individual treatment. If the size wanted is No. When many slides are to be masked. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. A. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. Cal. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. and kept ready for use at any time. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. practical and costs nothing. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. --Contributed by W.

depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. or. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. using the carbon paper. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. Draw a design. possibly. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. may be changed. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. is about right for the No. or a pair of old tongs. too. paint the design. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. The decoration. and do not inhale the fumes. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. When etched to the desired depth. and the extreme length 7 in. not the water into the acid. The one shown is merely suggestive. which is dangerous. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. a little less acid than water. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. but they can be easily revived. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. the margin and the entire back of the metal. With a stick. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. the paper is folded along the center line. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. 16 gauge. Secure a sheet of No. about half and half. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. This done.

24 parts water. J is another wire attached in the same way. as in Fig. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. or more wide. Fig. Fig. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. The connections are simple: I. 2. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. about 1 in. 3/8 in. about 3 ft. in diameter and 1/4 in. attached to a post at each end. and about 2-1/2 ft. Paint the table any color desired. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. thick. A. it will touch post F. 5. Nail a board. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. It may be either nailed or screwed down. 5. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. Nail or screw the buttons to the table.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. long. Then get two posts. 2. high. wide. as shown in the illustration. repeat as many times as is necessary. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. 1. about 2-1/2 in. as at H. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. with the wires underneath. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. 2. Fig. When the button S is pressed. Fig. 4. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. so that when it is pressed down. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. . Cut out a piece of tin. 0 indicates the batteries. about 8 in. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. Fig. and bore two holes. 3. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. wide and of the same length as the table. the bell will ring. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. through it. as shown in Fig. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. to the table. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. long and 1 ft. C and D.

the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. The circle is marked out with a compass. such as . A wood peg about 2 in. thick. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. long. The entire weapon. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. This weapon is about 22 in. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. These rings can be carved out. but they are somewhat difficult to make.. 1. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. is to appear as steel. long serves as the dowel. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. says the English Mechanic. 2. the wood peg inserted in one of them. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. After the glue is dry.Imitation Arms and Armor . the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. handle and all. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. The imitation articles are made of wood.

The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. The upper half of the handle is steel. covered with red velvet. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. as before mentioned. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. 6. 8. The spikes are cut out of wood. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. The lower half of the handle is wood. long. with a sharp carving tool. as shown. 5. leaves. studded with large brass or steel nails. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. This weapon is about 22 in. 3. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. the hammer and spike. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig.ornamental scrolls. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. . is shown in Fig. or the amateur cannot use it well. The entire handle should be made of one piece. 2. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. as described in Fig. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. All of these axes are about the same length. etc. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. If such a tool is not at hand. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. used at the end of the fifteenth century. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. also. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. The handle is of wood. The axe is shown in steel. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. Its length is about 3 ft. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. The handle is of steel imitation. flowers.

then the other plays. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. The knife falling on its side (Fig. 6. 2. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. and so on for nine innings. . 4). as in Fig.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. 5. 1. Fig. the knife resting on its back. a three-base hit. Chicago. calls for a home run. as shown in Fig. 3. 7) calls for one out. Each person plays until three outs have been made. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position.

Campbell. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. 1. F. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. 3. while the committee is tying him up. as shown in Fig. This he does. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. It may be found that the negative is not colored. of water for an hour or two. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. of the rope and holds it. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. as shown in Fig. Mass.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. with the rope laced in the cloth. Somerville.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative.-Contributed by J. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. If it is spotted at all. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. 2. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. Old-Time Magic . hypo to 1 pt. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. one of them burning . He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup.

turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. thick. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. 4 oz. Ky. of plumbago. B. Lebanon. thus causing it to light. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. of turpentine. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. Brown. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush.brightly.Contributed by Andrew G. Ky. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. bolt. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. Thome. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. Evans. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. . shades the light for a few seconds. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. --Contributed by L. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. and. the other without a light. invisible to them (the audience). 3/4 in.. Drill Gauge screw. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. Louisville. of sugar. showing that there is nothing between them. --Contributed by C. New York City. of water and 1 oz. He then walks over to the other candle. etc. 4 oz. The magician walks over to the burning candle. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. with which he is going to light the other candle. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern.

The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. thick. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. Y. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. about 5 in. for the material. long. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. diameter. Denniston. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. N. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. Do not add water to the acid. In making up the solution. Pulteney. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. Its current strength is about one volt. To make the porous cell. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. H. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. steady current. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. --Contributed by C. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. into a tube of several thicknesses. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. but is not so good. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. or blotting paper. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. which will give a strong. 5 in. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current.

The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. steel.station. one drawing them together. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. but somewhat lighter. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. carrying the hour circle at one end. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. steel. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. the other holding them apart. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. a positive adjustment was provided. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame.) may be obtained. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. while the other end is attached by two screws. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. To insure this. As to thickness. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. One hole was bored as well as possible. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. steel. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. After much experimentation with bearings. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. Finally. The . any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. long with a bearing at each end. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made.

are tightened. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. in each direction from two points 180 deg. Set the declination circle to its reading. The pole is 1 deg. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. once carefully made. save the one in the pipe. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. The aperture should be 1/4 in." When this is done. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. Point it approximately to the north star. turn the pointer to the star.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. Declination is read directly. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial.. subtract 24. When properly set it will describe a great circle. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. need not be changed. To locate a known star on the map. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. All set screws. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. The pointer is directed to Alpha. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. and if it is not again directed to the same point. Instead. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground ." Only a rough setting is necessary. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. apart. If the result is more than 24 hours. Cassiopiae. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. To find a star in the heavens. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. is provided with this adjustment. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. 45 min. and 15 min. Each shaft.. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. All these adjustments. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. It is. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. excepting those on the declination axis.

add a little more benzole. -Contributed by Ray E. benzole. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. is the real cannon ball. Plain City. In reality the first ball. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. then add 1 2-3 dr. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. Strosnider. is folded several times. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. New Orleans. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. a great effect will be produced. La. Ohio. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. If this will be too transparent. The ball is found to be the genuine article. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. of ether. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. taking care not to add too much.. as shown in the sketch. the others . 3 or 4 in. long. The dance will begin. which is the one examined. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. cannon balls.

and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. as shown in the illustration. Milwaukee. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. F. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. taps. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. 2. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. without taking up any great amount of space. Cal. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. --Contributed by J. Return the card to the pack. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. In boxes having a sliding cover. Wis. Fig. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. etc. Somerville.. Campbell. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. San Francisco.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. Mass. small brooches. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. 1).

Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. Hartford. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. round pieces 2-1/4 in. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. This box has done good service. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. thus giving ample store room for colors. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. . Beller. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. prints. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. Connecticut. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. slides and extra brushes. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. as shown in the illustration. from the bottom of the box.

the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. Mass. costing 5 cents. holes in the bottom of one. When the ends are turned under. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. -Contributed by C. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. or placed against a wall.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. about threefourths full. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. with well packed horse manure. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. tacking the gauze well at the corners. FIG. . and pour water on it until it is well soaked. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. Darke. 2). 1). then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. will answer the purpose. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. West Lynn. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. Fill the upper tub. O. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture.

The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. If plugs are found in any of the holes.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. Chicago. oil or other fluid. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. If the following directions are carried out. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. when they are raised from the pan. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. if this is not available. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. cutting the cane between the holes. M. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. they should be knocked out. Eifel. --Contributed by L. and each bundle contains .

down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. as it must be removed again.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. put about 3 or 4 in. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. and. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. held there by inserting another plug. 1. No plugs . First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. In addition to the cane. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. it should be held by a plug. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. then across and down. after having been pulled tight. as shown in Fig. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. a square pointed wedge.

This will make three layers. in this case) times the . put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. as it always equals the latitude of the place. 1 lat. for 2°. 42° is 4. using the same holes as for the first layer. R.42 in. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. and for lat. trim off the surplus rosin.= 4. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. the height of the line BC. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. as the height of the line BC for lat. 40°. If you have a table of natural functions. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. Fig. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. When cool. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. 5. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. From table No. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. The style or gnomon. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break.075 in. 41 °-30'. 4.075 in. If handled with a little care. the height of which is taken from table No. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. It consists of a flat circular table. we have 4. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. 3. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. -Contributed by E.2+. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB.3 in. is the horizontal dial. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. is the base (5 in. Their difference is . For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . the next smallest. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. 1. 1. or the style.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. After completing the second layer. 41°-30'. During the weaving. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. Patrick. as shown in Fig.15 in. There are several different designs of sundials. W. 1. and for 1° it would be . long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. lat. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. D.5 in. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. Michigan. called the gnomon. stretch the third one. as for example. as shown in Fig. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. Even with this lubrication. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. 5 in. and the one we shall describe in this article. 3.15+. --Contributed by M.2 in. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. it is 4. No weaving has been done up to this time. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. but the most common. Fig. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. All added to the lesser or 40°. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. Detroit.

tangent of the degree of latitude.66 48° 5.07 4. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2.40 34° 3.23 6. and perpendicular to the base or style.82 3.55 46° 5.19 1.37 5. or more. draw two parallel lines AB and CD.81 4.50 26° 2. long. an inch or two. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial.93 2. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style.97 5 7 4.89 50° 5. Its thickness.82 5.42 .12 52° 6. Chords in inches for a 10 in.41 38° 3. 2.66 1.55 4.87 1.64 4 8 3.27 2.33 42° 4. using the points A and C as centers.46 . The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed.02 1.55 30° 2. if of metal. with a radius of 5 in. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 .30 2. and intersecting the semicircles.33 .39 .16 1.88 36° 3. 1.32 6.59 2.06 2. gives the 6 o'clock points.55 5.93 6.94 1. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in. For latitudes not given.03 3.42 1. Fig.20 60° 8.37 54° 6.57 1. which will represent the base in length and thickness.28 .40 1.77 2.18 28° 2.46 3.63 56° 7.14 5. Height of stile in inches for a 5in. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in.82 2.29 4-30 7-30 3.26 4.49 30 . and for this size dial (10 in.85 35 .66 latitude.68 5-30 6-30 5. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight.99 2. 2 for given latitudes. . To layout the hour circle. circle Sundial.87 4.00 40° 4. or if of stone.56 . and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No. according to the size of the dial.57 3.49 3.85 1. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks.30 1. base.11 3.10 6.91 58° 8. Draw the line AD. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown. Table NO. Draw two semi-circles.42 45 .38 .76 1.44 44° 4. 2. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points.83 27° 2.16 40 .96 32° 3. A line EF drawn through the points A and C. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No.79 4.

after allowing for the declination.50 55 .68 3. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds. April 16. As they are the genuine reproductions.46 4.21 2. London.14 1.add those marked + subtract those Marked . 2 and Dec. 900 Chicago. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen.12 5. adding to each piece interest and value. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the .77 3. E.10 4.87 6. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No.34 5. Sun time to local mean time. it will be faster.93 6. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon.72 5.54 60 . --Contributed by J.63 1.60 4. Sept. 3. 25.means that the dial is faster than the sun. each article can be labelled with the name.57 1. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached. This correction can be added to the values in table No. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid..08 1. will enable one to set the dial.from Sundial lime.49 5.52 Table No.82 3. and the .30 2. The + means that the clock is faster. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York.50 . Mitchell. if west. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face. and on these dates the dial needs no correction. says the English Mechanic. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.79 6.24 5. Iowa.89 3. then the watch is slower.71 2. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole.49 3. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco. An ordinary compass. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3.37 2. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time. June 15. and for the difference between standard and local time. Sioux City. 3 Corrections in minutes to change. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15.98 4.01 1.06 2.46 5. Each weapon is cut from wood. 3.19 2.53 1.

Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. the length of which is about 5 ft. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. When putting on the tinfoil. Partisan. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. . 3. 1. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel.. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in.

Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. .which is square. It is about 6 ft. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. is shown in Fig. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. The length of this bar is about 5 in. the holes being about 1/4 in. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. long with a round staff or handle. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. 6 ft. The spear is steel. about 4 in. sharp on the outer edges. The extreme length is 9 ft. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. 8. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. 7. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails.. long with a round wooden handle. long. long. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. The edges are sharp. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. used about the seventeenth century. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. This weapon is about 6 ft. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. press it well into the carved depressions. A gisarm or glaive. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. 5. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. in diameter. which are a part of the axe.

The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. In Figs. 5. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. They can be made of various materials. are less durable and will quickly show wear. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. B.-Contributed by R. are put in place. Workman. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. or in holes punched in a leather strap. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. 2 and 3. The twisted cross cords should . 1. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. H. the cross cords. apart. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. Loudonville. as shown in Fig. This is important to secure neatness. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. Cut all the cords the same length. the most durable being bamboo. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. Ohio. Substances such as straw. 4. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. used for spacing and binding the whole together. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere.

La. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. bamboo or rolled paper. below the top to within 1/4 in. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. Four V-shaped notches were cut. New York. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. M. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing.be of such material. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. New Orleans. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. 3 in. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. in which was placed a piece of glass. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. Lockport. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. A slit was cut in the bottom. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. wide. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . The first design shown is for using bamboo. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. To remedy this. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. This was turned over the top of the other can. Harrer. -Contributed by Geo. as shown at B. of the bottom. for a length extending from a point 2 in. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. shaped as shown at C.

After this is finished. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. Shay. Schaffner. Maywood. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. is shown in the accompanying sketch. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. Cal. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. giving the appearance of hammered brass. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. --Contributed by W. Y. and two along the side for attaching the staff. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. This should be done gradually. This plank. --Contributed by Joseph H. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. do not throw away the gloves. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. Sanford. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . H. the brass is loosened from the block. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. Pasadena. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper.tape from sticking to the carpet. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. turned over but not fastened. about 1/16 in. Newburgh. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. It would be well to polish the brass at first. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. wide. Ill. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. --Contributed by Chas. N.

This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. Jaquythe. in diameter. bent as shown. Oak Park. K. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. Unlike most clocks. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. A. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. Richmond. -Contributed by W. Marshall. Cal. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. the pendulum swings .by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. --E. Ill.

B. by 1-5/16 in. C. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. says the Scientific American. away. about 12 in. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. 7-1/2 in. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. Metzech. bar. high and 1/4 in. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. wide. only have the opposite side up. and the other two 2-5/8 in. Two uprights. high. Fasten another board. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight.. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. Secure a board. 5/16 in. . Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. Chicago. In using this method. about 6 in. long and at each side of this. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. the center one being 2-3/4 in. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. 3/4 in. high. Now place the board to be joined. to the first one with screws or glue. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. such as this one. in diameter. is an electromagnet. are secured in the base bar. thick. high. --Contributed by V. A. bearing on the latter. The construction is very simple. wide that is perfectly flat. on the board B. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. 6 in.

A tray for developing 5 by 7-in.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. Pa. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. 1. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. The trigger. square. Fig. 2. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. 1. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. 3. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. 4. 1. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. Fig. as shown at A. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. long. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. square inside. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. whose dimensions are given in Fig. or more. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. plates should be made 8 in. wide and 5 in. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. wide and 1 in. . by driving a pin through the wood. from one end. is fastened in the hole A. --Contributed by Elmer A. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. Vanderslice. Phoenixville.

one-half the length of the side pieces. which allows 1/4 in. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. -Contributed by J. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. as shown in the illustration. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. rubbing varnish and turpentine. Ohio.A. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. 2 parts of whiting. by weight. Fostoria. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. Simonis. if only two bands are put in the . square. 5 parts of black filler. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin.

8 in. DeLoof. A mirror. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. is set at an angle of 45 deg. 1. London. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. preferably copper. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. which may be either of ground or plain glass. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. as shown in Fig. says the English Mechanic. Shaw. G. in the opposite end of the box. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. and it may be made as a model or full sized. In constructing helmets. II. In use. If a plain glass is used. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. is necessary. Mass. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. place tracing paper on its surface. Michigan. --Contributed by Thos. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. Dartmouth. wide and about 1 ft. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. long. Grand Rapids. and the picture can be drawn as described. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. If you wish to make a pencil drawing.lower strings. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. A piece of metal. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. keeps the strong light out when sketching. -Contributed by Abner B. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. deep. A double convex lens. No. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. It must be kept moist and well .

give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. Scraps of thin. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. 3. 1. 2. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. the clay model oiled. or some thin glue. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. a few clay-modeling tools.kneaded. as shown in Fig. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. shown in Fig. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . The clay. and left over night to soak. take. This being done. on which to place the clay. and over the crest on top. 1. joined closely together. with a keyhole saw. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. will be necessary. All being ready. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. and the deft use of the fingers. as in bas-relief. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. brown. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. After the clay model is finished. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. and continue until the clay is completely covered. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion.

A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. a few lines running down. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. Before taking it off the model. Indiana. then another coating of glue. In Fig. --Contributed by Paul Keller. the piecing could not be detected. In Fig. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. 5. Indianapolis. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. which should be no difficult matter. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. This contrivance should be made of wood. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. as shown: in the design. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. one for each side. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. and the ear guards in two pieces. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. the skullcap. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. with the exception of the vizor. square in shape. and so on. as seen in the other part of the sketch. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. The band is decorated with brass studs. The whole helmet. 9.as possible. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. owing to the clay being oiled. 1. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. should be modeled and made in one piece. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. When the helmet is off the model. When perfectly dry. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . a crest on top. 7. They are all covered with tinfoil. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. The center of the ear guards are perforated. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. will make it look neat. or. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. When dry. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable.

screws. about 80 ft. 3 in. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . above the collar. 4. and. AA. 4. 1. the holes leading to the switch. If a neat appearance is desired. for connections. A round collar of galvanized iron. Fig. 2. until it is within 1 in. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. Fig. 4. each 4-1/2 in. 4 lb. of No. 1. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. Fig. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. as shown in Fig. 1. Fig. one small switch. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. This will allow the plate. are allowed to project about 1 in. Fig. as shown in Fig. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. of mineral wool. 1 in. 1. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. Fig. of the top. GG. German-silver wire is better. This will make an open space between the plates. one fuse block. 4. 12 in. The holes B and C are about 3 in. which can be bought from a local druggist. should extend about 1/4 in. Fig. long. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. one glass tube. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. long. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. about 1/4 in. Fig. 2. in diameter and 9 in. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. thick. or. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. and C. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. the fuse block. Fig. two ordinary binding posts. is then packed down inside the collar. also the switch B and the fuse block C. to receive screws for holding it to the base. The reverse side of the base. high. is shown in Fig. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base.same size. The plate. FF. Fig. as shown in Fig. if this cannot be obtained. 3. about 1 lb. of fire clay. Fig. 2. 1. If asbestos is used. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. as it stands a higher temperature. 4. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. The two holes. when they are placed in opposite positions. wide and 15 in. 4. AA. AA. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. if the measurements are correct. thick sheet asbestos. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. and two large 3in. 4. JJ. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. E and F. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. one oblong piece of wood. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. with slits cut for the wires. 22 gauge resistance wire. 1. Fig. The mineral wool. long. Fig.

above the rim. When this is done. If it is not thoroughly dry. using care not to get it too wet. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. H. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. then. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. St. 4. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. 2. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. when heated. Fig. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. causing a short circuit. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. This point marks the proper length to cut it. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. When the tile is in place. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. It should not be left heated in this condition. deep. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. more wire should be added. While the clay is damp. Fig. it leaves a gate for the metal. Jaquythe. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. allowing a space between each turn. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. Cnonyn. Catherines. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. Cut a 1/2-in. As these connections cannot be soldered. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. A file can be used to remove any rough places. The clay. If this is the case. --Contributed by W. as the turns of the wires. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. Can. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. Next. Richmond. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. so that the circuit will not become broken. apart. --Contributed by R. A. steam will form when the current is applied. It should not be set on end. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. will slip and come in contact with each other. Cover over about 1 in. and pressed into it. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. II. when cool. This completes the stove. Cal.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. KK. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball.

Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. constructed of 3/4-in. but 12 by 24 in. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. Louisville. as shown. --Contributed by Andrew G." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. the air can enter from both top and bottom. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. and the prints will dry rapidly. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. the pie will be damaged. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. is large enough. Then clip a little off the . Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. Ky. square material in any size. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. says the Photographic Times. Thorne. and the frame set near a window. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center.

thick. high. Fig. each 1/2 in. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. 1. long. at GG. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. -Contributed by S. Fig. long. 4 in. 1/2 in. high. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. The driving arm D. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. allowing each end to project for connections. causing a break in the current. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. The board can be raised to place . An offset is bent in the center. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. wide and 7 in. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. each 1 in. which gives the shaft a half turn. which are fastened to the base. as shown. 1. A 1/8-in. thereby saving time and washing. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. Iowa. long. wide. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. Figs. in diameter. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. W. 3. in diameter and about 4 in. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. Two supports. long. 1/2 in. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. 1. 2-1/2 in. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. wide and 3 in. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running.Paper Funnel point. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. 22 gauge magnet wire. Herron. 1. As the shaft revolves. high. thick and 3 in. slip on two cardboard washers. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. Le Mars. thick and 3 in. Fig. 1 and 3. The upright B. The connecting rod E. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. open out. 14 in. The connections are made as shown in Fig. 2. for the crank.

The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. making a framework suitable for a roost.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. bottom side up. on a board. as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by William F. Dorchester. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. in height. Mass. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. Stecher. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. Place the pot. One or more pots may be used. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. 3 in. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. In designing the roost. .

1. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. ordinary glue. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. in diameter. grills and gratings for doors. F.. preferably.. F. when combined. Fig. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. adopt the method described. etc. will produce the pattern desired. that it is heated. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. Wind the .Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. without any corresponding benefit. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. odd corners. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. 1. as shown in Fig. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. The bottom part of the sketch. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. windows. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. shelves. paraffin and paint or varnish. The materials required are rope or. and give it time to dry. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. if it is other than straight lines. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments.

six designs are shown. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. Y. Fig. -Contributed by Geo. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . Harrer. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. Lockport.Fig. N. M. cut and glue them together. 2. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry.

Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. says the English Mechanic. will be retained by the cotton. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. chips of iron rust. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. etc.. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. This piece of horse armor. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. and the sides do not cover the jaws. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers.. which was used in front of a horse's head. when it will be observed that any organic matter. etc. 1. London.. but no farther. As the . and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work.

4. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. which can be made in any size. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. but the back is not necessary. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. 6 and 7. which is separate. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. This can be made in one piece. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. the rougher the better. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. the same as in Fig. as shown in the sketch. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. This will make the model light and easy to move around. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. This triangularshaped support. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. then another coat of glue. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. 8. but for . as the surface will hold the clay. and therefore it is not described. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. In Fig. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. An arrangement is shown in Fig. This being done. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. The armor is now removed from the model. with the exception of the thumb shield. 2. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. except the thumb and fingers. All being ready. and will require less clay. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. 2. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. and the clay model oiled. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before.

Calif. N. . 1/2 in. and the instrument is ready for use. fastened to the rod. will be about right. each about 1/4 in. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. A piece of board. wide and 1/2 in. Redondo Beach. are glued to it. --Contributed by John G. two for the jaws and one a wedge. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. Buxton. Goshen. the foils will not move. La Rue. 9. Y. When locating the place for the screw eyes. The two pieces of foil. If it does not hold a charge. the top of the rod. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. running down the plate. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. --Contributed by Ralph L. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. cut into the shape shown in Fig. long. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. are better shown in Fig. but 3-1/2 in.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. in depth. 2. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. the two pieces of foil will draw together. two in each jaw. Fasten a polished brass ball to.

as indicated in the . A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. as shown in the illustration. M. Bryan. pine board. about 15 in. Corsicana. from the smaller end. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. A. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. hole bored through it. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. silvered. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. as this will cut under the water without splashing. is made of a 1/4-in. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. When a fish is hooked. --Contributed by Mrs. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. At a point 6 in. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. Texas. enameled or otherwise decorated. long. 2-1/2 in. The can may be bronzed. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made.

A good size is 5 in. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. using a piece of carbon paper. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. will do as well as the more expensive woods. as shown." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size.Match Holder accompanying sketch. long over all. such as basswood or pine was used. If soft wood. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. using powdered pumice and lye. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. Next prepare the metal holder. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. Basswood or butternut. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. thick. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. then with a nail. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. When it has dried over night. 22 is plenty heavy enough. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. Having completed the drawing. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. 3/8 or 1/4 in. and trace upon it the design and outline. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. Any kind of wood will do. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. put a coat or two of wax and polish . wide by 6 in. Polish the metal. take a piece of thin wood. or even pine. punch the holes. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner.

Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. A. Cal. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. Instead of the usual two short ropes. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. It is useful for photographers. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. --Contributed by W. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. can be made on the same standards. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. long. long. . This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. are used for the cores of the magnets. thick. is used for the base of this instrument. of pure olive oil. If carving is contemplated. each 1 in. Jaquythe. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. the whole being finished in linseed oil. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. If one has some insight in carving. 2 in. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. 1/2 in. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. wide and 5 in. Richmond. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. Two wire nails.

as shown in Fig. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. at A. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. All of the parts for the armor have been described. similar to that used in electric bells. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. cut in the shape of the letter T. A piece of tin. about No. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. leaving about 1/4 in. A rubber band. London. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. Lynas. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. except that for the legs. 3. in the shape shown in the sketch. 25 gauge. --Contributed by W. as shown by the dotted lines. About 1 in. . when the key is pushed down. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. acts as a spring to keep the key open. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. H. says the English Mechanic. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. 1. cloth or baize to represent the legs. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. then covered with red. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. the paper covering put on. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs.

go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. The two pieces are bolted together. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. So set up. for the sake of lightness. flat headed carriage bolt. make the same series of eight small holes and. and eight small holes. holes. 3 in. long. Take the piece shown in Fig. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. completes the equipment. Secure two strips of wood. at each end. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. A 1/4-in. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. in the other end. 1 in.. can be made in a few minutes' time. Instead of using brass headed nails. Cut them to a length or 40 in. In one end of the piece. drill six 1/4-in. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. or ordinary plaster laths will do. 1 and drill a 1/4in. Fig. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. not too tight. Silver paper will do very well. says Camera Craft.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. about 1 in. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. apart. By moving the position of the bolt from. These can be purchased at a stationery store. apart. 2. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. one to another . and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. hole in the center.

almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. Start with one end. 4. lay Cover B and the one under D. as shown in Fig. as in portraiture and the like. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. A is the first string and B is the second. then B over C and the end stuck under A. long. In this sketch. D over A and C. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. A round fob is made in a similar way. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. the one marked A. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. for instance. doubled and run through the web of A. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. and lay it over the one to the right. in Fig. but instead of reversing . taking the same start as for the square fob. Then draw all four ends up snugly. Fig. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. 2. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes.of the larger holes in the strip. 2. Then take B and lay it over A. 1. and the one beneath C. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. 2. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. of the ends remain unwoven. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. C over D and B.

Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. Rupp. is left out at the center before starting on one side.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. is to be made of leather. as at A in Fig. 3. as B. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. over the one to its right. 5. 1-1/2 in. as in making the square fob. especially if silk strings are used. --Contributed by John P. A loop. Other designs can be made in the same manner. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. Monroeville. always lap one string. long. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . the design of which is shown herewith. Ohio. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. The round fob is shown in Fig.

The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. door facing or door panel. Mich. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. such as a nut pick. Any smooth piece of steel. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. using the reverse side. A. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. -Contributed by A. When the supply of wax is exhausted. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. . it can be easily renewed. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. pressing it against the wood. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. Houghton. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. filling them with wax. Northville. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. beeswax or paraffin.

Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. although tin ones can be used with good success. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. New York. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. Select the print you wish to mount. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. . Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. Thompson. Enough plaster should. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. place it face down in the dish.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. apart and driven in only part way. Ill. remaining above the surface of the board. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. Y. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. if blueprints are used. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. but any kind that will not stick may be used. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. long. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. Petersburg. D. The tacks should be about 1 in. leaving about 1/4 in. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. and about 12 in. it is best to leave a plain white margin. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. N. J. --Contributed by O. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. those on matte paper will work best. and after wetting. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. E and F. says Photographic Times. thick. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. Fold together on lines C. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it.

lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. roses. without mixing the solutions. will be rendered perfectly white. filling the same about onehalf full. as shown at the left in the sketch. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. violets. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda.. bell flowers. Lower into the test tube a wire. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. One of the . as shown in the right of the sketch. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. etc. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution.

The first point should be ground blunt. and at the larger end. The sound box. The tin horn can be easily made. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. long and made of wood. or delicate tints of the egg. long. South Dakota. Millstown. 3. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. made of heavy tin. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. turned a little tapering. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. 2. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. --Contributed by L. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm.. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. to keep the core from coming off in turning. Fig. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. about 1/8s in. should be soldered to the box. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. Shabino. as shown in the sketch. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. 1-7/8 in. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. but which will not wobble loose. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. thick. not too tightly. shading. in diameter and 1 in. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. A rod that will fit the brass tube. as shown. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. 1. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. When soldering these parts together. is about 2-1/2 in. The diaphragm. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. L.

Chicago. put a board on top. Jr. Colo. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. says the Iowa Homestead. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . wondering what it was. and weighted it with a heavy stone. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. Victor. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. Ill. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. and. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. mice in the bottom. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. E. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it.Contributed by E. Gold.

Y. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. Can. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. Pereira. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. . Ottawa. --Contributed by Lyndwode. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. N. Buffalo.

through which several holes have been punched. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. Richmond. above the end of the dasher. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. Jaquythe. This cart has no axle. longer than the length of the can. --Contributed by Thos. Mich. Put a small nail 2 in. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. as shown. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. cut round. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. as it can be made quickly in any size. and at one end of the stick fasten. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. --Contributed by W. a piece of tin. Cal. by means of a flatheaded tack. Grand Rapids. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. De Loof. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. A. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher.

The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. I reversed a door gong. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. of course. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. The candles. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. as shown. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. 1. Doylestown. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Fig. wide and 1/8 in. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. thick. 1 ft. cut in the center of the rounding edge. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. wide. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. 1-1/2 in. 2. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. --Contributed by James M. A wedge-shaped piece of . were below the level of the bullseye. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. Kane. 1/4 in. La. Pa. wide and as long as the box. The baseboard and top are separable. 2 in.1. Notches 1/8 in. New Orleans. screwed it on the inside of a store box. 2. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. board. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. wide and 3 ft. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. apart. 2. deep and 3 in. long.

so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. Ia. After completing the handle. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. it can be removed without marring the casing. dressing one surface of each piece. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf.. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. will. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. the blade is put back into the groove . wide into each side of the casing. by cutting away the ends. take two pieces of hard wood. scissors. --Contributed by G. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. After the glue has dried. etc. West Union. wide rubber bands or felt. when placed as in Fig. When not in use. Worcester. the shelf could not be put on the window. can be picked up without any trouble. to prevent its scratching the desk top. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. Wood. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. 3. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. as shown in Fig. A. stone or wood. Needles. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. Mass. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge.Book Back Holders metal. 1. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. The block can also be used as a paperweight. the reason being that if both were solid. Cover the block with rubber. This device is very convenient for invalids. For the handle. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon.

The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. A. -Contributed by W. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. Each one is made of a hardwood block. 1 in. S. Ohio. . a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. Malden. square and 4 in. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. A notch is cut in one side. is shown in the accompanying sketch. 2. --Contributed by Maud McKee. Cleveland. Pa. Erie. as shown in Fig. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. Mass. thus carrying the car up the incline. If desired. --Contributed by H. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. long. Jacobs. Hutchins. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. as shown in Fig.and sharpened to a cutting edge. 1.

A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. This will insure having all parts alike. Cape May Point. If one such as is shown is to be used. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. The letters can be put on afterward. N.J. and an awl and hammer. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. Prepare a design for the front.. a board on which to work it. One sheet of metal. will be needed. .The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. 6 by 9-1/2 in.

will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. as shown. flat brush. behind or through the center of a table leg.Fasten the metal to the board. The stick may be placed by the side of. mandolin or guitar. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. in the waste metal. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. turpentine. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. only the marginal line is to be pierced. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. . The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. Remove the metal. If any polishing is required. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. The music will not sound natural. applied by means of a brush. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. 1 part. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. 1/4 part. varnish. On the back. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. that can be worked in your own parlor. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. a violin. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. if desired. or. So impressive are the results. paste the paper design right on the metal. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper." In all appearance. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. 2 parts white vitriol. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. but weird and distant. to right angles. says Master Painter. placed on a table. One coat will do. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. 3/4 part. which is desirable. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards.

These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. long and measuring 26 in. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. wide. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. it might be difficult. across the top. Two pairs of feet. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. are shaped as shown in Fig. square bar iron. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. is bent square so as to form two uprights. round-head machine screws. London. and is easy to construct. without them. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. each 28 in. The longest piece. says Work. 2. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. apart. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. . 3. long and spread about 8 in. long. each 6 in. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. With proper tools this is easy. thick by 1/2 in.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it.

6. While the piece of lead D. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. The glass. on it as shown. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. 4. better still. The design is formed in the lead. B. 5. and the base border. 7. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. C. A. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. 5. Fig. or. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. lead. is held by the brads. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. Place the corner piece of glass. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. the latter being tapped to . the piece E can be fitted and soldered. using rosin as a flux. special flux purchased for this purpose. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. After the glass is cut. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. Fig. After the joints are soldered. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. The brads are then removed. D. in the grooves of the borders. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. cut a long piece of lead.

To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. Secure a post. rounded at the top as shown.the base of the clip. Two styles of hand holds are shown. Make three washers 3-in. not less than 4 in. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. Dreier. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. Fasten the plates to the block B. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. H. in diameter and 1/4 in. Jr. bolt. wood screws in each washer. --Contributed by W. The center pin is 3/4-in. Bore a 5/8-in.. one on each side and central with the hole. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. Bore a 3/4-in. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. and round the corners of one end for a ring. long. J. N. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. then flatten its end on the under side. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. thick and drill 3/4-in. and two wood blocks. rocker bolt. long. A and B. This . in diameter and about 9 in. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. square and of the length given in the drawing. bolt. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. plates. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. plank about 12 ft. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. holes through their centers. long. This ring can be made of 1-in. 8. as shown in Fig. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. then drill a 3/4-in. Camden. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in.

long and 1 piece. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. long. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. 4 in. The four 7-in. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. by 2 ft. shanks. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. maple. straight-grained hickory.will make an excellent cover for a pot. 4 pieces. 1 by 7 in. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. square by 9-1/2 ft. square by 5 ft. 4 filler pieces. 9 in. screws. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. the money outlay will be almost nothing. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. 3 in. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. 4 pieces. hickory. 16 screws. To substitute small. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. bolts and rope. La. If trees are convenient. 1/2 in. long. bit. 7 in. 3/4 by 3 in. from one edge. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. boards along the side of each from end to end. by 6-1/2 ft. 1-1/4in. 2 by 4 in. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. and some one can swing an axe. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 2-1/2 in. 4 in. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. can make a first class gymnasium. 1. long. long. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. of 1/4-in. long. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. chestnut or ash. apart for a distance of 3 ft. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. New Orleans. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. horse and rings. by 3 ft. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. Draw a line on the four 7-in. long. in diameter and 7 in. 50 ft. because it will not stand the weather. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed.

The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather.. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. 2. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut.bored. so the 1/2-in. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. at each end. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. apart. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. Bore a 9/16-in. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. 8 in. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. piece of wood. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. each 3 ft. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. deep and remove all loose dirt.. boards coincide. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. apart. from the end.

Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided." which skimmed along the distant horizon. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. it follows the edge for about 1 in.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. He stretched the thread between two buildings. and then passes in a curve across the base. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. and materially heightened the illusion. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room.. . in an endless belt. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. passing through a screweye at either end. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. W. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. When the interest of the crowd. not even the tumbler. which at once gathered. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. If the tumbler is rotated. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. just visible against the dark evening sky. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. the effect is very striking. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. and ascends the stem. but most deceptive at dusk. disappearing only to reappear again. not much to look at in daytime. it is taken to the edge of the foot. apart. was at its height. And all he used was a black thread. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. about 100 ft. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom.

Bevel the ends of . by 7 ft. New Orleans. A wire about No. beginning at a point 9 in. 7 in. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. preferably cedar. and turned in a spiral D. 2 by 4 in. long. Fig. from either side of the center. 4 knee braces. 1. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. 8 in. long. 2 by 3 in. 4 in. 4 wood screws. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. 4 in. wide and 1 in. square and 51/2 ft. long and 1 doz. The cork will come out easily. 2 in. square and 6 ft. 2 by 4 in. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. deep. 8 in. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. so the point will be on top. by 2 ft. Chisel out two notches 4 in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. To make the apparatus. long. 2 cross braces. long. 8 bolts. 4 bolts. 2 side braces. 8 in. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. 2 by 4 in. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. long. long. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. large spikes. 6 in. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. by 3 ft. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. by 10 ft. long.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. 2 base pieces. La. long.

and countersinking the heads. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose.. leaving the strainer always in position. so the bolts in both will not meet. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. Richmond. A large sized ladle. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. Cal. but even unpainted they are very durable. ( To be Continued. If using mill-cut lumber. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. which face each other. except the bars. additional long. After the trenches are dug. using four of the 7-in bolts. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. equipped with a strainer. of 7 ft. These will allow the ladle to be turned. as shown in the diagram. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. A. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. etc. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. jellies. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. The wood so treated will last for years. leave it undressed.the knee braces. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. screws. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. save the bars. Jaquythe. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. Two endpieces must be made. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. --Contributed by W. . The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands.

milling machine. thus holding the pail as shown. A. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. it is necessary to place a stick. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. partly a barrier for jumps. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. which seems impossible. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. .Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. In order to accomplish this experiment. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. or various cutting compounds of oil. Oil. drill press or planer. of sufficient 1ength. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over.

from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. Hand holds must be provided next.. bolts. 4 in. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . square by 5 ft. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. and free from knots. 1 cross brace. apart. square by 5-1/2 ft. 7 in. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. 2 by 4 in. wood yard or from the woods. projections and splinters. bolts. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. 2 by 4 in. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. long. piece of 2 by 4-in. 1 in. 2 adjusting pieces. long. beginning 1-1/2 in. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant.. The round part of this log must be planed. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. to fasten the knee braces at the top. 4-1/2 in. bolt. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. 3 in. 2 bases. These are placed 18 in. from each end. stud cut rounding on one edge. 4 in. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. long. by 3 ft. long. 4 knee braces. ten 1/2-in. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. long. These are well nailed in place. in diameter--the larger the better. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. Procure from a saw mill. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. apart in a central position on the horse. The material required is as follows: Two posts. 4 in. long. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. long. in the ground. is a good length. but 5 ft. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. by 3 ft. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. 2 by 4 in. by 3 ft. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. To construct. bolts. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. long. two 1/2-in. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in.

no one is responsible but himself. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. Such a hand sled can be made in a . This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. it is caused by some obstruction. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. Cal. pipe and fittings. such as a dent. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. A. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. Richmond. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through.horse top. Also. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. but nevertheless. over and around. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel.--Contributed by W. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. snow. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. Jaquythe. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. water. etc. then bending to the shape desired. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. it is caused by an overloaded shell. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder.

1/4 or 3/16 in. Toronto. --Contributed by J. in width and 1/32 in. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. W. --Contributed by Arthur E. Boston. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. France. then run a string over each part. when straightened out. . Noble. --Contributed by James E. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. Ontario. Joerin. 1. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. Paris. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. at E and F. Vener. will give the length. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. 2. when complete. which. is much better than a wood sled. The end elevation. are all the tools necessary. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. thick. Mass. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. These. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock.

These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. . Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. are nailed. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. nor that which is partly oxidized. and the latter will take on a bright luster. 4. AA and BB. It is best to use soft water. 3. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. The method shown in Figs.

or unequal widths as in Fig. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. 4.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. class ice-yacht. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. 2. The materials used are: backbone. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. 2. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. . Broad lines can be made. or various rulings may be made. 8 and 9. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. Percy Ashley in Rudder. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. as shown in Fig. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. as shown in Fig. 3. 1).

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. bent and drilled as shown. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. 1. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. but if it is made much longer. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. The point should extend about 11/2 in. pins to keep them from turning. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. about 30 in. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. a larger size of pipe should be used. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. out from the collar. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. pipe. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. It can be made longer or shorter. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. long. The headstock is made of two tees. A good and substantial homemade lathe. nipples and flanges arranged as shown.Fig. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. Both the lower . Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. 1-Details of Lathe sort. a tee and a forging. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch.

2. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. 3/4 or 1 in. Musgrove. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. Held. Indiana. and will answer for a great variety of work. Cal. --Contributed by M. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. thick as desired. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. 1. UpDeGraff. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. as shown in Fig. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. Laporte. W. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. It is about 1 in. but also their insulating properties. else taper turning will result. M. Fruitvale. or a key can be used as well. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. --Contributed by W. as shown in Fig. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. --Contributed by W. Boissevain. a straight line should be scratched Fig. 2. 2. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. To do this. a corresponding line made on this. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. Man. .

The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. --Contributed by E. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. J.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. Cline. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. To obviate this. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . as shown. In use. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. The handle is of pine about 18 in. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. long. Ark. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. Smith. Ft. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side.

Colo. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. take . Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. --Contributed by Walter W. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. centering is just one operation too many. face off the end of the piece. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. New Orleans. which should be backed out of contact. After being entered.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. This prevents the drill from wobbling. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. and when once in true up to its size. La. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. White. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. Denver. on starting the lathe. if this method is followed: First. the drill does not need the tool. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily.

as shown in D. and this given to someone to hold. a long piece of glass tubing. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. all the better. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. The handkerchief rod. is put into the paper tube A. says the Sphinx.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. after being shown empty. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. a bout 1/2 in. It can be used in a great number of tricks. shorter t h a n the wand. The glass tube B. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. unknown to the spectators. by applying caustic soda or . vanishing wand. shown at C. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. and can be varied to suit the performer. After the wand is removed. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. the cap is placed over the paper tube. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. In doing this. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given.

3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. 1/4 in. This dimension and those for the frets . across the front and back to strengthen them. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. 1. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. can be made by the home mechanic. square and 1-7/8 in. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. Glue the neck to the box.potash around the edges of the letters. 1 Bottom. As the cement softens. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. The sides. preferably hard maple. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. 3/16. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. End. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. Glue strips of soft wood. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. 2 Sides. 1 End. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. With care and patience. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. with the back side rounding. The brace at D is 1 in. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. thick. and glue it to the neck at F. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. by 14 by 17 in. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. as shown by K. Cut a piece of hard wood. and if care is taken in selecting the material. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. 1 Neck. cut to any shape desired. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. long. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt.

wide and 11-1/2 ft. and beveled . thick and about 1 ft. but it is not. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. E. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. O. 3/16 in. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. H. -Contributed by J. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. --Contributed by Chas. A board 1 in. or backbone. long is used for a keel. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store.Pa. Carbondale. Norwalk. Frary. toward each end. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing.should be made accurately. Six holes. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. 1) on which to stretch the paper. in diameter. When it is completed you will have a canoe. Stoddard. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars.

but twigs of some other trees. two strips of wood (b. C. are next put in. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. or other place. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. . as shown in Fig. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. as before described. Fig. Fig. and notched at the end to receive them (B. Fig. The ribs. two twigs may be used to make one rib. and are not fastened. procure at a carriage factory. Shape these as shown by A. Fig. b. probably. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. 2. apart. buy some split cane or rattan. by means of a string or wire. in such cases. 4). wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. thick. 3). Osiers probably make the best ribs. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. or similar material. some tight strips of ash. 2).. but before doing this. Fig. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. 2). b. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. The cross-boards (B. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. 4. and. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. the loose strips of ash (b. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. slender switches of osier willow. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. 13 in. when made of green elm. Any tough. as shown in Fig. These are better. In drying.) in notches. twigs 5 or 6 ft. Fig. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. 1. with long stout screws. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. such as is used for making chairbottoms. 1 and 2. 3/8 in. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. will answer nearly as well. long. For the gunwales (a. Fig. B. 3. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. wide by 26 in. C. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. in thickness and should be cut. such as hazel or birch. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. a. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. long are required. and so. thick. Green wood is preferable. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. Fig. Fig. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. which are easily made of long. as they are apt to do. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. 3. 3). Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. b.

The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. however. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. and very tough. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. and held in place by means of small clamps. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. and as soon as that has soaked in. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. and light oars. after wetting it. You may put in . Then take some of the split rattan and. preferably iron. of very strong wrapping-paper. It should be smooth on the surface. if it has been properly constructed of good material. wide. B. If the paper be 1 yd. 5). cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. but with less turpentine. The paper is then trimmed. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. If not. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. but neither stiff nor very thick. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. tacking it to the bottom-board. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. When the paper is dry. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. Being made in long rolls. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. and steady in the water. Fig. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. When thoroughly dry. apply a second coat of the same varnish. It should be drawn tight along the edges.

which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. 2. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. fore and aft. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. 1. Fig.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. and if driven as shown in the cut. Fig. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. 5). to fit it easily. they will support very heavy weights. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. and make a movable seat (A. Drive the lower nail first. We procured a box and made a frame. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. 5. Fig.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. 1 and the end in . The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C.

and the result is. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. Pittsburg. being softer where the flame has been applied. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. This is an easy . The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand.Fig. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. Close the other end with the same operation. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. 4. 5. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. this makes the tube airtight. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. and the glass. This way has its drawbacks. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. A good way to handle this work. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. Pa. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. 3.

so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. metal shears. The candle holders may have two. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. fourth. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. fifth. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. or six arms. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. file. also trace the decorative design. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. then reverse. Sixth.way to make a thermometer tube. thin screw. 23 gauge. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. After the bulb is formed. third. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. rivet punch. extra metal all around. Oswald. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. three. above the work and striking it with the hammer. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. very rapid progress can be made. second. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. -Contributed by A. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. Seventh. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. Give the metal a circular motion. four. with a piece of carbon paper. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. above the metal. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. flat and round-nosed pliers.

It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. Metal polish of any kind will do.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. and holder. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. drip cup. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. Having pierced the bracket. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . Small copper rivets are used.

a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. and water 24 parts. A saw. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. the stick at the bottom of the sail. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. I steer with the front wheel. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. Heat 6-1/2 oz. on a water bath. and in a week . The boom. and other things as they were needed. all the rest I found. of glycerine to about 200 deg. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. Fifty. glycerine 4 parts. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. thus it was utilized. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. and it will be ready for future use. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. and add the gelatine. Mother let me have a sheet. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. if it has not absorbed too much ink. Twenty cents was all I spent. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. they were like an ice boat with a sail. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. Shiloh. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. hammer. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. except they had wheels instead of runners. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. alcohol 2 parts.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. The gaff. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. F. winding the ends where they came together with wire. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. and brace and bit were the tools used. smooth it down and then remove as before. J. is a broomstick. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. deep. N. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. Soak 1 oz. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. using a steel pen. sugar 1 part. when it will be ready for use.

Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. a projecting lens . Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up. A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly.

A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. and the work carefully done. slide to about 6 ft. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. G. wide and 15 in. above the center. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. A table. and a projecting lens 2 in. thick. provided the material is of metal. The board is centered both ways. but if such a box is not found. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. at a distance of 24 ft. 1/2 to 3/4 in. about 2 ft. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. well seasoned pine. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. and. DD. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. at a point 1 in. describe a 9-in. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. E. If a small saw is used. This ring is made up from two rings.. 8 in.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. as desired. Fig. or glue. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. A and B. and 14 in. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. are . high. focus enlarging a 3-in. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. 1. wire brads. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. wide. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. 3. long. The slide support. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. or a lens of 12-in. H. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. and the lens slide.

The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. the water at once extinguishes the flame. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. E. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. JJ. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. apply two coats of shellac varnish. To reach the water. P. light burning oil. should the glass happen to upset. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. placed on the water. The arrangement is quite safe as.constructed to slip easily on the table. but not long enough. B. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. Paul. the strips II serving as guides. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. Small strips of tin. A sheet . The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. Minn. St. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen.-Contributed by G. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. of safe. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. and when the right position is found for each.

4. 3 in.. --Contributed by J. N. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. Crawford. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. Fig. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. 3. Fig. form a piece of wire in the same shape. to cover the mattresses. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. by 12 ft. Schenectady. then the corners on one end are doubled over. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. 9 in. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along .H. from a tent company. 12 ft.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. 1. I ordered a canvas bag. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. 2. If one of these clips is not at hand. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. 3. Y.

long. open on the edges. Pa. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. 3/4 in. 3/4 in. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. holes in the edge. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. V. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. Colo. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. first mark the binding-post A. Fasten the wire with gummed label. C. Warren. 1. A Film Washing Trough [331] . The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. Denver. Teasdale. to keep it from unwinding. 1/2 in. 2. To calibrate the instrument. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. drill two 3/16 in. Fig. 1/2 in. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. so as to form two oblong boxes. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. through which the indicator works. 2.each edge. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. in the center coil. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. Do not use too strong a rubber. D. as shown in Fig. for amperes and the other post. to the coil of small wire for volts. apart. 3 to swing freely on the tack. insulating them from the case with cardboard. --Contributed by Edward M. Fold two strips of light cardboard. --Contributed by Walter W. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. A rubber band. thick. White. An arc is cut in the paper. Attach a piece of steel rod. wide. and insert two binding-posts. 2. Fig. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. long and 3/16 in. 1.

O. as shown. Cut a 1/4-in. --Contributed by M. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. Dayton. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. Wood Burning [331] . Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. M. Place this can on one end of the trough.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. with the large hole up. Hunting. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet.

Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids.Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. then into this bottle place. a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. mouth downward.

wide and 4 in.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. If the small bottle used is opaque. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . provided the bottle is wide. many puzzling effects may be obtained. but not very thick. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. Place the small bottle in as before. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig.Y. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. 3/4 in. as shown in the sketch. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. Whitehouse. Upper Troy. This will make a very pretty ornament. --Contributed by John Shahan. 1. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. If the cork is adjusted properly. long. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. Ala. N. thick. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. 2. --Contributed by Fred W. Auburn.

4. A staple. such as blades and pulleys. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. iron rod. If a transmitter is used. B. 1 in. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. G. by the method shown in Fig. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. to the shaft. thick and 3 in. Fig. --Contributed by D. sugar pine on account of its softness. was 1/4in. was keyed to shaft C. Fig. or ordinary telephone transmitters. wide. On a 1000-ft. which gave considerable power for its size. Fig. 3. pulley F. The shaft C. in diameter and 1 in. 1. thick. were constructed of 1-in. 1. Milter. The bearing blocks were 3 in. line. which extended to the ground. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. Its smaller parts. even in a light breeze. Both bearings were made in this manner.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. Fig. 2 ft. 1. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. as shown in Fig. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. 1. The 21/2-in. thick. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. which was nailed to the face plate. I. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. The wire L was put . 1. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. W. which was 6 in. K. pulley. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. long. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. 2. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. Fig. high without the upper half.

This board was 12 in. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. across the thin edge of a board. top down also. with all parts in place. and was cut the shape shown. in the center of the board P. long and 1/2 in. Fig. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. washers were placed under pulley F. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. The other lid. There a 1/4-in. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. The smaller one. R. hole for the shaft G was in the center. Fig. pine 18 by 12 in. To lessen the friction here. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. 6. apart in the tower. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. 1) 4 in. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. through the latter. Fig. 25 ft. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. long and bend it as . long. The power was put to various uses. hole was bored for it. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. 5. cut out another piece of tin (X. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. To make the key. 0. a 1/2-in. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. providing one has a few old materials on hand. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. long and 3 in. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. This completes the receiver or sounder. 2. square to the board P at the top of the tower. 1. This fan was made of 1/4-in. so that the 1/4-in. strips. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. 3 in. 1. in diameter. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. 6. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. wide and 1 in. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. as. Two washers were placed on shaft C. G. long. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. 1. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. H. Fig. The bed plate D. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. with brass headed furniture tacks. was tacked. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. for instance. when the windmill needed oiling. Fig. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. was 2 ft. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. Fig. If you have no bell. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. Fig. 1. long and bend it as shown at A.

Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. Before tacking it to the board. McConnell. and. Going back to Fig. at the front. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. The rear barrels are. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. fitted with paddles as at M. 2. like many another device boys make. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. causing a buzzing sound. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. using cleats to hold the board frame. Thus a center drive is made. after the manner of bicycle wheels. as shown at Water. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. 1. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code.shown. -Contributed by John R. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. although it can be made with but two. Now. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. When tired of this instrument. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. leaving the other wire as it is. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. By adjusting the coils. as indicated. consisting of four pieces of board nailed .

just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. can be built. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. If the journals thus made are well oiled. The speed is slow at first. or even a little houseboat. which will give any amount of pleasure. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. there will not be much friction. feet on the pedals. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. There is no danger. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. To propel it. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . as shown in Fig. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. 1. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. copper piping and brass tubing for base. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. 3.

of pleasure for a little work. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. B. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. Then melt out the rosin or lead. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. Fig. Turn a small circle of wood. If it is desired to make the light very complete. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. If magnifying glass cannot be had. 1. Place one brass ring in cylinder. or it may be put to other uses if desired. 2. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. A. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. 1. 2. and so creating a false circuit. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. 2. Fig. Fig. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. D. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. Shape small blocks of boxwood. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. then the glass disc and then the other ring. Fig. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . C. 1. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning.

--Contributed by Geo. --Contributed by C. To operate this. Brinkerhoff. switch. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. When alarm goes off. long. Pa. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. bracket. In placing clock on shelf. wire from bell to switch. while lying in bed. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . dry batteries. Utah. C. contact post. Chatland. G. wire from light to switch. X. thick. or 1/4in.. J. wide and 1/16 in. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. Swissvale. such as is used for cycle valves. bell. 4-1/2 in. after two turns have been made on the key. Ogden. To throw on light throw levers to the left. set alarm key as shown in diagram. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. by having the switch on the baseboard.india rubber tubing. shelf. T. some glue will secure them. E. key of alarm clock. which stops bell ringing. brass rod. B. D. and pulled tight. long. brass strip. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. 3/8 in. C. 4 in. F. To get the cylinder into its carriage. The parts indicated are as follows: A. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. wire from batteries to switch. H. I. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. 5-1/4 by 10 in. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . S. after setting alarm. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. copper tubing. Throw lever off from the right to center. near the bed. if too small.

Minn. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. in diameter. will do the heating. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. as at A. A small lamp of about 5 cp. All that is required is a tin covering. as in Fig. in diameter. Fig. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. place stick and all in a pail of sand. Chapman. 1. Having finished this. A flannel bag. making it as true and smooth as possible. being careful not to get the sand in it. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. as at B. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. Pull out the nail and stick. --Contributed by Chas. gives the heater a more finished appearance. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. which can be made of an old can. about 6 in. 2. wide. 2. 4 in. long. Fig. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. 1. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. as at A.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. as . This is to form the fuse hole. S. Lanesboro. 1/4 in. about 3-1/2 in. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. for instance. 3. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. beyond the end of the spindle. from one end. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. Fig. Make a shoulder. letting it extend 3/4 in. Make the spindle as in Fig. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. a bed warmer.

3/8 in. but if this wood cannot be procured. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. Joerin. The illustration shows how this is done. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. A piece of oak. thick. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. thick. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. wide and 6 ft. wide and 3/8 in. long. --Contributed by Arthur E. A piece of tin. ash. spring and arrows. will be sufficient to make the trigger. 5/8 in. long. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. 11/2 in. long. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. 1 in. 6 in. or hickory.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. The material must be 1-1/2 in. this is to keep the edges from splitting. 1. wide and 3 ft. thick. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. deep. good straight-grained pine will do. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides.

Ill. To shoot the crossbow. as shown in Fig. 3. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. 4. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. and one for the trigger 12 in. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. The trigger. Trownes. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. Fig. 6. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. having the latter swing quite freely. wide at each end. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. When the trigger is pulled. 9. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. 8. or through the necessity of. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. thick. Fig. Wilmette. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. To throw the arrow. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. --Contributed by O. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. The bow is not fastened in the stock. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. from the opposite end. as shown in Fig. place the arrow in the groove. which is 1/4 in. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. it lifts the spring up. Such a temporary safe light may be . better still. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. 7. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. in diameter. E. 2. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. A spring. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. Fig. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. from the end of the stock. The stick for the bow.

and replace as shown at B. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. it is the easiest camp to make. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. from the ground. Remove one end. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. The hinged cover E. making lighting and trimming convenient. Moreover. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. is used as a door. apart. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. This lamp is safe. and nail it in position as shown at A. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. C. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. from the ground. By chopping the trunk almost through. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. The cut should be about 5 ft. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. make the frame of the wigwam. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. Remove the bottom of the box. or only as a camp on a short excursion. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. respectively. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. since the flame of the candle is above A.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. says Photo Era. the bark lean-to is a .

spruce. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. For a permanent camp. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. Where bark is used. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. Tongs are very useful in camp. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. In the early summer. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. long. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. wide. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. are a convenient size for camp construction. long and 2 or 3 ft. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. nails are necessary to hold it in place. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. Sheets of bark. . The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. will dry flat. 6 ft. and split the tops with an ax. and when the camp is pitched. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. make the best kind of a camp bed. makes a good pair of tongs. and cedar. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. selecting a site for a camp. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. 3 ft. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. For a foot in the middle of the stick. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. A piece of elm or hickory. wide and 6 ft. a 2-in. piled 2 or 3 ft. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. long and 1-1/2 in. deep and covered with blankets. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. thick.

Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. or even a rough lock for the camp larder. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. hinges.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. and affording accommodation for several persons. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. .

The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. I drove a small cork. to another . and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. B. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. and provide a cover or door.. --Contributed by James M. Fig. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. B. Kane. Pa. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. changing the water both morning and night. wide. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. A. deep and 4 in.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. 1. the interior can. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. Doylestown. about 4 in.

Fig. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. if necessary. such as ether.glass tube. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. for instance. 4 and 5). limit. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. 2. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. until. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. which project inside and outside of the tube. a liquid. 3. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. E. C. fused into one side. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. The diagram. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. The current is thus compelled. for instance. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. 2. to pass through an increasing resistance. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. This makes .

hole is . which are fitted on the studs in the frame. A. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. or even 1/16 in. set at 1/8 in. but merely discolored. tap. clamp the template. making it 1/16 in. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. After the template is marked out. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. 3-3/8 in. or pattern. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. drill the four rivet holes. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. cannot be used so often. when several pieces are placed together. brass or iron. screws. Fig. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. Before removing the field from the lathe. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. If the thickness is sufficient. as shown in the left-hand sketch. A 5/8in. mark off a space. 3-3/8 in. is composed of wrought sheet iron. brass. which may be of any thickness so that. between centers. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. in diameter. assemble and rivet them solidly. which will make it uniform in size. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. on a lathe. After cleaning them with the solution. therefore. Michigan. 4-1/2 in. as shown in Fig. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. These holes are for the bearing studs. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. thick. 3. bent at right angles as shown. larger than the dimensions given. thick. by turning the lathe with the hand. thicker. The bearing studs are now made. Alpena. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. in diameter. two holes. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. and for the outside of the frame. they will make a frame 3/4 in. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. 2. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. Then the field can be finished to these marks. Fig. to allow for finishing. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. When the frame is finished so far. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. 1.

into which a piece of 5/8-in. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. When the bearings are located. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. brass rod is inserted. 4. or otherwise finished. file them out to make the proper adjustment. and build up the solder well. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. is turned up from machine steel. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. The shaft of the armature. soldered into place. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. solder them to the supports. Fig.

6. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. inside diameter. by 1-1/2 in. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. hole and tap it for a pin. as shown in Fig. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. brass rod. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. thick. After the pieces are cut out. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. 9. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. When this is accomplished. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. 7. Procure 12 strips of mica. 1-1/8 in. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. thick. 5. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. thick and 1/4 in. The sides are also faced off and finished. washers. Make the core 3/4 in. then drill a 1/8-in. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. 3/4 in. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. Armature-Ring Core. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. and then they are soaked in warm water. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. threaded. Rivet them together. as shown m Fig. 1/8 in. 6. The pins are made of brass. thick are cut like the pattern. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. 3/4 in. and held with a setscrew. 3.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. deep and 7/16 in. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. wide. as shown in Fig. to allow for finishing to size.. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. or segments. holes through them for rivets. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. as shown in Fig. 3. When annealed. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. as shown in Fig. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. sheet fiber. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. being formed for the ends. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. After they . wide. as shown in Fig. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. thick. 8. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. Find the centers of each segment at one end. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments.

1. The two ends are joined at B. sheet fiber. which will take 50 ft. All connections should be securely soldered. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. and bring the end of the wire out at B. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. of the end to protrude. until the 12 slots are filled. 6 in. of the wire. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. of No. This winding is for a series motor. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. To connect the wires. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. Fig. 8 in. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. The field is wound with No.have dried. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. shown at A. are soldered together. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. yet it shows a series of . using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. and wind on four layers. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. or side. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. long. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. The winding is started at A. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. wide and 1 in. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. the two ends of the wire. 1. Run one end of the field wire. shown at B. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. thick. The source of current is connected to the terminals. being required. After one coil. after the motor is on the stand. sheet fiber. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. by bending the end around one of the projections. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. they are glued to the core insulation. 5. about 100 ft. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. In starting to wind. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. Fig. When the glue is set.

and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. Nine wires run from the timer. as in the case of a spiral. one from each of the eight contacts. which serves as the ground wire. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. A 1/2-in. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. or. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. is fastened to the metallic body. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. and one. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. still more simply. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires.

one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. Covering these is a thin. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. circle. long. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in.The Wind Vane. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. 45 deg. board. of the dial. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. thus giving 16 different directions. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. 6 in. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. It should be . Without this attachment. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button.

-Contributed by James L. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. . if not too high. thus making a universal joint. will be sufficient. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. long to give the best results. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. however. or. will answer the purpose just as well. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. high. Fill the box with any handy ballast. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. Y. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. N. Buffalo. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. and securely nail on the top of the box. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. making it heavy or light. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. according to who is going to use it. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. To make it. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. though a special knife. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. will be enough for the two sides. and about 6 in. Place the leather on some level.about 6 ft. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. Blackmer. To work these outlines. Cut 3-in. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. also a piece of new carpet. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. is most satisfactory. 14 by 18 in. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. called a chip carving knife. Before tacking the fourth side.

An ordinary sewing-machine . Paste the silk plush to the inner side. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. A good leather paste will be required. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining.

The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. If a fire breaks out. Morse. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. --Contributed by Katharine D. rather than the smooth side. and fasten the feathers inside of it. N.will do if a good stout needle is used. of common salt and 10 lb. a needle and some feathers. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. away from it. square and tying a piece of . of water. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. Syracuse. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. and tie them together securely at the bottom. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. B. temporary lameness. Y. or a hip that has been wrenched. as in cases of a sprained ankle. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. can be thrown away when no longer needed. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C.

commonly called tintype tin. A small wooden or fiber end. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. which is the essential part of the instrument. Albany. When the distance to produce the right sound is found.J. wide and 1/16 in. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. N. B. is cut on the wood. The body of the receiver. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. high. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. N. This not only keeps the rats out. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. Y. but not sharp. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. G. etc. setting traps. . Paterson. Wis. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. E. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. long. The end is filed to an edge. as shown. cut to the length of the spool. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. made up of four layers of No. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. Hellwig. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. --Contributed by J.. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. Gordon Dempsey. long. and a coil of wire. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. 1/8 in. F. and the receiver is ready for use. board all around the bottom on the inside. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. The strings should be about 15 in. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. The diaphragm C. thus helping the rats to enter. A. deep. and tacked it to the boards. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. the corners being wired. letting it go at arm's length. wound on the head end. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail.string to each corner. laying poisoned meat and meal. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. --Contributed by John A. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. One end is removed entirely. Ashland. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. There is a 1-in. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. The coil is 1 in.

As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. gold. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. and bend each strip in shape. begin with the smallest scrolls. a piece of small wire. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. Take a piece of string or. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. better still. wide. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. A single line will be sufficient. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. To clean small articles. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. The vase is to have three supports.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. to .

Work down the outside line of the design. from E to F. Trace also the line around the purse. from C to D. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. thus raising it. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. 6-3/8 in. 3-1/4 in. 3-1/2 in. After taking off the pattern. from the lines EF on the piece. sharp pencil. as shown in the sketch. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. Fold the leather on the line EF.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol.. . Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. through which to slip the fly AGH. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. 4-1/4 in. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber.. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. and does not require coloring. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. Press or model down the leather all around the design. using a duller point of the tool.which the supports are fastened with rivets. About 1 in. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. wide when stitching up the purse. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct.

This also should be slightly beveled. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. around the wheel. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. 2. deep. First. with a compass saw. 1/2 in. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. and a model for speed and power. It can be made without the use of a lathe. then nail it. and tack the other piece slightly. the "open" side. as shown in Fig. Now take another piece of wood. with pins or small nails. long. Cut off six pieces 12 in. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. as well as useful. by 12 ft. and. Fit this to the two . and cut out a wheel. leaving the lug a. all the way around. following the dotted lines. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. and which will be very interesting. with the open side down. 1. It is neat and efficient. The entire cut should be slightly beveled.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. Make the lug 1/4 in. 1 was cut. and cut it out as shown in Fig. When it is finished. 3. and the projections B. then place the square piece out of which Fig. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. square. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. with the largest side down. deep. Then nail the wheel down firmly.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. being cast in wooden molds. thick. b.

deep. then bolt it together. as shown by the . and bore six 1/4-in. slightly beveled. one of which should have a 3/8-in. hole 1/4 in. hole bored through its center. bolts. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. holes through it. square pieces of wood. Now take another of the 12-in. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. and lay it away to dry. After it is finished. and cut it out as shown in Fig. 1.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. and clean all the shavings out of it. place it between two of the 12-in. as shown by the black dots in Fig. 4. Take the mold apart. hole entirely through at the same place.pieces just finished. Now put mold No. and boring a 3/8-in. in the center of it. square pieces of wood.

The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. and pour babbitt metal into it. Then bolt the castings together. This is for a shaft. Put this together in mold No. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. wide and 16 in. Now cut out one of the 12-in. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. the other right-handed. true it up with a square. holes.1. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. and bore three 1/4-in. and drill them in the same manner. over the defective part. Let it stand for half an hour.1. 6. 1. and pouring metal in to fill it up. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. 4. and the exhaust hole in projection b. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. in diameter must now be obtained. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. so that it will turn easily.2. until it is full. where the casting did not fill out.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. fasten a 3/8-in. holes at d. see that the bolts are all tight. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. Fig. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing.black dots in Fig. from the one end. A piece of mild steel 5 in. long. only the one is left-handed. drill in it. one in the lug. This is mold No. and drill it entirely through. instead of the right-handed piece. Now take mold No. and 3/8-in. Commencing 1-1/2 in. 5. This will cast a paddle-wheel. and connect to the boiler. screw down. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. Using the Brace . put the top of the brace through this hole.2. as shown by the black dots in Fig. B. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. After it is fitted in. Pour metal into mold No. place the entire machine in a vise. place it under the drill. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. take an ordinary brace. 6. This is the same as Fig. lay it on a level place. and two 1/4-in. one in the projections. and lay it away to dry. b. long. and the other in the base. as shown in illustration. and run in babbitt metal again. d.

will do good service. while it is running at full speed. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. Plan of Ice Boat . or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned.. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. At each end of the 6ft. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. with a boss and a set screw. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. Then take a knife or a chisel. and if instructions have been carefully followed. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. and. and the other 8 ft. one 6 ft. long. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. piece and at right angles to it. turn the wheel to the shape desired. and with three small screw holes around the edge.

so much the better will be your boat. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. at the top. and about 8 in. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. long and 2-1/2 in. Fig. tapering to 1-1/2 in. Fig. The tiller. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. projecting as in Fig. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. 1. in the top before the skate is put on. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. as the runners were fastened. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. The spar should be 9 ft. plank. To the under side of the 8-ft. which may come in handy in heavy winds. 2 by 3 in. at the end. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. leaving 1 ft. plank nail 8-in. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. long. should be of hardwood. in diameter in the center. 1. On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. Make your runners as long as possible. boards to make the platform. in diameter. bolt the 8-ft. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. where they often did considerable damage. 8 a reef point knot. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. particularly in a storehouse about