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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial

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08/17/2011

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Sections

  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother

THE BOY MECHANIC VOLUME I

Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)

BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I

THE

700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
HOW TO CONSTRUCT
WIRELESS OUTFITS, BOATS, CAMP EQUIPMENT, AERIAL. GLIDERS, KITES, SELF-PROPELLED VEHICLES ENGINES, MOTORS, ELECTRICAL APPARATUS, CAMERAS
AND

HUNDREDS OF OTHER THINGS WHICH DELIGHT EVERY BOY

WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
COPYRIGHTED, 1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO

POPULAR MECHANICS CO.
PUBLISHERS

A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. as shown in Fig. distant. 2 -. Toronto. with the hollow side away from you. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. It is held in this curve until dry. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. apart. E. 1. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. A piece of plank 12 in. 2. until it is bound as shown in Fig. Fig. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . The pieces are then dressed round. --Contributed by J.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. as shown in Fig. 2. long will make six boomerangs. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. grasp it and hold the same as a club. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. 1. To throw a boomerang. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. wide and 2 ft. Noble. away. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. Ontario. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. 1.Fig.

The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. however. If the snow is of the right consistency. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. made of 6-in. but about 12 in. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. dry snow will not pack easily. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. minus the top. and it may be necessary to use a little water.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. forcing it down closely. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. and with a movable bottom. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. 6 in. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. thick. one inside of the circle and the other outside. blocks . which makes the building simpler and easier. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. it is not essential to the support of the walls. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. A very light. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. long. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. A wall. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. or rather no bottom at all. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. high and 4 or 5 in. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. First. the block will drop out. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above.

the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. The piece of wood. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. 3 -. 3.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. There is no outward thrust. which can be made of wood. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . and the young architect can imitate them. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. --Contributed by Geo. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. above the ground. or an old safe dial will do. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. Union. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. 1. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. long and 1 in. a. wide. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. 2. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. Fig. 1. D. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. It also keeps them out. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. which is about 1 ft. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. 2. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. A nail. Fig. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. C. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. Ore. Goodbrod. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. is 6 or 8 in. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. Fig.

The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. as the weight always draws them back to place. one pair of special hinges. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. the box locked . and the other back of the stove and out of the way. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. --Contributed by R. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. New York. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. says the Sphinx. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. Merrill. Syracuse. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. S. If ordinary butts are used.When taking hot dishes from the stove.

How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. It remains to bend the flaps. Augusta. When the sieve is shaken. -Contributed by L. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. on drawing paper. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. With the metal shears. smooth surface. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. 1. All . If the measuring has been done properly. Ga. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. 3. about 1-32 of an inch. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. draw one-half of it. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. Fig. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. Place the piece in a vise. Alberta Norrell. as shown in Fig. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel.and the performer steps out in view. as shown. allowing each coat time to dry. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. one for each corner. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. proceed as follows: First. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. 2. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. as shown in Fig. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. If they do not. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. To make a design similar to the one shown.

Denver. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. about 6 in. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. of No. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. should be in the line. used for insulation. If a touch of color is desired. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. 25 gauge German-silver wire. H. --Contributed by R. The common cork. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. as shown at AA. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. C. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. if rolled under the shoe sole. A piece of porcelain tube. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. Colo. is fitted tightly in the third hole. in passing through the lamp. Galbreath. After this has dried. which is about 6 in. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. In boring through rubber corks. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. heats the strip of German-silver wire. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. B. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. causing it to expand. The current. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . in diameter. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. and in the positions shown in the sketch. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. 25 German-silver wire. long. To keep the metal from tarnishing. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. A resistance. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. When the current is turned off.the edges should be left smooth. R. from the back end.

Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. 2. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. with thin strips of wood. Mo. Fig. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. Kansas City. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. Purchase two long book straps. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. leaving a space of 4 in. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. --Contributed by David Brown. . A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. as shown in Fig.bottom ring. 1. between them as shown in Fig. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. 3.

These are shown in Fig. The folds are made over the string. C. N. Kane. as . just the right weight for a woman to use. Syracuse. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. and one weighing 25 lb. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. --Contributed by Katharine D. which is the right weight for family use.An ordinary electric bell. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. and tack smoothly. Morse. 1. 2. long. 36 in. in diameter. Fig. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. Two strips of brass. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. Fig. are mounted on the outside of the box. 1. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. to form a handle. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. Fig. A. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. Pa. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. having a gong 2-1/2 in. --Contributed by James M. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. Doylestown. 1.. one weighing 15 lb. 3. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. The string is then tied. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. 4.. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. Y. and a pocket battery. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. When the aeroplane tips.

The rod should be 36 or 38 in. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. two 1/8 -in. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. Y. Frame Made of a Rod . Floral Park. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. such as brackets. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. machine screws. --Contributed by Louis J. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. four washers and four square nuts. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. 2. in diameter. bent as shown in Fig. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. if once used. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. 2. and many fancy knick-knacks. N. The saw. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. AA. 3/32 or 1/4 in. long. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. 1. Day. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig.

be covered the same as the back. Rub off the highlights. For etching. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. therefore. 1 part sulphuric acid. Watch Fob For coloring silver. of water in which dissolve. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. Silver is the most desirable but. Apply two coats. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. In the design shown. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. If it colors the metal red. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. Detroit. using a swab and an old stiff brush. copper. or silver. as well as brass and copper. A. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. it has the correct strength. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. 1 part nitric acid. of course. the most expensive. allowing each time to dry. if copper or brass. treat it with color. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. of water. Michigan. though almost any color may be obtained.. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. An Austrian Top [12] . Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. The buckle is to be purchased. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. --Contributed by W. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. Of the leathers. Drying will cause this to change to purple.may be made of either brass. use them in place of the outside nuts. green and browns are the most popular. as well as the depth of etching desired. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. after breaking up. Scranton. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. File these edges.

Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. is formed on one end. thick. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. Parts of the Top To spin the top. pass one end through the 1/16-in. When the shank is covered. Michigan. 3/4 in. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. The handle is a piece of pine.F. hole. Tholl. hole in this end for the top. Ypsilanti. --Contributed by J. starting at the bottom and winding upward. allowing only 1-1/4 in. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. long. in diameter. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. set the top in the 3/4 -in. long. . A handle. wide and 3/4 in. 1-1/4 in. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. 5-1/4 in. A 1/16-in.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. Bore a 3/4-in.

The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. Augusta.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. . permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. The baking surface. having no sides. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. Houghton. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. tarts or similar pastry. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. --A. --Contributed by Miss L. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. Northville. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. Ga. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. A. Alberta Norrell. Mich. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. For black leathers. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan.

The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. then solder cover and socket together. says Studio Light. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. Stringing Wires [13] A. the same as shown in the illustration. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. Centralia. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. two turns will remove the jar.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. Mo. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . When you desire to work by white light. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. glass fruit jar.

A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. and not tip over. so it can be folded up. square by 12 in. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. 1-1/4 in. as shown in the cross-section sketch. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. 4 Braces. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. square by 62 in. Wis. 16 Horizontal bars. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. Janesville. They are fastened. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. . Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. 4 Vertical pieces. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom.for loading and development. 1-1/4 in. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp.

Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. The whole. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. from scrap material. O. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. If the loop is tied at the proper place. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. Phillipsburg. C. H. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. New York. After rounding the ends of the studs. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. The front can be covered . The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. -Contributed by Charles Stem.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. Rosenthal. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. after filling the pail with water. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. and a loop made in the end. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. --Contributed by Dr. Cincinnati. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water.

By using the following method. says a correspondent of Camera Craft.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. principally mayonnaise dressing. thoroughly fix. and. In my own practice. Md. the mouth of which rests against a. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. The . you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. either for contact printing or enlargements. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. 1 FIG. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. FIG. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. sickly one. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. you are. Develop them into strong prints. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. by all rules of the game. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. Baltimore. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. The results will be poor. if you try to tone them afterward. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. Wehr. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. --Contributed by Gilbert A. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. If the gate is raised slightly. the color will be an undesirable.

. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table.. The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper.. San Francisco. Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete. Place the dry print... 2.. wide and 4 in. long to admit the angle support. 1 and again as in Fig.. This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print. It will bleach slowly and evenly... --Contributed by T. Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes. With a little practice..... 16 oz. three times. in size.......... The blotting paper can .. When the desired reduction has taken place. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper. to make it 5 by 5 in. Gray. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig.. when it starts to bleach.... Cal.... The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone.... L. A good final washing completes the process.... The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished.. 5 by 15 in. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder. preferably the colored kind. thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses....... without previous wetting.bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison. where it will continue to bleach. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects. this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain. as it will appear clean much longer than the white. Water .. An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away......... 2 oz. in this solution. etc.. stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax.. Iodide of potassium .. transfer it to a tray of water. Put one on each corner of the blotting paper. 20 gr.... but.." Cyanide of potassium .....

the shaft 1 in. --Contributed by J. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. Oshkosh. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. Wilson Aldred Toronto. Make a design similar to that shown. having a width of 2-1/4 in. --Contributed by L. 20 gauge.J.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. Monahan. Corners complete are shown in Fig. wide. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. the head of which is 2 in. and a length of 5 in. 3. wide below the . Canada. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. Wisconsin.

freehand. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. With files. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. Make one-half of the design. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. 2. . Apply with a small brush. deep. then trace the other half in the usual way. After the sawing. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. using a small metal saw. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in.FIG. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. Do not put the hands in the solution. 3. which gives the outline of the design Fig. After this has dried. 1 part sulphuric acid. 1. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. Allow this to dry. but use a swab on a stick. Pierce a hole with a small drill. using carbon paper. as shown in Fig. 1 Fig. Trace the design on the metal. being held perpendicular to the work. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. Fig. 4. then coloring. then put on a second coat. 1 part nitric acid. The metal must be held firmly. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. using turpentine. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. With the metal shears. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. after folding along the center line. For coloring olive green.

Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. Carl Cramer. . --Contributed by M. --Contributed by H. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. When this is cold. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. then stain it a mahogany color. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. Richmond. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. thick. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. on a chopping board. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. attach brass handles. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. After the stain has dried. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. Cal. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. --Contributed by Katharine D. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. Morse. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. M.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. Ii is an ordinary staple. Syracuse. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. New York. Conn. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. as shown. it does the work rapidly. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. East Hartford. Burnett.

also locate the drill holes. WARNECKE Procure some brass. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. machine screws. holes. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. A. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. 53 steel pens. Florida. --Contributed by Mrs. and several 1/8-in. 1. square. some pieces of brass. Jaquythe. indicating the depth of the slots. as shown at A. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. one shaft. or tin. H. Kissimmee. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. Fig.. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. thick. about 3/16 in. saucers or pans. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. in width at the shank. Richmond. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. --Contributed by W. 1/4 in. 4. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. as shown in Fig. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. not over 1/4 in. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. Atwell. brass. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. L. Cal. . thick and 4 in. two enameled. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron.

The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. and pins inserted. There should be a space of 1/16 in. thick. 2. long and 5/16 in. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. 2. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. Fig. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. Fig. hole in the center. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. 7. hole. as shown in Fig. 6. 3. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. can be procured. and the ends filed round for the bearings. Bend as shown in Fig. hole is drilled to run off the water.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. These are connected to a 3/8-in. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. with a 3/8-in. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. as in Fig. a square shaft used. into the hole. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. 3. Fig. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. machine screws. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. brass and bolted to the casing. using two nuts on each screw. wide and bend as shown in Fig. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. If the shaft is square. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. about 1/32 in. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. with the face of the disk. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. long by 3/4 in. The shaft hole may also be filed square. A 3/4-in. as shown. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. wide. thick. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. in diameter and 1/32 in. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. If metal dishes. with 1/8-in. lead should be run into the segments. supply pipe. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. each about 1 in. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint.. 5. machine screws and nuts. 1.

screws. Hamilton. make these seams come between the two back legs. Ill. Stain the wood before putting in the . Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. Now you will have the box in two pieces. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. high and 15 in. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. long. deep and 1-1/4 in. Cooke. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. The lower part. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. When assembling. --Contributed by F. we will call the basket. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. 8-1/2 in. using four to each leg. With a string or tape measure. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. square and 30-1/2 in. from the bottom end of the legs. to make the bottom. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. --Contributed by S. three of which are in the basket. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. Smith. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. The four legs are each 3/4-in. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. Be sure to have the cover. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. Canada. or more in diameter. V. La Salle. deep over all. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. Fasten with 3/4-in. from the top of the box. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks.

possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. you can. Packard. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. 2. Sew on to the covered cardboards. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. wide. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. 1. Cover them with the cretonne. --also the lower edge when necessary. -Contributed by Stanley H. Mass. wide and four strips 10 in. as shown in the sketch. The folded part in the center is pasted together. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. sewing on the back side. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. Baltimore. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. and gather it at that point.lining.2 Fig. Boston. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. The side. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. When making the display. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. Fig. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . Md. If all the parts are well sandpapered. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket.

This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. Cross Timbers. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. Fig. Orlando Taylor. --Contributed by B. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. Gloversville. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. Y. and. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. Crockett. N. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. --Contributed by H. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. with slight modifications. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. Mo. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. saving all the solid part. It is not difficult to . It is cleanly. L. When through using the pad. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. 3.

and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. Mass. El Paso. Both of these methods are wasteful. remove the contents. Bourne. across the face. After stirring. or if desired. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the .Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. Texas. -Contributed by C. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. are shown in the diagram. Lane. After this is done. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. --Contributed by Edith E. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. Lowell. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. If a file is used. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. S. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. it should be new and sharp. and scrape out the rough parts. and secure it in place with glue or paste.

and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. Oak Park. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. --Contributed by Marion P. He captured several pounds in a few hours. As these were single-faced disk records. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. Those having houses . Canton. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. Oregon. Greenleaf. Turl. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. Wheeler. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. --Contributed by Loren Ward. Ill. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. A Postcard Rack [25]. --Contributed by Geo. Des Moines. After several hours' drying. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel.cooking utensil. circled over the funnel and disappeared. The process works well and needs no watching. The insects came to the light. F. Ill. Iowa.

Worcester. plane and pocket knife. not even with the boards themselves. The single boards can then be fixed. 6 in. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. 6 in. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. and as they are simple in design.. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. Rosenberg. --Contributed by Thomas E. and both exactly alike. will do as well. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. thick. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. boards are preferable. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. but for cheapness 3/4 in.. Dobbins. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. and the second one for the developing bench. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. the bottom being 3/8 in. Both sides can be put together in this way. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. by 2 ft. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. --Contributed by Wm. material. one on each side of what will be the . The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. Conn. Only three pieces are required. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. Mass. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. Glenbrook. the best material to use being matched boards. Lay the floor next.

It is shown in detail in Fig. of the top of the door for the same reason. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. which is fixed on as shown . and to the outside board of the sides. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. etc. wide. brown wrapping paper. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. 2 in section. 8. and in the middle an opening. so that it will fit inside the sink. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs.. 6 and 9. 6. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. 11. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. The developing bench is 18 in. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. nailing them to each other at the ridge. 3 and 4. 6) and another as F in the same drawing.doorway.. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close.. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. is cut. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. The roof boards may next be put on. the closing side as at B. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. hinged to it. 5. 6. as shown in Figs. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. 9 by 11 in. below which is fixed the sink. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. 10). by screwing to the floor. At the top of the doorway. and should be zinc lined. Fig. In hinging the door. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. 7. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. and the top as at C in the same drawing. and act as a trap for the light. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. so that the water will drain off into the sink. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. 9). Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig.

Details of the Dark Rook .

A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. For beating up an egg in a glass. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. 16. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. though this is hardly advisable. 13. or the room may be made with a flat roof. as at M. but not the red glass and frame. after lining with brown paper. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. In use. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. or red light as at K. Fig. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. four coats at first is not too many. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. 17. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. mixing flour and water. --Contributed by W. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. Fig. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. preferably maple or ash. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. and a 3/8-in. Fig. hole bored in the center for a handle. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. and a tank stand on it. 20. 13. 1. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. as in Fig. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. The house will be much strengthened if strips. 16. Karl Hilbrich. screwing them each way into the boards. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. 18. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . 14. it is better than anything on the market. as shown in the sections. 15. Fig. these being shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. Erie. if desired. The handle should be at least 12 in. 2.in Fig. 6. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. which makes it possible to have white light. A circular piece about 2 in. Pennsylvania. 19. are fastened in the corners inside. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. as at I. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig.

Schweiger. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. To operate. -Contributed by E. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. about 3/8 in. D. Kansas City. which. Smith. New York. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. Yonkers. L. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. Ark. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. for a handle. G. --Contributed by Wm. Mo. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. when put together properly is a puzzle. as shown in the sketch. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. long. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. Mitchell.copper should be. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. --Contributed by L. Eureka Springs.

Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. 1. which binds them together. as well as improve its appearance. Having completed the bare box. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. need them. holes should be drilled in the bottom. If the sill is inclined. to make it set level. especially for filling-in purposes. the rustic work should be varnished. for the moment. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. The design shown in Fig. the box will require a greater height in front. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. After the box is trimmed. The corks in use are shown in Fig. Each cork is cut as in Fig. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. 3. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. . why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. in order to thoroughly preserve it. as shown in Fig. as is usually the case. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. A number of 1/2-in. 2. 3. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. as shown in Fig.

2. But I have solved the difficulty. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. life in the summer time is a vexation. When the corn is gone cucumbers. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. . as shown in Fig.. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. Each long projection represents a leg. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. etc. can't use poison. share the same fate. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. being partly eaten into. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. too dangerous. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. and observe results. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. 4. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. drilled at right angles. 1. it's easy. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. cabbages. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. Traps do no good. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. F. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. 3. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking.

my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. cut in 1/2-in. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. the coil does not heat sufficiently. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. strips. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. of No. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. cut some of it off and try again. About 9-1/2 ft. If. and made up and kept in large bottles. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. by trial. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. . The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. The solution can be used over and over again. Iowa. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. -. long. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines.

--Contributed by James M. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. but with unsatisfactory results. and a strip. it falls to stop G. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. D. Doylestown. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. is a good size--in this compound. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. Do not wash them. to cause the door to swing shut. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. forks. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. Syracuse. 1) removed. N. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. . In cleaning silver. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. --Contributed by Katharine D. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. as shown in the sketch. Texas. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. of whiting and 1/2 oz. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. Stir and mix thoroughly. Dallas. Knives. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. Kane. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. Morse. C. Y. Pa. of gasoline. of oleic acid with 1 gal. coffee pot. Fig 2. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. hot-water pot.

using the paper dry. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. La. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. Harrisburg. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. but unfixed. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . Sprout. later fixed and washed as usual. . Pa. negatives. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. Ill. New Orleans. Waverly.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. of course. which is. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. --Contributed by Theodore L. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. --Contributed by Oliver S. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. Fisher. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot.

The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. a harmonograph is a good prescription. 1. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. metal. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. In this uncertainty lies the charm. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. To obviate this difficulty. then . The harmonograph. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. Fig. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C.

This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. and unless the shorter pendulum is. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. The length of the short pendulum H. Another weight of about 10 lb. provides a means of support for the stylus. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. one-fifth. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. is attached as shown at H. 1-3/4 by 2 in. K. A pedestal. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. to prevent any side motion. that is. G. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. Ingham. Gaffney. as long as the other. in diameter. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings... Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. makes respectively 3. which can be regulated. A weight. exactly one-third. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. A length of 7 ft. what is most important. Rosemont. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. with a nail set or punch. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. --Contributed by James T. --Contributed by Wm. Holes up to 3 in. Chicago. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. A small weight. etc. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. for instance. Punch a hole. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. of about 30 or 40 lb. is about right for a 10-ft. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. 1. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. or the lines will overlap and blur. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. J. as shown in the lower part of Fig. one-fourth. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. as shown in Fig. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. 1. R. Arizona. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. such as a shoe buttoner. in the center of the circle to be cut. A small table or platform. ceiling.

The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. The capacity of the vise. 6.J. The two key cards are made alike. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. Morey. N. 2. and 4 as in Fig. 5.J. dividing them into quarters. --Contributed by J. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. Cape May City. then 3 as in Fig. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. 4. one for the sender and one for the receiver. Fig. then put 2 at the top. and proceed as before. Fig. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side.H. Cruger. distributing them over the whole card. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. Chicago. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. a correspondent of . of course. 3. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. -Contributed by W. 1. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card.

of the uprights.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. To assemble. of water. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. --Contributed by L. acetic acid and 4 oz. citrate of iron and ammonia. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. 1/2 oz. 22 gauge German-silver wire. After securing the tint desired. drill 15 holes. of ferricyanide of potash. from the top and bottom. of 18-per-cent No. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. deep. remove the prints. Asbestos board is to be preferred. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. After preparing the base and uprights. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. Wind the successive turns of . Augusta. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. sheet of well made asbestos paper. wood-screws. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. the portion of the base under the coil. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. says Popular Electricity. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. Ga. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. respectively. If constructed of the former. Alberta Norrell. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. 30 gr. long. Cut through the center. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. 1/4 in. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. 6 gauge wires shown. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished.

and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. Ampere. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. etc. Small knobs may be added if desired. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. Ward. cut and dressed 1/2 in. if one is not a smoker. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size.. N. screws. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. Y. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. square. The case may be made of 1/2-in. --Contributed by Frederick E. but these are not necessary. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. which. 16 gauge copper wire. Labels of some kind are needed. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. then fasten the upright in place. 14 gauge. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. rivets. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . These may be procured from electrical supply houses. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. as they are usually thrown away when empty. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No.

If the soldering copper is an old one. B. S. and rub the point of the copper on it. being careful about the heat. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. particularly so when the iron has once been used. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. and one made of poplar finished black. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. Jaquythe. The material can be of any wood. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. tin. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. Wis. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac.. Ark. of water. as shown in the sketch. Kenosha. zinc. brass. lead. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. C. G.14 oz. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. . Richmond. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. This is considerable annoyance. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. --C. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. especially if a large tub is used. of glycerine to 16 oz. Copper. and labeled "Poison. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. E and F. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. or has become corroded. Eureka Springs. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. --Contributed by W. The parts are put together with dowel pins. In soldering galvanized iron. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. California. the pure muriatic acid should be used. A." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. Larson. Heat it until hot (not red hot). This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. then to the joint to be soldered. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. galvanized iron. tinner's acid. --Contributed by A. a piece of solder. D. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. sandpaper or steel wool. it must be ground or filed to a point.

1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. nut. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. N. 7/8 in. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. Fig. however. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. Apart from this. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . which gives two bound volumes each year. The punch A. Brass rings can be plated when finished. 1. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. W. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. The dimensions shown in Fig. B. wide. Hankin. in diameter. Y. Take a 3/4-in. 2. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. thick and 1-1/4 in. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. with good results. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. This will leave a clear hole. I bind my magazines at home evenings. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. C. Fig. in diameter. Troy. a ring may be made from any metal. D. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. The covers of the magazines are removed. Place the band. such as copper. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. and drill out the threads.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. brass and silver. Six issues make a well proportioned book. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. The disk will come out pan shaped. round iron. -Contributed by H. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. This completes the die.

1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. Five cuts. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. size 16 or larger. C. The covering can be of cloth. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back.4. 1. using . Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. and place them against the strings in the frame. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. 1. threaded double. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. deep. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. Coarse white thread. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. is used for the sewing material. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. 1 in Fig. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. through the notch on the left side of the string No. The covering should be cut out 1 in. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. If started with the January or the July issue. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. Place the cardboard covers on the book. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. 1. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. 5. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. The string No.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. on all edges except the back. . leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. 1/8 in. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. and a third piece. which is fastened the same as the first. of the ends extending on each side. 2. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. The sections are then prepared for sewing. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. After drawing the thread tightly. Start with the front of the book. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. then back through the notch on the right side. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. as shown in Fig. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. 2. and then to string No. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. is nailed across the top. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. allowing about 2 in. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No.

fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. at opposite sides to each other. College View. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. For the blade an old talking-machine . round iron. and. Cal. Divine. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. Nebr. Encanto. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. Tinplate. Place the cover on the book in the right position. on which to hook the blade. --Contributed by Clyde E.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. and mark around each one.

Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. by 4-1/2 in. with a steel sleeve. Summitville. by 1 in. long. Make the blade 12 in. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. Ohio. with 10 teeth to the inch. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. or double extra heavy. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. as shown. and a long thread plug. On the upper side. at the same end. fuse hole at D. thick. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. as it is sometimes called. E. -Contributed by Willard J. and another piece (B) 6 in. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. and 1/4 in. in order to drill the holes in the ends. A. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). B. Moorhead.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely.. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. hydraulic pipe. Hays. and file in the teeth. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. C. thick. F. Then on the board put .. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. Miss. bore. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. and 1/4 in.

so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. as from batteries. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. Connect up as shown. Philadelphia. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. Boyd. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. high around this apparatus. 4 jars. about 5 ft. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . and some No. If you are going to use a current of low tension. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. of rubber-covered wire. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. H. some sheet copper or brass for plates. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. A lid may be added if desired. using about 8 in. --Contributed by Chas. of wire to each coil. the jars need not be very large.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F.

is used to reduce friction. long. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. Put arm of switch on point No. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. long. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. 3 in. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. A variation of 1/16 in. Use no nails. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. by 1-1/4 in. as they are not substantial enough. At the front 24 or 26 in. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. making them clear those in the front runner. thick. by 1-1/4 in. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. 1 on switch. The stock required for them is oak. by 2 in. 2. then apply a coat of thin enamel. and bolt through. For the brass trimmings use No. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. B. wide and 3/4 in. C. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. and plane it on all edges. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. The connection between point No. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. 2. 3 and No. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. . Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. 4 in. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. apart. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled.. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. 30 in. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. long. 7 in. C. by 1 in. 1 is connected to point No. however.. wide and 2 in. In proportioning them the points A. For the front runners these measurements are: A. 16-1/2 in. by 2 in. oak boards. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. Fig. No. 2 in. 2. The top disk in jar No. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. by 6 in. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. An iron washer. steel rod makes a good steering rod. The sled completed should be 15 ft. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. 3. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. Z. 1. A 3/4-in. 27 B. B and C. above the ground.. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. To wire the apparatus. 34 in. Construct the auto front (Fig. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. wide by 3/4 in. 4. First sandpaper all the wood. by 5 in. Equip block X with screw eyes.. 4) of 3/4-in. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. or source of current. two pieces 14 in.. two pieces 30 in. beginning at the rear. as they "snatch" the ice. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. See Fig. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. are important. Their size also depends on the voltage. with the cushion about 15 in. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. thick. 5 on switch.. 2 and 3.the way. direct to wire across jars. and for the rear runners: A. 15-1/2 in. gives full current and full speed. & S. 11 in. On the door of the auto front put the .. two for each jar. sheet brass 1 in. two pieces 34 in. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. Use no screws on the running surface. square by 14 ft. and four pieces 14 in. 2 is lower down than in No. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. long. The illustration shows how to shape it. by 5 in. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. wide. on No. B. long by 22 in. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. 1 and so on for No. The current then will flow through the motor. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through.

such as burlap. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. If desired. The best way is to get some strong. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. to the wheel. cheap material. to improve the appearance. parcels. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. a brake may be added to the sled. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. cutting it out of sheet brass. lunch. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. If desired. which is somewhat moist. fasten a cord through the loop. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. Then get some upholstery buttons. such as used on automobiles. or with these for $25. overshoes. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. etc. brass plated. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. long. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. by 30 in. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. Fasten a horn. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. a number of boys may share in the ownership. If the expense is greater than one can afford. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. may be stowed within. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . by 1/2 in.

. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. Lexington. Leland.tree and bring. --Contributed by Stewart H. Ill. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same.

say 1 in. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. Fig. The first tooth may now be cut. thick. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. which. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. so that the center of the blade. though more difficult. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. the same diameter as the wheel.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. 2. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. some files. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. 3. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. Fig. CD. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. Fig. 1. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. The straight-edge. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. by drawing diameters. mild steel or iron. The Model Engineer. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. Draw a circle on paper. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. With no other tools than a hacksaw. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. A small clearance space. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. the cut will be central on the line. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. E. made from 1/16-in. from F to G. FC. sheet metal. will be over the line FG. London. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. 4). This guide should have a beveled edge. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. when flat against it. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. a compass. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. with twenty-four teeth. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . First take the case of a small gearwheel. outside diameter and 1/16 in.

1. and the other outlet wire. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. either the pencils for arc lamps. No shock will be perceptible. as shown in Fig. transmitter. Then take one outlet wire. electric lamp. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. 1. as shown in Fig. some wire and some carbons. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. each in the center. or several pieces bound tightly together. hold in one hand. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. Focus the camera in the usual manner. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. A bright. 2. B. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. Make a hole in the other. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners.Four Photos on One Plate of them. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. ground it with a large piece of zinc. R. If there is no faucet in the house. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. B. as shown in Fig. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. .

Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. If desired. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. Several battery cells. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. Ashland. are also needed. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. by 1 in. at each end for terminals. leaving about 10 in. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. a transmitter which induces no current is used. or more of the latter has been used. They have screw ends. Then set the whole core away to dry. B. under the gable. as indicated by E E.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. of course. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. D D are binding posts for electric wires. Ohio. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. and about that size. 36 wire around it. as shown. and again wind the wire around it. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. Dry batteries are most convenient. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. --Contributed by Geo. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. one at the receiver can hear what is said. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. Wrenn. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. J. Slattery. One like a loaf of bread. by 12 in. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. But in this experiment. For a base use a pine board 10 in. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. A is a wooden block. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. serves admirably. Pa. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. and will then burn the string C. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. Emsworth. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere.

C. B B. as shown. B B. the terminal of the coil. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. Ohio. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. run a No. First make a support. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. Place 16-cp. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. 12 or No. D. Newark. F. D. The oven is now ready to be connected. 1.wire. E. for the . and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. and switch. connecting lamp receptacles. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. From the other set of binding-posts. These should have hollow ends. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. and one single post switch. until the hand points to zero on the scale. Jr. Turn on switch. The apparatus is now ready for operation. Fig. in series with bindingpost. The coil will commence to become warm. as shown. in parallel. C. At one side secure two receptacles. Connect these three to switch. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. 14 wire. while C is open.. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. 2. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. Fig. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. and the lamps.

until the scale is full. is made of iron. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. 10 turns to each layer. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. This is slipped on the pivot. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. Fig. 7. E. long and make a loop. Montreal. 14 wire. 1/2 in. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . Dussault. 14. wide and 1-3/4 in. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. C. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. D. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. Fig. 4. 2. a battery. from the lower end. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. 5. 4 in. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. but if for a 4way. wide and 1/8 in. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. B. high. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. although brass is better. It is 1 in. although copper or steel will do. 4 amperes. 1. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. etc. drill a hole as shown at H. The core. 6. a standard ammeter. At a point a little above the center. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. The box is 5-1/2 in. After drilling.E. 3 amperes. to prevent it turning on the axle. A wooden box. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. Fig. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. and D. is then made and provided with a glass front. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. The pointer or hand. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. 5. 1/4 in. deep. To make one. long.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. If for 3-way. --Contributed by J. drill in only to the opening already through. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. where A is the homemade ammeter. D. drill through the entire case and valve. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. long. a variable resistance. Fig. is made of wire. as shown in the cut. 1. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. thick. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. inside measurements. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. 3. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. This may be made of wood. remove the valve.. wind with plenty of No.or 4-way valve or cock. Mine is wound with two layers of No. 36 magnet wire instead of No.

D. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. E. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. as shown. and the other connects with the water rheostat. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. One wire runs to the switch.performing electrical experiments. This stopper should be pierced. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. and a metal rod. in diameter. in thickness . From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. and the arc light. which is used for reducing the current. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. high. To start the light. making two holes about 1/4 in. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. B. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. By connecting the motor. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. provided with a rubber stopper. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. F. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. A.

2. Having finished the interrupter. If all adjustments are correct. Fig. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. If the interrupter does not work at first. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. Having fixed the lead plate in position. Fig. B. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. Y. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. 2. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. N. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. To insert the lead plate. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. Jones. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. 1. Fig. 1. A piece of wood. Carthage. long. where he is placed in an upright open . as shown in C. as shown in B. --Contributed by Harold L. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. As there shown. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. 1. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. A. Fig. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. Turn on the current and press the button.

The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. should be miniature electric lamps. Its edges should nowhere be visible. the illusion will be spoiled. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. All . and must be thoroughly cleansed. L and M. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view.coffin. by 7 in. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. giving a limp. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. and can be bought at Japanese stores. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. especially the joints and background near A. A. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. especially L. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. loosejointed effect. is constructed as shown in the drawings. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. The lights. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. The skeleton is made of papier maché. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass.. If it is desired to place the box lower down. The model. A white shroud is thrown over his body. could expect from a skeleton. The glass should be the clearest possible. high. which can be run by three dry cells. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. from which the gong has been removed. by 7-1/2 in. to aid the illusion. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. should be colored a dull black. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. until it is dark there. If everything is not black. as the entire interior. and wave his arms up and down. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. within the limits of an ordinary room. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. inside dimensions. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. with the exception of the glass. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. dressed in brilliant. figures and lights. They need to give a fairly strong light. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. light-colored garments.

With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. San Jose. Cal. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. placed about a foot apart. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. square block. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . W. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. after which it assumes its normal color. Two finishing nails were driven in. Fry. --Contributed by Geo. as shown in the sketch. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy.that is necessary is a two-point switch. If a gradual transformation is desired. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. fat spark. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second.

In Fig. Cohen. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. B and C. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. with two tubes. and should be separated about 1/8 in. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. hydrogen gas is generated. as shown. -Contributed by Dudley H. into the receiver G.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. This is a wide-mouth bottle. A (see sketch). New York. If a lighted match . With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. F. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. 1. by small pieces of wood. The plates are separated 6 in. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. One of these plates is connected to metal top. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. to make it airtight. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. soldered in the top. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. or a solution of sal soda. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. the remaining space will be filled with air. In Fig. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle.

"What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. and the ends of the tube.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. says the Model Engineer. A. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. 2 shows the end view. N. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. If desired. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. London. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. long. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. of No. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. A. by means of the clips. copper pipe. A. Fig. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. then a suitable burner is necessary. 36 insulated wire. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. C C. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. long. is made by drilling a 1/8in. N. 1-5/16 in. P. from the bottom. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. A piece of 1/8-in. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. in diameter and 6 in. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. B. as is shown in the illustration. is then coiled around the brass tube. copper pipe. 1. either by passing a current of electricity around it. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. or by direct contact with another magnet. 1/2 in. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. The distance between the nipple. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. Fig. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. A 1/64-in. should be only 5/16 of an inch. One row is drilled to come directly on top. which is plugged up at both ends. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. A. which forms the vaporizing coil. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. A nipple.

larger all around than the book. cut to the size of the pages. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. Fig. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. Fig. 2). but if the paper knife cannot be used. about 8 or 10 in. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. 1. taking care not to bend the iron. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. this makes a much nicer book. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. Turn the book over and paste the other side. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. boards and all. Fig. duck or linen. 3. trim both ends and the front edge. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. fold and cut it 1 in. smoothly. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth.lamp cord. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. longer and 1/4 in. 1/4 in. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. should be cut to the diameter of the can. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. Cut four pieces of cardboard. Take two strips of stout cloth. with a fine saw. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). leaving the folded edge uncut. at the front and back for fly leaves. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. A disk of thin sheet-iron. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it.

C. is perforated with a number of holes. without a head. A gas cock. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. but its diameter is a little smaller. In the bottom. is soldered onto tank A. is turned on it. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. and a little can. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. as shown in the sketch. the joint will be gas tight. is made the same depth as B. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. of tank A is cut a hole. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. pasting them down (Fig.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. Another can. Noble. H. Ont. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. Another tank. 4). On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. E. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. . --Contributed by Joseph N. Parker. or rather the top now. A. as shown. 18 in. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. which will just slip inside the little can. This will cause some air to be enclosed. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. D. is fitted in it and soldered. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. B. in diameter and 30 in. Va. deep. Bedford City. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. Toronto. --Contributed by James E.

and the edges should be carefully hemmed. long. -Contributed by H. exactly 12 in. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. and about 26 in. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. C. D. The armature. E. which moves to either right or left. square by 42 in. Beverly. should be cut a little too long. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. If the back armature. B. shows how the connections are to be made. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. should be 3/8 in. Bott. B. B. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. 1. Fig. S. H is a square knot. A A. with an electric-bell magnet. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. by 1/2 in. to prevent splitting. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. Fig. The diagonal struts. and sewed double to give extra strength. The small guards. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. J. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. The longitudinal corner spines. which may be either spruce. The bridle knots. If the pushbutton A is closed. The wiring diagram. tacks. D. thus adjusting the . 2. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. should be 1/4 in. fastened in the bottom. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. A. basswood or white pine. as shown at C. and the four diagonal struts. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. are shown in detail at H and J.. when finished. making the width. long. N.

Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. E. D. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. Chicago. for producing electricity direct from heat. shift toward F. --Contributed by A. can be made of a wooden . loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. --Contributed by Edw. with gratifying results. If the kite is used in a light wind. Harbert. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. Closing either key will operate both sounders. that refuse to slide easily. and. the batteries do not run down for a long time. Stoddard. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. to prevent slipping.lengths of F and G. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. thus shortening G and lengthening F. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. however. Kan. and if a strong wind is blowing. A bowline knot should be tied at J. Clay Center. as shown. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K.

spark. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. Chicago. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. A. E. When the cannon is loaded. E. Fasten a piece of wood. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. A. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. A. placed on top.frame. A and B. with a number of nails. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. and also holds the pieces of wood. C. C. with a pocket compass. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. to the cannon. 14 or No. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. by means of machine screws or. F. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . which conducts the current into the cannon. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. in position. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. C. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. B. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. The wood screw. or parallel with the compass needle. D. 16 single-covered wire.. and the current may then be detected by means. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. Then. --Contributed by A.

A and S. requiring a strong magnet. To lock the door. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. Big Rapids. in this position the door is locked. To unlock the door. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. --Contributed by Joseph B. B. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. now at A' and S'. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. to receive the screw in the center. press the button. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. screw is bored in the block. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig.the current is shut off. L. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. Fig. 1. Marion. A. --Contributed by Henry Peck. Ohio. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. 1. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. Connect as shown in the illustration. H. where there is a staple. In Fig. Fig. when in position at A'. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. 1. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. Bend the strips BB (Fig. A and S. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. Keil. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. within the reach of the magnet. with the long arm at L'. A hole for a 1/2 in. but no weights or strings. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. square and 3/8 in. . is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. Mich. To reverse. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. Chicago. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown.

and may be made at very slight expense. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. hole. and if desired the handles may . A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. Mass. pipe with 1-2-in. or for microscopic work. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. and C is a dumbbell. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. about 18 in. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. West Somerville. gas-pipe. Rand. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. The standard and base. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. are enameled a jet black. When ready for use. long. --Contributed by C. put in the handle. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. Thread the other end of the pipe. When the holes are finished and your lines set. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. J. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. if enameled white on the concave side. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in.

. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. This peculiar property is also found in ice. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. D. B. North Easton. as shown at A in the sketch. across.be covered with leather. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. A. Warren. --Contributed by C. Fig. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. high by 1 ft. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. long and 8 in. Fig. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . inside the pail. Make a cylindrical core of wood. E. 1. with a cover. Mass. 8 in. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. across. 1. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. M. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. which shall project at least 2 in. while a new one will cost about 80 cents.

cutting the hole a little smaller. in diameter. 3) with false top and bottom. and your kiln is ready for business. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in.mixture of clay. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. and with especial caution the first time. C. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. thick. if there is to be any glazing done. bottom and sides. the point of the blue flame. hotel china. diameter. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. and varnish. Cover with paper and shellac as before. C. long. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. It is placed inside the kiln. Whatever burner is used. strip of sheet iron. Set aside for a few days until well dried. L. pipe. but it will burn a great deal of gas. pipe 2-ft. 1). 2 in. 60%. long over the lid hole as a chimney. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. or make one yourself. 2. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. to hold the clay mixture. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. W. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. Fit all the parts together snugly.. After removing all the paper. full length of iron core. the firing should be gradual. E. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. and 3/4 in. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. Fig. about 1 in. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. 15%.. If the cover of the pail has no rim. projecting from each end (Fig. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. wider than the kiln. C. such . as is shown in the sketch. in diameter. This done. hard porcelain. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. and graphite. Wind about 1/8 in. sand. After finishing the core. if you have the materials. let this dry thoroughly.-G. 1390°-1410°. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. 25%. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. layer of the clay mixture. pack this space-top. and cut it 3-1/2 in. say 1/4 in. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. 1). thick.. as dictated by fancy and expense. 1330°. passing wire nails through and clinching them. and 3/8 in. When lighted. The 2 in. carefully centering it. but will be cheaper in operation. which is the hottest part. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. and on it set the paper wrapped core. of fine wire. make two wood ends. Line the pail. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in.

The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. taking care to have the first card red. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. 2. C. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. 2. A. T. the next black.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. around the coil. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. square them up and place in a vise. leaving long terminals. as in Fig. all cards facing the same way. Chicago. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. C. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. Then take the black cards.53 in. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards.. 2). and so on. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. length of . Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. Take the red cards. Next restore all the cards to one pack. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. 8 in. about 1/16 in. Then. You can display either color called for. Of course. and discharges into the tube. as in Fig. . square them up. --Contributed by J. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. overlaps and rests on the body. B. with a plane. diameter. as shown in the sketch herewith. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. C. The funnel. every alternate card being the same color. and plane off about 1/16 in. red and black. and divide it into two piles. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. procure a new deck. Washington. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. bind tightly with black silk. 1. D. R.

After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. F. 1. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. Let . thus making all the holes coincide. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. Long Branch. N. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. The cement. B. A. 1 gill of litharge. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. It should be placed in an exposed location. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file.C. E. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. To find the fall of snow. B. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. When the glass is put in the frame a space. through the holes already drilled. as the difficulties increase with the size. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. Drill all the horizontal pieces. The bottom glass should be a good fit. B.J. and then the frame is ready to assemble. C. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. E. The upright pieces. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. 1 gill of fine white sand. All the horizontal pieces. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. stove bolts. the first thing to decide on is the size. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. D. about 20 in.. angle iron for the frame. so that when they are assembled. of the frame. A. the same ends will come together again. to form a dovetail joint as shown. and this is inexpensive to build. Fig. stove bolts. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube.

a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. and. to the door knob. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. D.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. Fasten the lever. B. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. if desired. A. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. a centerpiece (A. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. having a swinging connection at C. on the door by means of a metal plate. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. Fig. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . Aquarium Finished If desired.

I referred this question to my husband. Fig. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. screwed to the door frame. 1. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. 1. Fig. to form the slanting part. wide . or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. Fig. Two short boards 1 in. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. showing the paddle-wheel in position. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. Fig. They are shown in Fig.. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. 26 in. 3 shows one of the paddles. 1 .Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. and another. hoping it may solve the same question for them. 6 in. as at E. 1 is the motor with one side removed. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. to form the main supports of the frame. 2 at GG. Cut two of them 4 ft. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. soldered to the end of the cylinder. long. to keep the frame from spreading. 2 is an end view. --Contributed by Orton E. B. F. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. for the top. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. White. C. Buffalo. another. Do not fasten these boards now. another. which is 15 in. PAUL S. A small piece of spring brass. several lengths of scantling 3 in. D. approximately 1 ft. with a water pressure of 70 lb. and Fig. will open the door about 1/2 in. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. Fig. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. Y. according to the slant given C. long. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. Cut two pieces 30 in. E. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. long. from the outside top of the frame. thus doing away with the spring. wide by 1 in. To make the frame. 2 ft. AA. long. but mark their position on the frame. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. N. Fig.

and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. Fig. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. that is. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. hole through its center. thick. with the wheel and shaft in place. hole through them. hole through their sides centrally. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. Fasten them in their proper position. then drill a 3/16-in. hole through the exact center of the wheel. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. long and filling it with babbitt metal. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. 1. steel shaft 12 in. 2) with a 5/8-in. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. hole from the tops to the 1-in. remove the cardboard. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. thick (HH. pipe. 2) and another 1 in. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece).burlap will do -. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. take down the crosspieces. and drill a 1-in. Drill 1/8-in. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. and a 1/4 -in. iron. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. tapering from 3/16 in.along the edges under the zinc to form . after which drill a 5/8 in. 4. These are the paddles. GG. and drill a 1/8-in. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. 2) form a substantial base. Next secure a 5/8-in. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. to a full 1/2 in. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. holes. iron 3 by 4 in. When it has cooled. (I. long to the wheel about 8 in. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. Fig. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. Tack one side on. in diameter. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. Now block the wheel. from one end by means of a key. by 1-1/2 in. 24 in. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. as shown in Fig. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. Take the side pieces. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. Fig. Make this hole conical. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. hole to form the bearings. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes.

or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. any window will do. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. It is obvious that. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. shutting out all light from above and the sides. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. remove any white curtains there may be. it would be more durable. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. on the lens. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. start the motor. and leave them for an hour or so. If the bearings are now oiled. ice-cream freezer. . but as it would have cost several times as much. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. place the outlet over a drain. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. drill press. Do not stop down the lens. as shown in the sketch at B. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. but now I put them in the machine. as this makes long exposure necessary. or what is called a process plate.a water-tight joint. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. Drill a hole through the zinc. Focus the camera carefully. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. says the Photographic Times. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. and the subject may move. light and the plate. Darken the rest of the window. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. Raise the window shade half way. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. Correct exposure depends. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. sewing machine. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. and as near to it as possible. The best plate to use is a very slow one. If sheet-iron is used. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. of course. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera.

B. or an empty developer tube. the core is drawn down out of sight. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. until the core slowly rises. a core. D. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. hard rubber. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. A. as a slight current will answer. 2. and a base. as shown in Fig. and without fog. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. On completing . which is made of iron and cork. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. 2. C. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. With a piece of black paper. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. The current required is very small. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. or can be taken from an old magnet. a glass tube. with binding posts as shown. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. or wood. The glass tube may be a test tube. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. by twisting. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. without detail in the face. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. full of water. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. an empty pill bottle may be used. The core C.

and one not easy to explain. and make a pinhole in the center. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. This is a mysterious looking instrument. whale oil. 1 lb. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. is Benham's color top. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. and are changed by reversing the rotation. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. The colors appear different to different people. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. 1 pt. finest graphite. 1. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. according to his control of the current. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. white lead. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows .Interior View the circuit the core will descend. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. water and 3 oz.

or three spot. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. In making hydrogen. especially if the deck is a new one. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. B. thus partly filling bottles A and C. As this device is easily upset. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. before cutting. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. In prize games. -Contributed by D.. C.B.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. when the action ceases. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. Chicago. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. deuce. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C.L. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. nearly every time. fan-like. A. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which .

2. Huron. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. 1. --Contributed by F. --Contributed by C. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. Detroit. 9 in. Bently. S. that will fit loosely in the tube A. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. Jr. 3). Make ten pieces about 1 ft. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. Dak. 12 in. 10 in. in length and 3 in. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. Fig. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. as shown in Fig. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. J. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. Fig. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. Make a 10-sided stick. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack.. long and 3 in. . in diameter. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw.. long. S. (Fig. Detail of Phonograph Horn . 4. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. Form a cone of heavy paper. W.

push back the bolt. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. and walk in. allowing 1 in. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. A piece of tin. about the size of a leadpencil. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. long.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. will cause an increased movement of C. C. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. Denver. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. bend it at right angles throughout its length. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. but bends toward D. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. Fortunately. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. A. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . it is equally easy to block that trick. A second piece of silk thread. Remove the form. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. 6. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. with a pin driven in each end. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. --Contributed by Reader. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. E. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. on one side and the top. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. making it three-ply thick. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. Cut out paper sections (Fig. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. Fig.

Minn. S S. Jr. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . R. W. long. as shown. 4 ft. B. B. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. are made 2 by 4 in. and rest on a brick placed under each end. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. put together as shown in the sketch. Paul. is connected each point to a battery. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. The 2 by 4-in. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. By this arrangement one. long. The reverse switch. Two wood-base switches. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. West St. --Contributed by J. S. are 7 ft. while the lower switch. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. posts. will last for several years.. A. The feet. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. The upper switch. S. or left to right. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. Fremont Hilscher..strip.

If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. Fig. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. The hose E connects to the boiler. 2 and 3. and a cylindrical . The steam chest D. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. In Fig. thick. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. with two washers. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. pulley wheel. and in Fig. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. The piston is made of a stove bolt. which will be described later. 2. 3/8 in. the other parts being used for the bearing B. the size of the hole in the bearing B.every house. and the crank bearing C. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. either an old sewing-machine wheel. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. 1. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. which is made of tin. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. The base is made of wood. E. or anything available. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. Fig. H and K. The valve motion is shown in Figs. and valve crank S. FF. and has two wood blocks. is an old bicycle pump. cut in half.

is cut out of tin. using the positive wire as a pen. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. This engine was built by W. to receive the connecting rod H. and a very amusing trick. or galvanized iron. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. First. Cal. J. Fry. Fig. and saturated with thick oil. Eustice. Wis. 3. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. Schuh and A. . C. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. W. 4. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. can be an old oil can. G. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. The boiler. as it is merely a trick of photography. The valve crank S. 1. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. This is wound with soft string. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. and the desired result is obtained. G. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. San Jose.piece of hard wood. Fig. of Cuba. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. as shown in Fig. at that. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. powder can. --Contributed by Geo.

1 will be seen to rotate. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. Cut half circles out of each stave. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. B. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. Fig. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. Fig. as shown at AA. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. Fig. diameter. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. They may be of any size.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. 1 by covering up Figs. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. When turning. to cross in the center. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. and pass ropes around . Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. and Fig. as shown. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. C. B. and place a bell on the four ends. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. The smaller wheel.

St. W. but not on all. Mo. procure a wooden spool.. produces a higher magnifying power). Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. which allows the use of small sized ropes. This in turn will act on the transmitter. such as clothes lines. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. --Contributed by H. as shown in the illustration. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. A (a short spool.G. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. which accounts for the sound. From a piece of thin . say 1/2 or 3/4 in. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. long. Louis.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. To make this lensless microscope. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end.M. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. from the transmitter. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera.

from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. otherwise the image will be blurred. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. the object should be of a transparent nature.. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. C. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. C. if the distance is reduced to one-half. in which hay has been soaking for several days. fastened to a wooden base. bent as shown. B. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. the diameter will appear three times as large. The lever. D. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. as in all microscopes of any power. e. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. An innocent-looking drop of water.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. B. Fig. E. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. The pivot. and look through the hole D. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. place a small object on the transparent disk. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. darting across the field in every direction. The spring. can be made of brass and the armature. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. and at the center. is made of iron. by means of brads. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. 1.. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. is fastened at each end by pins. . 2. which are pieces of hard wood. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. 3. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. A. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. i. D. (The area would appear 64 times as large. and so on. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. held at arm's length. Viewed through this microscope. if the distance is reduced to one-third. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. To use this microscope. H.) But an object 3/4-in. the diameter will appear twice as large. or 64 times. cut out a small disk. which costs little or nothing to make.

fastened near the end. The back. brass. D. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. AA. long by 16 in. FF. connection of D to nail. wide and set in between sides AA. 1. The door. thick. B.SOUNDER-A. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. C. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. 2. in length and 16 in. C. Fig. coils wound with No. 16 in. wood. F. binding posts: H spring The stop. D. Cut the top. B. between the armature and the magnet. brass: E. DD. A switch. wide. K. D. wide. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. long. 26 wire: E. or a single piece. A. The binding posts. should be about 22 in. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. brass or iron soldered to nail. wood: C. and are connected to the contacts. wood: F. Fig. Each side. wide and about 20 in. HH. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. KEY-A. or taken from a small one-point switch. The base of the key. wide. can be made panel as shown. long and 14-1/2 in. soft iron. 16 in. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. nail soldered on A. K. is cut from a board about 36 in. E. wide. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. . which are made to receive a pivot. brass: B. similar to the one used in the sounder. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in.

the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. the only materials necessary being a glass tube.. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. E. long. cut in them. with 3/4-in. 2 and made from 1/4-in. as shown. Ill. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. Garfield. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. Make 12 cleats. material. brads. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. AA. When the electrical waves strike the needle. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. as shown in the sketch. 13-1/2 in. In operation.

Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. --Contributed by John Koehler. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. A. F. E. A fairly stiff spring. when used with a motor. through which a piece of wire is passed. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. down into the water increases the surface in contact. Fairport. filled with water. Pushing the wire. C. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. N. J. A. pulls down the armature. N. B. The cord is also fastened to a lever. and thus decreases the resistance. the magnet. --Contributed by R. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. and. Ridgewood. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. in order to increase the surface. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used .Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. Y. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. Brown. will give a greater speed. A (see sketch). When the pipe is used.

Borden. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. even those who read this description. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. B. N. if desired. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. --Contributed by Perry A. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . Gachville. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder.for the secret contact. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. Of course.

Washington. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. The top board is made 28-in. H. as shown in Fig. and on both sides of the middle shelf. Jr. Connect switch to post B. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. wide. wide. --Contributed by H. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. Dobson. J. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. C. Cal. C. The three shelves are cut 25-in. records. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. in a semicircle 2 in. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in.whenever the bell rings. 1. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. East Orange. E. deep and 3/4 in. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. Compton. apart. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. wide. N. long and full 12-in. Two drawers are fitted in this space. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. . From a piece of brass a switch. from the bottom. wide. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. Mangold. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. With about 9 ft. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. as shown in Fig.. for 6-in. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. long and 5 in. --Contributed by Dr. A. where the other end of wire is fastened. for 10in. thick and 12-in. D. 2. records and 5-5/8 in. wide. Nails for stops are placed at DD. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in.

B. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. closed. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. When the cord is passed over pulley C. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. which in operation is bent. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. to which is fastened a cord. E. as shown in Fig. A. Va. as shown by the dotted lines. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . 1. Roanoke. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off.

3. thick. deep. 1 in. one in each end. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. 1. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. in diameter. In these grooves place wheels. Figs. through one of these holes. but a larger one could be built in proportion. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. square and 7/8 in.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. Fig. it too loose. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. These wheels should be 3/4 in. wide. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. 3). wide. in diameter. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. long. Fig. D. Do not fasten the sides too . 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. in diameter. excepting the crank and tubing. Put the rubber tube. apart. which should be about 1/2 in. against which the rubber tubing. In the sides (Fig. to turn on pins of stout wire. 4 shows the wheel-holder. in diameter. If the wheels fit too tightly. E. deep and 1/2 in. holes (HH. Figs. they will bind. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. thick (A. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. Cut two grooves. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. E. they will let the air through. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. Notice the break (S) in the track. Fig. The crankpin should fit tightly. CC. Now put all these parts together. as shown in the illustration. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. Bore two 1/4 in. 1 in. is compressed by wheels. B. 5) when they are placed.

Kan. as shown in Fig. B. though a small iron wheel is better. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. and mark for a hole. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. 1. is all the expense necessary. 1. AA. as it gives steadiness to the motion. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. 17-1/2 in. the other wheel has reached the bottom. mark again. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. the pump will give a steady stream. Fig. and 3-1/2 in. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. of material. To use the pump. Hubbard. tubing. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. beyond each of these two. AA. Then turn the crank from left to right. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. Take the center of the bar. Two feet of 1/4-in. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. 2. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. 1. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. from each end. stands 20 in. The animal does not fear to enter the box. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. A in Fig. 1.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. --Contributed by Dan H.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. 2. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. costing 10 cents. The three legs marked BBB. 15 in. For ease in handling the pump. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. Fig. If the motion of the wheels is regular. from each end. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. Cut six pieces. Idana. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. from that mark the next hole. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. The screen which is shown in Fig. In the two cross bars 1 in. 1. because he can . long. from each end. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. a platform should be added. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. Fig. from the bottom and 2 in. iron. mark for hole and 3 in. and are 30 in. Fig.

of the top. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. stirring constantly. dropping. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. Place the carbon in the jar. If the solution touches the zinc. Philadelphia. giving it a bright. shuts him in. or small electric motors. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. some of it should be poured out. add slowly. silvery appearance. Meyer. To cause a flow of electricity. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. rub the zinc well. until it is within 3 in. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc.see through it: when he enters. sulphuric acid. potassium bichromate. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. The battery is now ready for use. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. The truncated. When through using the battery. long having two thumb screws. there is too much liquid in the jar. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. When the bichromate has all dissolved. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. 4 oz. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. If it is wet. The battery is now complete. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. --Contributed by H. 1) must be prepared. C. or. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. and touches the bait the lid is released and. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. acid 1 part). Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. 14 copper wire. It is useful for running induction coils. The mercury will adhere. 2). it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. and the solution (Fig. If the battery has been used before. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. however. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. of water dissolve 4 oz. . This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. but if one casts his own zinc.

the battery circuit. Wis. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. e. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. After putting in the coal. while the coal door is being opened. however.. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. Madison. pressing the pedal closes the door. If. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. the jump-spark coil . i.Fig. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. which opens the door. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. The price of the coil depends upon its size.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. with slight changes.

6. the full length of the coil. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. Now for the receiving apparatus. in a straight line from top to bottom. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. 7). diameter. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. W W. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. 5. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. which is made of light copper wire. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. being a 1-in. and closer for longer distances. After winding.7. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. in a partial vacuum. made of No. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. apart. This will make an excellent receiver. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. . while a 12-in. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. This coil. as shown in Fig. Fig. coil. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver.described elsewhere in this book. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. W W. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. 6. 7. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. 7. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". as shown in Fig. Change the coil described. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in.

to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. after all. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. but it could be run by foot power if desired. which will be described later. and hence the aerial line. These circles. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. but simply illustrates the above to show that. being vertical. may be easily made at very little expense. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. only.The aerial line. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. at any point to any metal which is grounded. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. Run a wire from the other binding post. A. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. above the ground. being at right angles. where A is the headstock. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. The writer does not claim to be the originator. . using an electric motor and countershaft. 90°. I run my lathe by power. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. 90°. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. 1 to 4. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. Figs. For an illustration. as it matches the color well. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. to the direction of the current.6 stranded. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. A large cone pulley would then be required. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. 1). attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. are analogous to the flow of induction. in the air. B the bed and C the tailstock. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. No. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated).

too. The headstock. The bolts B (Fig. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. 4. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. Fig. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. 5. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. The bearing is then ready to be poured. 2 and 3. After pouring. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. A. but not hot enough to burn it. and Fig. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . thick. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. Fig. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. Fig. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. which are let into holes FIG. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. 6 Headstock Details D. To make these bearings. If the bearing has been properly made. which pass through a piece of wood. B. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. steel tubing about 1/8 in. just touching the shaft. 4. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. 6. and runs in babbitt bearings. deep. one of which is shown in Fig. pitch and 1/8 in. Fig. and it is well to have the shaft hot. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. Heat the babbitt well. 5. tapered wooden pin. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. on the under side of the bed. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs.

7 Details of Tailstock pipe. If not perfectly true. Ill. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory.other machines. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. and a 1/2-in.J. Take up about 5 ft. A. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. The tail stock (Fig. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. lock nut. of the walk . so I had to buy one. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. the alarm is easy to fix up. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. N. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. B. This prevents corrosion. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. embedded in the wood. they may be turned up after assembling. Oak Park. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. FIG. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. Newark. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. If one has a wooden walk. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest.

by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. S. to roughen the surface slightly. Minn. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. Jackson. Minneapolis. Do not touch the work with the hands again. 2). of water. add potassium cyanide again. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. Fig. (A. leaving a clear solution. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. save when a weight is on the trap. clean the articles thoroughly. Connect up an electric bell. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. hang the articles on the wires. before dipping them in the potash solution. Finally. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. so that they will not touch. --Contributed by R. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. to remove all traces of grease. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. water. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. and the alarm is complete. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. To avoid touching it. silver or other metal. Then make the solution .

pewter. Having finished washing the precipitate. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. 10 in. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. saw a piece of wood. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. nickel and such metals. must be about 1 in. 3) strikes the bent wire L. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. will serve for the key. Fig. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. when the point of the key touches the tin. Fig. long. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. a circuit is completed. Fig. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. if one does not possess a buffing machine. and then treated as copper. with the pivot 2 in. The wooden catch. German silver. B should be of the same wood. 18 wire. from the lower end. lead. Take quick. such metals as iron. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. --Model Engineer. piece of broomstick. The wooden block C. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. Screw the two blocks together. also. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. Repeat six times. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. In rigging it to a sliding door. and the larger part (F. thick by 3 in. This solution. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. which .up to 2 qt. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. a hand scratch brush is good. Fig. which is advised. Where Bunsen cells are used. To provide the keyhole. If more solution is required. Make a somewhat larger block (E. A 1/4 in. 3. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. Can be made of a 2-in. With an electric pressure of 3. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig.5 to 4 volts. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. which is held by catch B. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. 3) directly over the hole. and 4 volts for very small ones. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. copper. 1 not only unlocks. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. silver can be plated direct. Before silver plating. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. light strokes. an old electric bell or buzzer. long. I. zinc. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. of clothesline rope and some No. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. On brass. of water. as at F. but opens the door. make a key and keyhole. use 2 volts for large articles. A (Fig. When all this is set up. 1). with water. hole in its center. Then. If accumulators are used. 1. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. square. 1 in. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. about 25 ft. as shown in Fig. 1). 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. shaking. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. with water.

116 Prospect St. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. and black art reigns supreme. --Contributed by E. B. the illumination in front must be arranged. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. no painting inside is required. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. such as forks. H. surrounding a perfectly black space. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. the box should be painted black both inside and out. Fig. in his shirt sleeves. 2. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. 3. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. and hands its contents round to the audience. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. 1. One end is removed. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. and a slit. sides and end. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. and finally lined inside with black cloth. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. top. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. to throw the light toward the audience. Fig. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. The box must be altered first. half way from open end to closed end. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. . some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. He removes the bowl from the black box. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. some black paint. 2. The interior must be a dead black. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). with the lights turned low. the requisites are a large soap box. In front of you. shows catch B. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. On either side of the box. he tosses it into the cave. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. Heavy metal objects. spoons and jackknives. or cave. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. and plenty of candles. between the parlor and the room back of it. heighten the illusion. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. East Orange. Thus. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. Fig. One thing changes to another and back again. with a switch as in Fig. To prepare such a magic cave. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. he points with one finger to the box. Fig. New Jersey. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. Next.. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. floor. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. enlarged. a few simple tools. which unlocks the door. although a little more trouble. some black cloth. Next. one-third of the length from the remaining end. 1. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. The magician stands in front of this. so much the better. Objects appear and disappear. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. H. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. is the cut through which the rope runs. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. Receiving the bowl again. Klipstein. cut in one side. should be cut a hole. 0.

covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth.Finally. one on each side of the box. only he. But illusions suggest themselves. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. the room where the cave is should be dark. The exhibitor should be . in which are oranges and apples. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. and if portieres are impossible. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. of course. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. if. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. The illusion. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. which are let down through the slit in the top. you must have an assistant. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. is on a table) so much the better. of course. which can be made to dance either by strings. his confederate behind inserts his hand. had a big stage. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. a screen must be used. was identical with this. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. and pours them from the bag into a dish. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. as presented by Hermann. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. into the eyes of him who looks. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. Consequently. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. and several black drop curtains. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. The audience room should have only low lights.

their one end just slips under the strips b1. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. making contact with them. c4. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. Finally. and c4 + electricity. or b2. terminal c3 will show +. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . Then. A represents a pine board 4 in. b3. About the center piece H moves a disk. b2. terminal c3 will show . c3.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. b1. A. held down on disk F by two other terminals. with three brass strips. and c2 to the zinc. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. held down on it by two terminals. vice versa. held down by another disk F (Fig. when handle K is turned to one side. and a common screw. respectively. respectively. b3. 2). On the disk G are two brass strips. square. e1 and e2. f2. by 4 in. and c1 – electricity. 1. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. respectively. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. so arranged that. 2.a boy who can talk. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. 2.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). c2. if you turn handle K to the right. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. or binding posts.. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. FIG. by means of two wood screws. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. at L. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. making contact with them as shown at y. b2. c1. 1. Fig. d. is shown in the diagram.

1.. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. thus making the message audible in the receiver. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. Tuttle. E. Joerin. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. 4. 5. When switch B is closed and A is on No. when on No. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. Ohio. Newark.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. -Contributed by A. from three batteries. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . when A is on No. . --Contributed by Eugene F. B is a onepoint switch. when on No. from five batteries. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. and then hold the receiver to your ear. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. 3. from four batteries. you have the current of one battery. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). jump spark coil. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. Jr. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. and when on No. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. and C and C1 are binding posts.

--Contributed by Maurice Baudier.. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. When you do not have a graduate at hand.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. P. Wis. over the bent portion of the rule. traveled by the thread. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. per second. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. New Orleans. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. E. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. A. so one can see the time. Thus. A. is the device of H. Handy Electric Alarm . A. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. B. mark. Redmond. which may be a button or other small object. La. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. rule. mark. The device thus arranged. per second for each second. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. and placed on the windowsill of the car. of Burlington. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. and supporting the small weight. as shown in the sketch.

putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. wrapping the wire around the can several times. and with the same result. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. Crafton. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. which illuminates the face of the clock. but may be closed at F any time desired. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. C. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. for a wetting is the inevitable result.which has a piece of metal. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. soldered to the alarm winder. Instead. Pa. --C. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. Then if a mishap comes. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. S. --Contributed by Gordon T. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. When the alarm goes off. B. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. . fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. Lane.

1 . and duplicates of all these. --Contributed by A. The first thing to make is a molding bench. BE. which may. whence it is soon tracked into the house. bearings. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. AA. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. C. With the easily made devices about to be described. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. Two cleats. If there is no foundry Fig. when it is being prepared. battery zincs. A. It is possible to make molds without a bench. L. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. Macey. small machinery parts. cannons. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. binding posts. but it is a mistake to try to do this. New York City. as shown. ornaments of various kinds.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. models and miniature objects.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . 1. as shown in Fig. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. and many other interesting and useful articles. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. engines.

is about the right mesh. D. and the "drag. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. An old teaspoon. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. as shown. by 6 in. A slight shake of the bag Fig. Fig. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. E. 2. say 12 in. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. is filled with coal dust. and saw it in half longitudinally. and a sieve. white metal. F. but this operation will be described more fully later on. a little larger than the outside of the flask. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. II . but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. A A. which can be made of a knitted stocking. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. by 8 in. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. The cloth bag. DD. The rammer. CC. high. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. 1. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. If desired the sieve may be homemade. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. J. 2 . makes a very good sieve." or lower part. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. which can be either aluminum. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. CC. is made of wood. previous to sawing. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. G. is shown more clearly in Fig. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated." or upper half. as shown.How to Make a Mold [96] . and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. H. Fig. the "cope. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use.near at hand. try using sand from other sources. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. is nailed to each end of the cope. and this. A wedge-shaped piece. which should be nailed in. If the box is not very strong. will be required. The flask. It is made of wood and is in two halves. and the lower pieces. The dowels. 1.

as shown at C. as it is much easier to learn by observation. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. as shown at D. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. and thus judge for himself. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. In finishing the ramming. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. turn the drag other side up. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. or "cope. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. or "drag. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. where they can watch the molders at work. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. in order to remove the lumps." in position. and then more sand is added until Fig. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. and scatter about 1/16 in. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. The sand is then ready for molding. It is then rammed again as before. as shown at E. and by grasping with both hands. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. and if water is added. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. the surface of the sand at .Having finished making the flask and other equipment. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. Place another cover board on top. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. as described. as shown. After ramming. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed.

heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. III. it shows that the sand is too wet. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. from the surface of the mold to the pattern.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. wide and about 1/4 in. place the cope back on the drag. to give the air a chance to escape. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. as shown at H. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. thus making a dirty casting. deep. After drawing the pattern. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. is next cut. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. Place a brick or other flat. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. in order to prevent overheating. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. in diameter. as shown at J. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. This is done with a spoon. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. thus holding the crucible securely. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. as shown at G. made out of steel rod. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. as shown at H. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. . The "sprue. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. as shown at F. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. Fig. as shown in the sketch.E should be covered with coal-dust. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. after being poured. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. and then pour. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used." or pouring-hole. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible.

Minneapolis. Although the effect in the illustration . Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. and the casting is then ready for finishing. Morton. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. but any reasonable number may be used. although somewhat expensive. battery zincs. white metal and other scrap available. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. may be used in either direction. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. or from any adjacent pair of cells. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. In my own case I used four batteries. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. used only for zinc. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. and. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. the following device will be found most convenient. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. babbitt.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. Referring to the figure. --Contributed by Harold S. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. If a good furnace is available. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. 15% lead. is very desirable.

may be made of hardwood. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. which will be sufficient to hold it. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. B. A. Then walk down among the audience.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. outward. Chicago. backward. Then replace the table. Fig. Make one of these pieces for each arm. Put a sharp needle point. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. The bearings. If desired. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. as shown in the illustration. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. B. 3/4 in. as shown at A. 2. To make it take a sheet-iron band. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. The brass rings also appear distorted. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. By replacing the oars with paddles. shaft made. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. connected by cords to the rudder. --Contributed by Draughtsman.

Fig. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. and a weight. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. Snow.melted babbitt. W. 1. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. E. being simply finely divided ice. The covers. spoiling its appearance. when it will again return to its original state. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. A. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. If babbitt is used. 2. The hubs. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. A block of ice. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. 2 and 3. If galvanized iron is used. 1. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. should be made of wood. or under pressure. but when in motion. as shown in Fig. 1. D. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. or the paint will come off. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. C. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. 3. It may seem strange that ice . In the same way. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. as shown in Fig. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece.

by 1/2 in. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. sometimes only one or two feet a day. no matter how slow the motion may be. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram.should flow like water. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. as per sketch. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. in. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. B. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. by 5 in. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. it will gradually change from the original shape A. P. by 1/4. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. Lane. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. but. and assume the shape shown at B. which resembles ice in this respect. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. as shown on page 65. by 2 in. or supporting it in some similar way. whenever there is any connection made at all. brass. thus giving a high resistance contact. Pa. using a closed circuit or gravity battery.. Crafton. Pressing either push button. --Contributed by Gordon T. square. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. The rate of flow is often very slow. but by placing it between books. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped .

the battery. wooden supports. D. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. and five dry batteries. In the wiring diagram. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. B. about the size used for automobiles. G. Wilkinsburg. The success depends upon a slow current. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. F. K . but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer.thumb screws. and C. The parts are: A. as shown. B. Ward.000 ft. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. weight. draft chain. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. pulleys. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. Indianapolis. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. draft. cord. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. alarm clock. horizontal lever. --Contributed by A. as shown. H. I. vertical lever. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. C. E. G. Pa. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. J. furnace. A is the circuit breaker. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. the induction coil.

2 are dressed to the right angle. The frame (Fig. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. 3. which will provide a fine place for the plants. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. material framed together as shown in Fig. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . Artistic Window Boxes The top. Kalamazoo. as well as the bottom. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. where house plants are kept in the home. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. Mich. such as used for a storm window. will fit nicely in them. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on.

. in any system of lamps. Canada. N. This is more economical than dry cells. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. as if drawn upon for its total output. but maintain the voltage constant. so as to increase the current.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. and a suitable source of power. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. as indicated by Fig. 1 cp. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. Grant. this must be done with very great caution. and cost 27 cents FIG. Halifax. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. by connecting them in series.. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. which sells for 25 cents. Push the needle into the cork. a cork and a needle. can be connected up in series. However. after a rest. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. for some time very satisfactorily. --Contributed by Wm. 1.. S. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. Thus. The 1/2-cp. and will give the . 1 each complete with base. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. one can regulate the batteries as required. i. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. in this connection. and the instrument will then be complete. A certain number of these. multiples of series of three. e. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. It must be remembered. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. since a battery is the most popular source of power. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. where they are glad to have them taken away. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. However. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. in diameter. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. is something that will interest the average American boy. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. W. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs.

although the first cost is greater. as in Fig. each. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. and for Christmas trees. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. and running the series in parallel. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. by the proper combination of these. lamps.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. which is the same as that of one battery. double insulated wire wherever needed. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. FIG. 1-cp. These will give 3 cp. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. Thus.proper voltage. Thus.. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. if wound for 6 volts. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. lamps. we simply turn on the water. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. Chicago. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. In conclusion. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. 2 shows the scheme. especially those of low internal resistance. making. according to the water pressure obtainable. 3. 11 series. lamp. or 22 lights. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. to secure light by this method. 18 B & S. . where the water pressure is the greatest. and then lead No. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. So. However. generates the power for the lights. for display of show cases. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. Fig. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. If wound for 10 volts. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. and diffused light in a room. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known.

How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. DD. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. as shown in the sketch. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. --Contributed by F.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. A. Cal. center points of switch. A indicates the ground. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. After I connected up my induction coil. Ind. outside points of switch. --Contributed by Leonard E. simply change the switch. field of motor. a bait of meat. brushes of motor. Plymouth. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. To reverse the motor. Emig. are cut just alike. or from one pattern. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. thus reversing the machine. Parker. CC. . To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. we were not bothered with them. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. the letters indicate as follows: FF. B. bars of pole-changing switch. and C. AA. switch. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. and the sides. B. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. or a tempting bone. BB. Santa Clara.

Melchior. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. Minn. Fry. San Jose. 903 Vine St. attached to the end of the armature B. The experiment works best . one cell being sufficient. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. To unlock the door. which is in the door. a hammer. as it is the key to the lock.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo.. The button can be hidden. a piece of string. If it is not. and a table or bench. Cal. thus locking the door. merely push the button E. Hutchinson. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. or would remain locked. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. -Contributed by Claude B. W. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. When the circuit is broken a weight. A. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked.

D. Schmidt. 4). and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. 18 Gorham St. Brockville. forming a loop. Culebra. Tie the ends of the string together. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. --Contributed by Geo.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. which pulls the draft open. run through a pulley. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. where it will remain suspended as shown. 3. Crawford Curry. Madison.Contributed by F. Canada. the key turns. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. P. as shown in Fig. the stick falls away. the current flows with the small arrows.. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. in the ceiling and has a window weight. A. 2. Wis. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. . attached at the other end. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. Porto Rico. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. 3. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. When the alarm rings in the early morning. -. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. I. On another block of wood fasten two wires. Ontario. W. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. releasing the weight. C. 1).

get two pieces of plate glass. made with his own hands. thick. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. including the mouthpiece. Jr. which fasten to the horn. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat.. The cut shows the arrangement. Farley. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. --Contributed by Wm. 6 in. square and 1 in. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. Camden.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. and break the corners off to make them round. and the other to the battery. or from a bed of flowers. N. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. D. Use a barrel to work on. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. S. running one direct to the receiver. thence to a switch. First. J. R. J. or tree. and then to the receiver. and . Connect two wires to the transmitter. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn.

while walking around the barrel. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. with pitch.. wetting it to the consistency of cream. Place a large sheet of pasteboard.. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. When dry. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. of water. Use a binger to spread it on with. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. and the under glass or tool convex. Fasten. or less. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. and a large lamp. Fig. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. and label. in length. 1. by the side of the lamp. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. twice the focal length away. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. so the light . wet till soft like paint. the coarse grinding must be continued. also rotate the glass. A. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. When polishing the speculum. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. as in Fig. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. or it will not polish evenly. When done the glass should be semitransparent. melt 1 lb. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. Fig. set the speculum against the wall. Have ready six large dishes. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. wide around the convex glass or tool. unless a longer focal length is wanted. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. a round 4-in. with 1/4-in.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. spaces. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. Then warm and press again with the speculum. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. and is ready for polishing. In a dark room. 2. then take 2 lb. and spread on the glass. L. using straight strokes 2 in. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. then 8 minutes. 2. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft.

longer strokes. with distilled water.. that was set aside. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke.. Now add enough of the solution A. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. Place the speculum. if a hill in the center.……………………………. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. 39 gr. 2.. Fig. Nitric acid . of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. then ammonia until bath is clear. fill the dish with distilled water. long to the back of the speculum. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. With pitch.……………………………….. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. as in K. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. When dry. 4 oz. When the focus is found. Alcohol (Pure) …………….. Then add solution B.. the speculum will show some dark rings.. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia..100 gr. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. 2. 25 gr. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. from the lamp. 100 gr. The knife should not be more than 6 in. 840 gr. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. add the ammonia solution drop by drop. the speculum is ready to be silvered. must be procured. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside.. cement a strip of board 8 in. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. in the bath and leave until the silver rises. deep. Silver nitrate ……………………………. touched with rouge. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. Two glass or earthenware dishes. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. 4 oz. Fig.……………. Solution D: Sugar loaf . If not. or hills. Place the speculum S. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. The polishing and testing done.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. also how the rays R from a star . and pour the rest into the empty dish. face down.. Then add 1 oz. Fig. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube.

Make the tube I of sheet iron. using strawboard and black paper. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. two glass prisms. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. Thus an excellent 6-in. slightly wider than the lens mount.John E. The flatter they are the less they will distort. telescope can be made at home. My telescope is 64 in. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret.. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. is a satisfactory angle. long and cost me just $15. . stop down well after focusing. and proceed as for any picture. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. About 20. Mellish. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. Place over lens. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. Then I made the one described. deg. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. cover with paper and cloth. which proves to be easy of execution. with an outlay of only a few dollars. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold.

How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. 2. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. add the plaster gradually to the water. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. . -Contributed by A. 1.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. The paper is exposed. through the lens of the camera and on the board. A. says the Master Painter. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. as shown in Fig. but will not preserve its hardening. instead of the contrary. B. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. Ill. The rays of the clear. Do not stir it. complete the arrangement. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. D. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. Zimmerman. then add a little sulphate of potash. Fig. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. Boody. unobstructed light strike the mirror. push the button D. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. or powdered alum. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. To unlock. and reflect through the negative. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings.

as in Fig. 2. but will remain suspended without any visible support. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. To reverse. throw . 3. Fasten on the switch lever. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. Then blow through the spool. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. as at A and B. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. use a string. as shown in the sketch. Fig. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. 2. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. 1). so that it can rotate about these points.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. also provide them with a handle. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over.

as shown in the sketch. . D. San Antonio. and rub dry with linen cloth. and E E. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. Levy. --Contributed by R. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. L. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. C C. the armature. Take out. Tex. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. A is the electricbell magnet.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. carbons. Go McVicker. Push one end of the tire into the hole. North Bend. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. rinse in alcohol. San Marcos. -Contributed by Morris L. B. Neb. binding posts. Tex. carbon sockets. --Contributed by Geo. Thomas. In the sketch. although this is not necessary. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. wash in running water.

wound evenly about this core. 16 magnet wire. 14 or No. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. Brooklyn. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. Divested of nearly all technical phrases.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. By means of two or more layers of No. long or more. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. --Contributed by Joseph B. 36 magnet wire. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . Bell. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary.

The primary is made of fine annealed No.which would be better to buy ready-made. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. This makes a condenser which may be folded. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. No. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. at a time. with room also for a small condenser. a box like that shown in Fig. and finally the fourth strip of paper. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. 4. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. The following method of completing a 1-in. diameter. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. A 7/8-in. as shown in Fig. which is an important factor of the coil. coil illustrates the general details of the work. hole is bored in the center of one end. The condenser is next wrapped . When cut and laid in one continuous length. In shaping the condenser. long and 5 in. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. then the strip of tin-foil. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. one piece of the paper is laid down. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. Beginning half an inch from one end. 1. and the results are often unsatisfactory. about 6 in. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. wide. or 8 in. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. as the maker prefers. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. the entire core may be purchased readymade. in length. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. in diameter. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. long and 2-5/8 in. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. After the core wires are bundled. but if it is not convenient to do this work. 2 yd. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. which is desirable. making two layers.

E. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. wide. I. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. battery . lines H. A. which allows wiring at the back. switch. flange turned on one side.securely with bands of paper or tape. round so that the inside . by 12 in. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. The alarm key will turn and drop down. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. whole length. open switch C. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back.. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. spark. copper lever with 1-in. F. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. long to key. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. and one from battery. C. go. D. which is insulated from the first. shows how the connections are made. G. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. and the other sheet. B. B. the letters indicate as follows: A. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. one from bell. 4 in.) The wiring diagram. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. V-shaped copper strip. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. ready for assembling. forms the other pole or terminal. long and 12 in. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. shelf for clock. to the door. 3. bell. Fig. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell.

. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. but with the circuit. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. If desired for use immediately. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus.. That is what they are for. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. Use a glass or metal shade. The circuit should also have a high resistance. instead of close to it. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. London. This is for blowing. but add 5 or 6 oz. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. from the bottom. of blue stone. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. do not shortcircuit. Short-circuit for three hours. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. Line the furnace. and the battery is ready for use. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. and then rivet the seam. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. says the Model Engineer. of zinc sulphate. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself.diameter is 7 in. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. 2 in.

By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. herein I describe a much better trick. Ohio. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass.. as in the other movement. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. and then. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. grip the stick firmly in one hand. porcelain and paper. 2. This type of battery will give about 0.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. for some it will turn one way. thus producing two different vibrations. changes white phosphorus to yellow. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. imparting to them a violet tinge. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. while for others it will not revolve at all. affects . Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. If too low." which created much merriment. but the thing would not move at all. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. below the bottom of the zinc. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. or think they can do the same let them try it. Try it and see. oxygen to ozone. for others the opposite way. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. If any or your audience presume to dispute. 1. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. Enlarge the hole slightly. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made.9 of a volt. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. Outside of the scientific side involved. the second finger along the side. square and about 9 in. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. and therein is the trick. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. At least it is amusing. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. long. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. g. To operate the trick. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in.

if possible. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. and one of them is photomicrography.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. insects. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. but this is less satisfactory. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . a means for holding it vertical. says the Photographic Times. chemicals.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. but small flowers. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. a short-focus lens. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. however. but not essential. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. earth. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. To the front board is attached a box. an old tripod screw. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. and. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. If the worker is not after too high a magnification.

6 ft. 65 4 lb. 7-1/2 in. and a line. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments.--Contributed by George C. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. 7-1/2 in. or 31 ft. 179 11 lb. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. 7 ft. or 3 ft. 11 ft. 268 17 lb. Madison. wide from which to cut a pattern. Ft Lifting Power. Cap. 12 ft. 697 44 lb. 1. 113 7 lb. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. which is 15 ft. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. Divide one-quarter of the circle . 9 ft. 5 ft. 8 ft. 10 ft 523 33 lb. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. AB. 905 57 lb.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. in diameter. If the balloon is 10 ft. 381 24 lb. The following table will give the size. Mass. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. in Cu. Boston. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. balloon. Fig. A line. long and 3 ft. CD. while it is not so with the quill. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. 5 in.

The amounts necessary for a 10- . cutting all four quarters at the same time. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. and so on. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. using a fine needle and No. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. 2. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. Procure 1 gal. 70 thread. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. Repeat this operation four times. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. of the very best heavy body. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. on the curved line from B to C. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. keeping the marked part on the outside. The pattern is now cut. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. making a double seam as shown in Fig. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. of beeswax and boil well together. The cloth segments are sewed together. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. This test will show if the bag is airtight. 3. 4.

ft. if it is good it will dry off. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. ]. of water will make 4 cu. Vegetable oils should never be used. B. After washing a part. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. Water 1 oz. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. About 15 lb. When the clock has dried. capacity and connect them. but if any grease remains on the hand. B. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. 150 gr. of gas in one hour. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. ft. 5. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. 1 lb. of iron. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. Fill the other barrel. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. as shown in Fig. . For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. of iron borings and 125 lb. this should be repeated frequently. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. A. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. a clean white rag. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. with the iron borings. leaving the hand quite clean. to the bag. 1 lb.Green Iron ammonium citrate . balloon are 125 lb. . All FIG.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. it is not fit to use. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. oil the spindle holes carefully. C. A. until no more dirt is seen. pipe. B. using a fine brush. with 3/4in. or a fan. The 3/4-in. 5 . Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. of sulphuric acid. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock.. above the level of the water in barrel A. or dusting with a dry brush. which may sound rather absurd. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. by fixing. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. The outlet. A. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. In the barrel. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. with water 2 in. should not enter into the water over 8 in. C. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet.

Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. to avoid blackened skin. says the Moving Picture World. of the cell is connected to a ground wire.. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell.Water 1 oz.000 ft. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. and keep in the dark until used. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. This aerial collector can be made in . Print to bronzing under a strong negative. Port Melbourne. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. or zinc. Dry in the dark. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. Printing is done in the sun. and a vigorous negative must be used. . but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. A cold. of any make. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. The positive pole. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. keeping the fingers out of the solution. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. at the time of employment. . The miniature 16 cp. toning first if desired. fix in hypo. or carbon. 20 to 30 minutes. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. Exposure. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. or battery. The negative pole. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. A longer exposure will be necessary. Dry the plates in the dark. dry atmosphere will give best results. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. of the cell is connected to the aerial line.

it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. will soon become dry and useless. in diameter. If the wave ceases. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. when left exposed to the air. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. long. both positive and negative. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. and have the other connected with another aerial line. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. holes . and as less current will flow the short way. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. as described below. a positive and a negative. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. If the waves strike across the needle. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. forming a cup of the pipe. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. 5 in. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. As the telephone offers a high resistance. making a ground with one wire. the resistance is less.various ways. The storage cell. lead pipe. lay a needle. This will complete the receiving station.

and the other to the negative. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. except for about 1 in. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . The other plate is connected to the zinc. says the Pathfinder. Two binding-posts should be attached. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. This box can be square. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. namely: a square hole. one to the positive. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. D. This support or block. This. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. a round one. by soldering the joint. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. does not need to be watertight. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. of course. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes.as possible. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. on each end. or tube C. When mixing the acid and water. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. B. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. an oblong one and a triangular one. or tube B.

The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. C. Only galvanized nails should be used. all around the edge. 3. A and B. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. in place on the wood. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. wide. long. and match them together. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. Chicago. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. 2. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. and has plenty of good seating capacity. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. . wide. leaving about 1/16 in. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. as shown in Fig. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. 1. as shown in Fig. C. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. back and under. Ill. The third piece of brass. deep and 4 ft. thick cut two pieces alike. about 20 in. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. is built 15 ft. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. 1. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. This punt. were fitted by this one plug. 2. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. as it is not readily overturned.

A. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. A piece of 1/4-in. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . gas pipe. Tacoma. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. Wash. square (Fig 2). Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. is cut 1 in. In Fig. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. thick and 3-1/2 in. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. B. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity.

* * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. Wagner. and to consume. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. which can be developed in the usual manner. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. no special materials could be obtained. lamp. if possible. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of .--Contributed by Charles H. with the exception of insulated wire. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. no more current than a 16-cp. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. says the Model Engineer. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. without auxiliary phase." has no connection with the outside circuit. H. In designing. it had to be borne in mind that. The winding of the armature. which the writer has made. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. or "rotor. may be of interest to some of our readers. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit.

in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. about 2-1/2 lb. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. holes. were then drilled and 1/4-in. Unfortunately. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. as shown in Fig. also varnished before they were put in. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. while the beginnings . bolts put in and tightened up. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. or "stator. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. 3. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side.the field-magnet. 4. and filled with rivets. and all sparking is avoided. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. After assembling a second time. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. Holes 5-32 in. this little machine is not self-starting. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. The stator is wound full with No. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. thick. They are not particularly accurate as it is. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. 5. C. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. no steel being obtainable. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. as shown in Fig. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. 1. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. with the dotted line. 2. B. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. being used. wrought iron. A. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. in diameter were drilled in the corners. to be filed out after they are placed together.

film to film. E. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. McKinney. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. No starting resistance is needed. as before stated. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. and as each layer of wire was wound. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. as shown in Fig. If too late for alcohol to be of use. 3-Contributed by C. One is by contact. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. In making slides by contact. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. 1. Newark. This type of motor has drawbacks. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. and the other by reduction in the camera. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in.. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. a regulating resistance is not needed. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. J. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. N. 2. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. and would not easily get out of order. if applied immediately. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. and all wound in the same direction. Jr. and as the motor runs at constant speed. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. and especially of colored ones. it would be very simple to build. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. The image should . The lantern slide is a glass plate. as a means of illustrating songs. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. having no commutator or brushes. The rotor is wound with No.

The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. It is best. 4. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. and then a plain glass. Being unbreakable. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. they are much used by travelers. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. These can be purchased from any photo material store. and development should be over in three or four minutes. B. over the mat. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. D. C. 1. except that the binding is different. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. also. A. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. to use a plain fixing bath. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. Fig. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. Draw lines with a pencil. as shown in Fig. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. as shown in Fig. 3. a little extra work will be necessary. about a minute. if possible. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide.appear in. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . 5. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. 2. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. the formulas being found in each package of plates. If the exposure has been correct. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. Select a room with one window.

wide and 50 in. in diameter and 20 in. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. Fig. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. in diameter and 40 in. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. Hastings. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. long. Corinth. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. or other stout cloth. These longer pieces can be made square. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. from the ends. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. If the star is in front of the left eye. while the dot will be in front of the other. from the center of this dot draw a star. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. 1. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . is to be used for the seat. long. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. holes bored in the end pieces. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. Fig. 2. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. known as rods and cones.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. as shown at A. Vt. as shown in Fig. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. from the end piece of the chair. long. A piece of canvas. as shown at B. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. 16 in. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. 1. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in.

An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. per square inch. as shown in Fig. A belt. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. in thickness and 10 in. made from an ordinary sash cord. . A pitman was attached to the large pulley. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. as shown in Fig. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. 2. Cal. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. 1. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. O'Gara. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. as well as to operate other household machines.-Contributed by P. Auburn. J. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. A disk 1 in. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans.

will be the thickness of the object. The part of a rotation of the bolt. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. wide. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. long. leaving it shaped like a bench. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. or inconvenient to measure. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. with as fine a thread as possible. Put the bolt in the hole.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. A simple. fairly accurate. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. and the construction is complete. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. 3/4 in. . square for a support. Bore a 1/4-in. Cut out a piece from the block combination. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. to the top of the bench. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. says the Scientific American. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. then removing the object. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. divided by the number of threads to the inch. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. it serves a very useful purpose. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. direction. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. thick and 2-1/2 in. screwing it through the nut. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads.

which show up fine at night. Bore a 3/4-in. The wheel should be open . Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. piece of wood 12 ft. Place a 3/4-in. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. Oal. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. Santa Maria. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. globe that has been thrown away as useless. long. long is used for the center pole. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. bolt in each hole. beyond the end of the wood. material 12 ft.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets.

at the top and 4 in. A. O. The spool . which should be 1/4 in. long. is soldered. wide and 1/8 in. of the ends with boards. C. thick. in diameter. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. thick. A cross bar. and on its lower end a socket. C. to be operated by the magnet coil. Tex. long. H and J. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft.-Contributed by A. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. thick is used for the armature. The boards may be nailed or bolted. A piece of brass 2 in. Graham. at the bottom. long. long. P. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. from the top end. and the lower part 61/2 in. wide and 1/8 in. from the ends. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. Fort Worth. made of the same material. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing.Side and Top View or have spokes. L. square and 3 or 4 in. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. B. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. 1/2 in. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. pieces used for the spokes. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. The coil. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in.

the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. 2. F. A. 1.E. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. do it without any apparent effort. At the bottom end of the frame. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. Bradlev. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. S. 2 the hat hanging on it.is about 2-1/2 in. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. When you slide the pencil along the casing. long. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig.J. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in.--A. that holds the lower carbon. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. The armature. C.000. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. and place it against a door or window casing. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. Randolph. is drilled. and directly centering the holes H and J. B. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. R. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. then with a firm. for insulating the brass ferrule. S. . --Contributed by Arthur D.000 for irrigation work. by soldering. D and E. This is a very neat trick if performed right. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. Mass. which may be had by using German silver wire. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. one without either rubber or metal end. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. A soft piece of iron. or a water rheostat heretofore described. and in numerous other like instances. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. This tie can be used on grain sacks.

cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. with a 3/16-in. The vibrator. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. from the core and directly opposite. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. D. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. and then 1. in diameter. is constructed in the usual manner. for the primary. long. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. Experiment with Heat [134] . The vibrator B. F. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. in diameter and 1/16 in. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. is connected to a flash lamp battery. for the secondary. C. 1. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. B. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. about 3/16 in. about 1/8 in. mixed with water to form a paste. hole in the center. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. 1. thick. for adjustment. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. The coil ends are made from cardboard. The core of the coil. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. Fig. 2. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. wide. A. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. may be made from a 3/8-in.500 turns of No. About 70 turns of No. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. long and 1 in. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. about 1 in. Fig. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. S. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. leaving the projections as shown. S. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. The switch. in diameter and 2 in. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. in diameter.

it laps down about 8 in. The tin is 4 in. and then well clinched. brass plate. The lock.Place a small piece of paper. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. as shown. 1. The hasp. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. 2 to fit the two holes. and the same distance inside of the new board. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. . therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. The three screws were then put in the hasp. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. between the boards. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. 16 in. in an ordinary water glass. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. which is cut with two holes. 1. long and when placed over the board. board. with which to operate the dial. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. The knob on the dial extends out too far. thick on the inside. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. which seemed to be insufficient. was to be secured by only three brass screws. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. lighted. which is only 3/8-in. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. as shown in the sketch. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. wide. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. Fig.

black color. square and 10-1/2 in. clear glass as shown. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. or in the larger size mentioned.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. square and 8-1/2 in. high for use in window displays. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. one in each division. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. When making of wood. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . and the back left dark. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. If the box is made large enough. the glass. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. not shiny. but when the front part is illuminated. any article placed therein will be reflected in. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. which completely divides the box into two parts. When the rear part is illuminated. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening.

this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. as shown at A in the sketch. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. When using as a window display. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. long and 1 ft. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. a tank 2 ft.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. as shown in the sketch. and with the proper illumination one is changed. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. into the other. Instead of changing the current operated by hand.. When there is no electric current available. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. above the top of the tank. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. alternately. . Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. wide will be about the right size. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. as it appears. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

and boring two holes with a 1-in. bit. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. lines gauged on each side of each. If a planing mill is near. is the green vitriol. wide. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. is built on the front. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. hole. 6 in. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. thick and 3 in. A small platform. gauge for depth. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. O. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. two pieces 1-1/8 in. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. Three windows are provided. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. long. from the ground. square. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. and 6 ft. square and 40 in. dried and mixed with linseed oil. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. then use a red-hot iron to finish. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. with a length of 13 in. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. under sides together. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. 1 in. and a solution of iron sulphate added. radius. long. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. bore from each end. This hole must be continued . Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. 5 ft. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. each. using a 3/4-in.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. Iron sulphate. This precipitate is then washed. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. 2 ft. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. The pieces can then be taken out. high. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. and a door in front. but with a length of 12 in. wide. however. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. as shown. The 13-in. one for each side. Columbus. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. Shape the under sides first. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. or ferrous sulphate. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. hole bored the full length through the center.

A better way. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. For art-glass the metal panels are . Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. square and drawing a diagonal on each. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. thick and 3 in. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. three or four may be attached as shown. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. if shade is purchased. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. hole in each block. When the filler has hardened.through the pieces forming the base. apply two coats of wax. Saw the two blocks apart. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. The sketch shows one method of attaching. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. When this is dry. If the parts are to be riveted. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. Directions will be found on the filler cans. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. Electric globes--two.

the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade.Construction of Shade . METAL SHADE . and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. such as copper. Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal. as brass.The Completed Lamp cut out.

Figure 1 shows the side. The arms holding the glass. as in ordinary devices. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. as shown in the sketch. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. the other. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. 2 the front view of this stand. and Fig. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. the object and the background. one way and 1/2 in. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera.

Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. An ordinary pocket compass. Cut another circular piece 11 in. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. If the light becomes dim. in diameter. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. Put the ring in place on the base. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. wide and 6-5/16 in. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. and swinging freely. about 1-1/4 in. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. wide and 11 in. as shown in the sketch. thus forming a 1/4-in. and an inside diameter of 9 in. Before mounting the ring on the base. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. channel in the circumference of the ring. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. as it is very poisonous. thick 5/8-in. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. long. uncork and recork again. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. outside diameter. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. in diameter for a base. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . pointing north and south. as shown in the cut. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base.

into these cylinders.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi.088 . of the top. Corresponding mirrors. The results given should be multiplied by 1. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. CC.420 . the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. EE. and mirrors. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other. AA. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils.289 . B. in diameter and 8 in. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. from the second to the third. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders.715 . For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes . above the half can.600 . 1 oz. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz.182 . The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings. to which a wire has been soldered for connections. and north of the Ohio river. Place on top the so- .500 .865 1. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. black oxide of copper. are mounted on a base.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current.

during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. says Metal Worker. 62 gr. alcohol. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. the wheel will revolve in one direction. little crystals forming in the liquid. which otherwise remains clear. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. always remove the oil with a siphon. Colo. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. slender bottle. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. Put the solution in a long. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. University Park. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. -Contributed by Robert Canfield.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. When renewing. then they will not rust fast. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. In Fig. 31 gr. of pulverized campor. A Floating Electromagnet [152] .

If two of them are floating on the same solution. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. Solder in the side of the box . A paper-fastener box. will allow the magnet to point north and south. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. Lloyd Enos. floating on a solution. about 1-1/4 in. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. Attach to the wires. on the under side of the cork. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. This is used in place of the spoon. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. --Contributed by C. If zinc and copper are used. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. If zinc and carbon are used. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork.

Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. The spring should be about 1 in. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. The bottom of the box. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. D. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. . To this standard solder the supporting wire. Put ends. brass tubing. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. Take a small piece of soft iron. piece of 1/4-in. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in.1-in. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. C. Rhamstine. H. one on each side of the board. is made from a piece of No. can be made of oak. Bore holes for binding-posts. A. E. D. 14 wire will do. as shown in Fig. stained and varnished. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. hole. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. long. Thos.not shorter than 18 in. The base. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. 1. or made with a little black paint. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. C. to it. glass tubing . A. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. The standard. A circular piece of cardboard. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. of No. G--No. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. Use a board 1/2. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. B. 10 wire about 10 in. long. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. 1-1/4 in. 3 in. C. thick.in. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. E. of wire on each end extending from the coil. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. away. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. wide and 2-1/2 in. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. D. Wind evenly about 2 oz. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface.Contributed by J. 1/2. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. F. B. wide and 6 in. and on the other around the glass tube. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire.in. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. long that has about 1/4-in. If the hose is not a tight fit. and then solder on the cover.

four hinges.--Contributed by R. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. long. in diameter. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. Wis. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place.--Contributed by Edward M. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. long. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. Smith. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. long.of the coil. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. Milwaukee. 3 in. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. Cuba. Teasdale. two pieces 2 ft. of 8-oz. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. When the glass becomes soft. long. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. of No. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. long are used for the legs. is drawn nearer to the coil. making a support as shown in Fig. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. . 5. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. About 1-1/2 lb. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. The iron plunger. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. from the right hand. N. 2. J. about 1 in. long. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. D. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. 3. of mercury will be sufficient. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. 3-in. 1. Y. E. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. canvas.

and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. 4. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. 2. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. leaving 8 in. --Contributed by David A. The tube now must be filled completely. Keys. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. 6. holding in the left hand. 3. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. This tube as described will be 8 in. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. Break off the piece of glass.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. Can. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . Toronto. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. 5. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. Take 1/2 in. thus leaving a. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig.. Measure 8 in. expelling all the air. Fig. long.. of vacuum at the top. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. small aperture in the long tube. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig.

Fig. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. 1 in. FIG. wide and 12 in. joint be accurately put together. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. from the end of same. thick. 1. but yellow pine is the best. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. and the single projection 3/4 in. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. 9 in.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. and 1/4 in. This forms a slot. 1 in. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. thick. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . wide and 5 ft. thick. long. wide and 5 ft. thick. 2. A crosspiece 3/4-in. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. 4.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. cut in the shape shown in Fig. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. as in Fig. 3 in. wood screws. 3 in. 6. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. 4 in. These are bent and nailed. thick. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. 5. Four blocks 1/4 in. as shown in Fig. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. with each projection 3-in. long. 7. long. as shown in Fig. wide and 5 ft. in diameter. material 2 in. 3. The large pulley is about 14 in. wide and 3 in.6 -. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. long.

The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. --Contributed by C. above the runner level. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. R. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. Kan. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. says Photography. Welsh. Manhattan. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. attach runners and use it on the ice. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. by 1-in. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. first removing the crank. Water 1 oz. .

also. from an ordinary clamp skate. The print is washed. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. Printing is carried rather far. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. 2. Leominster. --Contributed by Edward M. as shown in Fig. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. . 3. Newton. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. Treasdale. of water. 1 oz. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. This is done with a camel's hair brush. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. as shown in Fig. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. and very much cheaper.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. 1. --Contributed by Wallace C. Mass. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat.

Then. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. fasten a 2-in. wide. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. A. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. Va. 2. and to the bottom. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. Fig. high for rabbits. 1 ft. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. hole. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. F. with about 1/8-in. wide and 4 in. The thread is broken off at the . the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. Place a 10-in. as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by H. high. say. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. from one end. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. extending the width of the box. The hole in the door should be about 2 in.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. causing the door to swing back and up. 1-1/2 ft. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. 1. and bend them as shown in the sketch. which represents the back side of the door. square piece. too. Alexandria. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. about 10 in. Fig. 1. Church. The swing door B. Take two glass tubes. long. and 3 ft. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A.

black surfaced if possible. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. Take two pieces of pasteboard. 3. high and 12 in. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. wide and 5 in. being 1/8 in. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. camera and wish to use some 4. C. horses and dogs. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. 2. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. D. long. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. wide. but cut it 1/4 in. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in.by 7-in. Jr.proper place to make a small hole. A and B. says Camera Craft. Cut an opening in the other piece. Paste a piece of strong black paper. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools.by 5-in. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. shorter. and go in the holder in the same way. from the edge on each side of these openings. say 8 in. . automobiles. as shown in Fig. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. 1. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. in size. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. -Contributed by William M. This opening. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. 1 in. trolley cars. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. long. Out two rectangular holes. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. Chicago. and exactly 5 by 7 in. Crilly. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. B. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. to be used as a driving pulley. in size. plates. Fig. inside of the opening. 10 in. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. shorter at each end. wide. Fig..

long and 6 in. making a . The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. if it has previously been magnetized. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. The needle will then point north and south.in. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. in diameter. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it.. wide will be required. A cell of this kind can easily be made. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. into which the dog is harnessed. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles.

supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. 1/4 lb. beeswax melted together. sal ammoniac.watertight receptacle. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. leaving about 1/2-in. Secure three carbon rods 1/2.in. long which are copper plated. File the rods to remove the copper plate. of water. This makes the wire smooth. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. plaster of paris. . This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. B is a base of 1 in. in which P is the pan. fodder. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. Pack the paste in. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. fuel and packing purposes. of rosin and 2 oz. Place the pan on the stove. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. under the spool in the paraffin. Do not paint any surface. filter. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. when the paraffin is melted. in diameter and 6 in. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. 3/4 lb. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. with narrow flanges. pull out the wire as needed. A is a block of l-in. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. Form a 1/2-in. of the plate at one end. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. one that will hold about 1 qt. says Electrician and Mechanic. zinc oxide. short time. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. and a notch between the base and the pan. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. for a connection. F is a spool. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. 1 lb. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. only the joints. of the top. pine.

thus making the arm revolve in one direction. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. thus producing two different vibrations. grip the stick firmly in one hand. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. Try it and see. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. for others the opposite way.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. by the Hindoos in India. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. or think they can do the same. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. square and about 9 in. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. from vexation. while for others it will not revolve at all. let them try it. for some it will turn one way. and then. Enlarge the hole slightly. and therein is the trick. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. g. but the thing would not move at all. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. Ohio. At least it is amusing.." which created much merriment. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. and he finally. and one friend tells me that they were . Toledo. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. as in the other movement. 2. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. If any of your audience presume to dispute. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. long. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement.

The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. 4. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. rotation was obtained. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. The experiments were as follows: 1. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. 3. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. secondly. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. p. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. To operate. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. gave the best results. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. 2. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. If the pressure was upon an edge. and. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. 5. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. no rotation resulted. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. by means of a center punch. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring.100 r. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. 6. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. 7. m. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. Speeds between 700 and 1. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. Thus a circular or . the rotation may be obtained. and I think the results may be of interest. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. A square stick with notches on edge is best. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action.

G. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. D. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. unwetted by the liquid. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. it will be clockwise. if the pressure is from the left. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. is driven violently away. or greasy. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. forming a handle for carrying.D. as shown. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. A. and the height of the fall about 6 in. --Contributed by G. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. --Contributed by M. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. Duluth. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. C. A wire is tied around the can. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. at first.. a piece of wire and a candle. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. . Ph. Lloyd. Minn. Washington. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. so far as can be seen from the photographs.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. Sloan. the upper portion is. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. and the resultant "basket splash.. and not to friction of the pin in the hole.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. flange and a 1/4-in. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. hole drilled in the center. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. 1. in diameter. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. Each wheel is 1/4 in. as shown in Fig. as shown. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. long. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. with a 1/16-in. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . axle. about 2-5/8 in. thick and 1 in. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel.

wood. holes 1 in. 5. The first piece. A trolley. wide and 16 in. 1 from 1/4-in. --Contributed by Maurice E. and the locomotive is ready for running. bent as shown. 3. This will save buying a track. are shown in Fig. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. Texas. 2. lamp in series with the coil. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. Fig. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. The current. is made from a piece of clock spring. 3/4 in. San Antonio. each in its proper place. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. 4. is made from brass. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. put together complete. These ends are fastened together. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. 6. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. Fig. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. bottom side up. If the ends are to be soldered. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. which must be 110 volt alternating current. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. or main part of the frame. The parts. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. of No. The motor is now bolted. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. Fuller. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. long. as shown in Fig. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame.brass.50. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. with cardboard 3 in. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. 3. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. 2. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point.

Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. The quarter will not go all the way down. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. 1. Cincinnati. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. 2.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. the length of a paper clip. Fig 1. Fig. then continue to tighten much more. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. O. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. When cold treat the other end in the same way. but do not heat the center. and holes drilled in them. as shown in Fig. and as this end . 3. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a.

In the sketch. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. When the trick is to be performed. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. A pair of centers are fitted. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. and adjusted . When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. or apparent security of the knot. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. has finished a cut for a tooth. 2 and 1 respectively. When the cutter A. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. or should the lathe head be raised.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel.

Bunker. if four parts are to be alike. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. above the surface. long. about 1-1/2 in. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. if but two parts. (5. or one-half of the design. gentleman's card case or bill book. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. draw center lines across the required space. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. dividing it into as many parts as desired. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. swing lathe. coin purse.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. Bott. (1. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. --Contributed by Samuel C. Second row: -Two book marks. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. (2. Fold over along these center lines.) Place the paper design on the leather and.) Make on paper the design wanted. (3. twisted around itself and soldered. The frame holding the mandrel. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . trace the outline. In this manner gears 3 in. note book.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. Fig. N. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. such as brass or marble. tea cosey. lady's card case. 2. 1. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. and a nut pick. tea cosey. watch fob ready for fastenings. Brooklyn. Y. An ordinary machine will do. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. book mark. (4. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. (6. blotter back. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. at the same time striking light. lady's belt bag. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). --Contributed by Howard S. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig.to run true. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. holding it in place with the left hand. When connecting to batteries.

Secure .How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. and an ordinary bottle. some heavy rubber hose.

and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. pull it through the cork to one side or the other.. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. and push it through a cork. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. into which fit a small piece of tube. D. If the needle is not horizontal. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle.C. a distance of 900 miles. The electrodes are made . A. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. C. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. and bore a hole through the center. Thrust a pin. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. from Key West. Florida. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. where it condenses. B. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times.

These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. Four long beams 3/4 in. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. by 3/4 in. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. 1-1/4 in. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. which is tacked to the front edge. wide and 4 ft. and also to keep it steady in its flight. To make a glide. 12 uprights 1/2 in. 2 arm sticks 1 in. --Contributed by Edwin L. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. The operator can then land safely and . The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. as shown in Fig. thick. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. wide and 4 ft. long for the body of the operator. Connect as shown in the illustration. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. 1-1/2 in. wide and 4 ft long. 2 in. lengths and splice them. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. wide and 20 ft. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. lumber cannot be procured. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. wide and 3 ft. thick. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. take the glider to the top of a hill. as shown in Fig. or flying-machine. 2. thick. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. D. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in.in. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. 1/2. 3/4 in. square and 8 ft long. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. If 20-ft. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. wide and 3 ft. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. All wiring is done with No. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. apart and extend 1 ft. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. both laterally and longitudinally. long. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. free from knots. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. several strips 1/2 in. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. 1. Washington. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. use 10-ft. 1. slacken speed and settle. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. thick. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. 2. 16 piano wire. long. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. 3. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. long. long. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. thick. C. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. long. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. as shown in Fig. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. 1. using a high resistance receiver. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. Powell. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable.

Glides are always made against the wind. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. Of course. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. Great care should be . but this must be found by experience. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour.gently on his feet.

a creature of Greek mythology. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop.exercised in making landings. When heated a little. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by L. 2. 1. Bellingham. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. which causes the dip in the line. M. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. half man and half horse. Olson.

Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. 14 in. about the size of stove pipe wire. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. While at the drug store get 3 ft. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. outside the box. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. at the other. long. The light from the . of small rubber tubing. in diameter. this will cost about 15 cents. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. square. long and about 3/8 in. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. a piece of brass or steel wire. will complete the material list. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. about the size of door screen wire. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. making it 2-1/2 in. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in.

1. If done properly the card will flyaway. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. Hunting. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. as shown in Fig. Dayton. . 2. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. This is very simple when you know how. M. O. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. as shown in the sketch. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. while others will fail time after time. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. --Photo by M. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. as shown in Fig.

and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. closing both hands quickly. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. as described. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. then put it on the hatpin head. This game is played by five persons. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. as shown. When the desired shape has been obtained. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. as before. Cool in water and dry. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger." or the Chinese students' favorite game.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. place the other two. hold the lump over the flame. If a certain color is to be more prominent.

and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. or more in width. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. these sectors. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. distribute electric charges . How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. passing through neutralizing brushes. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through.

The hole is to be made 3/4 in. RR. The plates are trued up. brass tubing and the discharging rods. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. The collectors are made. C C. long. in diameter. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. The drive wheels. The two pieces. and of a uniform thickness. and the outer end 11/2 in. 3. The plates. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. after they are mounted. 1-1/2 in. free from wrinkles. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. from about 1/4-in. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. in diameter and 15 in. long. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. 4. GG. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. and this should be done before cutting the circle. at the other. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. the side pieces being 24 in. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. 3. as shown in Fig. are made from solid. and pins inserted and soldered. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. Fig. The fork part is 6 in. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. material 7 in. 1. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. 3/4 in. in diameter. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. wide at one end. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. are made from 7/8-in. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. Fig. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. as shown in Fig. EE. Two pieces of 1-in. Two solid glass rods. in diameter. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. long and the shank 4 in. and 4 in. in diameter. in diameter. D. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. long and the standards 3 in. or teeth. These pins. in diameter. wide. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. 2. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. to which insulating handles . 1 in. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. turned wood pieces.

but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. --Contributed by C. in diameter. ball and the other one 3/4 in.are attached. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. D. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. and the work was done by themselves. wide and 22 ft. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. Colo. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. 12 ft. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. long. Colorado City. Lloyd Enos. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. which are bent as shown. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. one having a 2-in. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers.. KK. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes.

pens . and bore a hole 1/2 in. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. using a 1-in. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded.is a good one. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. deep. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. as at A. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. bit. string together. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. They can be used to keep pins and needles. yet such a thing can be done. The key will drop from the string. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork.

2. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. slim screw. flat and round-nosed pliers. This is to make a clean. unless it would be the metal shears. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. extra metal on each of the four sides. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. 8. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. The second oblong was 3/4 in. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. Use . above the metal.and pencils. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. inside the second on all. or cigar ashes. Having determined the size of the tray. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. Draw one-half the design free hand. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. sharp division between background and design. 6. also trace the decorative design. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. very rapid progress can be made. using a nail filed to chisel edge. then the other side. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. etc. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. file. Proceed as follows: 1. 9. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. 7. Inside this oblong. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. Raise the ends. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. they make attractive little pieces to have about. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. above the work and striking it with the hammer. and the third one 1/4 in. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. When the stamping is completed. They are easily made. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. about 3/4-in. etc. 5. two spikes.. stamp the background promiscuously. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. 23 gauge. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. inside the first on all. 3. 4.. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil.

then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. The eyes. 8. 9. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. 6. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. 10. and fourth fingers. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. In the first numbering.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. and the effect will be most pleasing. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. first fingers. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. 7. third fingers. second fingers. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine.

All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. first fingers. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. 400. viz... so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. which would be 16. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. which would be 70. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. or 60. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures.. thumbs. etc. In the second numbering. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. renumber your fingers. 25 times 25. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. Two times one are two. above 15 times 15 it is 200. 600.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. as high as you want to go. Put your thumbs together. the product of 12 times 12. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. and the six lower fingers as six tens. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. or the product of 6 times 6. or 80. if we wish. but being simple it saves time and trouble. 2 times 2 equals 4. above 20 times 20. 11. At a glance you see four tens or 40. 12. etc. etc. . Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. which tens are added. there are no fingers above. or the product of 8 times 9. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. Let us multiply 12 by 12. Still. or numbers above 10.

adding 400 instead of 100. The inversion and reversion did not take place. 2. at the will of the observer. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. It takes place also. And the lump sum to add. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. further. and. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. Proceed as in the second lumbering. Take For example 18 times 18. twenties. 7. which is the half-way point between the two fives. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. the inversion takes place against his will. beginning the thumbs with 16. 21. or from above or from below. first finger 17. forties. the lump sum to add. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. whether the one described in second or third numbering. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. being 80). thirties. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. 8. when he removes his spectacles. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. the value which the upper fingers have. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. the revolution seems to reverse. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. For figures ending in 6. in the case of a nearsighted person. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. first fingers 22. For example. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. 3. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. the value of the upper fingers being 20.. etc. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. about a vertical axis. not rotation. however. thumbs. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. or what. as one might suppose. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. 75 and 85. and so on. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. any two figures between 45 and 55. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. lastly.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. .

and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. and putting a cork on the point. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. Looking at it in semidarkness. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. as . Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. when he knows which direction is right. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. The ports were not easy to make. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. sometimes the point towards him. A flat slide valve was used. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. the other appearance asserts itself. tee. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion.

across and 1/2 in. If nothing better is at hand. The eccentric is constructed of washers. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. inexpensive. if continued too long without proper treatment. While this engine does not give much power. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. Next take a block of wood. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. pipe. . First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. it is easily built.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. across the head. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. deep.. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. and make in one end a hollow. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. apart. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. H. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. Ill. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. about 2 in. as in a vise. The steam chest is round. pipe 10 in. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. bottom side up. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. Springfield. in diameter. saw off a section of a broom handle. Kutscher. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. -Contributed by W. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. Fasten the block solidly. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. such as is shown in the illustration. secure a piece of No. Beating copper tends to harden it and. The tools are simple and can be made easily. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in.

This process is called annealing. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . To produce color effects on copper. Hay. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side.will cause the metal to break. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. as it softens the metal. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. and. especially when the object is near to the observer. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. Camden. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. the other to the left. Vinegar. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. --Contributed by W. S. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. To overcome this hardness. C. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. O.

In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. the further from the card will the composite image appear. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. But they seem black. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. the one for the left eye being blue. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. only the orange rays may pass through. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. although they pass through the screen. however. the left eye sees through a blue screen. The further apart the pictures are. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. it. It is just as though they were not there. they must be a very trifle apart. because of the rays coming from them. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. with the stereograph. and without any picture. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. diameter.stereoscope. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. that for the right. in the proper choice of colors. not two mounted side by side. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. would serve the same purpose. from the stereograph. . Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. as for instance red and green." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. The red portions of the picture are not seen. because. while both eyes together see a white background. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. In order to make them appear before the card. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. and lies to the right on the picture. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. So with the stereograph. disappears fully. orange. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils.

so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. in diameter. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. This should only be bored about half way through the block. Cal. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. A small round bottle about 1/2 in.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. San Francisco. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. etc. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. The weight of the air in round . Two types of make-and-break connection are used. or the middle of the bottle. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. Place a NO. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. 12 gauge wire. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. A No. 1/4 in. in the shape of a crank. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. wide and 1 in. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. long and a hole drilled in each end. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. wireless. thick.

Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. wide and 4 in. or a column of mercury (density 13. high. square.6) 1 in. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. if you choose.. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. a glass tube 1/8 in. the instrument. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. long. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. . and a slow fall. In general. if accurately constructed. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. 30 in. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. long. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. The 4 in. Only redistilled mercury should be used. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. long. internal diameter and about 34 in. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. the contrary. high. a bottle 1 in. wide and 40 in. will calibrate itself. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. 34 ft. square. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. But if a standard barometer is not available. but before attempting to put in the mercury. pine 3 in. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. inside diameter and 2 in. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. high. Before fastening the scale. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. thick. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame.numbers is 15 lb. or. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow.

5. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. 2. the size of the outside of the bottle. 1. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. 3. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. 6 and 7.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. long. and place them as shown in Fig. thick. Procure a metal can cover. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. Number the pieces 1. wide and 10 in. a cover from a baking powder can will do. which is slipped quickly over the end. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. Mark out seven 1-in.

1 to No. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. 1. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. 5. procure unbleached tent duck. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. 7. Make 22 sections. Move 9-Jump No. shaped like Fig. l over No. 5 over No. To make such a tent. 5's place. each 10 ft. 6 to No. Move 10-Move No. 3. 6 over No. Cape May Point. as shown in Fig. 3 to the center. 2's place. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads.J. 1. 3. Move 2-Jump No.Position of the Men move only one at a time. 5 over No. Move 5-Jump No. This can be done on a checker board. 2 over No. 7 over No. 6 into No. 1 into No. Move 3-Move No. 3 over No. Move 8-Jump No. long and 2 ft. 7 over No. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. 2. 2 .-Contributed by W. Move 12-Jump No. 3. Move 7-Jump No. 2. Move 6-Move No. Move ll-Jump No. 2 over No. Woolson. using checkers for men. 2's place. 7's place. 6. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. Move 4-Jump No. 3 into No. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. 6. Move 14-Jump No. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. 5's place. Move 15-Move No. L. Move 13-Move No. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. 6 in. in diameter. which is the very best material for the purpose. N.

As shown in the sketch. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft.in. Fig. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. wide at the bottom. from the top. leaving the rest for an opening. In raising the tent.. in diameter. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. diameter. as in Fig. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. Pa. long and 4 in. Use blocks. 5. will do. 3 in. long. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. round galvanized iron. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. wide by 12 in. Punch holes in the brass in . 6. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. 9 by 12 in. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. Emsworth. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. After transferring the design to the brass. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. about 9 in. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. 6-in. to a smooth board of soft wood. wide at the bottom. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground.J. --Contributed by G. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. Tress. These are ventilators. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. 2 in. 2. high. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. fill with canvas edging. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. 5) stuck in the ground. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. Have the tent pole 3 in. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. Nail a thin sheet of brass. made in two sections. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. Fig. added.

around the outside of the pattern. cut out the brass on the outside lines. but before punching the holes. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. excepting the 1/4-in. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. Corr. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. It will not. When the edges are brought together by bending. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. Chicago. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads.the spaces around the outlined figures. When all the holes are punched. The pattern is traced as before. bend into shape. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. apart. .

square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. --Contributed by Geo. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. pipe is used for the hub.however. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. or center on which the frame swings. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. or less. Dunham. These pipes are . Sometimes the cream will accumulate. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. Mayger. Stevens. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. Que. A cast-iron ring. Badger. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. partially filled with cream. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. A 6-in. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. better still. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. E. allowing 2 ft.. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. Oregon. If a wheel is selected. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. between which is placed the fruit jar. --Contributed by H. G. pipe. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. or.

The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. bent to the desired circle. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. An extra wheel 18 in. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. pipe clamps. Four braces made from 1/2-in. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. pipe. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] .

the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. as shown in Fig. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. which was placed in an upright position. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. and the guide withdrawn. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. 3. and dropped on the table. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. while doing this. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. The performer. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. 1. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in.

These leaves can be made up in regular book form. Denver. Louis. and second. in a half circle. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. St. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. it requires no expensive condensing lens. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. --Contributed by H. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. Colo. 2. in diameter on another piece of tin. -Contributed by C. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. first. D. Mo.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. The box can be made of selected oak or . An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. 1. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. Harkins. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. F. White. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover.

from each end of the outside of the box. high and must . from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. If a camera lens is used. but not tight. wide and 6-1/2 in. high and 11 in. as shown in Fig. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. wide. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. fit into the runners. wide by 5 in. The door covering this hole in the back. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. 1. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. This will be 3/4 in. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. 3-1/2 in.mahogany. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. AA. focal length. represented by the dotted line in Fig. wide and 6-1/2 in. 2. An open space 4 in. long. long and should be placed vertically. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. Two or three holes about 1 in. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. and. and 2 in. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. wide and 5 in. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. long. 5-1/2 in. from each end. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in.

April.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. C. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. Ohio. as it requires an airtight case. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. calling this February. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. Bradley. June and November. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. and extending the whole height of the lantern. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. --Contributed by Chas. calling that knuckle January. provided it is airtight. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. This process is rather a difficult one. West Toledo. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions." etc. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year.. then the second knuckle will be March. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. and so on. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. the article may be propped up . A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. 1. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown.

How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. or suspended by a string.with small sticks. --Contributed by J. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. Schenectady. 1 and 2. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. 2. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. In each place two electrodes. in. the lid or cover closed. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. N. In both Fig. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. Y. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. H. one of lead and one of aluminum. Pour in a little turpentine. . A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. The top of a table will do. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. fruit jars are required. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. 1. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. running small motors and lighting small lamps. in. taking care to have all the edges closed. giving it an occasional stir. Crawford. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. and set aside for half a day. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. and the lead 24 sq. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. but waxed.

Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. as you have held it all the time. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. Cleveland. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. After a few seconds' time.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. as well as others. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. at the time of request for handkerchiefs.. he throws the other. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. You have an understanding with some one in the company. you remove the glass. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. which you warm with your hands. O. He. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. This trick is very simple.

The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. on a table. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. Crocker. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. if any snags are encountered. in diameter in the center. put it under the glass. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. but by being careful at shores. Victor.-Contributed by E. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. Colo.take the handiest one. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. J. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. but in making one. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. . Pull the ends quickly. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. Be sure that this is the right one. near a partition or curtain. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle.

Fig. 1 in. one 6 in. 1. wide 12-oz. 4 outwales. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. wide and 12 ft. clear pine. The keelson. of 1-yd. wide unbleached muslin. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . 2 gunwales. 1/8 in. for cockpit frame. 3 in. 8 in. 1 piece. Paint.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. apart. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. Both ends are mortised. and the other 12 in. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. 1 mast. is 14 ft. wide and 12 ft. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. 1 in. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. 3 and 4. for the bow. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. and. 14 rib bands. for center deck braces. by 2 in. as illustrated in the engraving. 1 in. drilled and fastened with screws. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. for the stern piece. and is removed after the ribs are in place. by 16 ft. 2 and braced with an iron band. long. by 15 ft. 1 piece. selected pine. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. 1/4 in. by 10 ft. 2 in. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. of 1-1/2-yd. long. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. by 8 in. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. 1 in. from the stern. by 2 in. long. 9 ft. by 12 in. 8 yd. at the ends. 7 ft. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. long. are as follows: 1 keelson. and fastened with screws. the smaller is placed 3 ft. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. from each end to 1 in. screws and cleats. 11 yd. 3 in. wide. 50 ft. thick and 3/4 in. ducking. by 16 ft.. from the bow and the large one. of rope. square by 16 ft..

bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. a piece 1/4 in. 6 and 7. 9. A piece of oak. is cut to fit under the top boards. long is well soaked in water. also. 1 in. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. thick. thick 1-1/2 in. long. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. long. 7 and 8. in diameter through the block. This block. wide and 24 in. The block is fastened to the keelson. Braces. 1/4 in. wide. is a cube having sides 6 in. and a seam made joining the two pieces together.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. 3-1/2 ft. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. apart. Figs. and fastened to them with bolts. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. 6. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. wood screws. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. from the bow. Fig. gunwales and keelson. wide. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. The trimming is wood. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. . They are 1 in. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. Fig. length of canvas is cut in the center. A 6-in. thick. The deck is not so hard to do. Before making the deck. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. long. thick and 1/2 in. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. thick and 12 in. screws. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. A block of pine. A seam should be made along the center piece. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. wide and 3 ft. These are put in 6 in. 4 in. The 11-yd. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. 1 in. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. 6 in. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. wide and 14 in. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. corner braces. 5. doubled.

All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. Wilmette. --Contributed by O. A strip 1 in. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. long. apart in the muslin. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. Fig. Tronnes. 11. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. long. wide. are used for the boom and gaff. 10 with a movable handle.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. each 1 in. Ill. in diameter and 10 ft. . 12. E. at the other. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. wide at one end and 12 in. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. thick by 2 in. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. is 6 in. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. The sail is a triangle. The house will accommodate 20 families. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. The keel. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. The mast has two side and one front stay.

thick. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. 2 in. 5. one 11-1/2 in. square. Bevel both sides of the pieces. Tronnes. long. Fig. five 1/2-in. as shown in Fig. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. 2-1/2 in. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. wide and 2 ft. and the other 18 in. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. E. and 3 ft. 2. long. long. about 5/16 in. flat headed screws. 3. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. flat-headed screws. Cut the maple. with the ends and the other side rounding. Ill.into two 14-in. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. 4. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. wide. Take this and fold it over . If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. --Contributed by O. flat on one side. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. thick. wide and 30 in.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. 1 yd. long and five 1/2-in. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. wide. 1. thick. 2-1/2 in. Wilmette.

Figs. Another piece. Wind three layers of about No. 6-1/2 in. The bag is then turned inside out. B. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. long. 1. of each end unwound for connections. wide and 4-1/2 in. C. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. --Contributed by W. A. Make a double stitch all around the edge. long. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. forming an eye for a screw. is set. long. soaked with water and blown up. wide . pieces 2-5/8 in. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. Mo. 3/8 in. wide and 6-3/4 in. 2 and 3. Bliss. wide and 5 in. If carefully and neatly made. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. wide and 6-1/2 in. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. wide and 3 ft.once. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. After the glue. long. 5 from 1/16-in. square. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. A. 3 in. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. 1-1/4 in. When the glue is set. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. and the four outside edges. long. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. wide and 2-3/4 in. long. then centered. are rounded. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. 3-1/4 in. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. this square box is well sandpapered. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. Glue a three cornered piece. C. as well as the edges around the opening. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. but can be governed by circumstances. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. The front. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. thick and 3 in. Fig. Louis. The sides are 3-1/4 in. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. St. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. thick. square. Cut another piece of board. the mechanical parts can be put together. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. About 1/2 in. the top and bottom. wide and 2-1/2 in. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. long. thick. E. D. and make a turn in each end of the wires. long. and take care that the pieces are all square. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. about 3/8 in. leaving a small opening at one corner. F.

All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. R. wide and 9 in. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface.A. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. W. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. A pointer 12 in. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. long. Austwick Hall. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. hole is fastened to the pointer. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. These wires should be about 1 in. from the spindle. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . The stronger the current. 1/4 in. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. 4. wide and 2-1/2 in. 5. and fasten in place. The base is a board 5 in. G. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. The resistance is now adjusted to show . --Contributed by George Heimroth. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. When the current flows through the coil. Yorkshire. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. 4 is not movable. bored in the back. from one end. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. L. C. 4. board. thick. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. A brass tube having a 1/4-in.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark.S.and 2-5/8 in. 1/16 in. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. and as the part Fig. The end of the polar axis B. Fig. long. Richmond Hill. the part carrying the pointer moves away. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. F. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B.R. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. the same size as the first. Like poles repel each other. showing a greater defection of the pointer. I. Chapman. 5-1/2 in. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. Place the tin. long. and the farther apart they will be forced. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. Fig. in diameter. that has the end turned with a shoulder. Another strip of tin. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. so it will just clear the tin. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left.

thus: 9 hr. shows mean siderial. say Venus at the date of observation. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. 10 min. A. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. 1881. 10 min. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. The following formula will show how this may be found. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. at 9 hr. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. 30 min. and vice . Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. M.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye.

Conn.f. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. Hall. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. --Contributed by Robert W. . The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. New Haven. owing to the low internal resistance. or. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. and then verify its correctness by measurement. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. if one of these cannot be had.m. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch.

inside diameter and about 5 in. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. leaves or bark. Then. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. especially for cooking fish. of alum and 4 oz. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. arsenic to every 20 lb. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. Wet paper will answer. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. The boring bar. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. fresh grass. Fig. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. 1-3/4 in. put the fish among the ashes. cover up with the same. as shown in the accompanying picture. When the follower is screwed down. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. 1. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. thick. 3/8 in. long. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. and heap the glowing coals on top.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream.

thick. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. about 1/2 in. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . fastened with a pin.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. when they were turned in. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. and threaded on both ends. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. pipe. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. pipe. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages.

The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. long. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. wide. 2. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. If the valve keeps dripping. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. A 1-in. The rough frame. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. Fig. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. bent in the shape of a U.valve stems. a jump spark would be much better. thick and 3 in. square iron. Iowa. Fig. labor and time. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. 5. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. Clermont. and which gave such satisfactory results. Fig. 4. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. This plate also supports the rocker arms. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. was then finished on an emery wheel. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. but never one which required so little material. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. the float is too high. 3. then it should be ground to a fit. It . and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. however. 30 in. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. as the one illustrated herewith.

One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. from the center. with no trees or buildings in the way. W. so it must be strong enough. in diameter and 15 in. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. It looks like a toy. long is the pivot. The illustration largely explains itself. 3/4 in. long. extending above." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. A malleable iron bolt. strengthened by a piece 4 in. square and 2 ft. long. square and 5 ft. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. This makes an easy adjustment. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit." little and big. and a little junk. butting against short stakes. hole bored in the post. 12 ft. The crosspiece is 2 in. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. rope is not too heavy. no matter what your age or size may be. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. long. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. --Contributed by C. Nieman. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. being held in position by spikes as shown. in the ground with 8 ft. set 3 ft. for the "motive power" to grasp. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. and. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. square. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. in fact. Use a heavy washer at the head. If it is to be used for adults.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. A 3/4 -in. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. The seats are regular swing boards. strong clear material only should be employed. completes the merry-go-round. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. timber. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. As there is no bracing. from all over the neighborhood.

These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. then it is securely fastened. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. if nothing better is at hand. a wreck. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. 4. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. light and strong. 1.2 emery. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. He shapes two pieces of bamboo.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. 2. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. 1/4 by 3/32 in. The bow is now bent. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. To wind the string upon the reel. long. Both have large reels full of . Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. A reel is next made. away. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. square. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. Having placed the backbone in position. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. one for the backbone and one for the bow. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line.the fingers. and 18 in. as shown in Fig. and sent to earth. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. These ends are placed about 14 in. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. The backbone is flat. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig.

As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. First. Moody. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. C. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. Mass. --Contributed' by Harry S. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. the balance. N. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. Bunker. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. Newburyport. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. often several hundred yards of it. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. Y. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. he pays out a large amount of string. The handle end is held down with a staple. Brooklyn. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string.-Contributed by S. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. common packing thread. or glass-covered string. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. If the second kite is close enough.string.

then draw the string up tight. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. then a dust protector. If the table is round. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. length of 2-in. make the pad as shown in the illustration. each the size of half the table top. --Contributed by Earl R. Corinth. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. square (Fig. cutting the circular piece into quarters. Hastings. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. lengths (Fig. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. Vt. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. must be attached to a 3-ft.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. such as mill men use. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. Cut four pieces of canton flannel.

Moisten the . . Make the other half circular disk in the same way. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless.. G to H. Calif. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B.9-1/4 in. 6-1/4 in. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. from E to F. E. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. Wharton..-Contributed by H. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. which spoils the leather effect. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad.. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. Oakland. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. from C to D. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. 2-1/4 in. 16-1/4 in. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. hard pencil. trace the design carefully on the leather. Use a smooth.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. and E to G. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. 17-1/2 in.

get something with which to make a lining. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. Cut it the same size as the bag. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. and E-G. I made this motor . Trace the openings for the handles. wide. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. To complete the bag. and corresponding lines on the other side. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. Now cut narrow thongs. G-J. H-B. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. about 1/8 in. also lines A-G. is taken off at a time. and lace through the holes. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. with the rounded sides of the tools. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. place both together and with a leather punch. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. apart. if not more than 1 in.

which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. each being a half circle. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. iron. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. 1. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. . of No. Shannon. D. long. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft.M. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. as shown in Fig. 2. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. 1. 2-1/4 in. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. Pasadena. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. Calif. B. --Contributed by J. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. 24 gauge magnet wire. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. in length. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead.

are the best kind to make. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. near the center. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. The gores for a 6-ft. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. pasted in alternately. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. 1. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. balloon should be about 8 ft. high. from the bottom end. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. and the gores cut from these. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass.

using about 1/2-in. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. B. In removing grease from wood. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. leaving a long wake behind. saturating it thoroughly. --Contributed by R. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. leaving the solution on over night. The boat soon attains considerable speed. E. As the boat is driven forward by this force. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. After washing. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. In starting the balloon on its flight. These are to hold the wick ball. A. 2. in diameter. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. Fig. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. 1. If the gores have been put together right. lap on the edges. after which the paint will adhere permanently. as shown in Fig. Staunton. as shown in Fig. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. coming through the small pipe A. The steam. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. 3. 5. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. 4. so it will hang as shown in Fig. somewhat larger in size. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig.widest point.

There are three ways of doing this: First. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. apart on these lines. long. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. The blocks are about 6 in. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. long and each provided with a handle. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. as is shown in Fig. Second. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. 1. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. in bowling form. Third. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. wide by 6 in. In using either of the two methods described. if you have several copies of the photograph. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. high and 8 in.

Fig. Y. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. 2.Fig. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. Hellwig. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. thick. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. Rinse the plate in cold water. being careful not to dent the metal. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. --Contributed by John A. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . Albany. not pointed down at the road at an angle. N. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners.

Corner irons. and Fig. A. With this device. wide and 8 in. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. 2 the front view. thick. are screwed to the circular piece. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. S. which is 4 in. Richmond. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. In Fig.upon any particular object. B. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. is fastened to a common camera tripod. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. through which passes the set screw S. 5 in. in diameter. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. and not produce the right sound. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. 1 Fig. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. A circular piece of wood. Va. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. CC. A. with a set screw. --Contributed by R. Paine. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. long for the base. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. and. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. These corner irons are also screwed to. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. wide and of any desired height. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. Break off the frame. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. 6 in.

then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. La Salle. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. This will make a very compact electric horn. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. .Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. D. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. Ill. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. I made a wheel 26 in. thus producing sound waves. This horn. -1. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. in diameter of some 1-in. S. R. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. as only the can is visible. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. Lake Preston. pine boards. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. Kidder.

Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. --Contributed by C. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. The frame is made of a heavy card. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. Kane. 1. 2. --Contributed by James R. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . Ghent. Fig. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. the same thickness as the coins. If the collection consists of only a few coins. Doylestown. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. 1. O. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. square. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. If there is a large collection of coins. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. B. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. Feet may be added to the base if desired. A. thick and 12 in. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. Purdy.

for after the slides have been shown a few times. Canada. A lead pencil. though not absolutely necessary. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch.J. cut and grooved. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. they become uninteresting. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. The material required is a sheet of No. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. into which to place the screws . pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. If desired. Noble. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. A rivet punch is desirable. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. thick. One Cloud. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. Toronto. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. Neyer. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. several large nails. --Contributed by August T. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. of developer. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. Wis. a hammer or mallet. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. plus a 3/8-in. melted and applied with a brush. border all around. Cal. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. Milwaukee. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. It will hold 4 oz. --Contributed by R. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. and then glued together as indicated.E. --Contributed by J. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. Smith.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much.

at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. like the one shown. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. and file it to a chisel edge. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. There are several ways of working up the design. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. Fasten the metal to the board firmly.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. draw one part. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. screws placed about 1 in. both outline and decoration. Remove the screws. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . Take the nail. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. never upon the metal directly. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. using 1/2-in.

being ball bearing. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. 2. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. each 1 in. two lengths. square and 11 in. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. Provide four lengths for the legs. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. and two lengths. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. of 11-in. 3/4 in. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. as shown in Fig. up from the lower end. long. for the top. 1. About 1/2 yd. long. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. The pedal. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. . The lower rails are fitted in the same way. in the other. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. 3. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. long. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. Rivet the band to the holder. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. Do not bend it over or flatten it. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. for the lower rails. square. square and 181/2 in.wall. using a 1/2in. l-1/8 in. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto.

Ala. Attalla. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. --Contributed by W. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. having quite a length of threads. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. New York City. F. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. --Contributed by John Shahan. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. Quackenbush. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph.

initial. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. something that is carbonated. wide and 8-1/4 in. wide and 4-1/4 in.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. long. one about 1 in. from one end. Mich. and 3/8 in. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. in depth. --Contributed by C. Luther. Two pieces of felt. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. D. and two holes in the other. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. long. and the other 2-3/4 in. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. each 1-1/4 in. The desired emblem. making a lap of about 1 in. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . long. Assemble as shown in the sketch. stitched on both edges for appearance. Purchase a 1/2-in. college or lodge colors. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class.. the end of the other piece is folded over. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. using class. Ironwood. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. from the end.

A piece of lead. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. Fig. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. which can be procured from a plumber. 1. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. in the cover and the bottom. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. or more in height. Indianapolis. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. This method allows a wide range of designs. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. and the cork will be driven out. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. Punch two holes A. 2. as shown in the sketch. Schatz. from the center and opposite each other. or a pasteboard box. if desired by the operator. --Contributed by John H. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . Ind.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. about 2 in. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. 1/4 in. as shown at B. in diameter and 2 in.

allowing the two ends to be free. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. on both top and bottom. as shown in Fig. 1. 3. Columbus. When the can is rolled away from you. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. or marble will serve. it winds up the rubber band. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. and the ends of the bands looped over them. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper.Rolling Can Toy lead. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. putting in the design. . O. metal. The pieces of tin between the holes A. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. Fig. 5. 4. are turned up as in Fig. A piece of thick glass.

A pencil may be used the first time over. long and bored a 1/2-in. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. thick. and. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. deep in its face. thicker than the pinion. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. hole through it. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. If it is desired to "line" the inside. Next place the leather on the glass. face up. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. 1 in. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. The edges should be about 1/8 in. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. After this has been done. New York City. or more thick on each side. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. from each end. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. wide and 20 in. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . I secured a board 3/4 in. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. mark over the design. 3 in.

in the board into the bench top. 2 end rails. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. Brooklyn. and fit it in place for the side vise. New York. in diameter. 1 piece for clamp. Syracuse. 2 side rails. 2 crosspieces. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. Now fit up the two clamps. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. Fig. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. 3 by 3 by 6 in. 1 by 9 by 80 in. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. much of the hard labor will be saved. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. 1 piece. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. 1 by 12 by 77 in. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. Cut the 2-in. 2 by 12 by 77 in. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. 1 top board. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. Make the lower frame first. 1 piece for clamp. countersinking the heads of the vise end. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. 3 by 3 by 36. M. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. 4 guides. 2. lag screws as shown. 1. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. Y. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. pieces for the vise slides. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. 1 back board. 1 top board. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. 1 screw block. 3 by 3 by 20 in. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. --Contributed by A. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. thick top board. 2 by 2 by 18 in. N. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. Rice. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in.

in diameter. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools.. rule.. Only the long run. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. 1 nail set. 3 and 6 in. 1 compass saw. If each tool is kept in a certain place. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. 1 wood scraper. 1 brace and set of bits. 1 pair pliers. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. 24 in. 1 pocket level. The bench is now complete. The amateur workman. as well as the pattern maker. They can be purchased at a hardware store. 1 set gimlets. 1 bench plane or jointer. 1 jack plane or smoother. 1 countersink. 1 monkey wrench. 1 marking gauge.screws. . a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. 1 set chisels. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. 1 cross cut saw. 1 claw hammer. 2 screwdrivers.. 1 2-ft. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. it can be easily found when wanted. 1 rip saw. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. 24 in. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. 1 pair dividers.

Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. 2. but will not make . 1 oilstone. Kane. Pa. will sink into the handle as shown at D. 1. being softer. Doylestown. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. ---Contributed by James M. The calf skin. after constant use. 1.1.1 6-in. 2 and 00 sandpaper. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. Fig. becomes like A. Fig. Fig. will be easier to work. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. 3. No. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. the projecting point A. try square. Fig.

and the length 6-5/8 in. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. -Contributed by Julia A. secure a piece of modeling calf. Turn the leather. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. but a V-shaped nut pick. Two pieces will be required of this size. . Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. such as copper or brass. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. water or heat will not affect. After the outlines are traced. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. The form can be made of a stick of wood. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. cover it completely with water enamel and. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. First draw the design on paper. will do just as well. Having prepared the two sides. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. when dry. the same method of treatment is used.as rigid a case as the cow skin. White. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. If calf skin is to be used. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. New York City. then prepare the leather. lay the design on the face. If cow hide is preferred. which steam.

Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. and an adjustable friction-held loop. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. New York City. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. Herrman. Maine. A. C. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. Portland. --Contributed by Chas. Cobb. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. Richmond. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. Jaquythe. --Contributed by W. --Contributed by Chester L. as shown in the sketch. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. Cal. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. .

The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. --Contributed by Geo. A thick piece of tin. This was very difficult. for instance. or anyone that can shape tin and solder.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. was marked out as shown. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. Conn. Wright. Middletown. . 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. Roberts. an inverted stewpan. --Contributed by Wm. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. Mass. Cambridge. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base.. B. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction.

Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. . With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. Herbert. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. Indianapolis.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. so some bones were quickly calcined. L. which has been tried out several times with success. --Contributed by Paul Keller. and the grease will disappear. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. Ind. There was no quicklime to be had. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. Chicago. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. Bone. of boiling water. When dry. A beautifully bound book. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. used as part of furniture. The next morning there was no trace of oil. on a clear piece of glass. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. face down. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. F. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. but not running over.. apply powdered calcined magnesia. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. If any traces of the grease are left. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. and quite new. pulverized and applied. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. If the article is highly polished. well calcined and powdered. as shown. Illinois. --Contributed by C. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. but only an odor which soon vanished. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. such as chair seats.

set and thumbscrews. The pieces marked S are single. high and are bolted to a block of wood. This coaster is simple and easy to make. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. New York. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. A. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. thick. deep and 5 in. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. wide and 12 in. Howe. says Scientific American. long. --Contributed by Geo.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. Tarrytown.. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. soft steel with the opening 6 in. the pieces . 2 in. 6 in. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. If properly adjusted..

The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. E. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. to the underside of which is a block. says Camera Craft. If the letters are all cut the same height. Their size depends on the plate used. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. for sending to friends. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. they will look remarkably uniform. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. no doubt. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. The seat is a board. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . albums and the like. A sharp knife.

using care to get it in the right position." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. after. and. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. pasting the prints on some thin card. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. mount them on short pieces of corks. In cutting out an 0. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. The puzzle is to get . The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. So arranged. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. for example. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. photographing them down to the desired size. So made. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole.

of its top. squeezes along past the center of the tube. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. G. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row.-Contributed by I. He smells the bait. A hole 6 or 7 in. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. long that will just fit are set in. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. Old-Time Magic . A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. hung on pivots. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . Bayley. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. Cape May Point. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. says the American Thresherman. with the longest end outside. N. snow or anything to hide it. so they will lie horizontal. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit.J.

Szerlip. Y. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. --Contributed by L. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. then expose again. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. Brooklyn. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. Parker. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside.faced up. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. --Contributed by Charles Graham. Press the hands together. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. Pawtucket. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. Pocatello. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. N. then spread the string. E. --Contributed by L. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. Rhode Island. Idaho. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. or rub the hands a little before doing so.

so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. or a complete suit of armor. full size. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. near the point end.Genuine antique swords and armor.. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. The handle is next made. in building up his work from the illustrations. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in.. they will look very much like the genuine article. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. When the glue is thoroughly dry. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. using a straightedge and a pencil. whether he requires a single sword only. 2 Fig. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. The pieces. if any. wipe the blade . The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. 4 on the blade. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. or green oil paint. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. Glue the other side of the blade. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. 1 Fig. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. in width. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. 1. narrower. 3 Fig. long. says the English Mechanic. thick. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. dark red. The blade should be about 27 in. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. and if carefully made. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. end of the blade. wide and 2 in. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. When the whole is quite dry.

1. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. shows only two sides. the other is flat or half-round. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. in diameter. In the finished piece. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. 2. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side.. 1. the other two are identical. This sword is about 68 in. follow the directions as for Fig. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. should be about 9 in. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. and 3 in. 4. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. 1. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine.with light strokes up and down several times. allowing for a good hold with both hands. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. Fig. long. Both edges of the blade are sharp. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig.. square and of any length desired. 3. of course. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. the illustration. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. 2. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. 1/8 in. not for use only in cases of tableaux. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. preferably of contrasting colors. In making. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. thick and 5 in. 3. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. in the widest part at the lower end. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. In making this scimitar. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. the other is flat or halfround. about 1-1/2 in. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. as it is . The length of the handle. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. 1. the length of the blade 28 in. take two pieces of wood.

one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. Y. On each edge of the board. as there was some at hand. Both can be made easily. --Contributed by Katharine D. each about 1 ft. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. long. at the lower end. A piece of mild steel. Syracuse. and if so. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. as shown in the sketch. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. The thinness of the plank. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. however. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. in an attempt to remove it. Morse.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. 2 in. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. It is made of a plank. and. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. square. A cold . about 3/8 in. N. Doctors probed for the button without success. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. as can the pitch bed or block. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. --Contributed by John Blake. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. Franklin. Mass. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. or an insecure fastening. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. piping and jackets by hard water. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward.

secure a piece of brass of about No.. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. 5 lb. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow.. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. plaster of Paris. on the pitch. 5 lb. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. a file to reduce the ends to shape. tallow. When this has been done. using a small metal saw. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. When the desired form has been obtained. To remedy this. To put it in another way. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. Trim up the edges and file them . With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. 18 gauge. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. design down. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch.

The smaller is placed within the larger. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. Fill the 3-in. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. in one second. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower.000 ft. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. make an unusual show window attraction. 3. in one minute or 550 lb.000 lb.smooth. per second. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. 1 ft. lb. space between the vessels with water. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. per minute. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. and hang a bird swing. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. 2). over the smaller vessel. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. 1 ft. --Contributed by Harold H. to keep it from floating. Clean the metal thoroughly. in the center. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. 1) and the other 12 in. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. in diameter (Fig. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. . but not to stop it. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. in diameter (Fig. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. A. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. living together in what seems like one receptacle. or fraction of a horsepower. 30 ft. or 550 ft. Before giving the description. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. and still revolve. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. it may be well to know what horsepower means. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. That is lifting 33. Fig. using powdered pumice with lye. Cutter. lb. This in turn divided by 33. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. one 18 in.

F. Diameter 12 in. or on a pedestal. 1 Fig. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. Y. --Contributed. by L. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. N.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. Diameter Fig. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use.3 Fig. Szerlip. Brooklyn. 2 Fig.18 in. The effect is surprising. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. --Contributed by J. Campbell. Somerville. Mass.

A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. Polish both of these pieces. Rivet the cup to the base. as a rule. the same as removing writing from a slate. which may be of wood or tin. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine.copper of No. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. then by drawing a straightedge over it. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. unsatisfactory. is. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. with other defects. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. often render it useless after a few months service. keeping the center high. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. which. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. This compound is impervious to water. using any of the common metal polishes. to keep the metal from tarnishing. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. and the clay . A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. and cut out the shape with the shears. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. and then. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. with the pliers. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. after which it is ready for use. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. away from the edge. In riveting. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. Do not be content merely to bend them over.

The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. long. It is made of a glass tube. Mich. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. A.can be pressed back and leveled. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. DeLoof. the device will work for an indefinite time. Houghton. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. 3/4 in. Dunlop. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. 2. . The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. in diameter and 5 in. Northville. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. --Contributed by A. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. -Contributed by Thos. Mich. --Contributed by John T. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. as shown in Fig. Shettleston. Scotland. 1. Grand Rapids. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. The siphon is made of glass tubes.

long with the crossguard and blade of steel. stilettos and battle-axes. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. This sword is 4 ft. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil.FIG.1 FIG. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. London. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. As the handle is to . The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. in width and 2 in. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. 1. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. put up as ornaments. long.

the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. A German stiletto. the upper part iron or steel. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. with wire or string' bound handle. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. 8. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. These must be cut from pieces of wood. 6. In Fig. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. the same as used on the end of the handle. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. 9. is shown in Fig. This axe is made similar to the one . The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. sharp edges on both sides. 20 spike. This weapon is also about 1 ft. The sword shown in Fig. small rope and round-headed nails. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. When the whole is quite dry. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. then glued on the blade as shown. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. When dry. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. very broad. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. 4. 3 is shown a claymore. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. with both edges of the blade sharp. one about 1/2 in. the axe is of steel. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. Three large. in length. narrower. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. in width. wood with a keyhole saw. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. When the glue is thoroughly dry. In Fig. The ball is made as described in Fig. In Fig. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. long. long with a dark handle of wood. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. Cut two strips of tinfoil. This sword is about 4 ft. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. glue and put it in place. sometimes called cuirass breakers. studded with brass or steel nails. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. in length. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. A German poniard is shown in Fig. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. The handle is of wood. Both handle and axe are of steel. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. paint it a dark brown or black.represent copper. string. This weapon is about 1 ft. The crossbar and blade are steel. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. 11 were used. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. The lower half of the handle is of wood. firmly glued on. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. 7. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. This stiletto has a wood handle. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. which is about 2-1/2 ft. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. 5. with both edges sharp.

Old-Time Magic . 10. high. Chicago. Davis. the ends are tied and cut off. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. such as braided fishline. . Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. will pull where other belts slip.described in Fig. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. W. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. --Contributed by E. together as shown in Fig. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. 2. When wrapped all the way around.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. so the contents cannot be seen. This will make a very good flexible belt. and as the tension members are all protected from wear.

Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. some of the liquid. As zinc is much lighter than iron. Bridgeton. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. four glass tumblers. about one-third the way down from the top. N. These wires are put in the jar. held in the right hand. S. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. in a few seconds' time. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. causing the flowers to grow. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. apparently. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. or using small wedges of wood. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. with the circle centrally located. Oakland. Macdonald. 1 and put together as in Fig. Calif. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . The dotted lines in Fig. an acid. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. filled with water. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. --Contributed by A. 2. To make the flowers grow in an instant. Before the performance. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. There will be no change in color.J.

Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . When many slides are to be masked. Cal. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. which are numbered for convenience in working. 2 for height. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. says a correspondent of Photo Era. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. Jaquythe. --Contributed by W. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. practical and costs nothing. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. A. If the size wanted is No. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. unless some special device is used. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. This outlines the desired opening. Richmond. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. and equally worthy of individual treatment.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. not only because of the fact just mentioned. and kept ready for use at any time. 4 for width and No.

Etching copper is not a very difficult process. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. The decoration. 16 gauge. When etched to the desired depth. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. or a pair of old tongs. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. a little less acid than water. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. Secure a sheet of No. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. and do not inhale the fumes. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. is about right for the No. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. the margin and the entire back of the metal. not the water into the acid. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. too. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . and the extreme length 7 in. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. about half and half. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. the paper is folded along the center line. With a stick. paint the design. The one shown is merely suggestive. or. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. which is dangerous. but they can be easily revived. may be changed. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. Draw a design. This done. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. possibly. using the carbon paper. Trace the design and outline upon the metal.

(battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. attached to a post at each end. 2. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. through it. Nail a board. 1. Fig. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. as shown in Fig. and bore two holes. wide and of the same length as the table. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. about 2-1/2 in. . --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. so that when it is pressed down. as at H. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. with the wires underneath. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. long and 1 ft. J is another wire attached in the same way. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. about 3 ft. as in Fig. about 8 in. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. repeat as many times as is necessary. about 1 in. 4. Fig. high. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. It may be either nailed or screwed down. the bell will ring. to the table. as shown in the illustration. wide. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. 3/8 in. Fig. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. 2. and to keep the metal from tarnishing.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. 5. Then get two posts. Fig. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. it will touch post F. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. Fig. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. 24 parts water. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. Paint the table any color desired. 5. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. When the button S is pressed. 0 indicates the batteries. or more wide. and about 2-1/2 ft. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. long. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. 3. A. thick. Cut out a piece of tin. in diameter and 1/4 in. The connections are simple: I. C and D. 2. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off.

The imitation articles are made of wood. handle and all. such as . the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. thick. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. After the glue is dry. The entire weapon. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. the wood peg inserted in one of them. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. but they are somewhat difficult to make. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. 2. The circle is marked out with a compass. says the English Mechanic. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. A wood peg about 2 in. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts..Imitation Arms and Armor . It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. These rings can be carved out. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. This weapon is about 22 in. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. 1. long. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. long serves as the dowel. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. is to appear as steel.

long. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. This weapon is about 22 in. leaves. The lower half of the handle is wood. Its length is about 3 ft. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. flowers. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. also. 8. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. All of these axes are about the same length. the hammer and spike. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. The spikes are cut out of wood. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. used at the end of the fifteenth century. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. or the amateur cannot use it well. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. 2. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. 3. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. The handle is of wood. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. as shown. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. covered with red velvet. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. The handle is of steel imitation. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. with a sharp carving tool. studded with large brass or steel nails. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. 6. If such a tool is not at hand. The upper half of the handle is steel. The entire handle should be made of one piece. The axe is shown in steel. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. is shown in Fig. . as before mentioned. etc. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in.ornamental scrolls. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. as described in Fig. 5. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth.

2. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. a three-base hit. 6. 1. 4). Each person plays until three outs have been made. 3. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. The knife falling on its side (Fig. then the other plays. . and so on for nine innings. as in Fig. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. calls for a home run. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. Chicago. Fig. 7) calls for one out. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. 5. as shown in Fig. the knife resting on its back. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown.

Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. of the rope and holds it. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. Old-Time Magic . If it is spotted at all. of water for an hour or two. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. Campbell. Somerville. one of them burning .A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. This he does. It may be found that the negative is not colored. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. as shown in Fig. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. 2. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. with the rope laced in the cloth. while the committee is tying him up. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. as shown in Fig. hypo to 1 pt. F. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. 3. Mass. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through.-Contributed by J. 1. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale.

A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. Brown. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. New York City. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. B. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper.brightly. He then walks over to the other candle. invisible to them (the audience). with which he is going to light the other candle. Drill Gauge screw. 3/4 in. Evans. --Contributed by C. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. the other without a light. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. . and. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles.. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. --Contributed by L. Louisville.Contributed by Andrew G. Thome. 4 oz. Ky. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. of water and 1 oz. thick. Ky. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. shades the light for a few seconds. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. thus causing it to light. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. 4 oz. bolt. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. showing that there is nothing between them. Lebanon. etc. of plumbago. of turpentine. The magician walks over to the burning candle. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. of sugar.

A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. long. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. H. into a tube of several thicknesses. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . Its current strength is about one volt. thick. for the material.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. but is not so good. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. N. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. Denniston. Y. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. Pulteney. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. Do not add water to the acid. steady current. or blotting paper. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. which will give a strong. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. To make the porous cell. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. --Contributed by C. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. 5 in. In making up the solution. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. diameter. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. about 5 in. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in.

station. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. To insure this. steel. one drawing them together. carrying the hour circle at one end. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company.) may be obtained. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. the other holding them apart. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. while the other end is attached by two screws. One hole was bored as well as possible. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. steel. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. a positive adjustment was provided. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. Finally. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. steel. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. but somewhat lighter. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. As to thickness. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. The . After much experimentation with bearings. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. long with a bearing at each end. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved.

To find a star in the heavens. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. Point it approximately to the north star.. once carefully made. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum." When this is done. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. excepting those on the declination axis. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. If the result is more than 24 hours. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. When properly set it will describe a great circle. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. It is. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. in each direction from two points 180 deg. subtract 24. are tightened. need not be changed." Only a rough setting is necessary. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . All these adjustments. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. turn the pointer to the star. apart. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. Cassiopiae. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. To locate a known star on the map. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars.. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. Each shaft. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. and if it is not again directed to the same point. All set screws. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. 45 min. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. is provided with this adjustment. The aperture should be 1/4 in. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. and 15 min. save the one in the pipe. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. Declination is read directly. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. The pointer is directed to Alpha. Instead. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. The pole is 1 deg. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. Set the declination circle to its reading.

La. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. is the real cannon ball. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. add a little more benzole.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. If this will be too transparent. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. The ball is found to be the genuine article. In reality the first ball. as shown in the sketch. long. the others . which is the one examined. New Orleans. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. The dance will begin. taking care not to add too much. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan.. 3 or 4 in. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. Plain City. cannon balls. a great effect will be produced. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. is folded several times. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. Ohio. -Contributed by Ray E. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. of ether. benzole. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. then add 1 2-3 dr. Strosnider.

--Contributed by J. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. small brooches. Cal. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. In boxes having a sliding cover. as shown in the illustration. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. taps. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. Return the card to the pack. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. Campbell. Fig. without taking up any great amount of space. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. F. Milwaukee. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. 1). --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. Mass. Somerville. Wis. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . etc. 2. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card.. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. San Francisco. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig.

Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. thus giving ample store room for colors. Beller. Connecticut. prints. round pieces 2-1/4 in. slides and extra brushes. Hartford. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. . The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. This box has done good service. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. as shown in the illustration. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. from the bottom of the box. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook.

a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. 2). the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. with well packed horse manure. holes in the bottom of one. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. costing 5 cents. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. will answer the purpose. Fill the upper tub. FIG. 1). tacking the gauze well at the corners.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. -Contributed by C.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. West Lynn. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. Mass. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. or placed against a wall. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. . When the ends are turned under. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. O. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. about threefourths full. Darke.

and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. M. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. If plugs are found in any of the holes. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. cutting the cane between the holes. when they are raised from the pan. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. Chicago. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. oil or other fluid. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. Eifel. and each bundle contains . they should be knocked out. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. --Contributed by L. If the following directions are carried out. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. if this is not available. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it.

a square pointed wedge. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. In addition to the cane. and. No plugs . and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. then across and down. put about 3 or 4 in. 1. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. held there by inserting another plug. it should be held by a plug. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. after having been pulled tight.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. as shown in Fig. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. as it must be removed again. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side.

called the gnomon. --Contributed by M. 41°-30'. W. From table No. During the weaving. in this case) times the . the height of the line BC. and for lat.2+. After completing the second layer. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. 5.42 in. 1. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. -Contributed by E. is the base (5 in. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. as the height of the line BC for lat. R. When cool. as shown in Fig. The style or gnomon. 1. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. 40°. 1 lat. Detroit. and for 1° it would be . and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. 3. 42° is 4. and the one we shall describe in this article. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. 3. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. 4.15+.2 in.3 in.075 in. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. No weaving has been done up to this time. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. but the most common. Michigan.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. Even with this lubrication. Fig. as shown in Fig. the height of which is taken from table No. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. trim off the surplus rosin. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . is the horizontal dial. Fig.075 in. Patrick. the next smallest. or the style. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. This will make three layers. If handled with a little care. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. as for example. 1. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. There are several different designs of sundials. it is 4. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. If you have a table of natural functions. lat. 41 °-30'. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. we have 4. stretch the third one.15 in. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third.5 in. It consists of a flat circular table. All added to the lesser or 40°. as it always equals the latitude of the place. for 2°.= 4. D. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. 5 in. Their difference is . using the same holes as for the first layer. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude.

49 3.96 32° 3.85 35 . and intersecting the semicircles. long. 2. A line EF drawn through the points A and C.57 1. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2.27 2. or more.40 1. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed.56 . Draw two semi-circles.44 44° 4.30 2.46 3.11 3.79 4. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style. gives the 6 o'clock points.50 26° 2. To layout the hour circle.02 1.30 1.66 48° 5. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 .16 1.tangent of the degree of latitude.55 46° 5.10 6.81 4.99 2. using the points A and C as centers.23 6.46 .39 . For latitudes not given.33 .66 1. an inch or two. 1.37 5.68 5-30 6-30 5. 2.87 4. and perpendicular to the base or style.33 42° 4.29 4-30 7-30 3.49 30 .20 60° 8.63 56° 7.42 1.55 4. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in.28 .42 45 . Its thickness.07 4.76 1.66 latitude.42 .82 3.16 40 .89 50° 5. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial. Fig.57 3. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight. or if of stone. according to the size of the dial. which will represent the base in length and thickness.77 2.55 5.19 1.93 6.83 27° 2. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown.26 4. circle Sundial. Table NO. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks.40 34° 3.41 38° 3.03 3.91 58° 8.88 36° 3.14 5. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No. Height of stile in inches for a 5in.93 2.82 2. base. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No. Draw the line AD. 2 for given latitudes. draw two parallel lines AB and CD. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in.94 1.37 54° 6. . with a radius of 5 in.00 40° 4.59 2.85 1.64 4 8 3.06 2. Chords in inches for a 10 in.97 5 7 4. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points.82 5.12 52° 6.32 6.18 28° 2.38 .55 30° 2.87 1. if of metal. and for this size dial (10 in.

adding to each piece interest and value. An ordinary compass. Each weapon is cut from wood. E. 3. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west. and on these dates the dial needs no correction. then the watch is slower. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year. it will be faster.from Sundial lime.93 6. June 15.89 3.01 1. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole. Iowa. Sioux City.30 2. says the English Mechanic.82 3.21 2.add those marked + subtract those Marked .19 2.60 4. after allowing for the declination. and for the difference between standard and local time. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No.79 6.68 3.50 ..52 Table No. each article can be labelled with the name. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15. London.87 6. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time.12 5. --Contributed by J. 3.means that the dial is faster than the sun. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position.14 1.63 1.37 2.06 2.08 1.24 5. 2 and Dec. The + means that the clock is faster.10 4. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the . As they are the genuine reproductions. will enable one to set the dial.53 1. April 16. and the .71 2.49 5.46 4. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid. This correction can be added to the values in table No.77 3. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality. 25.54 60 . If the dial is east of the meridian chosen.57 1. 900 Chicago. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker. Mitchell. if west.98 4. Sun time to local mean time. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York. Sept.72 5. 3 Corrections in minutes to change. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3.49 3. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached.34 5.46 5.50 55 . care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face.

This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. When putting on the tinfoil. 3. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil.. 1. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. . If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. Partisan. the length of which is about 5 ft.

The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. The length of this bar is about 5 in. which are a part of the axe.which is square. It is about 6 ft. . A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. The extreme length is 9 ft. The edges are sharp. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. press it well into the carved depressions. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. long. 5. This weapon is about 6 ft. used about the seventeenth century. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. long with a round wooden handle. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. long with a round staff or handle. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. long. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. the holes being about 1/4 in.. sharp on the outer edges. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. 7. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. in diameter. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. 8. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. A gisarm or glaive. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. 6 ft. about 4 in. The spear is steel. is shown in Fig.

The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. the cross cords. They can be made of various materials. Workman. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. This is important to secure neatness. apart. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. Ohio. Substances such as straw. In Figs. 2 and 3. used for spacing and binding the whole together. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. B. Loudonville. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. 1. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. Cut all the cords the same length. are put in place. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. or in holes punched in a leather strap.-Contributed by R. 4.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. H. The twisted cross cords should . The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. the most durable being bamboo. are less durable and will quickly show wear. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. 5.

--Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Four V-shaped notches were cut. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. Harrer. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. bamboo or rolled paper. wide. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. This was turned over the top of the other can. as shown at B. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. A slit was cut in the bottom. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. La. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. -Contributed by Geo. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. 3 in. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. below the top to within 1/4 in. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. in which was placed a piece of glass. New York. M. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. of the bottom. Lockport. The first design shown is for using bamboo. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord.be of such material. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. To remedy this. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. New Orleans. shaped as shown at C. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. for a length extending from a point 2 in.

The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. --Contributed by Chas. Maywood. Newburgh. is shown in the accompanying sketch. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. It would be well to polish the brass at first. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. about 1/16 in. Pasadena. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. H. Sanford. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. turned over but not fastened. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. This should be done gradually. --Contributed by W. Y. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. do not throw away the gloves. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. wide. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. Schaffner. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves.tape from sticking to the carpet. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. Cal. --Contributed by Joseph H. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. N. and two along the side for attaching the staff. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. After this is finished. giving the appearance of hammered brass. This plank. Shay. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. Ill. the brass is loosened from the block. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. plank as long as the diameter of the platform.

--E. Ill. Cal.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. -Contributed by W. in diameter. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. Jaquythe. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. Richmond. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. Marshall. A. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. bent as shown. K. Oak Park. the pendulum swings . Unlike most clocks.

bar. high. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. Metzech.. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. on the board B. wide that is perfectly flat. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. about 6 in.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. high and 1/4 in. to the first one with screws or glue. away. about 12 in. 6 in. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. 5/16 in. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. The construction is very simple. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. and the other two 2-5/8 in. only have the opposite side up. such as this one. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. Secure a board. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. B. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. high. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. 3/4 in. Two uprights. says the Scientific American. . by 1-5/16 in. In using this method. bearing on the latter. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. Now place the board to be joined. are secured in the base bar. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. Fasten another board. Chicago. long and at each side of this. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. in diameter. wide. C. thick. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. A. is an electromagnet. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. --Contributed by V. high. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. the center one being 2-3/4 in. 7-1/2 in.

square inside. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. Fig. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. --Contributed by Elmer A. by driving a pin through the wood. or more. Pa. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. Phoenixville. Place the cardboard square in the nick B.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. 3. 2. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. plates should be made 8 in. wide and 5 in. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. 1. 4. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. Vanderslice. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. whose dimensions are given in Fig. The trigger. square. long. Fig. 1. from one end. 1. is fastened in the hole A. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. . as shown at A. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. wide and 1 in.

if only two bands are put in the . Ohio. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. as shown in the illustration. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. 2 parts of whiting. which allows 1/4 in. rubbing varnish and turpentine. 5 parts of black filler. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. -Contributed by J. Simonis. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. one-half the length of the side pieces. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. by weight. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take.A. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. Fostoria. square.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull.

The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. keeps the strong light out when sketching. Grand Rapids. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. wide and about 1 ft. London. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. G. and the picture can be drawn as described. as shown in Fig. Shaw. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. Dartmouth. A double convex lens. which may be either of ground or plain glass. It must be kept moist and well . Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. says the English Mechanic. and it may be made as a model or full sized. -Contributed by Abner B. place tracing paper on its surface. If a plain glass is used. II. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. deep. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. 1. No. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. is necessary. In constructing helmets. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. A piece of metal. In use. long. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. Michigan. A mirror. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. DeLoof. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. is set at an angle of 45 deg. --Contributed by Thos.lower strings. preferably copper. 8 in. in the opposite end of the box. Mass. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. If the wire fits the lamp loosely.

with a keyhole saw. and left over night to soak. will be necessary. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. All being ready. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. take. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. 1. the clay model oiled. as shown in Fig. The clay. a few clay-modeling tools. and over the crest on top. shown in Fig. After the clay model is finished. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. 1. brown.kneaded. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. 2. or some thin glue. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. Scraps of thin. as in bas-relief. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. joined closely together. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. This being done. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . 3. on which to place the clay. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. and the deft use of the fingers. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. and continue until the clay is completely covered. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape.

and so on. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. as seen in the other part of the sketch. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. The whole helmet. should be modeled and made in one piece. Before taking it off the model. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. square in shape. as shown: in the design. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. one for each side. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. will make it look neat. 7. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. with the exception of the vizor. 5. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. 9. Indiana. The band is decorated with brass studs. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. or. This contrivance should be made of wood. Indianapolis. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. the piecing could not be detected. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. The center of the ear guards are perforated.as possible. a few lines running down. the skullcap. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. then another coating of glue. owing to the clay being oiled. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. --Contributed by Paul Keller. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. 1. When the helmet is off the model. When dry. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. a crest on top. and the ear guards in two pieces. In Fig. They are all covered with tinfoil. which should be no difficult matter. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. In Fig. When perfectly dry. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century.

of No. to receive screws for holding it to the base. of fire clay. about 1 lb. Fig. 2. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. FF. 4. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. 1. German-silver wire is better. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. 3. 2. Fig. about 1/4 in. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. as it stands a higher temperature. of the top. one fuse block. one oblong piece of wood. 4. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. 4. 12 in. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. is then packed down inside the collar. GG. in diameter and 9 in. screws. one glass tube. 1 in. The holes B and C are about 3 in. 1. The two holes. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. the fuse block. long. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. Fig. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. above the collar. Fig. 1. as shown in Fig. Fig. two ordinary binding posts. Fig. long. 4. about 80 ft. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. Fig. E and F. if the measurements are correct. Fig. long. which can be bought from a local druggist. thick sheet asbestos. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. The plate. Fig. the holes leading to the switch. If asbestos is used. 4 lb. when they are placed in opposite positions. Fig. 3 in. 2. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. and two large 3in. 1. and C. 1. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. is shown in Fig.same size. or. The mineral wool. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. if this cannot be obtained. 4. 4. until it is within 1 in. each 4-1/2 in. high. 1. for connections. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . thick. This will allow the plate. The reverse side of the base. Fig. JJ. Fig. as shown in Fig. wide and 15 in. 22 gauge resistance wire. 4. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. A round collar of galvanized iron. If a neat appearance is desired. AA. and. AA. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. one small switch. This will make an open space between the plates. of mineral wool. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. Fig. should extend about 1/4 in. with slits cut for the wires. also the switch B and the fuse block C. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. AA. as shown in Fig. are allowed to project about 1 in.

II. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. It should not be left heated in this condition. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. Richmond. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. When this is done. --Contributed by W. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. As these connections cannot be soldered. If this is the case. Can. This point marks the proper length to cut it. H. A file can be used to remove any rough places. Cut a 1/2-in. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. apart. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. If it is not thoroughly dry. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. then. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. when cool.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. Next. deep. it leaves a gate for the metal. so that the circuit will not become broken. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. allowing a space between each turn. It should not be set on end. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. steam will form when the current is applied. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. While the clay is damp. --Contributed by R. when heated. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. more wire should be added. A. This completes the stove. Cal. causing a short circuit. When the tile is in place. Catherines. using care not to get it too wet. will slip and come in contact with each other. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. 4. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. KK. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. St. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. as the turns of the wires. Fig. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. Cnonyn. The clay. above the rim. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. and pressed into it. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. Jaquythe. Fig. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. 2. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. Cover over about 1 in. Removing Pies from Pans [275] .

The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. the pie will be damaged. constructed of 3/4-in. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. Thorne. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. but 12 by 24 in. --Contributed by Andrew G. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. the air can enter from both top and bottom." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. as shown. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. and the frame set near a window. says the Photographic Times. Then clip a little off the . If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. is large enough. and the prints will dry rapidly. square material in any size. Ky. Louisville.

1/2 in. long. Figs. wide and 7 in. high. high. 3. 2-1/2 in. wide. in diameter and about 4 in. long. thick and 3 in. causing a break in the current. thereby saving time and washing. long. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. high. thick. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. slip on two cardboard washers. 14 in. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. The driving arm D. for the crank. -Contributed by S. 1. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. as shown. which are fastened to the base. 4 in. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. Fig. The connecting rod E. 1/2 in. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. Fig. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. in diameter. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. A 1/8-in. W. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. 1. each 1/2 in. open out. Herron. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. Le Mars. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. which gives the shaft a half turn. thick and 3 in. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. 1. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. The board can be raised to place . 22 gauge magnet wire. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. allowing each end to project for connections. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. 2. 1 and 3. 1. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. long. Fig. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. An offset is bent in the center. wide and 3 in. The connections are made as shown in Fig. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. each 1 in.Paper Funnel point. As the shaft revolves. The upright B. Iowa. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. at GG. Two supports.

Place the pot. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. One or more pots may be used. Dorchester. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. In designing the roost. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. bottom side up. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. on a board. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. . or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. --Contributed by William F. Stecher. as shown in the sketch. Mass. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. making a framework suitable for a roost. in height. 3 in.

can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. shelves. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. will produce the pattern desired. if it is other than straight lines. windows. that it is heated. preferably. 1.. and give it time to dry. The materials required are rope or. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. The bottom part of the sketch. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. ordinary glue. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. F. grills and gratings for doors. Fig. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. when combined. as shown in Fig. paraffin and paint or varnish. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. in diameter. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. F. odd corners.. Wind the . Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. without any corresponding benefit. adopt the method described. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. 1. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. etc.

Y. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . Harrer. N. six designs are shown. Fig. M. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. Lockport.Fig. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. cut and glue them together. -Contributed by Geo. 2.

Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. etc. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. which was used in front of a horse's head. says the English Mechanic..Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. etc. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. London. and the sides do not cover the jaws. As the .. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. but no farther. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. when it will be observed that any organic matter. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. chips of iron rust. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure.. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. This piece of horse armor. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. 1. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. will be retained by the cotton.

then another coat of glue. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. This will make the model light and easy to move around. 8. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. 2. as the surface will hold the clay. the rougher the better. This being done. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. This triangularshaped support. and therefore it is not described. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. which is separate. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. In Fig. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. 2. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. The armor is now removed from the model. and will require less clay. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. and the clay model oiled. with the exception of the thumb shield. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. This can be made in one piece. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. 4. the same as in Fig. which can be made in any size. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. but the back is not necessary. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. All being ready. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. An arrangement is shown in Fig. as shown in the sketch. 6 and 7. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. except the thumb and fingers. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. but for .

running down the plate. When locating the place for the screw eyes. the top of the rod. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. long. the two pieces of foil will draw together. Redondo Beach. Calif. 2. Goshen. 1/2 in. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. 9. --Contributed by Ralph L. in depth. Fasten a polished brass ball to. fastened to the rod. --Contributed by John G. wide and 1/2 in. two for the jaws and one a wedge. The two pieces of foil. La Rue. . Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. N. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. A piece of board. Y. will be about right. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. two in each jaw. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. cut into the shape shown in Fig. are better shown in Fig. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. but 3-1/2 in. each about 1/4 in. and the instrument is ready for use. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. the foils will not move. If it does not hold a charge. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. Buxton. are glued to it. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model.

Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. Bryan. Corsicana. --Contributed by Mrs. 2-1/2 in. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. At a point 6 in. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. enameled or otherwise decorated. silvered. from the smaller end. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. When a fish is hooked. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. is made of a 1/4-in. as this will cut under the water without splashing. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. Texas. The can may be bronzed. hole bored through it. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. pine board. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. A. long. as shown in the illustration. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. M. as indicated in the . about 15 in.

it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. Polish the metal. When it has dried over night. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. wide by 6 in. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. A good size is 5 in. 3/8 or 1/4 in. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. punch the holes." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. or even pine. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. thick. Having completed the drawing. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. will do as well as the more expensive woods. and trace upon it the design and outline. Next prepare the metal holder. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. then with a nail. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. using powdered pumice and lye. such as basswood or pine was used. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. as shown. take a piece of thin wood. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. put a coat or two of wax and polish . If soft wood. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. 22 is plenty heavy enough. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. Basswood or butternut. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true.Match Holder accompanying sketch. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. Any kind of wood will do. using a piece of carbon paper. long over all.

This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. Two wire nails. wide and 5 in. are used for the cores of the magnets. Instead of the usual two short ropes. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. Cal. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. thick. --Contributed by W. can be made on the same standards. Jaquythe. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. If carving is contemplated. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. of pure olive oil. A. each 1 in. is used for the base of this instrument. It is useful for photographers. . The metal holder may next be fastened in place. If one has some insight in carving. long. 1/2 in. long. Richmond. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. the whole being finished in linseed oil. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. 2 in.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers.

The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. cloth or baize to represent the legs. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. --Contributed by W. when the key is pushed down. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. 25 gauge. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. cut in the shape of the letter T. at A. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. leaving about 1/4 in. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. as shown by the dotted lines. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. acts as a spring to keep the key open. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. in the shape shown in the sketch. says the English Mechanic.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. except that for the legs. 3. . passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. About 1 in. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. Lynas. then covered with red. as shown in Fig. A rubber band. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. A piece of tin. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. London. about No. All of the parts for the armor have been described. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. H. similar to that used in electric bells. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. 1. the paper covering put on. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg.

and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. A 1/4-in. in the other end. says Camera Craft. at each end. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. make the same series of eight small holes and. Secure two strips of wood. flat headed carriage bolt. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. Silver paper will do very well. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. can be made in a few minutes' time. or ordinary plaster laths will do. apart. 3 in. about 1 in. hole in the center. and eight small holes.. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. apart. drill six 1/4-in. completes the equipment. holes. In one end of the piece. So set up. long. Cut them to a length or 40 in. 1 in. By moving the position of the bolt from. Take the piece shown in Fig. Fig. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. not too tight. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. for the sake of lightness. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. The two pieces are bolted together. one to another . 2. 1 and drill a 1/4in. These can be purchased at a stationery store. Instead of using brass headed nails. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts.

2. and the one beneath C. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. long. doubled and run through the web of A. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. 4. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. of the ends remain unwoven. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. and lay it over the one to the right. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. as in portraiture and the like. Fig. A is the first string and B is the second. then B over C and the end stuck under A. C over D and B.of the larger holes in the strip. for instance. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. but instead of reversing . Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. Then draw all four ends up snugly. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. Then take B and lay it over A. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. 1. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. in Fig. the one marked A. taking the same start as for the square fob. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. A round fob is made in a similar way. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. as shown in Fig. 2. lay Cover B and the one under D. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. D over A and C. 2. In this sketch. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. Start with one end.

--Contributed by John P. 5. long. as B. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. is to be made of leather. Ohio. The round fob is shown in Fig. the design of which is shown herewith. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. is left out at the center before starting on one side. Monroeville. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. as at A in Fig. Rupp. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. as in making the square fob. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . over the one to its right. Other designs can be made in the same manner. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. 3. especially if silk strings are used. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. A loop. always lap one string. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. 1-1/2 in.

using the reverse side. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. door facing or door panel. such as a nut pick. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. When the supply of wax is exhausted. Mich. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. . After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. pressing it against the wood. -Contributed by A. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. Any smooth piece of steel. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. A. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. beeswax or paraffin. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. filling them with wax. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. it can be easily renewed. Houghton. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. Northville.

N. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. it is best to leave a plain white margin. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. The tacks should be about 1 in. Thompson. remaining above the surface of the board. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. but any kind that will not stick may be used. although tin ones can be used with good success. New York. . and after wetting. Enough plaster should. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. long. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. Petersburg. Ill. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. leaving about 1/4 in. Select the print you wish to mount. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. apart and driven in only part way. those on matte paper will work best. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. D. Y. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. E and F. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. if blueprints are used. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. --Contributed by O. thick. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. Fold together on lines C. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. place it face down in the dish. and about 12 in. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. J. says Photographic Times.

Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. roses. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. etc. violets. One of the . When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. filling the same about onehalf full. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. Lower into the test tube a wire.. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. as shown at the left in the sketch. as shown in the right of the sketch. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. without mixing the solutions. bell flowers. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. will be rendered perfectly white.

is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. The diaphragm. not too tightly. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. Millstown. The first point should be ground blunt. Fig. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . and at the larger end. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. about 1/8s in. The tin horn can be easily made. turned a little tapering. long. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. as shown. When soldering these parts together. made of heavy tin. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. as shown in the sketch. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. Shabino.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. to keep the core from coming off in turning. The sound box. --Contributed by L. 2. L. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. shading.. 3. 1-7/8 in. should be soldered to the box. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. is about 2-1/2 in. in diameter and 1 in. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. A rod that will fit the brass tube. or delicate tints of the egg. South Dakota. long and made of wood. but which will not wobble loose. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. thick. 1. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing.

open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. E. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. says the Iowa Homestead. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. Gold. put a board on top. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. Jr. Ill. mice in the bottom.Contributed by E.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. Chicago. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. Victor. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . and weighted it with a heavy stone. and. Colo. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. wondering what it was.

-Contributed by Albert O'Brien. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. Y. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. N. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. --Contributed by Lyndwode. Pereira. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. Ottawa. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. Buffalo. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. . Can.

Mich. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . --Contributed by W. This cart has no axle. a piece of tin. and at one end of the stick fasten. above the end of the dasher. as it can be made quickly in any size. cut round. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. A. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. Jaquythe. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. --Contributed by Thos. longer than the length of the can. Cal. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. Richmond. Grand Rapids. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. Put a small nail 2 in. De Loof. by means of a flatheaded tack. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. as shown. through which several holes have been punched.

The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. screwed it on the inside of a store box. thick. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. 2. 2. 2. --Contributed by James M. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. Doylestown. 1-1/2 in. 1. as shown. The candles. New Orleans. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. were below the level of the bullseye. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. A wedge-shaped piece of . I reversed a door gong. deep and 3 in. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. Kane. of course. 1/4 in. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. wide and as long as the box. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. Pa. 1 ft. Notches 1/8 in. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. apart. Fig. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. cut in the center of the rounding edge. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. long. wide and 1/8 in. wide and 3 ft. 2 in. La. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood.1. wide. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. The baseboard and top are separable. board. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier.

it can be removed without marring the casing. 3. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. to prevent its scratching the desk top. After completing the handle. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. For the handle. After the glue has dried. The block can also be used as a paperweight. scissors. Needles. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. stone or wood. the shelf could not be put on the window. by cutting away the ends. --Contributed by G. can be picked up without any trouble. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. A. etc. Worcester. when placed as in Fig. wide rubber bands or felt. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. Mass. as shown in Fig. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. dressing one surface of each piece. wide into each side of the casing. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. When not in use. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. will.Book Back Holders metal. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. the blade is put back into the groove . raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. take two pieces of hard wood. 1. This device is very convenient for invalids.. Ia. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. West Union. the reason being that if both were solid. Cover the block with rubber. Wood.

Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. --Contributed by H. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. as shown in Fig. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. Ohio. A notch is cut in one side. 2. Pa. Erie. A. Jacobs. as shown in Fig. thus carrying the car up the incline. Malden. --Contributed by Maud McKee. S. -Contributed by W. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. Each one is made of a hardwood block. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. 1. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. long. square and 4 in. Mass. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. is shown in the accompanying sketch. . If desired. Hutchins. Cleveland.and sharpened to a cutting edge. 1 in.

It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. Prepare a design for the front. Cape May Point.. N. . If one such as is shown is to be used. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. This will insure having all parts alike. and an awl and hammer. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. 6 by 9-1/2 in. One sheet of metal.J. The letters can be put on afterward. a board on which to work it. will be needed. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first.

The stick may be placed by the side of. One coat will do. On the back. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. The music will not sound natural. 3/4 part. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. turpentine. . applied by means of a brush. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. but weird and distant. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. So impressive are the results. paste the paper design right on the metal. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. 2 parts white vitriol. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. 1/4 part. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. only the marginal line is to be pierced. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. mandolin or guitar. If any polishing is required. in the waste metal. which is desirable. that can be worked in your own parlor. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. if desired. to right angles. as shown. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. a violin. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes.Fasten the metal to the board. placed on a table. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. 1 part." In all appearance. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. says Master Painter. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. Remove the metal. flat brush. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. varnish. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. or. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. behind or through the center of a table leg. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands.

across the top. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. wide. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. The longest piece. long and measuring 26 in. round-head machine screws. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. and is easy to construct. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. each 28 in. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. long. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. 2. thick by 1/2 in. apart. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. Two pairs of feet. without them. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. it might be difficult. London. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. . is bent square so as to form two uprights. 3. says Work. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. are shaped as shown in Fig. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. long and spread about 8 in. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. each 6 in. square bar iron. With proper tools this is easy.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig.

cut a long piece of lead. 4. as shown in Fig. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. C. 5. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. lead. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. better still. special flux purchased for this purpose. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. and the base border. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. A. The glass. using rosin as a flux. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. After the glass is cut. While the piece of lead D. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. The brads are then removed. Fig. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. Fig. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. The design is formed in the lead. 7. B. on it as shown. 5. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. is held by the brads. or. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. After the joints are soldered. in the grooves of the borders. 6. the latter being tapped to .Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. D. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. Place the corner piece of glass. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting.

bolt. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. Fasten the plates to the block B. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. then flatten its end on the under side. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. in diameter and about 9 in. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. long. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. Two styles of hand holds are shown. plates. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. wood screws in each washer. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. Secure a post. Jr. Camden. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. A and B. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. holes through their centers. J. Bore a 3/4-in. then drill a 3/4-in. The center pin is 3/4-in. This ring can be made of 1-in. long. in diameter and 1/4 in. --Contributed by W. as shown in Fig. square and of the length given in the drawing. Make three washers 3-in. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. long. thick and drill 3/4-in. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. not less than 4 in. rocker bolt. one on each side and central with the hole. rounded at the top as shown. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown.. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in.the base of the clip. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. This . and round the corners of one end for a ring. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. N. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. plank about 12 ft. 8. H. Bore a 5/8-in. Dreier. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. and two wood blocks. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. bolt.

by 2 ft. by 3 ft. long. 4 in. New Orleans. Draw a line on the four 7-in. 1 by 7 in. 50 ft. 3 in. bit. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. apart for a distance of 3 ft. bolts and rope. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. long. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. 1/2 in. straight-grained hickory. boards along the side of each from end to end. 1-1/4in. because it will not stand the weather. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. long and 1 piece. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. square by 5 ft. 3/4 by 3 in. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. 2 by 4 in. 9 in. from one edge. shanks. chestnut or ash. La. 4 filler pieces. horse and rings.will make an excellent cover for a pot. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. 7 in. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . and some one can swing an axe. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. If trees are convenient. long. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. long. long. 1. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. The four 7-in. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. 4 pieces. 2-1/2 in. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. 4 pieces. of 1/4-in. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. square by 9-1/2 ft. the money outlay will be almost nothing. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. long. screws. 4 in. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. maple. can make a first class gymnasium. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. hickory. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. 16 screws. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. by 6-1/2 ft. To substitute small. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. in diameter and 7 in.

hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. from the end. 8 in. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. at each end. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. deep and remove all loose dirt. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. apart. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. piece of wood. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. apart. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. 2. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut.bored. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. each 3 ft. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes.. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. so the 1/2-in. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. Bore a 9/16-in. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft.. boards coincide. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved.

Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. but most deceptive at dusk. and materially heightened the illusion. and ascends the stem. and then passes in a curve across the base. . the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. in an endless belt. When the interest of the crowd. If the tumbler is rotated. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. just visible against the dark evening sky. not much to look at in daytime. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. He stretched the thread between two buildings. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. W. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. And all he used was a black thread.. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous." which skimmed along the distant horizon. the effect is very striking. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. it is taken to the edge of the foot. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. which at once gathered. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. it follows the edge for about 1 in. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. disappearing only to reappear again. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. not even the tumbler. about 100 ft. passing through a screweye at either end. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. was at its height. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. apart.

2 bars of straight grained hickory. 6 in. long. 2 in. 2 by 4 in. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. long. long. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. 8 bolts. 8 in. 2 base pieces. long and 1 doz. long. square and 51/2 ft. 4 in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 1. La. long. by 10 ft. A wire about No. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. 4 bolts. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. 7 in. 8 in. 2 cross braces. The cork will come out easily. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. by 7 ft. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. beginning at a point 9 in. square and 6 ft. Fig. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. by 2 ft. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. long. 8 in. Bevel the ends of . Chisel out two notches 4 in. so the point will be on top. and turned in a spiral D. 2 side braces. New Orleans. deep. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. long. To make the apparatus. 2 by 3 in. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. from either side of the center. large spikes. 2 by 4 in. long. wide and 1 in. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. 2 by 4 in. 4 knee braces. 4 in. by 3 ft. preferably cedar. 4 wood screws.

It is well to paint the entire apparatus. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. These will allow the ladle to be turned. which face each other. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. leaving the strainer always in position. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. equipped with a strainer. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. save the bars. additional long. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. --Contributed by W. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. so the bolts in both will not meet. and countersinking the heads. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. using four of the 7-in bolts. ( To be Continued. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. jellies. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. After the trenches are dug. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. A large sized ladle. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. If using mill-cut lumber. Jaquythe.. but even unpainted they are very durable. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. etc. A. leave it undressed. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view.the knee braces. . The wood so treated will last for years. as shown in the diagram. Cal. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. except the bars. of 7 ft. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. Richmond. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. Two endpieces must be made. screws.

Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. drill press or planer.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. partly a barrier for jumps. milling machine. which seems impossible. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. In order to accomplish this experiment. A. of sufficient 1ength. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. thus holding the pail as shown. . it is necessary to place a stick. or various cutting compounds of oil. Oil. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool.

4 knee braces. 4 in.. from each end.. apart in a central position on the horse. stud cut rounding on one edge. 3 in. ten 1/2-in. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. These are placed 18 in. but 5 ft. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. projections and splinters. 2 by 4 in. in diameter--the larger the better. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. bolt. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. 7 in. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. long. bolts. long. The round part of this log must be planed. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. These are well nailed in place. square by 5 ft. long. Hand holds must be provided next. is a good length. 4 in. in the ground. 4-1/2 in. wood yard or from the woods. long. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. 2 bases. 2 by 4 in. 2 by 4 in. The material required is as follows: Two posts. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. by 3 ft. long. by 3 ft. two 1/2-in. Procure from a saw mill. 1 cross brace. piece of 2 by 4-in. by 3 ft. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. long. beginning 1-1/2 in. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. to fasten the knee braces at the top. long. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. bolts. 1 in. apart. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . 2 adjusting pieces. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. 4 in. To construct. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. square by 5-1/2 ft. bolts. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. and free from knots. long. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in.

including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. Jaquythe. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. Richmond. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. water. it is caused by an overloaded shell. but nevertheless. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. then bending to the shape desired. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. A. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. snow. pipe and fittings. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. no one is responsible but himself. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. etc. such as a dent. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. Cal. Such a hand sled can be made in a . but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. Also. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. over and around.--Contributed by W. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. it is caused by some obstruction. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard.horse top.

Paris. when complete. Boston. Toronto. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. --Contributed by Arthur E. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. at E and F. then run a string over each part. 1. Vener. Noble. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. are all the tools necessary. Mass. --Contributed by James E. 2. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. W. which. These. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. . are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. thick.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. The end elevation. when straightened out. Ontario. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. Joerin. --Contributed by J. 1/4 or 3/16 in. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. France. will give the length. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. is much better than a wood sled. in width and 1/32 in. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron.

. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. and the latter will take on a bright luster. It is best to use soft water. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. are nailed. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. The method shown in Figs. 4. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. 3. nor that which is partly oxidized. AA and BB. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean.

the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. The materials used are: backbone. 3. as shown in Fig. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. 4. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. as shown in Fig. Broad lines can be made. 1). The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. or various rulings may be made. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. Percy Ashley in Rudder. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. or unequal widths as in Fig. 2. 2. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. class ice-yacht. 8 and 9. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. . If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. It can be made longer or shorter. Both the lower . The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense.Fig. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. a larger size of pipe should be used. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. The headstock is made of two tees. out from the collar. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. bent and drilled as shown. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. a tee and a forging. 1-Details of Lathe sort. The point should extend about 11/2 in. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. pipe. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. about 30 in. long. but if it is made much longer. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. pins to keep them from turning. A good and substantial homemade lathe. 1.

else taper turning will result. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. as shown in Fig. UpDeGraff. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. 2. Musgrove. 2. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. a straight line should be scratched Fig. or a key can be used as well. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. Indiana. as shown in Fig. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. Cal. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. 1. --Contributed by W. Boissevain. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. a corresponding line made on this. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. --Contributed by M. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. To do this. M. Laporte. 2. Man. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. but also their insulating properties. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. thick as desired. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. W. and will answer for a great variety of work. Held. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. 3/4 or 1 in. . it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. Fruitvale. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. It is about 1 in. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. --Contributed by W. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig.

the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. To obviate this. as shown. --Contributed by E. The handle is of pine about 18 in. long. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. Smith. J. Ft. Cline. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . In use. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. Ark. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth.

which should be backed out of contact. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. Colo. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. the drill does not need the tool. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. Denver. White.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. La. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. take . The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. and when once in true up to its size. if this method is followed: First. face off the end of the piece. on starting the lathe. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. After being entered. --Contributed by Walter W. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. New Orleans. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. centering is just one operation too many. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. This prevents the drill from wobbling.

shown at C. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. vanishing wand. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. shorter t h a n the wand. In doing this.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. a long piece of glass tubing. after being shown empty. After the wand is removed. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. unknown to the spectators. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. and can be varied to suit the performer. The glass tube B. and this given to someone to hold. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. by applying caustic soda or . This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. It can be used in a great number of tricks. is put into the paper tube A. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. all the better. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. says the Sphinx. as shown in D. The handkerchief rod. the cap is placed over the paper tube. a bout 1/2 in.

2 Sides. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. The brace at D is 1 in. Glue the neck to the box. cut to any shape desired. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. Cut a piece of hard wood. 1 Neck. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. 1 End. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. square and 1-7/8 in. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. With care and patience. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. can be made by the home mechanic. thick. by 14 by 17 in. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. 3/16. and if care is taken in selecting the material. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. long. as shown by K. across the front and back to strengthen them. 1 Bottom. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. End. 1/4 in. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage.potash around the edges of the letters. 1. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. Glue strips of soft wood. The sides. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. and glue it to the neck at F. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. with the back side rounding. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. preferably hard maple. As the cement softens. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. This dimension and those for the frets .

but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. 1) on which to stretch the paper.Pa. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. and beveled . Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. 3/16 in.should be made accurately. in diameter. Stoddard. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. or backbone. A board 1 in. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. wide and 11-1/2 ft. Carbondale. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. toward each end. but it is not. E. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. thick and about 1 ft. -Contributed by J. Frary. O. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. When it is completed you will have a canoe. Norwalk. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. H. --Contributed by Chas. long is used for a keel. Six holes. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit.

Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. as shown in Fig. and. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. 13 in. C. For the gunwales (a. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. . Fig. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. Fig. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. Shape these as shown by A. 1 and 2. 3. Fig. Fig. or other place. Osiers probably make the best ribs. 3/8 in. procure at a carriage factory. wide by 26 in. thick. and so. the loose strips of ash (b. Fig. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. 3. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. buy some split cane or rattan. in such cases. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. 4. C. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. These are better. as they are apt to do. Fig. thick. in thickness and should be cut. Fig. apart. with long stout screws. but before doing this. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. 2). B. b. 1. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. some tight strips of ash. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. will answer nearly as well. two strips of wood (b. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. and notched at the end to receive them (B. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl.) in notches. or similar material. and are not fastened.. probably. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. a. as before described. are next put in. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. which are easily made of long. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. b. 2). The cross-boards (B. Green wood is preferable. when made of green elm. Fig.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. two twigs may be used to make one rib. 3). Fig. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. 4). 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. long are required. The ribs. by means of a string or wire. such as is used for making chairbottoms. b. twigs 5 or 6 ft. slender switches of osier willow. 3). such as hazel or birch. In drying. as shown in Fig. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. but twigs of some other trees. Any tough. long. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. 2.

b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. tacking it to the bottom-board. wide. 5). and very tough. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. When the paper is dry. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. however. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. Being made in long rolls. after wetting it. When thoroughly dry. preferably iron. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. and steady in the water. The paper is then trimmed. apply a second coat of the same varnish. and light oars. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. if it has been properly constructed of good material. and held in place by means of small clamps. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. It should be drawn tight along the edges. If not. but neither stiff nor very thick. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. If the paper be 1 yd. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. Then take some of the split rattan and. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. and as soon as that has soaked in. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. of very strong wrapping-paper. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. You may put in . It should be smooth on the surface. Fig. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. B. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. but with less turpentine. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales.

and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. 1. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. Fig. fore and aft. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. Fig. and make a movable seat (A. 2. and if driven as shown in the cut. We procured a box and made a frame. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. 1 and the end in . allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. 5).Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. 5. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. to fit it easily. Drive the lower nail first. Fig. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. they will support very heavy weights.

One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. This is an easy . --Contributed by Albert Niemann. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. 5. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. This way has its drawbacks.Fig. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. being softer where the flame has been applied. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. Close the other end with the same operation. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. and the result is. Pa. 4. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. 3. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. A good way to handle this work. and the glass. Pittsburg. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. this makes the tube airtight.

above the work and striking it with the hammer. then reverse. three. also trace the decorative design. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. fifth. extra metal all around. After the bulb is formed. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. 23 gauge. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. Seventh. thin screw. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . Give the metal a circular motion. rivet punch. with a piece of carbon paper. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. Oswald. or six arms. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. second. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. Sixth. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. flat and round-nosed pliers. file. very rapid progress can be made. above the metal. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. The candle holders may have two. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in.way to make a thermometer tube. third. metal shears. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. -Contributed by A. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. four. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. fourth. stamp the background of the design promiscuously.

these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . and holder. Metal polish of any kind will do. drip cup. Having pierced the bracket. Small copper rivets are used. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together.

which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. and in a week . smooth it down and then remove as before. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. J. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. and water 24 parts. they were like an ice boat with a sail. Shiloh. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. Fifty. winding the ends where they came together with wire. F. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. sugar 1 part. Mother let me have a sheet. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. and it will be ready for future use. except they had wheels instead of runners. thus it was utilized. and brace and bit were the tools used. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. and other things as they were needed.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. hammer. the stick at the bottom of the sail. A saw. using a steel pen. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. when it will be ready for use. The gaff. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. I steer with the front wheel. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. alcohol 2 parts. The boom. of glycerine to about 200 deg. Twenty cents was all I spent. on a water bath. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. glycerine 4 parts. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. Soak 1 oz. deep. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. all the rest I found. is a broomstick. if it has not absorbed too much ink. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. and add the gelatine. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. N. Heat 6-1/2 oz.

Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up.Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. a projecting lens . A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly.

focus enlarging a 3-in.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. are . The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. slide to about 6 ft. and the work carefully done. above the center. or glue. as desired. high. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. long. A table. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. and the lens slide. well seasoned pine. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. This ring is made up from two rings. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. 1/2 to 3/4 in. A and B. but if such a box is not found.. and a projecting lens 2 in. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. E. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. thick. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. or a lens of 12-in. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. 3. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. G. 1. about 2 ft. The board is centered both ways. wire brads. The slide support. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. wide. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. at a distance of 24 ft. H. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. and 14 in. DD. 8 in. Fig. wide and 15 in. and. provided the material is of metal. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. describe a 9-in. If a small saw is used. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. at a point 1 in. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig.

The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. the strips II serving as guides. E. P. Small strips of tin. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. light burning oil. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. St. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. Minn. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. A sheet . the water at once extinguishes the flame. Paul. but not long enough. JJ. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil.constructed to slip easily on the table. apply two coats of shellac varnish. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. and when the right position is found for each. To reach the water. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. The arrangement is quite safe as. should the glass happen to upset. of safe. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. B. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. placed on the water.-Contributed by G.

H. Crawford. form a piece of wire in the same shape. Fig. from a tent company. to cover the mattresses. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along .Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. I ordered a canvas bag. --Contributed by J. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig.. 3. 3 in. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. Y. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. 9 in. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. 12 ft. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. Fig. 3. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. then the corners on one end are doubled over. 1. Schenectady. by 12 ft. If one of these clips is not at hand. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. N. 4. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. 2.

Colo. Fig. as shown in Fig. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. wide. --Contributed by Edward M. so as to form two oblong boxes. 1. to keep it from unwinding. C. 2. Warren. 1/2 in. and insert two binding-posts. 1/2 in. holes in the edge. for amperes and the other post. D. Fold two strips of light cardboard. 2. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. Denver. White. Attach a piece of steel rod. through which the indicator works. V. A rubber band. Pa. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. Teasdale. 3/4 in. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. to the coil of small wire for volts. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. open on the edges. 2. thick. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. apart. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. 3/4 in. A Film Washing Trough [331] . The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Walter W. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. Fasten the wire with gummed label. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire.each edge. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. 3 to swing freely on the tack. Fig. 1. long. An arc is cut in the paper. Do not use too strong a rubber. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. drill two 3/16 in. in the center coil. first mark the binding-post A. To calibrate the instrument. insulating them from the case with cardboard. long and 3/16 in.

Place this can on one end of the trough. M. Dayton. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. Hunting. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. --Contributed by M. Wood Burning [331] . Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. with the large hole up. as shown. Cut a 1/4-in. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. O. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut.

When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . mouth downward. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids.Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. then into this bottle place. a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat.

the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. many puzzling effects may be obtained. --Contributed by Fred W. Ala. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. wide and 4 in. Whitehouse. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. thick. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. Place the small bottle in as before. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. 1. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. If the cork is adjusted properly. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. long.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. N.Y. Upper Troy. 3/4 in. If the small bottle used is opaque. --Contributed by John Shahan. provided the bottle is wide. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. 2. This will make a very pretty ornament. but not very thick. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. Auburn. as shown in the sketch.

thick and 3 in. The wire L was put . as shown in Fig. 2. 1. G. even in a light breeze. which extended to the ground. in diameter and 1 in. which was 6 in. The 21/2-in. The bearing blocks were 3 in. Both bearings were made in this manner. B. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. K. I. wide. pulley. thick. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. --Contributed by D. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. On a 1000-ft. or ordinary telephone transmitters. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. were constructed of 1-in. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. which was nailed to the face plate. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. was keyed to shaft C. 2 ft. by the method shown in Fig. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. Fig. 1. high without the upper half. 1. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. 3. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. which gave considerable power for its size. 4. line. to the shaft. Fig. Milter. was 1/4in. Fig. If a transmitter is used. W. Fig. 1. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. iron rod. A staple. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. sugar pine on account of its softness. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. 1 in. Its smaller parts. thick. The shaft C. 1. long. Fig. such as blades and pulleys. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. pulley F.

The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. The power was put to various uses. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. washers were placed under pulley F. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. strips. 1. Two washers were placed on shaft C. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. This completes the receiver or sounder. H. 6. long and bend it as . The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. with brass headed furniture tacks. Fig. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. as. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. cut out another piece of tin (X. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. 5. was 2 ft. R. long and 1/2 in. in the center of the board P. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. so that the 1/4-in. 1. hole was bored for it. The smaller one. Fig. Fig. 2. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. The bed plate D. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. pine 18 by 12 in. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. 1. with all parts in place. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. a 1/2-in. 6. in diameter. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. long and bend it as shown at A. This fan was made of 1/4-in. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. The other lid. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. providing one has a few old materials on hand. 0. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. G. Fig. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. Fig. wide and 1 in. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. To make the key. long and 3 in. and was cut the shape shown. This board was 12 in. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. 25 ft. apart in the tower. for instance. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. square to the board P at the top of the tower. 1) 4 in. If you have no bell. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. long. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. through the latter. Fig. hole for the shaft G was in the center. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. 1. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. was tacked. when the windmill needed oiling. Fig. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. across the thin edge of a board. 3 in. There a 1/4-in. To lessen the friction here. long. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. top down also.

-Contributed by John R. When tired of this instrument. fitted with paddles as at M. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. By adjusting the coils. and. causing a buzzing sound. Before tacking it to the board. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. Thus a center drive is made. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. using cleats to hold the board frame. Going back to Fig. like many another device boys make. at the front. McConnell.shown. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. as shown at Water. although it can be made with but two. leaving the other wire as it is. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. Now. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. 2. after the manner of bicycle wheels. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. as indicated. 1. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. The rear barrels are. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels.

3. or even a little houseboat. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. which will give any amount of pleasure. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. there will not be much friction. can be built. If the journals thus made are well oiled. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. copper piping and brass tubing for base.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. The speed is slow at first. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. 1. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. To propel it. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. as shown in Fig. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. feet on the pedals. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. There is no danger. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage.

but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. Place one brass ring in cylinder. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. and so creating a false circuit. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. 2. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. or it may be put to other uses if desired. B. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. 1. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. Fig. 2.of pleasure for a little work. 1. Turn a small circle of wood. Fig. Fig. If magnifying glass cannot be had. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. D. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. 2. If it is desired to make the light very complete. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. Fig. 1. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. Shape small blocks of boxwood. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. C. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. then the glass disc and then the other ring. Then melt out the rosin or lead. A.

X. T. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. brass strip. wire from light to switch. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. key of alarm clock. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. I. F. thick. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. near the bed. In placing clock on shelf. The parts indicated are as follows: A. Swissvale. bell. long. some glue will secure them. switch. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. copper tubing. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. Throw lever off from the right to center. set alarm key as shown in diagram. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. S. after two turns have been made on the key. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. if too small. Chatland.. 4-1/2 in. To get the cylinder into its carriage. such as is used for cycle valves. which stops bell ringing. or 1/4in. contact post. after setting alarm. wire from batteries to switch. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. 3/8 in. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. D. bracket. brass rod. When alarm goes off. G. J. Ogden. shelf. --Contributed by C. --Contributed by Geo. 5-1/4 by 10 in. and pulled tight. To throw on light throw levers to the left.india rubber tubing. by having the switch on the baseboard. dry batteries. B. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. 4 in. Pa. wire from bell to switch. H. E. while lying in bed. Utah. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . To operate this. C. long. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. wide and 1/16 in. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . Brinkerhoff. C.

--Contributed by Chas. in diameter. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. as at A. 1. as . All that is required is a tin covering. for instance. about 6 in. Fig. Chapman. Make the spindle as in Fig. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. Fig. 3. gives the heater a more finished appearance. as in Fig. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. 4 in. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. being careful not to get the sand in it. This is to form the fuse hole. 1. Make a shoulder. 2. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. A flannel bag. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. making it as true and smooth as possible. about 3-1/2 in. 2. Minn. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. from one end. long. place stick and all in a pail of sand. letting it extend 3/4 in. wide. A small lamp of about 5 cp. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. 1/4 in. which can be made of an old can. a bed warmer. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. in diameter. S. beyond the end of the spindle. Fig. Lanesboro. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. as at B. will do the heating. Pull out the nail and stick. as at A. Having finished this. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in.

well as making it more pleasant to the touch. wide and 3 ft. wide and 6 ft. deep. A piece of oak. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. The material must be 1-1/2 in. thick. Joerin. good straight-grained pine will do. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. 6 in. A piece of tin. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. --Contributed by Arthur E. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. long. thick. 3/8 in. 11/2 in. will be sufficient to make the trigger. but if this wood cannot be procured. long. 1 in. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. ash. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. long. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . this is to keep the edges from splitting. 5/8 in. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. thick. spring and arrows. The illustration shows how this is done. wide and 3/8 in. or hickory. 1. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides.

and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. The trigger. it lifts the spring up. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. The stick for the bow. A spring. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. 9. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. place the arrow in the groove. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. in diameter. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. 7. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. 6. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. Fig. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. 8. Trownes. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. thick. and one for the trigger 12 in. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. To shoot the crossbow. E. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. better still. Fig. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. 3. Such a temporary safe light may be . as shown in Fig. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. as shown in Fig. from the opposite end. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. Fig. 4. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. To throw the arrow. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. 2. Wilmette. --Contributed by O. wide at each end. When the trigger is pulled. Ill. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. from the end of the stock. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. having the latter swing quite freely. The bow is not fastened in the stock. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. which is 1/4 in. or through the necessity of.

C. from the ground. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. By chopping the trunk almost through. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. Moreover. and replace as shown at B. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. This lamp is safe. Remove the bottom of the box. the bark lean-to is a . The cut should be about 5 ft. apart. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. and nail it in position as shown at A. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. it is the easiest camp to make. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. The hinged cover E. from the ground. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. is used as a door. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. since the flame of the candle is above A. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. Remove one end. make the frame of the wigwam. respectively.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. says Photo Era. making lighting and trimming convenient. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. or only as a camp on a short excursion.

piled 2 or 3 ft.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. will dry flat. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. long. selecting a site for a camp. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. Where bark is used. Sheets of bark. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. and split the tops with an ax. A piece of elm or hickory. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. wide. In the early summer. 6 ft. makes a good pair of tongs. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. make the best kind of a camp bed. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. deep and covered with blankets. 3 ft. nails are necessary to hold it in place. long and 1-1/2 in. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. thick. spruce. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. are a convenient size for camp construction. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. long and 2 or 3 ft. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. and cedar. and when the camp is pitched. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. . wide and 6 ft. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. Tongs are very useful in camp. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. For a permanent camp. For a foot in the middle of the stick. a 2-in. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford.

hinges. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. and affording accommodation for several persons. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. . Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. or even a rough lock for the camp larder.

deep and 4 in.. to another . --Contributed by James M. Kane. changing the water both morning and night. B. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. Pa. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. wide. Doylestown. about 4 in. B. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. the interior can. Fig. 1. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. A. I drove a small cork. and provide a cover or door. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured.

glass tube. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. which project inside and outside of the tube. E. for instance. 3. This makes . The diagram. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. 2. to pass through an increasing resistance. 4 and 5). a liquid. C. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. such as ether. 2. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. limit. Fig. fused into one side. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. if necessary. The current is thus compelled. until. for instance. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit.

clamp the template. by turning the lathe with the hand. thick. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. set at 1/8 in. when several pieces are placed together. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. 2. therefore. Before removing the field from the lathe. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. in diameter. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. or even 1/16 in. A 5/8in. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. bent at right angles as shown. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. 4-1/2 in. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. two holes. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. as shown in Fig. Fig. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. in diameter. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. 3-3/8 in. assemble and rivet them solidly. 1. to allow for finishing. or pattern. Alpena. thick. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. larger than the dimensions given. screws. tap. on a lathe. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. If the thickness is sufficient. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. which will make it uniform in size. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. When the frame is finished so far. Fig. The bearing studs are now made. After cleaning them with the solution. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. making it 1/16 in. brass. Then the field can be finished to these marks. A. Michigan. drill the four rivet holes. hole is . After the template is marked out. 3-3/8 in. is composed of wrought sheet iron. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. brass or iron. which may be of any thickness so that. but merely discolored. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. and for the outside of the frame. they will make a frame 3/4 in. between centers. cannot be used so often. 3. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. as shown in the left-hand sketch. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. mark off a space. These holes are for the bearing studs. thicker.

leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. file them out to make the proper adjustment. brass rod is inserted. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. soldered into place. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. and build up the solder well. or otherwise finished.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. The shaft of the armature. solder them to the supports. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. When the bearings are located. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. 4. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. Fig. is turned up from machine steel. into which a piece of 5/8-in.

by 1-1/2 in. 7. being formed for the ends. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. then drill a 1/8-in. washers. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. When annealed. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. 3. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. Armature-Ring Core. and held with a setscrew. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. 6. as shown in Fig. to allow for finishing to size. as shown in Fig. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. After they . then allowing it to cool in the ashes. thick. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. 8. Procure 12 strips of mica. Find the centers of each segment at one end. wide. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. Rivet them together. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. thick are cut like the pattern.. thick. as shown in Fig. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. hole and tap it for a pin. wide. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. 9. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. 6.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. as shown in Fig. threaded. as shown m Fig. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. holes through them for rivets. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. 3/4 in. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. After the pieces are cut out. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. 3. thick. The sides are also faced off and finished. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. as shown in Fig. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. 3/4 in. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. deep and 7/16 in. 5. sheet fiber. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. When this is accomplished. thick and 1/4 in. inside diameter. 1/8 in. 1-1/8 in. brass rod. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. Make the core 3/4 in. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. or segments. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. and then they are soaked in warm water. The pins are made of brass. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig.

and wind on four layers. In starting to wind. about 100 ft. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. they are glued to the core insulation. When the glue is set. 6 in. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. Run one end of the field wire. This winding is for a series motor. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. of No. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. of the wire. sheet fiber. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. until the 12 slots are filled. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. The winding is started at A. shown at A.have dried. All connections should be securely soldered. shown at B. To connect the wires. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. and bring the end of the wire out at B. thick. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. Fig. The two ends are joined at B. yet it shows a series of . then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. 8 in. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. 1. The source of current is connected to the terminals. long. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. are soldered together. 5. the two ends of the wire. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. After one coil. or side. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. Fig. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. 1. The field is wound with No. which will take 50 ft. after the motor is on the stand. sheet fiber. by bending the end around one of the projections. of the end to protrude. being required. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. wide and 1 in. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring.

The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. A 1/2-in. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. is fastened to the metallic body. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. which serves as the ground wire. as in the case of a spiral. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. still more simply. Nine wires run from the timer. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. one from each of the eight contacts. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. or. and one.

circle. board. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. Covering these is a thin. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. long. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. The pointer end of the needle is painted black.The Wind Vane. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. Without this attachment. 45 deg. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. 6 in. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. It should be . The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. thus giving 16 different directions. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. of the dial.

is most satisfactory. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. To work these outlines. Fill the box with any handy ballast. -Contributed by James L. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. 14 by 18 in. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. will be sufficient. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. Y. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. Buffalo. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. thus making a universal joint. high. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. will be enough for the two sides. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. if not too high. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. Blackmer. and about 6 in. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. or. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. according to who is going to use it. To make it." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find.about 6 ft. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. will answer the purpose just as well. Before tacking the fourth side. and securely nail on the top of the box. N. also a piece of new carpet. . The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. though a special knife. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. called a chip carving knife. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. making it heavy or light. however. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. Place the leather on some level. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. long to give the best results. Cut 3-in. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in.

Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. A good leather paste will be required. Paste the silk plush to the inner side.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine. An ordinary sewing-machine . fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing.

It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. square and tying a piece of . When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. and tie them together securely at the bottom. away from it. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. temporary lameness. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. Morse. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. a needle and some feathers. rather than the smooth side. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. of common salt and 10 lb. --Contributed by Katharine D. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. N. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. can be thrown away when no longer needed. If a fire breaks out. B. or a hip that has been wrenched. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. as in cases of a sprained ankle. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. and fasten the feathers inside of it.will do if a good stout needle is used. of water. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. Y. Syracuse. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in.

thus helping the rats to enter. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. One end is removed entirely. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. long. N. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. wide and 1/16 in. --Contributed by J. The end is filed to an edge. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. cut to the length of the spool. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. The body of the receiver. E. . The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. and a coil of wire. Hellwig. letting it go at arm's length. and tacked it to the boards. and the receiver is ready for use. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. is cut on the wood. --Contributed by John A. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. A. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. as shown. long. There is a 1-in. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. Paterson. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. The diaphragm C. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. commonly called tintype tin. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. Wis. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. A small wooden or fiber end. but not sharp. the corners being wired. The coil is 1 in. Ashland. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. 1/8 in. The strings should be about 15 in. wound on the head end. F. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. high. deep. Gordon Dempsey. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. Y.string to each corner. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. made up of four layers of No. etc. which is the essential part of the instrument. G. B.J.. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. Albany. setting traps. N. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. laying poisoned meat and meal. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. This not only keeps the rats out. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. board all around the bottom on the inside. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in.

using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. gold. better still. begin with the smallest scrolls. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. A single line will be sufficient. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. to . a piece of small wire. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. Take a piece of string or. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. wide. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. The vase is to have three supports. and bend each strip in shape. To clean small articles.

wide when stitching up the purse. Fold the leather on the line EF. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. Work down the outside line of the design. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. as shown in the sketch. Press or model down the leather all around the design. After taking off the pattern. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather.. through which to slip the fly AGH.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. About 1 in.. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse.which the supports are fastened with rivets. 4-1/4 in. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. from the lines EF on the piece. and does not require coloring. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. . from C to D. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. 3-1/2 in. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. thus raising it. using a duller point of the tool. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. from E to F. 6-3/8 in. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. Trace also the line around the purse. sharp pencil. 3-1/4 in. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water.

as shown in Fig. When it is finished. Cut off six pieces 12 in. around the wheel. Then nail the wheel down firmly. and cut it out as shown in Fig. then place the square piece out of which Fig.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. thick. with the largest side down. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. as well as useful. all the way around. First. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. and tack the other piece slightly. 2. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. It is neat and efficient. Make the lug 1/4 in. It can be made without the use of a lathe. long. and which will be very interesting. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. with a compass saw. then nail it. b. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. 1. following the dotted lines. Now take another piece of wood. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. the "open" side. and. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. deep. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. deep. by 12 ft. Fit this to the two . with the open side down. and cut out a wheel. square. being cast in wooden molds. with pins or small nails. 1/2 in. leaving the lug a. and the projections B. 3. 1 was cut. and a model for speed and power. This also should be slightly beveled.

pieces just finished. hole entirely through at the same place. 4. After it is finished. 1. place it between two of the 12-in. and lay it away to dry.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. as shown by the . hole bored through its center. Now put mold No. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. holes through it. in the center of it. deep. and boring a 3/8-in. and cut it out as shown in Fig. square pieces of wood. hole 1/4 in. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. Take the mold apart. one of which should have a 3/8-in. bolts. and bore six 1/4-in. Now take another of the 12-in. slightly beveled. as shown by the black dots in Fig. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. then bolt it together. square pieces of wood. and clean all the shavings out of it.

It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. instead of the right-handed piece. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. and 3/8-in. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. one in the lug. 5. long. b. and connect to the boiler.1. where the casting did not fill out. Pour metal into mold No. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. only the one is left-handed.2. and two 1/4-in. as shown by the black dots in Fig. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. d. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. Using the Brace . This is mold No. so that it will turn easily.1. holes. Commencing 1-1/2 in. place it under the drill. drill in it. in diameter must now be obtained. and the other in the base. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. lay it on a level place. 1. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. 4. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. and bore three 1/4-in. 6. This is for a shaft. and the exhaust hole in projection b.2. put the top of the brace through this hole. and run in babbitt metal again. and pour babbitt metal into it. Put this together in mold No. Fig. and drill them in the same manner. 6.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. the other right-handed. see that the bolts are all tight. and pouring metal in to fill it up. This is the same as Fig. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. Then bolt the castings together. Let it stand for half an hour. as shown in illustration. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. wide and 16 in. Now cut out one of the 12-in. from the one end. This will cast a paddle-wheel. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. fasten a 3/8-in. holes at d. Now take mold No. over the defective part. true it up with a square. screw down. long. take an ordinary brace. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. until it is full. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. A piece of mild steel 5 in. After it is fitted in. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. place the entire machine in a vise. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting.black dots in Fig. and drill it entirely through. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. B. one in the projections. and lay it away to dry.

Your turbine engine is now ready for work. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. with a boss and a set screw. while it is running at full speed. turn the wheel to the shape desired. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. one 6 ft. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. long. and with three small screw holes around the edge. Plan of Ice Boat . bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular.. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. and if instructions have been carefully followed. piece and at right angles to it. and the other 8 ft. and. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. Then take a knife or a chisel. At each end of the 6ft. will do good service. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned.

in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. Over the middle of the 6-ft. in diameter at the base. 2 by 3 in. as the runners were fastened. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. plank nail 8-in. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . in the top before the skate is put on. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. should be of hardwood. Make your runners as long as possible. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. long. To the under side of the 8-ft. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. tapering to 1-1/2 in. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in. distant. Fig. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. boards to make the platform. Run the seam on a machine. piece and at right angles to it. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. 1. The tiller. at the butt and 1 in. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. long and 2-1/2 in. projecting as in Fig. long. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. in diameter. at the end. 3. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. The spar should be 9 ft. 8 a reef point knot. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. in diameter in the center. in front of the rudder block. and about 8 in. This fits in the square hole. plank. at the top.These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used. 1. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. so much the better will be your boat. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. where they often did considerable damage. leaving 1 ft. bolt the 8-ft. Fig. which may come in handy in heavy winds.

Its parts are as follows: A. It is quite evident that when a rat put its two fore feet on the edge of the pan in order to eat the mush which it contained. S S. Simple Fire Alarm When the stove becomes too hot the wax will melt at the ends. Mechanicsburg. and when we pushed the button up in the shop the rat would be thrown 2 or 3 ft. Electric Rat Trap How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359] A fire alarm which is both inexpensive and simple in construction is shown in the illustration. P. in the air and let out a terrific squeak. Phoenix. Comstock. connect the device in circuit with an electric bell. that an electrical connection would be made through the body of the rat. A good sized induction coil was through connected with these wires and about six dry batteries were used to run the induction coil whenever a push button was manipulated. The arrangement proved quite too effective. --Contributed by J. small piece of wood. Ariz. The . for after a week the rats all departed and the boys all regretted that their fun was at an end. so that they come in contact at C. --Contributed by John D. W is a piece of wax crayon just long enough to break the contact at C when inserted as shown in the illustration. Pa. and place it behind a stove. but one that will afford any amount of amusement. To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359] This is a very simple device. block of wood nailed to A. P. R. to block B. two pieces of sheet brass about 1/4 in. wide. B. Adams. allowing the springs to contact at C.another from the zinc plate through the intervening yard and into the shop. bent into a hook at each end. and the alarm bell will ring. When these parts have been put together in the manner described. binding-posts fastening the springs S S.

dial and works out of the shell and cut some pieces out of the metal so that when the pieces left are turned back it will have the appearance as in Fig. Take the glass. Gild the pan all over. and make it into a clock to hang on the wall. 2.center post rests in an auger hole bored in an old stump or in a post set in the ground. says the American Boy. and drill a hole in the center so the shaft for the hands will easily pass through and extend out far enough to replace the two hands. An old wheel is mounted at the top of the pole. Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360] An inexpensive and easy way to make an unique ornament of a clock The Clock with Holder for kitchen use is to take an old alarm clock or a new one if preferred. high. Put the works back in the metal shell and solder it to the frying pan by the pieces turned out as in Fig. A passenger rides in each se