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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial

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08/17/2011

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Sections

  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother

THE BOY MECHANIC VOLUME I

Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)

BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I

THE

700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
HOW TO CONSTRUCT
WIRELESS OUTFITS, BOATS, CAMP EQUIPMENT, AERIAL. GLIDERS, KITES, SELF-PROPELLED VEHICLES ENGINES, MOTORS, ELECTRICAL APPARATUS, CAMERAS
AND

HUNDREDS OF OTHER THINGS WHICH DELIGHT EVERY BOY

WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
COPYRIGHTED, 1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO

POPULAR MECHANICS CO.
PUBLISHERS

A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

with the hollow side away from you. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. It is held in this curve until dry. 2. 1. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. distant. long will make six boomerangs. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. To throw a boomerang. 1. 1. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides .Fig. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. apart. until it is bound as shown in Fig. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. Ontario. The pieces are then dressed round. as shown in Fig. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. 2. Fig. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. Noble. as shown in Fig.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. grasp it and hold the same as a club. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. A piece of plank 12 in. Toronto. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. 2 -. E. --Contributed by J. wide and 2 ft. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. away. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply.

The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. blocks . and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. and it may be necessary to use a little water. minus the top. 6 in. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. the block will drop out. A wall. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. First. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. it is not essential to the support of the walls. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. high and 4 or 5 in. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. If the snow is of the right consistency. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. or rather no bottom at all. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. and with a movable bottom. thick.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. made of 6-in. A very light. one inside of the circle and the other outside. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. long. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. however. dry snow will not pack easily. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. forcing it down closely. which makes the building simpler and easier. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. but about 12 in.

2. C. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. There is no outward thrust. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. Goodbrod. The piece of wood. Ore. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. It also keeps them out. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. long and 1 in. D. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. A nail. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. is 6 or 8 in. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. and the young architect can imitate them.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. a. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. 1. 1. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Geo. Union. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. 2. above the ground. Fig. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. or an old safe dial will do. Fig. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. which is about 1 ft. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. wide. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. 3. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. 3 -. which can be made of wood. Fig. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. A little experience will enable one to do this work well.

allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight.When taking hot dishes from the stove. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. as the weight always draws them back to place. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. New York. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. --Contributed by R. the box locked . The bolts are replaced in the hinges. S. Syracuse. one pair of special hinges. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. says the Sphinx. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. Merrill. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. If ordinary butts are used. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use.

and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. smooth surface. With the metal shears. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. -Contributed by L. 2. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. proceed as follows: First. If the measuring has been done properly. Ga. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. When the sieve is shaken. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. allowing each coat time to dry. about 1-32 of an inch. 3. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. It remains to bend the flaps. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. Alberta Norrell. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. Place the piece in a vise. All . remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. one for each corner. draw one-half of it. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther.and the performer steps out in view. Fig. as shown in Fig. Augusta. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. on drawing paper. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. To make a design similar to the one shown. as shown in Fig. as shown. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. If they do not. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. 1.

the edges should be left smooth. of No. R. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. When the current is turned off. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. --Contributed by R. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . Colo. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. used for insulation. in passing through the lamp. In boring through rubber corks. and in the positions shown in the sketch. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. After this has dried. H. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. If a touch of color is desired. Galbreath. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. A piece of porcelain tube. C. A resistance. 25 gauge German-silver wire. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. B. should be in the line. long. from the back end. causing it to expand. in diameter. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. which is about 6 in. if rolled under the shoe sole. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. heats the strip of German-silver wire. To keep the metal from tarnishing. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. is fitted tightly in the third hole. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. Denver. The common cork. The current. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. 25 German-silver wire. about 6 in. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. as shown at AA.

When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. as shown in Fig. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. 3.bottom ring. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. Mo. leaving a space of 4 in. Fig. Kansas City. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. 2. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. . but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. --Contributed by David Brown. Purchase two long book straps. 1. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. with thin strips of wood. between them as shown in Fig. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely.

allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. A. Fig. are mounted on the outside of the box. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. which is the right weight for family use. Two strips of brass. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. 4. --Contributed by James M.. Doylestown.. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. 3. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. Syracuse. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. C. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. and a pocket battery. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass.An ordinary electric bell. 1. --Contributed by Katharine D. just the right weight for a woman to use. and one weighing 25 lb. one weighing 15 lb. Y. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. Pa. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. 1. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. When the aeroplane tips. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. The folds are made over the string. long. Morse. 2. Fig. and tack smoothly. N. in diameter. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. having a gong 2-1/2 in. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. Kane. These are shown in Fig. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. The string is then tied. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. as . 1. to form a handle. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. Fig. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. 36 in.

machine screws. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. 1. two 1/8 -in. The saw. Day. 3/32 or 1/4 in. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. 2. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. such as brackets. Y. if once used. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. bent as shown in Fig. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. in diameter. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. Floral Park. N. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. long. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. four washers and four square nuts. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. Frame Made of a Rod . 2. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. --Contributed by Louis J. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. and many fancy knick-knacks. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. AA.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig.

With carbon paper trace these on the metal. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in.. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. therefore. Apply two coats. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. of water in which dissolve. after breaking up. or silver. If it colors the metal red. as well as the depth of etching desired. Of the leathers. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. Drying will cause this to change to purple. copper. Watch Fob For coloring silver. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. be covered the same as the back. Detroit. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. Rub off the highlights. Silver is the most desirable but. the most expensive. Scranton.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. green and browns are the most popular. An Austrian Top [12] . though almost any color may be obtained. of course. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. allowing each time to dry. 1 part sulphuric acid. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. In the design shown. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. it has the correct strength. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. File these edges.may be made of either brass. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. 1 part nitric acid. --Contributed by W. use them in place of the outside nuts. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. The buckle is to be purchased. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. if copper or brass. of water. Michigan. A. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. using a swab and an old stiff brush. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. For etching. treat it with color. as well as brass and copper.

The handle is a piece of pine. A 1/16-in.F. Michigan. hole. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. A handle. Bore a 3/4-in. Parts of the Top To spin the top. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. in diameter. pass one end through the 1/16-in.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. . starting at the bottom and winding upward. long. hole in this end for the top. wide and 3/4 in. 5-1/4 in. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. When the shank is covered. thick. Tholl. is formed on one end. allowing only 1-1/4 in. long. 3/4 in. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. 1-1/4 in. set the top in the 3/4 -in. --Contributed by J. Ypsilanti.

the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. Alberta Norrell. A. . Mich.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. Northville. Houghton. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. The baking surface. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. For black leathers. Augusta. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. tarts or similar pastry. --Contributed by Miss L. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. --A. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. Ga. having no sides.

Mo. Stringing Wires [13] A. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. then solder cover and socket together. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. When you desire to work by white light. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. glass fruit jar. Centralia. two turns will remove the jar. says Studio Light. the same as shown in the illustration. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked.

16 Horizontal bars. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. . 4 Braces. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. square by 12 in. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. 1-1/4 in. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. They are fastened. 4 Vertical pieces. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. so it can be folded up. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. as shown in the cross-section sketch. Wis. and not tip over. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. square by 62 in. 1-1/4 in.for loading and development. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. Janesville. --Contributed by Herman Fosel.

--Contributed by Dr. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. The front can be covered . I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. New York. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. Cincinnati. The whole. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. C. If the loop is tied at the proper place. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. H. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. -Contributed by Charles Stem. After rounding the ends of the studs. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. and a loop made in the end. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. after filling the pail with water. Phillipsburg. O. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. from scrap material. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. Rosenthal. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler.

Wehr. Md. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. the mouth of which rests against a. principally mayonnaise dressing. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. thoroughly fix. If the gate is raised slightly. In my own practice. FIG. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. By using the following method. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. the color will be an undesirable. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. Develop them into strong prints. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. The . sickly one. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. The results will be poor. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. either for contact printing or enlargements. 1 FIG. by all rules of the game. if you try to tone them afterward. --Contributed by Gilbert A. Baltimore. and. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. you are. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work.

. Iodide of potassium .bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison.. The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone. An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in. in size. 5 by 15 in. The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper.... as it will appear clean much longer than the white........ When the desired reduction has taken place. Put one on each corner of the blotting paper... It will bleach slowly and evenly. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away. San Francisco... transfer it to a tray of water." Cyanide of potassium ... thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses.... Place the dry print. but.. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder. in this solution. Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete........ L... preferably the colored kind. when it starts to bleach. Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper.. A good final washing completes the process. this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain.... This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print.. stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax.... With a little practice. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects. to make it 5 by 5 in. three times.. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper.. 2.. 1 and again as in Fig. Gray.... 16 oz. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table. 2 oz.. wide and 4 in. Cal.. where it will continue to bleach.... 20 gr. The blotting paper can . --Contributed by T. without previous wetting.. The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished..... long to admit the angle support...... The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes. etc. Water ....

Wisconsin. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. 20 gauge. Oshkosh. Corners complete are shown in Fig.J. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. --Contributed by J. having a width of 2-1/4 in. 3. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. Monahan. wide. and a length of 5 in. --Contributed by L. Wilson Aldred Toronto. Make a design similar to that shown. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. Canada. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. the head of which is 2 in. wide below the . the shaft 1 in. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners.

large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. The metal must be held firmly. Allow this to dry. . 1 part sulphuric acid. 2. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. Pierce a hole with a small drill. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. Fig. With files. then put on a second coat. 1. using turpentine. Trace the design on the metal. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. Make one-half of the design. Do not put the hands in the solution. After this has dried. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. but use a swab on a stick. as shown in Fig. 3. being held perpendicular to the work. then trace the other half in the usual way. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. after folding along the center line. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. Apply with a small brush. deep. freehand. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. For coloring olive green. After the sawing. 1 part nitric acid. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. using a small metal saw. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied.FIG. With the metal shears. which gives the outline of the design Fig. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. 4. 1 Fig. then coloring. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. using carbon paper. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper.

The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. East Hartford.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. When this is cold. Cal. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. Carl Cramer. Syracuse. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. --Contributed by Katharine D. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. then stain it a mahogany color. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. on a chopping board. thick. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. --Contributed by M. After the stain has dried. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. New York. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. --Contributed by H. it does the work rapidly. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. Conn. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. . as shown. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. attach brass handles. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. Ii is an ordinary staple. Richmond. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. Burnett. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. M. Morse. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device.

and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. holes. Kissimmee. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. some pieces of brass. also locate the drill holes. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. machine screws. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. H. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. brass. Jaquythe. --Contributed by W. about 3/16 in. WARNECKE Procure some brass. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. indicating the depth of the slots. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. two enameled. as shown at A. thick. as shown in Fig. Cal. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. Richmond. not over 1/4 in. --Contributed by Mrs. one shaft.. Atwell. A. saucers or pans. . Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. thick and 4 in. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. Fig. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. in width at the shank. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. square. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. and several 1/8-in. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. or tin.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. 1/4 in. 1. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. Florida. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. 53 steel pens. 4. L.

The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. a square shaft used. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. long and 5/16 in. each about 1 in. Fig. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. machine screws and nuts. long by 3/4 in. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. If metal dishes. Fig. can be procured. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. hole in the center. hole. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. using two nuts on each screw. Fig. The shaft hole may also be filed square. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. machine screws. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. as shown in Fig. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. as shown. wide. in diameter and 1/32 in. 6. and the ends filed round for the bearings. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. hole is drilled to run off the water. with a 3/8-in. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. These are connected to a 3/8-in. with 1/8-in. 3. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. 7. wide and bend as shown in Fig. about 1/32 in. 1. 3. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. and pins inserted. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. 5. as in Fig. with the face of the disk. supply pipe. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. 2. If the shaft is square. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. thick. 2.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. thick. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. There should be a space of 1/16 in. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. into the hole. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. lead should be run into the segments. A 3/4-in. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. brass and bolted to the casing. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. Bend as shown in Fig..

The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. --Contributed by F. deep and 1-1/4 in. from the top of the box. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. Hamilton. La Salle. 8-1/2 in. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. Stain the wood before putting in the . Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. long. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. Now you will have the box in two pieces. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. three of which are in the basket. screws. make these seams come between the two back legs. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. The four legs are each 3/4-in. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. or more in diameter. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. Canada. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. to make the bottom. With a string or tape measure. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. high and 15 in. using four to each leg. we will call the basket. V. Be sure to have the cover. square and 30-1/2 in. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. When assembling. Ill. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. Cooke. --Contributed by S. Smith. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. from the bottom end of the legs. The lower part. deep over all. Fasten with 3/4-in. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife.

-Contributed by Stanley H. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. When making the display. Md. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. The side. as shown in the sketch. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane.lining. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. Fig. The folded part in the center is pasted together. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. --also the lower edge when necessary. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. you can. sewing on the back side. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. and gather it at that point. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. Mass. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. wide and four strips 10 in.2 Fig. Sew on to the covered cardboards. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. 1. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. Boston. wide.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. Baltimore. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. Packard. 2. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. Cover them with the cretonne. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. If all the parts are well sandpapered.

Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. Cross Timbers. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. Gloversville. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. N. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. --Contributed by H. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. with slight modifications. Fig. Orlando Taylor. L. Y. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. --Contributed by B. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. It is not difficult to . saving all the solid part. It is cleanly. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. Mo. When through using the pad. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. Crockett. 3. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. and.

Mount the shell on a small card with glue. it should be new and sharp. --Contributed by Edith E. and secure it in place with glue or paste. After stirring. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. Lane. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. If a file is used. Lowell. S. remove the contents. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. Mass. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . Texas. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. are shown in the diagram. -Contributed by C. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. or if desired. across the face. El Paso. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. and scrape out the rough parts. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. Both of these methods are wasteful. After this is done. Bourne.

He captured several pounds in a few hours. Canton. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. circled over the funnel and disappeared. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. Wheeler. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. --Contributed by Loren Ward. A Postcard Rack [25]. --Contributed by Geo. F. Greenleaf. Iowa. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. The insects came to the light. Oak Park. Those having houses . I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. Oregon. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. Turl. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. Ill. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. After several hours' drying. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. Ill. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. --Contributed by Marion P.cooking utensil. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. As these were single-faced disk records. The process works well and needs no watching. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. Des Moines. The illustration shows a rack for postcards.

--Contributed by Wm. Dobbins. Both sides can be put together in this way. Glenbrook. --Contributed by Thomas E. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. Lay the floor next. Worcester. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. and the second one for the developing bench. Rosenberg. Only three pieces are required. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. material. Mass. and as they are simple in design. will do as well.. plane and pocket knife. Conn. not even with the boards themselves. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. by 2 ft. thick. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. the bottom being 3/8 in. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. one on each side of what will be the . The single boards can then be fixed. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. the best material to use being matched boards. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. 6 in.. boards are preferable.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. but for cheapness 3/4 in. 6 in. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. and both exactly alike. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper.

all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. by screwing to the floor. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. At the top of the doorway. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. 6. 11. and in the middle an opening. It is shown in detail in Fig. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig.. 6 and 9. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. of the top of the door for the same reason. Fig. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. hinged to it. 9 by 11 in. wide. 8. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. 5. the closing side as at B. etc. In hinging the door. and to the outside board of the sides. and act as a trap for the light. so that it will fit inside the sink. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. brown wrapping paper. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. 7. below which is fixed the sink.. 6. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. is cut. 2 in section. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. so that the water will drain off into the sink. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig.doorway. The developing bench is 18 in. 3 and 4. 9). The roof boards may next be put on. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. and the top as at C in the same drawing. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. 10). The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. and should be zinc lined. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. and shown to a larger scale in Fig.. as shown in Figs. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. which is fixed on as shown . nailing them to each other at the ridge.

Details of the Dark Rook .

four coats at first is not too many. 20. are fastened in the corners inside. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. preferably maple or ash. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. Fig. as at I. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. 2. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. 15. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. hole bored in the center for a handle. Fig. and a tank stand on it. Karl Hilbrich. after lining with brown paper. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. or red light as at K. The house will be much strengthened if strips. and a 3/8-in. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. or the room may be made with a flat roof. if desired. 16. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor.in Fig. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. though this is hardly advisable. which makes it possible to have white light. 6. as shown in the sections. Pennsylvania. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. In use. 13. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. --Contributed by W. 14. as shown in Fig. The handle should be at least 12 in. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. Fig. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. 17. 19. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. mixing flour and water. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. Fig. 18. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. 16. screwing them each way into the boards. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. 1. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. it is better than anything on the market. but not the red glass and frame. as in Fig. as at M. 13. Erie. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. A circular piece about 2 in. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. these being shown in Fig. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. For beating up an egg in a glass. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers.

The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. Kansas City. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. D. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . about 3/8 in. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. for a handle. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. when put together properly is a puzzle. G. as shown in the sketch. To operate. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. Smith. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. Mo. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. --Contributed by L. Yonkers. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility.copper should be. long. L. Schweiger. Mitchell. Eureka Springs. Ark. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. -Contributed by E. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. which. New York. --Contributed by Wm.

Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. as is usually the case. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. holes should be drilled in the bottom. need them. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. as shown in Fig. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. to make it set level. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. as well as improve its appearance. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. for the moment. After the box is trimmed. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. 2. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. which binds them together. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. The design shown in Fig. Having completed the bare box. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. 1. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. the box will require a greater height in front. the rustic work should be varnished. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. A number of 1/2-in. 3. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. The corks in use are shown in Fig. . Each cork is cut as in Fig. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. 3. especially for filling-in purposes. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. If the sill is inclined. in order to thoroughly preserve it. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. as shown in Fig. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads.

When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. share the same fate. F. . 3. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. too dangerous. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. When the corn is gone cucumbers. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. etc. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. can't use poison. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. as shown in Fig. The coiled rod is 3/16 in.. and observe results. life in the summer time is a vexation. it's easy. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. Traps do no good. 1. cabbages. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. 4. Each long projection represents a leg. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. But I have solved the difficulty. being partly eaten into. 2. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. drilled at right angles. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom.

so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. About 9-1/2 ft. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. the coil does not heat sufficiently. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. The solution can be used over and over again. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. long. strips. of No. . Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. by trial. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. -. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. If. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. Iowa. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. and made up and kept in large bottles. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. cut some of it off and try again. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. cut in 1/2-in.

it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. Stir and mix thoroughly. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. Knives.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. D. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. --Contributed by James M. hot-water pot. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. Dallas. Pa. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. of gasoline. Y. N. . In cleaning silver. 1) removed. and a strip. but with unsatisfactory results. to cause the door to swing shut. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. Doylestown. of oleic acid with 1 gal. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. of whiting and 1/2 oz. coffee pot. Morse. is a good size--in this compound. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. forks. Kane. --Contributed by Katharine D. Do not wash them. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. Fig 2. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. Texas. C. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. Syracuse. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. it falls to stop G. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. as shown in the sketch.

If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. --Contributed by Oliver S. Sprout. which is. --Contributed by Theodore L. Pa. New Orleans. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. Harrisburg. Fisher. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. . Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. but unfixed. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. La. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . Waverly. negatives. later fixed and washed as usual. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. Ill. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. of course. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. using the paper dry. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom.

one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. To obviate this difficulty. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. a harmonograph is a good prescription. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. In this uncertainty lies the charm. metal. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. then . but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. The harmonograph. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. No two hamonograms are exactly alike.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. 1. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. Fig. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator.

that is. --Contributed by James T. Holes up to 3 in. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. for instance. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. as long as the other. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. Ingham. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. with a nail set or punch. in diameter. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. 1-3/4 by 2 in. Arizona. provides a means of support for the stylus. in the center of the circle to be cut. Chicago. ceiling. Punch a hole. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. is attached as shown at H. such as a shoe buttoner. 1. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone.. etc. A pedestal. 1. to prevent any side motion. Another weight of about 10 lb. A small weight. J.. K. G. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. makes respectively 3. which can be regulated. Rosemont. The length of the short pendulum H. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. A weight. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. one-fifth. as shown in the lower part of Fig. of about 30 or 40 lb. exactly one-third. is about right for a 10-ft. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. or the lines will overlap and blur. Gaffney. --Contributed by Wm. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. A small table or platform. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. A length of 7 ft. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. as shown in Fig. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. R. and unless the shorter pendulum is. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. what is most important. one-fourth. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and.

Morey. 1. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever.J. N. The two key cards are made alike. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. 6. The capacity of the vise. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. 4. --Contributed by J. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. dividing them into quarters. 5. of course. Cape May City. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. a correspondent of . Chicago. then 3 as in Fig. distributing them over the whole card. 3. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. Cruger. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. one for the sender and one for the receiver. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig.H.J. and 4 as in Fig. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. -Contributed by W. and proceed as before. Fig. 2. Fig. then put 2 at the top.

and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. 22 gauge German-silver wire. 1/4 in. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. acetic acid and 4 oz. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. --Contributed by L. wood-screws. If constructed of the former. from the top and bottom. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. After preparing the base and uprights. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. 1/2 oz. remove the prints. drill 15 holes. Wind the successive turns of . of water. deep. Asbestos board is to be preferred. of ferricyanide of potash. the portion of the base under the coil. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. Augusta. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. says Popular Electricity. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. citrate of iron and ammonia. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. To assemble. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. long. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. 6 gauge wires shown. respectively. Cut through the center. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. Ga. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. Alberta Norrell. 30 gr. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. of 18-per-cent No. of the uprights. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. sheet of well made asbestos paper. After securing the tint desired.

then fasten the upright in place.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. Labels of some kind are needed. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. cut and dressed 1/2 in. square. etc. Y. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. Ward. which. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . screws. The case may be made of 1/2-in. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. N. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. --Contributed by Frederick E. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. if one is not a smoker. but these are not necessary. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. Small knobs may be added if desired. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. as they are usually thrown away when empty. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. 16 gauge copper wire. 14 gauge. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. rivets. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. Ampere.. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails.

. of water. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. C. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. Wis.14 oz. Eureka Springs. galvanized iron. of glycerine to 16 oz. B. S. as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by W. Copper. and one made of poplar finished black. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. Larson. G. being careful about the heat. particularly so when the iron has once been used. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. --Contributed by A. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. The parts are put together with dowel pins. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. brass. The material can be of any wood. lead. especially if a large tub is used. tinner's acid. zinc. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. it must be ground or filed to a point. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. then to the joint to be soldered." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. and rub the point of the copper on it. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. This is considerable annoyance. or has become corroded. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. and labeled "Poison. tin. Heat it until hot (not red hot). A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. the pure muriatic acid should be used. D. Richmond. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper.. a piece of solder. California. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. --C. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. sandpaper or steel wool. If the soldering copper is an old one. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. E and F. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. Ark. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. Jaquythe. A. Kenosha. In soldering galvanized iron.

The punch A. with good results. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. Apart from this. D.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. I bind my magazines at home evenings. The covers of the magazines are removed. Fig. Take a 3/4-in. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. Brass rings can be plated when finished. Place the band. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. The dimensions shown in Fig. -Contributed by H. This will leave a clear hole. Troy. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. in diameter. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. Fig. brass and silver. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. Hankin. and drill out the threads. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. wide. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. W. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. Y. B. N. a ring may be made from any metal. which gives two bound volumes each year. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. in diameter. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . however. 7/8 in. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. C. nut. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. This completes the die. 2. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. Six issues make a well proportioned book. The disk will come out pan shaped. 1. such as copper. thick and 1-1/4 in. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. round iron.

1. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. deep. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. through the notch on the left side of the string No. The covering should be cut out 1 in. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. then back through the notch on the right side. on all edges except the back. Coarse white thread. If started with the January or the July issue. 1. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. threaded double. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. 1. 5. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. of the ends extending on each side. and a third piece. is used for the sewing material. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. which is fastened the same as the first. Five cuts. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. using . Place the cardboard covers on the book.4. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. allowing about 2 in. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. size 16 or larger. and place them against the strings in the frame. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. and then to string No. 2. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. . The sections are then prepared for sewing. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. The covering can be of cloth. 1/8 in. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. Start with the front of the book. C. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. 2. is nailed across the top. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. The string No. After drawing the thread tightly. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. as shown in Fig. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. 1 in Fig. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle.

--Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. and. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. College View. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. Encanto. at opposite sides to each other. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. round iron. Divine. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. Cal. For the blade an old talking-machine . Place the cover on the book in the right position. Nebr. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. Tinplate. on which to hook the blade. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. and mark around each one.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. --Contributed by Clyde E.

Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. and a long thread plug. E. at the same end. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. Then on the board put . with 10 teeth to the inch. in order to drill the holes in the ends. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise.. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. hydraulic pipe. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. by 1 in. and 1/4 in. On the upper side..Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. or double extra heavy. Moorhead. as shown. Ohio. and 1/4 in. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. long. Miss. thick. fuse hole at D. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. bore. -Contributed by Willard J. by 4-1/2 in. as it is sometimes called. with a steel sleeve. B. Hays. Make the blade 12 in. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. thick. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. F. and another piece (B) 6 in. A. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. Summitville. C. and file in the teeth.

The size of the jars depends on the voltage. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. some sheet copper or brass for plates. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . high around this apparatus. A lid may be added if desired.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. If you are going to use a current of low tension. Boyd. and some No. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. of wire to each coil. --Contributed by Chas. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. Connect up as shown. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. 4 jars. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. of rubber-covered wire. the jars need not be very large. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. H. Philadelphia. about 5 ft. using about 8 in. as from batteries. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side.

as they are not substantial enough. A 3/4-in. 4 in. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. An iron washer. long by 22 in. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. 2. or source of current. 2 in. A variation of 1/16 in. steel rod makes a good steering rod.. long. with the cushion about 15 in. thick. 11 in.. 15-1/2 in. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. two pieces 34 in. . 2 is lower down than in No. by 2 in. is used to reduce friction. 7 in. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. To wire the apparatus. 3 in. 3 and No. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. The sled completed should be 15 ft. Fig. C. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. The connection between point No. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. however. 16-1/2 in. 5 on switch. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair.the way. The top disk in jar No. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. by 5 in. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. apart. wide. wide and 2 in. & S. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. by 6 in. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. and for the rear runners: A.. above the ground. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. 4. two pieces 14 in. The stock required for them is oak. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. 1 on switch. as they "snatch" the ice. For the front runners these measurements are: A. on No. by 1-1/4 in. by 2 in. B. gives full current and full speed. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. 30 in. wide and 3/4 in. long. thick. and bolt through. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. The illustration shows how to shape it. See Fig. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. 1 and so on for No. 1 is connected to point No. by 1 in. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. 1. square by 14 ft. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. Their size also depends on the voltage. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. two for each jar. 4) of 3/4-in. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. Use no screws on the running surface. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. making them clear those in the front runner. Construct the auto front (Fig. On the door of the auto front put the . For the steel runners use 3/8 in. sheet brass 1 in. 2. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. B and C. wide by 3/4 in.. The current then will flow through the motor. 3. by 1-1/4 in. No. In proportioning them the points A. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. long. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. At the front 24 or 26 in. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. First sandpaper all the wood.. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. 34 in. 27 B. are important.. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. direct to wire across jars. C. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. oak boards.. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. B. two pieces 30 in. 2. Put arm of switch on point No. beginning at the rear. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. and four pieces 14 in. Use no nails. then apply a coat of thin enamel. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. long. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. For the brass trimmings use No. and plane it on all edges. 2 and 3. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. by 5 in. Equip block X with screw eyes. Z. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch.

sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. If desired. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. or with these for $25. may be stowed within. If desired. which is somewhat moist. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. long. cheap material. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. brass plated. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. by 30 in. overshoes. parcels. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. cutting it out of sheet brass. lunch. a number of boys may share in the ownership.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . a brake may be added to the sled. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. by 1/2 in. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. If the expense is greater than one can afford. The best way is to get some strong. fasten a cord through the loop. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. etc. Then get some upholstery buttons. Fasten a horn. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. such as used on automobiles. to improve the appearance. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. to the wheel. such as burlap. sewing it to the burlap on the under side.

and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. Ill. --Contributed by Stewart H. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. Lexington. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. Leland.tree and bring. .

The Model Engineer. A small clearance space. Fig. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. First take the case of a small gearwheel. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. sheet metal. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. Fig. Fig. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. outside diameter and 1/16 in. the same diameter as the wheel. With no other tools than a hacksaw. FC. will be over the line FG. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. London. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. E. from F to G. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. which. say 1 in. some files. The straight-edge. 1. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. thick. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. CD. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. so that the center of the blade. Draw a circle on paper. This guide should have a beveled edge. the cut will be central on the line. by drawing diameters. with twenty-four teeth. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. 2. 4). The first tooth may now be cut. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. when flat against it. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. a compass. made from 1/16-in. though more difficult. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. mild steel or iron. 3.

but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. R. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. electric lamp. No shock will be perceptible. as shown in Fig.Four Photos on One Plate of them. Then take one outlet wire. A bright. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. If there is no faucet in the house. each in the center. hold in one hand. B. 1. as shown in Fig. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. ground it with a large piece of zinc. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. 2. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. some wire and some carbons. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. B. as shown in Fig. . With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. or several pieces bound tightly together. Focus the camera in the usual manner. 1. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. Make a hole in the other. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. either the pencils for arc lamps. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. transmitter. and the other outlet wire. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do.

Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. serves admirably. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. --Contributed by Geo. as shown. leaving about 10 in. Wrenn. Slattery. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. at each end for terminals. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. They have screw ends. But in this experiment. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. one at the receiver can hear what is said. and will then burn the string C. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. and about that size. Emsworth. Ashland. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. A is a wooden block. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. are also needed. Ohio. D D are binding posts for electric wires. as indicated by E E. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. or more of the latter has been used. Several battery cells. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. of course. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. J. by 12 in. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. under the gable. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. 36 wire around it. a transmitter which induces no current is used. B. and again wind the wire around it. Pa. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. For a base use a pine board 10 in. by 1 in. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. Dry batteries are most convenient. If desired. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. One like a loaf of bread. Then set the whole core away to dry.

B B. in parallel. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. The coil will commence to become warm. Fig. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. while C is open. 12 or No. These should have hollow ends. D. as shown. and switch. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. The oven is now ready to be connected. 2. F. and one single post switch. Turn on switch. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. connecting lamp receptacles. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. and the lamps. the terminal of the coil. C. for the . C. D. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. At one side secure two receptacles. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. Ohio. Fig. 1. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. 14 wire. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. Jr. First make a support. as shown.. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. Connect these three to switch. Place 16-cp. The apparatus is now ready for operation.wire. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. run a No. until the hand points to zero on the scale. in series with bindingpost. B B. From the other set of binding-posts. E. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. Newark.

consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. 1. a battery.. Fig. inside measurements. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. 10 turns to each layer. 3. wind with plenty of No. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. thick. 14 wire. a variable resistance. The pointer or hand. although copper or steel will do. etc. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. wide and 1/8 in. high. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. as shown in the cut. 14. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. To make one. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. At a point a little above the center. Fig. 5. 1/2 in. drill a hole as shown at H. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. C. 1/4 in. deep. is made of iron. 5. E. The core. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. 3 amperes. Mine is wound with two layers of No. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. long. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. 6. 4 in. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. until the scale is full.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. 2. where A is the homemade ammeter. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. drill through the entire case and valve. Dussault. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. It is 1 in. long. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. 1. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. D. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig.or 4-way valve or cock. This is slipped on the pivot. 36 magnet wire instead of No. Fig. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. is made of wire. 4. drill in only to the opening already through. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. and D. but if for a 4way. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes.E. wide and 1-3/4 in. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. A wooden box. 4 amperes. If for 3-way. although brass is better. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. Fig. 7. This may be made of wood. Montreal. is then made and provided with a glass front. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. B. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. a standard ammeter. remove the valve. D. to prevent it turning on the axle. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. After drilling. The box is 5-1/2 in. long and make a loop. --Contributed by J. from the lower end.

either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. A. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. making two holes about 1/4 in. D. This stopper should be pierced. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. B. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. F. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. One wire runs to the switch.performing electrical experiments. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. in thickness . and the other connects with the water rheostat. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. high. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. provided with a rubber stopper. By connecting the motor. and a metal rod. in diameter. as shown. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. and the arc light. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. To start the light. which is used for reducing the current. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. E.

long. A piece of wood. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. 1. 1. If the interrupter does not work at first. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. Fig. Jones. 2. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. Having fixed the lead plate in position. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. If all adjustments are correct. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. where he is placed in an upright open . Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. as shown in C. N. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. B. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. Fig. 2. Y. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. Turn on the current and press the button. A. To insert the lead plate. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. As there shown. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. Fig. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. as shown in B. Carthage. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. Having finished the interrupter. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. --Contributed by Harold L. 1. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. Fig.

giving a limp. and wave his arms up and down. is constructed as shown in the drawings. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. inside dimensions. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. A white shroud is thrown over his body. figures and lights. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. and must be thoroughly cleansed. by 7 in. especially the joints and background near A. light-colored garments. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment.. The glass should be the clearest possible. by 7-1/2 in. should be miniature electric lamps. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. They need to give a fairly strong light. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone.coffin. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. which can be run by three dry cells. A. L and M. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. until it is dark there. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. If everything is not black. high. The skeleton is made of papier maché. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. Its edges should nowhere be visible. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. especially L. within the limits of an ordinary room. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. and can be bought at Japanese stores. dressed in brilliant. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. with the exception of the glass. If it is desired to place the box lower down. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. to aid the illusion. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. could expect from a skeleton. All . Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. as the entire interior. from which the gong has been removed. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. should be colored a dull black. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. the illusion will be spoiled. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. The model. The lights. loosejointed effect. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains.

W. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . a double-pointed rheostat could be used. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. Two finishing nails were driven in. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. after which it assumes its normal color. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. placed about a foot apart. fat spark. as shown in the sketch. If a gradual transformation is desired. square block. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second.that is necessary is a two-point switch. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. Cal. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. --Contributed by Geo. San Jose. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. Fry. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype.

-Contributed by Dudley H. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. into the receiver G. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. to make it airtight. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. with two tubes. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. and should be separated about 1/8 in. as shown. F. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. This is a wide-mouth bottle. If a lighted match . which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. New York. B and C. The plates are separated 6 in. hydrogen gas is generated. by small pieces of wood. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. One of these plates is connected to metal top. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. A (see sketch). The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. In Fig. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. Cohen. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. the remaining space will be filled with air. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. soldered in the top. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. or a solution of sal soda. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. 1. In Fig.

as is shown in the illustration. N. in diameter and 6 in. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. copper pipe. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. is made by drilling a 1/8in. P. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. copper pipe. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. should be only 5/16 of an inch. from the bottom. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. A piece of 1/8-in. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. which is plugged up at both ends. by means of the clips. A nipple. of No. C C. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. says the Model Engineer. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. A. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. long. B. A. is then coiled around the brass tube. A. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. If desired. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. long. then a suitable burner is necessary. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. Fig. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. or by direct contact with another magnet. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. A 1/64-in. London. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. 1. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . N. 2 shows the end view. A. which forms the vaporizing coil. 1/2 in. 1-5/16 in. 36 insulated wire. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. Fig. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. One row is drilled to come directly on top. The distance between the nipple. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. and the ends of the tube. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. either by passing a current of electricity around it. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft.

It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper.lamp cord. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. this makes a much nicer book. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. about 8 or 10 in. 3. 1. 1/4 in. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. Fig. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. with a fine saw. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. Fig. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. Take two strips of stout cloth. trim both ends and the front edge. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. duck or linen. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. at the front and back for fly leaves. fold and cut it 1 in. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . Fig. smoothly. cut to the size of the pages. taking care not to bend the iron. larger all around than the book. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. leaving the folded edge uncut. should be cut to the diameter of the can. 2). A disk of thin sheet-iron. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. Cut four pieces of cardboard. but if the paper knife cannot be used. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). boards and all. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. longer and 1/4 in. Turn the book over and paste the other side. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board.

which will just slip inside the little can. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. as shown in the sketch. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. Ont. without a head. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. as shown. Noble. is turned on it. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. pasting them down (Fig. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. This will cause some air to be enclosed. --Contributed by Joseph N. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. 18 in.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. the joint will be gas tight. is perforated with a number of holes. in diameter and 30 in. but its diameter is a little smaller. C. 4). A. and a little can. is made the same depth as B. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. H. In the bottom. Va. or rather the top now. . which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. --Contributed by James E. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. deep. B. D. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. A gas cock. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. Toronto. Bedford City. Another tank. E. Another can. Parker. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. of tank A is cut a hole. is soldered onto tank A. is fitted in it and soldered.

as shown at C. B. Bott. E. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. The longitudinal corner spines. thus adjusting the . with an electric-bell magnet. B. A A. Beverly. exactly 12 in. D. Fig. B. should be 3/8 in. D. If the pushbutton A is closed.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. fastened in the bottom. shows how the connections are to be made. The armature. square by 42 in. J. If the back armature. should be cut a little too long. The diagonal struts. H is a square knot. are shown in detail at H and J. to prevent splitting. by 1/2 in. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. C. should be 1/4 in. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. tacks. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. which moves to either right or left. long. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. -Contributed by H. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. and the four diagonal struts. The wiring diagram. S. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying.. which may be either spruce. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. 1. and sewed double to give extra strength. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. making the width. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. basswood or white pine. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. Fig. when finished. The small guards. and about 26 in. N. long. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. 2. The bridle knots. A.

lengths of F and G. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. Closing either key will operate both sounders. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. Stoddard. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. to prevent slipping. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. with gratifying results. for producing electricity direct from heat. Harbert. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. --Contributed by Edw. Chicago. thus shortening G and lengthening F. If the kite is used in a light wind. and if a strong wind is blowing. Clay Center. the batteries do not run down for a long time. that refuse to slide easily. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. E. as shown. D. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. A bowline knot should be tied at J. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. and. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. however. Kan. shift toward F. can be made of a wooden . --Contributed by A.

nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. Then. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. A and B. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. --Contributed by A. When the cannon is loaded. D. A. Chicago. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. B. E. spark.frame. The wood screw. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . E. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. F. and also holds the pieces of wood. placed on top. 14 or No. C. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. C. with a number of nails. which conducts the current into the cannon. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. and the current may then be detected by means. by means of machine screws or. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. with a pocket compass. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. A. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. or parallel with the compass needle. A. in position. 16 single-covered wire. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in.. C. Fasten a piece of wood. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. to the cannon.

screw is bored in the block. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. L. 1. within the reach of the magnet. in this position the door is locked. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. Big Rapids. To lock the door. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. A hole for a 1/2 in. Marion. Ohio. with the long arm at L'. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. but no weights or strings. To unlock the door. 1. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. 1. H. A and S. Mich. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. where there is a staple. --Contributed by Joseph B. now at A' and S'. --Contributed by Henry Peck. Bend the strips BB (Fig. when in position at A'. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. press the button. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. In Fig. Chicago. A and S. Keil. Connect as shown in the illustration. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. A. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. to receive the screw in the center.the current is shut off. Fig. requiring a strong magnet. square and 3/8 in. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. . Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. B. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. Fig. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. To reverse.

and if desired the handles may . and C is a dumbbell. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. --Contributed by C. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. or for microscopic work. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. pipe with 1-2-in. if enameled white on the concave side. gas-pipe. put in the handle. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. Rand. are enameled a jet black. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. When ready for use. Thread the other end of the pipe. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. and may be made at very slight expense. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. West Somerville. Mass. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. The standard and base. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. long. about 18 in. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. When the holes are finished and your lines set. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. hole. J.

Fig. with a cover. across. across. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. This peculiar property is also found in ice. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. North Easton. E. A. Warren. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. 8 in. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. M. which shall project at least 2 in. 1. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. as shown at A in the sketch. B. Mass.be covered with leather. D. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. Fig. Make a cylindrical core of wood. inside the pail.. --Contributed by C. high by 1 ft. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. long and 8 in. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. 1.

bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. C. This done. 1330°. the firing should be gradual. After removing all the paper. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. and with especial caution the first time. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. Set aside for a few days until well dried. 2 in. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. Cover with paper and shellac as before. thick. passing wire nails through and clinching them. and on it set the paper wrapped core. if you have the materials. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. make two wood ends. 1). 15%. in diameter. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. After finishing the core. in diameter. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. It is placed inside the kiln. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. bottom and sides. hotel china. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. but will be cheaper in operation. wider than the kiln. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. When lighted. diameter. long over the lid hole as a chimney. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. 1). The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. hard porcelain. pipe. of fine wire. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. Wind about 1/8 in. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. and graphite. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. but it will burn a great deal of gas. and your kiln is ready for business.. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. or make one yourself. projecting from each end (Fig. layer of the clay mixture. about 1 in. and varnish. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. long. 2. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. C. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end.mixture of clay. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. sand. and 3/4 in. say 1/4 in. L. 1390°-1410°. W. as is shown in the sketch. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in.. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. let this dry thoroughly. 3) with false top and bottom. pack this space-top. Fig.. Line the pail. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. cutting the hole a little smaller. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. If the cover of the pail has no rim. 60%. and cut it 3-1/2 in. and 3/8 in. full length of iron core. The 2 in. Whatever burner is used. E. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. as dictated by fancy and expense. Fit all the parts together snugly. if there is to be any glazing done. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. This is a clay cylinder (Fig.-G. 25%. to hold the clay mixture. such . While these are drying you may be making a muffle. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. the point of the blue flame. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. which is the hottest part. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. carefully centering it. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. pipe 2-ft. thick. C. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. strip of sheet iron.

Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. Of course. C. length of . A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. 2. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. and plane off about 1/16 in. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. diameter. 1. all cards facing the same way. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures.. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. The funnel. as in Fig. C.53 in. with a plane. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. the next black. leaving long terminals. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. overlaps and rests on the body. Then take the black cards. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. square them up and place in a vise. square them up. D. 8 in. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. --Contributed by J. B. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. Then. and so on. and discharges into the tube. . R. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. bind tightly with black silk. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. 2). Chicago. about 1/16 in. as shown in the sketch herewith. Take the red cards. A. procure a new deck. taking care to have the first card red. C. You can display either color called for. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. around the coil. T. as in Fig. Washington. 2. Next restore all the cards to one pack. every alternate card being the same color. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. red and black. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. and divide it into two piles.

The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. Long Branch. thus making all the holes coincide. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. A. 1. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. N. B. and this is inexpensive to build. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. When the glass is put in the frame a space. The cement. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. Let . will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. All the horizontal pieces. D. through the holes already drilled. of the frame. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. Fig. The upright pieces. 1 gill of fine white sand. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. A. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. 1 gill of litharge. E. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. about 20 in.C. the same ends will come together again. so that when they are assembled. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in.J. as the difficulties increase with the size. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. and then the frame is ready to assemble. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. The bottom glass should be a good fit. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. F. stove bolts. To find the fall of snow. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. It should be placed in an exposed location. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. B. C. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. B. Drill all the horizontal pieces. stove bolts. the first thing to decide on is the size. E. angle iron for the frame.. to form a dovetail joint as shown.

If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. to the door knob. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. Fig.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. having a swinging connection at C. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. Fasten the lever. if desired. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. B. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. a centerpiece (A. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . and. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. D. on the door by means of a metal plate. Aquarium Finished If desired. A.

Fig. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. Fig. 6 in. several lengths of scantling 3 in. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. and another. and Fig. will open the door about 1/2 in. Y. White. Buffalo. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. A small piece of spring brass. Fig. from the outside top of the frame. Two short boards 1 in. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. long. Cut two pieces 30 in. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. another. 2 is an end view. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. soldered to the end of the cylinder. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. 1. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. which is 15 in. 1 is the motor with one side removed. for the top. Fig. another. D. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. 1 . B. 3 shows one of the paddles. F. Do not fasten these boards now. PAUL S. to keep the frame from spreading. C. wide by 1 in. 2 ft. To make the frame. as at E. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. They are shown in Fig. hoping it may solve the same question for them. thus doing away with the spring. long. screwed to the door frame. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. to form the slanting part. --Contributed by Orton E. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. long. showing the paddle-wheel in position. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. AA. N. according to the slant given C. Cut two of them 4 ft. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. Fig. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. but mark their position on the frame. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. E.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. 1. 2 at GG. to form the main supports of the frame. I referred this question to my husband. 26 in. Fig.. long. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. approximately 1 ft. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. wide . with a water pressure of 70 lb.

as shown in Fig. to a full 1/2 in. 4. thick. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. hole to form the bearings. steel shaft 12 in. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. thick (HH. hole through them. Make this hole conical. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes.burlap will do -. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. (I. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. and a 1/4 -in. Next secure a 5/8-in. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right.along the edges under the zinc to form . Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. tapering from 3/16 in. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. after which drill a 5/8 in. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. Fig. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. When it has cooled. 24 in. iron. remove the cardboard. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. Tack one side on. 2) with a 5/8-in. hole through its center. Take the side pieces. take down the crosspieces. Fasten them in their proper position. 1. Now block the wheel. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). 2) and another 1 in. and drill a 1-in. hole through the exact center of the wheel. Fig. hole through their sides centrally. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. by 1-1/2 in. Drill 1/8-in. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. 2) form a substantial base. holes. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. iron 3 by 4 in. Fig. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. hole from the tops to the 1-in. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. in diameter. and drill a 1/8-in. long to the wheel about 8 in. These are the paddles. that is. GG. from one end by means of a key. pipe. then drill a 3/16-in. with the wheel and shaft in place. long and filling it with babbitt metal.

Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. place the outlet over a drain. and leave them for an hour or so. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. it would be more durable. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. and the subject may move. any window will do. drill press. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. If sheet-iron is used.a water-tight joint. remove any white curtains there may be. and as near to it as possible. but now I put them in the machine. Correct exposure depends. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. Darken the rest of the window. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. on the lens. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. . or what is called a process plate. The best plate to use is a very slow one. sewing machine. but as it would have cost several times as much. Do not stop down the lens. as this makes long exposure necessary. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. light and the plate. as shown in the sketch at B. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. shutting out all light from above and the sides. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. Focus the camera carefully. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. start the motor. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. If the bearings are now oiled. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. ice-cream freezer. Drill a hole through the zinc. says the Photographic Times. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. It is obvious that. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. Raise the window shade half way. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. of course. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly.

by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. and without fog. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. The core C. or an empty developer tube. as a slight current will answer. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. B. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. C. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. as shown in Fig. D. or wood. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. by twisting.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. an empty pill bottle may be used. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. The current required is very small. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. 2. hard rubber. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. without detail in the face. a glass tube. 2. which is made of iron and cork. full of water. the core is drawn down out of sight. or can be taken from an old magnet. The glass tube may be a test tube. With a piece of black paper. a core. On completing . and a base. A. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. until the core slowly rises. with binding posts as shown. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do.

the core will obey his command to rise or fall. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. is Benham's color top. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. whale oil. white lead. and make a pinhole in the center. This is a mysterious looking instrument. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. and one not easy to explain. The colors appear different to different people. water and 3 oz. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. and are changed by reversing the rotation.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. 1. 1 pt. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. 1 lb. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. according to his control of the current. finest graphite. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies.

when the action ceases.. before cutting. especially if the deck is a new one. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. B. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. thus partly filling bottles A and C. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B.B. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. As this device is easily upset. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. In making hydrogen. Chicago. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner.L. -Contributed by D. C. nearly every time. In prize games. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. deuce. which is then replaced in any part of the pack.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. A. fan-like. or three spot. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C.

--Contributed by F. --Contributed by C. Bently. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. S. Jr. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. Detroit. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. that will fit loosely in the tube A. Fig. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. (Fig. Huron. S. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. in length and 3 in. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. 1. as shown in Fig. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. Fig. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. . 12 in. Form a cone of heavy paper. Detail of Phonograph Horn . 10 in.. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer.. Dak. long and 3 in. J. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. 9 in. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. 2. Make a 10-sided stick. 3). 4. long. in diameter. W. Make ten pieces about 1 ft.

A second piece of silk thread. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. C. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. will cause an increased movement of C. push back the bolt. with a pin driven in each end. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. it is equally easy to block that trick. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. Remove the form. 6. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. Fortunately. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. and walk in. long. on one side and the top. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. but bends toward D. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. allowing 1 in. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. A.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. bend it at right angles throughout its length. about the size of a leadpencil. E. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. A piece of tin. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. making it three-ply thick. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. Denver. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. Cut out paper sections (Fig. Fig. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. --Contributed by Reader. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock.

and rest on a brick placed under each end. are 7 ft. put together as shown in the sketch. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. S. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. posts. Two wood-base switches. --Contributed by J. Minn. By this arrangement one. while the lower switch. Paul. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. The 2 by 4-in. A. B. is connected each point to a battery. long. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. Jr. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base.. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. S S.strip. S. Fremont Hilscher. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. West St. W. R. The feet. The reverse switch. or left to right. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with.. as shown. B. long. are made 2 by 4 in. The upper switch. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. will last for several years. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. 4 ft.

The base is made of wood. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. and the crank bearing C.every house. E. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. and has two wood blocks. The hose E connects to the boiler. 1. with two washers. and a cylindrical . and valve crank S. FF. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. the size of the hole in the bearing B. 2 and 3. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. which will be described later. which is made of tin. The piston is made of a stove bolt. H and K. The valve motion is shown in Figs. 2. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. Fig. The steam chest D. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. In Fig. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. either an old sewing-machine wheel. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. thick. and in Fig. is an old bicycle pump. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. the other parts being used for the bearing B. pulley wheel. cut in half. 3/8 in. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. or anything available. Fig.

The boiler. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. J. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. This engine was built by W. to receive the connecting rod H. at that. First. Eustice. C. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. powder can. Fig. and a very amusing trick. Cal. of Cuba. is cut out of tin. and the desired result is obtained. W. can be an old oil can. Schuh and A.piece of hard wood. as it is merely a trick of photography. or galvanized iron. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. 3. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. The valve crank S. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. as shown in Fig. using the positive wire as a pen. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. San Jose. G. Fry. 1. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. G. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. and saturated with thick oil. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. 4. This is wound with soft string. Fig. . --Contributed by Geo. Wis. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man.

Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. Fig. C. 1 by covering up Figs. B. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. as shown at AA. to cross in the center. 1 will be seen to rotate. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. and place a bell on the four ends. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. B. and Fig. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. as shown. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. Cut half circles out of each stave. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. Fig. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. The smaller wheel. They may be of any size. diameter. and pass ropes around . When turning. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. Fig.

Mo.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. which allows the use of small sized ropes. From a piece of thin . When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. but not on all.M. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope.. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. St. --Contributed by H. W. long. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. This in turn will act on the transmitter. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. To make this lensless microscope. A (a short spool. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. Louis. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. produces a higher magnifying power). which accounts for the sound. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. as shown in the illustration. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. procure a wooden spool. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. such as clothes lines.G. from the transmitter.

by means of brads. 2. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. 3. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. i. Fig. (The area would appear 64 times as large. cut out a small disk. if the distance is reduced to one-half. as in all microscopes of any power. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. or 64 times. is made of iron. darting across the field in every direction. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. and so on. D. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. and at the center. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. held at arm's length. fastened to a wooden base. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. C. and look through the hole D. the diameter will appear three times as large.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. A. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. H.) But an object 3/4-in.. 1. B. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. bent as shown. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. An innocent-looking drop of water. . C. can be made of brass and the armature. in which hay has been soaking for several days. is fastened at each end by pins. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. The spring. e. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. The lever. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. place a small object on the transparent disk.. D. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. To use this microscope. Viewed through this microscope. the object should be of a transparent nature. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. which costs little or nothing to make. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. The pivot. B. which are pieces of hard wood. E. the diameter will appear twice as large. otherwise the image will be blurred. if the distance is reduced to one-third. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters.

in length and 16 in. brass: B. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. 26 wire: E. Fig. wide and set in between sides AA. . long. coils wound with No. B. C. C. which are made to receive a pivot. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. brass: E. Each side. wood. 2. similar to the one used in the sounder. D. FF. E. or taken from a small one-point switch. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. The back. The binding posts. wood: F. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. wide and about 20 in. The base of the key. B. AA. D. fastened near the end.SOUNDER-A. 1. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. long and 14-1/2 in. wide. brass or iron soldered to nail. HH. K. and are connected to the contacts. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. can be made panel as shown. DD. F. wide. is cut from a board about 36 in. binding posts: H spring The stop. between the armature and the magnet. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. long by 16 in. should be about 22 in. thick. nail soldered on A. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. brass. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. K. wide. wide. The door. Fig. A. wood: C. connection of D to nail. 16 in. Cut the top. D. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. A switch. or a single piece. soft iron. 16 in. KEY-A.

long. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. as shown in the sketch. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. AA. cut in them. Ill. with 3/4-in. E. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. as shown. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . 13-1/2 in. material.. Garfield. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. 2 and made from 1/4-in. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. Make 12 cleats. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. brads. In operation. When the electrical waves strike the needle.

J. will give a greater speed. --Contributed by R. Y. the magnet. filled with water. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . pulls down the armature. When the pipe is used. B. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. A. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. Brown. Fairport. C. A (see sketch). F. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. when used with a motor. A. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. and. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. N. Ridgewood. and thus decreases the resistance. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. down into the water increases the surface in contact. E. in order to increase the surface. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. The cord is also fastened to a lever. through which a piece of wire is passed. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. --Contributed by John Koehler. Pushing the wire. N. A fairly stiff spring.

Borden. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. Of course. N. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. if desired. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other.for the secret contact. --Contributed by Perry A. even those who read this description. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. B. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. Gachville. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force.

.whenever the bell rings. and on both sides of the middle shelf. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. in a semicircle 2 in. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. --Contributed by Dr.. wide. 1. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. C. From a piece of brass a switch. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. Dobson. apart. Connect switch to post B. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. as shown in Fig. E. --Contributed by H. H. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. J. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. C. long and 5 in. long and full 12-in. for 6-in. thick and 12-in. Mangold. wide. wide. 2. Nails for stops are placed at DD. Two drawers are fitted in this space. records and 5-5/8 in. wide. records. A. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. Cal. deep and 3/4 in. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. for 10in. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. East Orange. D. The top board is made 28-in. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. N. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. Compton. from the bottom. Washington. where the other end of wire is fastened. as shown in Fig. The three shelves are cut 25-in. wide. With about 9 ft. Jr.

The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. A. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. as shown by the dotted lines. closed. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. Va. Roanoke. E. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. 1. B. When the cord is passed over pulley C. as shown in Fig. which in operation is bent. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. to which is fastened a cord.

having the same center as the first circle (Fig. 3. 5) when they are placed. Fig. If the wheels fit too tightly. in diameter. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. In these grooves place wheels. 3). in diameter. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. 4 shows the wheel-holder. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. B. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. thick. deep and 1/2 in. which should be about 1/2 in. apart. but a larger one could be built in proportion. through one of these holes. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. in diameter. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. Bore two 1/4 in. square and 7/8 in. is compressed by wheels. Put the rubber tube. to turn on pins of stout wire. Notice the break (S) in the track. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. they will let the air through. E.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. Cut two grooves. long. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. Now put all these parts together. 1 in. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. Figs. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. wide. holes (HH. it too loose. Fig. against which the rubber tubing. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. 1 in. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. excepting the crank and tubing. 1. wide. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. CC. D. In the sides (Fig. Figs. as shown in the illustration. they will bind. one in each end. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. These wheels should be 3/4 in. thick (A. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. The crankpin should fit tightly. E. Fig. in diameter. Do not fasten the sides too . Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. deep.

of material. Fig. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. The animal does not fear to enter the box.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. AA. The three legs marked BBB. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. and are 30 in. from each end. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. 2. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. For ease in handling the pump. the other wheel has reached the bottom. from each end. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. Fig. and mark for a hole. though a small iron wheel is better. tubing. beyond each of these two. Kan. Two feet of 1/4-in. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. from each end. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. iron. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. stands 20 in. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. 1. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. Idana. mark again. and 3-1/2 in. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. 15 in. from that mark the next hole. 2. In the two cross bars 1 in. a platform should be added. 17-1/2 in. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. A in Fig. costing 10 cents. 1. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. To use the pump. from the bottom and 2 in. as shown in Fig. AA. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. 1. as it gives steadiness to the motion. The screen which is shown in Fig. 1.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. 1. B. is all the expense necessary. because he can . the pump will give a steady stream. mark for hole and 3 in. Take the center of the bar. Then turn the crank from left to right. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. Fig. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. long. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. Hubbard. Cut six pieces. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. Fig. --Contributed by Dan H. If the motion of the wheels is regular.

If it is wet. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. of the top. however. C. and touches the bait the lid is released and. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. some of it should be poured out. silvery appearance. dropping. 1) must be prepared. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. 4 oz. The battery is now ready for use. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. If the solution touches the zinc. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. rub the zinc well. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. The truncated. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. If the battery has been used before. or. sulphuric acid. of water dissolve 4 oz. Meyer. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. Place the carbon in the jar. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. 2). 14 copper wire. The mercury will adhere. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. . and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. there is too much liquid in the jar. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. Philadelphia. add slowly. When the bichromate has all dissolved. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. --Contributed by H. acid 1 part). It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. potassium bichromate. To cause a flow of electricity. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. shuts him in. or small electric motors. It is useful for running induction coils. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. and the solution (Fig. giving it a bright. The battery is now complete. stirring constantly. until it is within 3 in. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. but if one casts his own zinc. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. When through using the battery.see through it: when he enters. long having two thumb screws.

Wis.Fig. while the coal door is being opened. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. pressing the pedal closes the door. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. the battery circuit. After putting in the coal. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. e. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. i. The price of the coil depends upon its size..1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. the jump-spark coil . --Contributed by Edward Whitney. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. however. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. which opens the door. If. with slight changes. Madison. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door.

After winding. apart. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. coil. 6. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. Fig. made of No. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. as shown in Fig. Change the coil described. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. in a straight line from top to bottom. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. 7). 7. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. .described elsewhere in this book. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. Now for the receiving apparatus. diameter. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. which is made of light copper wire. in a partial vacuum. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. 6. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. as shown in Fig. 5. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. This coil. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. This will make an excellent receiver. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. while a 12-in. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. and closer for longer distances. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. 7. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil.7. W W. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. being a 1-in. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. the full length of the coil. W W. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil.

A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig.6 stranded. I run my lathe by power. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. Figs. A. which will be described later. 90°. B the bed and C the tailstock. The writer does not claim to be the originator. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. 1 to 4. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). For an illustration. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. These circles. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. 90°. above the ground. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. and hence the aerial line. Run a wire from the other binding post. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. may be easily made at very little expense. but simply illustrates the above to show that. A large cone pulley would then be required. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. are analogous to the flow of induction. where A is the headstock. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. after all. only. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. . in the air. No.The aerial line. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. being vertical. at any point to any metal which is grounded. being at right angles. to the direction of the current. as it matches the color well. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. 1). but it could be run by foot power if desired. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. using an electric motor and countershaft.

Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. The bearing is then ready to be poured. Fig. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. Fig. If the bearing has been properly made. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. Fig. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. thick. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. The bolts B (Fig. A. and it is well to have the shaft hot. on the under side of the bed. B. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. Heat the babbitt well. Fig. and runs in babbitt bearings. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. 5. too. 5. After pouring. To make these bearings. 4. deep. steel tubing about 1/8 in. which pass through a piece of wood.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. pitch and 1/8 in. 4. and Fig. 6. The headstock. 2 and 3. which are let into holes FIG. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. but not hot enough to burn it. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. just touching the shaft. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. one of which is shown in Fig. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. tapered wooden pin. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. 6 Headstock Details D.

After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. B. they may be turned up after assembling. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. Take up about 5 ft. so I had to buy one. and a 1/2-in. FIG. This prevents corrosion. embedded in the wood. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. A. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. the alarm is easy to fix up.J. If one has a wooden walk. Ill. lock nut. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them.other machines. of the walk . N. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. The tail stock (Fig. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. Oak Park. If not perfectly true. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. Newark.

and the alarm is complete. save when a weight is on the trap. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. Then make the solution . water. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. of water. (A. Fig. Minneapolis. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. 2). Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. Finally. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. Jackson. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. clean the articles thoroughly. Connect up an electric bell. To avoid touching it. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. --Contributed by R. leaving a clear solution. so that they will not touch. to remove all traces of grease. hang the articles on the wires. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. Do not touch the work with the hands again. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. Minn. add potassium cyanide again. before dipping them in the potash solution. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. to roughen the surface slightly. silver or other metal. S.

make a key and keyhole. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. must be about 1 in. thick by 3 in. which is held by catch B. Take quick. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. Fig. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. with water. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. With an electric pressure of 3. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. light strokes. also. from the lower end. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. A 1/4 in. silver can be plated direct. a circuit is completed. nickel and such metals. square. about 25 ft. lead. Make a somewhat larger block (E. and then treated as copper. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. The wooden catch.up to 2 qt. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. Can be made of a 2-in. which . zinc. piece of broomstick. When all this is set up. a hand scratch brush is good. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. 3) directly over the hole. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. will serve for the key. with water. which is advised. long. copper. 1 not only unlocks. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. an old electric bell or buzzer. I. 1). of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. This solution. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. as at F. --Model Engineer. 1. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. Repeat six times. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. 1 in. and 4 volts for very small ones. and the larger part (F. Fig. Then. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. To provide the keyhole. Screw the two blocks together. Where Bunsen cells are used. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. shaking. as shown in Fig. with the pivot 2 in. but opens the door. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. A (Fig. hole in its center. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. such metals as iron. If accumulators are used. German silver. long. Before silver plating. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. of water. Having finished washing the precipitate. pewter. 18 wire. if one does not possess a buffing machine.5 to 4 volts. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. when the point of the key touches the tin. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. 1). 10 in. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. Fig. B should be of the same wood. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. Fig. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. 3. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. In rigging it to a sliding door. The wooden block C. saw a piece of wood. If more solution is required. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. 3) strikes the bent wire L. of clothesline rope and some No. On brass. use 2 volts for large articles.

the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. H. --Contributed by E. one-third of the length from the remaining end. Next. and finally lined inside with black cloth. To prepare such a magic cave. 3. is the cut through which the rope runs. or cave. top. 2. so much the better. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. Fig. the illumination in front must be arranged. he points with one finger to the box. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. heighten the illusion. to throw the light toward the audience. H. cut in one side. no painting inside is required. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. the requisites are a large soap box. which unlocks the door. shows catch B. should be cut a hole. He removes the bowl from the black box. a few simple tools. 1. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). Fig. and hands its contents round to the audience. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. and black art reigns supreme. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. and a slit. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. B. such as forks. and plenty of candles. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. Next. On either side of the box. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. In front of you. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. he tosses it into the cave. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. One end is removed. Fig. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. The magician stands in front of this. The interior must be a dead black. Fig. One thing changes to another and back again. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. sides and end. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. East Orange. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. in his shirt sleeves. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. half way from open end to closed end. spoons and jackknives. 116 Prospect St. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. Thus. 2. enlarged. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. with the lights turned low. the box should be painted black both inside and out. H. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. . The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. The box must be altered first. 0. Klipstein. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. Heavy metal objects. New Jersey. with a switch as in Fig. surrounding a perfectly black space. Receiving the bowl again. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. although a little more trouble. between the parlor and the room back of it. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. floor. Objects appear and disappear. 1.. some black paint. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. some black cloth.

which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. is on a table) so much the better. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. which can be made to dance either by strings. was identical with this. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. which are let down through the slit in the top. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. The audience room should have only low lights. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. and several black drop curtains. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. you must have an assistant. the room where the cave is should be dark.Finally. a screen must be used. his confederate behind inserts his hand. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. into the eyes of him who looks. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. had a big stage. in which are oranges and apples. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. The exhibitor should be . if. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. The illusion. of course. Consequently. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. only he. and if portieres are impossible. as presented by Hermann. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. But illusions suggest themselves. and pours them from the bag into a dish. one on each side of the box. of course. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth.

b3. 1. b1. respectively.. so arranged that. by means of two wood screws. 2. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. held down by another disk F (Fig. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . making contact with them. c4. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. as shown in Fig. c3. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. c1. b2. d. e1 and e2. respectively. 2). Finally. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. or b2. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). and c1 – electricity. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. On the disk G are two brass strips. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. if you turn handle K to the right. or binding posts. terminal c3 will show . suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. A represents a pine board 4 in. at L. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. About the center piece H moves a disk. making contact with them as shown at y.a boy who can talk. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. and a common screw. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. terminal c3 will show +. and c2 to the zinc. held down on it by two terminals. b3. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. Then. when handle K is turned to one side.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. 1. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. and c4 + electricity. 2. their one end just slips under the strips b1. f2. held down on disk F by two other terminals. is shown in the diagram. square. by 4 in.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. Fig. FIG. with three brass strips. respectively. c2. A. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. vice versa. b2.

Joerin. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. --Contributed by Eugene F. and then hold the receiver to your ear. thus making the message audible in the receiver. and when on No. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. when on No. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. B is a onepoint switch. 4. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. Ohio. from four batteries. -Contributed by A. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . and C and C1 are binding posts. When switch B is closed and A is on No. . from five batteries. you have the current of one battery. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. when A is on No. 5. from three batteries. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. Jr. jump spark coil. when on No.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. E. Tuttle. 1. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile.. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). Newark. 3.

indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. A. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. When you do not have a graduate at hand. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. Wis. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. La. Redmond. as shown in the sketch. is the device of H. Thus. rule. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. so one can see the time. over the bent portion of the rule. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. mark. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. which may be a button or other small object.. B. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. A. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. mark. A. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. and placed on the windowsill of the car. of Burlington. per second. and supporting the small weight. The device thus arranged. per second for each second. New Orleans. traveled by the thread. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. P. E. Handy Electric Alarm .

which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. Pa. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs.which has a piece of metal. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. . attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. C. which illuminates the face of the clock. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. S. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. soldered to the alarm winder. and with the same result. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. When the alarm goes off. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. --Contributed by Gordon T. --C. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. wrapping the wire around the can several times. Lane. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. Crafton. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. Then if a mishap comes. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. B. for a wetting is the inevitable result. but may be closed at F any time desired. Instead.

1 . The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. when it is being prepared. small machinery parts. ornaments of various kinds. which in turn support the mold while it is being made.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. The first thing to make is a molding bench. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. It is possible to make molds without a bench. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. engines. binding posts. bearings. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. Two cleats. L. New York City. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. and many other interesting and useful articles. AA. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. 1. which may. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. Macey. BE. as shown. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. and duplicates of all these. models and miniature objects. If there is no foundry Fig. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. whence it is soon tracked into the house. cannons. as shown in Fig. but it is a mistake to try to do this. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. With the easily made devices about to be described. battery zincs. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . --Contributed by A. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. A. C.

try using sand from other sources. G. H. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. makes a very good sieve. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold.near at hand. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. CC. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. The rammer. 2. A slight shake of the bag Fig. as shown. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. An old teaspoon. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. DD. and this. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. is shown more clearly in Fig. and a sieve. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. 2 . If desired the sieve may be homemade. which can be either aluminum. but this operation will be described more fully later on. which can be made of a knitted stocking. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. F. D. white metal. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. and saw it in half longitudinally. The flask. as shown. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. A A. Fig. is about the right mesh. It is made of wood and is in two halves. The cloth bag. and the lower pieces. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. 1. CC. and the "drag. high. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. say 12 in. previous to sawing. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. The dowels. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. is made of wood." or lower part. is nailed to each end of the cope. If the box is not very strong. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. J.How to Make a Mold [96] . which should be nailed in. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. is filled with coal dust. II . Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. E. will be required. Fig. the "cope. by 6 in. 1." or upper half. A wedge-shaped piece. a little larger than the outside of the flask. by 8 in.

In finishing the ramming." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. turn the drag other side up. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. but care should be taken not to get it too wet." in position. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. or "cope. and thus judge for himself. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. It is then rammed again as before. as it is much easier to learn by observation. and by grasping with both hands. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. Place another cover board on top. and scatter about 1/16 in. as shown at E. as shown at C. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. as described. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. After ramming. as shown. and if water is added.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. where they can watch the molders at work. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. in order to remove the lumps. and then more sand is added until Fig. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. the surface of the sand at . or "drag. as shown at D. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. The sand is then ready for molding. it has a sufficient amount of moisture.

deep. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. and then pour.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. Place a brick or other flat. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. as shown at G. . III. in order to prevent overheating.E should be covered with coal-dust. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. as shown at H. as shown in the sketch. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. This is done with a spoon. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. The "sprue. wide and about 1/4 in. in diameter. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. as shown at J. to give the air a chance to escape. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream." or pouring-hole. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. After drawing the pattern. thus holding the crucible securely. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. after being poured. as shown at H. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. it shows that the sand is too wet. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. made out of steel rod. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. Fig. is next cut. thus making a dirty casting. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. as shown at F. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. place the cope back on the drag. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing.

but any reasonable number may be used. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. Minneapolis. Referring to the figure. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. although somewhat expensive. battery zincs. used only for zinc. 15% lead. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. Although the effect in the illustration . The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. may be used in either direction. If a good furnace is available. babbitt. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. is very desirable. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. In my own case I used four batteries. Morton. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. or from any adjacent pair of cells. the following device will be found most convenient. and the casting is then ready for finishing. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. and. white metal and other scrap available. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. --Contributed by Harold S. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin.

By replacing the oars with paddles. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. Chicago. If desired. as shown in the illustration. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. The brass rings also appear distorted. as shown at A. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. Make one of these pieces for each arm. B. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. Then walk down among the audience. may be made of hardwood. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. Put a sharp needle point. 3/4 in. shaft made. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. Then replace the table. 2. A. The bearings.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. connected by cords to the rudder. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. Fig. B. --Contributed by Draughtsman. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. which will be sufficient to hold it. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. To make it take a sheet-iron band. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. outward. backward.

The covers. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. The hubs. If babbitt is used. D. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. 1. C. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. but when in motion. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. 1. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. and a weight. 2 and 3. A. Fig. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. It may seem strange that ice . as shown in Fig. Snow. when it will again return to its original state. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. W. as shown in Fig. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. 1. In the same way. spoiling its appearance. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. or the paint will come off. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. If galvanized iron is used. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. being simply finely divided ice. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. A block of ice. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. 2. or under pressure. E. 3. should be made of wood.melted babbitt. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through.

--Contributed by Gordon T. it will gradually change from the original shape A. by 1/2 in. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. and assume the shape shown at B. as per sketch. P. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. by 2 in. Crafton. which resembles ice in this respect. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. whenever there is any connection made at all. by 1/4. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. as shown on page 65. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. or supporting it in some similar way. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line.should flow like water. Pressing either push button. The rate of flow is often very slow. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. but. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice.. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. B. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. sometimes only one or two feet a day. Lane. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. Pa. but by placing it between books. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . no matter how slow the motion may be. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. by 5 in. square. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. brass. thus giving a high resistance contact. in. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself.

a key or push-button for completing the circuit. weight. The success depends upon a slow current. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. furnace. alarm clock. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. B.000 ft. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. H. wooden supports. about the size used for automobiles. --Contributed by A. In the wiring diagram. The parts are: A. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. as shown. cord. G. J. Wilkinsburg. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. and five dry batteries. C. Pa. draft. A is the circuit breaker. the induction coil. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. pulleys. Indianapolis. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. G. vertical lever. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. horizontal lever. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. F. B. Ward. as shown. E. draft chain. D. K . the battery. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. I.thumb screws. and C.

When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. such as used for a storm window. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. Artistic Window Boxes The top. as well as the bottom. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. where house plants are kept in the home. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. which will provide a fine place for the plants. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. The frame (Fig. Kalamazoo. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. Mich.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. material framed together as shown in Fig. will fit nicely in them. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. 2 are dressed to the right angle. 3.

Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. N. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. W. This is more economical than dry cells. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. this must be done with very great caution. and will give the . The 1/2-cp. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. since a battery is the most popular source of power. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. Halifax. and a suitable source of power. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. in any system of lamps. where they are glad to have them taken away. However. 1 each complete with base. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs... Canada. a cork and a needle. is something that will interest the average American boy. Thus. which sells for 25 cents. It must be remembered. by connecting them in series. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. and cost 27 cents FIG. Grant. as if drawn upon for its total output. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. after a rest. 1 cp. in diameter. Push the needle into the cork. i. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it.. so as to increase the current.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. for some time very satisfactorily. S. in this connection. 1. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. e. --Contributed by Wm. one can regulate the batteries as required. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. can be connected up in series. but maintain the voltage constant. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. as indicated by Fig. However. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. A certain number of these. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. and the instrument will then be complete. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. multiples of series of three.

if wound for 6 volts. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. However. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. each. Chicago. generates the power for the lights. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. FIG. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. especially those of low internal resistance. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. lamp. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. as in Fig. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. 18 B & S. lamps. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. which is the same as that of one battery. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. to secure light by this method. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. Thus. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. If wound for 10 volts. 1-cp. . In conclusion. making. double insulated wire wherever needed. and diffused light in a room. by the proper combination of these. These will give 3 cp. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. and then lead No. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. where the water pressure is the greatest. So.proper voltage. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. and running the series in parallel. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. Fig. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. we simply turn on the water. and for Christmas trees. 11 series.. 2 shows the scheme. Thus. although the first cost is greater. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. according to the water pressure obtainable. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. for display of show cases. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. lamps. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. or 22 lights.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. 3.

the letters indicate as follows: FF. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. thus reversing the machine. bars of pole-changing switch. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. B. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. field of motor. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. simply change the switch. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. center points of switch. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. BB. AA. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. --Contributed by F. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. Parker. DD. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. Santa Clara. Emig. Ind. CC. B. brushes of motor. switch. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. outside points of switch.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. we were not bothered with them. A. After I connected up my induction coil. --Contributed by Leonard E. To reverse the motor. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. and C. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. Cal. A indicates the ground. or from one pattern. as shown in the sketch. are cut just alike. . Plymouth. or a tempting bone. a bait of meat. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. and the sides.

San Jose. as it is the key to the lock. a piece of string. thus locking the door. To unlock the door. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. and a table or bench. which is in the door. Cal. attached to the end of the armature B. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. merely push the button E. When the circuit is broken a weight. -Contributed by Claude B. one cell being sufficient. W. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. Minn..Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. 903 Vine St. Melchior. or would remain locked. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. a hammer. Fry. If it is not. The experiment works best . The button can be hidden. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. A. Hutchinson.

Wis. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. releasing the weight. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. --Contributed by Geo. where it will remain suspended as shown. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. Canada. in the ceiling and has a window weight. which pulls the draft open. Porto Rico. -. Ontario. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. Brockville. 3. the current flows with the small arrows. attached at the other end. 1). Schmidt. I. the stick falls away. Culebra. 3. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. Tie the ends of the string together.Contributed by F. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. Crawford Curry. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. A. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. the key turns.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. 18 Gorham St. run through a pulley. On another block of wood fasten two wires. D. P. Madison. . 4). forming a loop. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. as shown in Fig.. 2. C. W. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. When the alarm rings in the early morning.

and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. Camden. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. thick. Farley. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. J. Use a barrel to work on. N. thence to a switch. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. and then to the receiver. which fasten to the horn. and the other to the battery. --Contributed by Wm. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. get two pieces of plate glass. or from a bed of flowers. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. including the mouthpiece. square and 1 in. First. running one direct to the receiver. made with his own hands. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. Jr.. and break the corners off to make them round.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. R. The cut shows the arrangement. D. 6 in. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. Connect two wires to the transmitter. and . grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. or tree. S. J. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn.

wetting it to the consistency of cream.. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. spaces. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. Then warm and press again with the speculum. by the side of the lamp. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. a round 4-in. Fig. and label. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. L. 2. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. the coarse grinding must be continued. When polishing the speculum. When dry. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. in length. Fig. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. with pitch. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. of water. wide around the convex glass or tool. 2. 30 minutes and 90 minutes.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. and the under glass or tool convex. then take 2 lb.. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. Fasten. so the light . and a large lamp. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. and is ready for polishing. A. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. twice the focal length away. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. 1. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. or less. also rotate the glass. set the speculum against the wall. then 8 minutes. as in Fig. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. Use a binger to spread it on with. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. In a dark room. and spread on the glass. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. using straight strokes 2 in. When done the glass should be semitransparent. with 1/4-in. or it will not polish evenly. wet till soft like paint. melt 1 lb. unless a longer focal length is wanted. Have ready six large dishes. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. while walking around the barrel.

so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). Fig. Two glass or earthenware dishes. or hills. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. if a hill in the center. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. also how the rays R from a star .. Then add 1 oz. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. 100 gr. Place the speculum.………………………………. deep.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. 4 oz. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. fill the dish with distilled water.. 2. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. If not. touched with rouge. 25 gr.. 2.. face down. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. long to the back of the speculum. the speculum will show some dark rings. as in K... When dry. cement a strip of board 8 in. with distilled water. The polishing and testing done. and pour the rest into the empty dish. Solution D: Sugar loaf . the speculum is ready to be silvered. 39 gr.. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. then ammonia until bath is clear.……………………………. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. from the lamp. add the ammonia solution drop by drop. Now add enough of the solution A. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. longer strokes. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. that was set aside. Silver nitrate …………………………….100 gr.. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. The knife should not be more than 6 in. Fig. Fig.……………. Alcohol (Pure) ……………. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. Then add solution B. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. in the bath and leave until the silver rises. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke.. must be procured. Nitric acid . large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. 4 oz. With pitch.. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. 840 gr. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. When the focus is found. Place the speculum S.

it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. About 20. telescope can be made at home.. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. deg. stop down well after focusing. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. long and cost me just $15. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. slightly wider than the lens mount. The flatter they are the less they will distort. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. Make the tube I of sheet iron. with an outlay of only a few dollars. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers.John E. is a satisfactory angle. two glass prisms. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. which proves to be easy of execution. Place over lens. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. using strawboard and black paper. Thus an excellent 6-in. Mellish. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. .are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. My telescope is 64 in. cover with paper and cloth. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. and proceed as for any picture. Then I made the one described. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment.

Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. . says the Master Painter. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. A. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. add the plaster gradually to the water. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. then add a little sulphate of potash. and reflect through the negative. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. through the lens of the camera and on the board. Do not stir it. unobstructed light strike the mirror. Ill. To unlock. complete the arrangement. instead of the contrary. Zimmerman. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. The paper is exposed. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. or powdered alum. The rays of the clear. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. 2. push the button D. B. D. Boody. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. as shown in Fig. -Contributed by A. Fig. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. but will not preserve its hardening. 1. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached.

and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. Fig. Fasten on the switch lever. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. 1). thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. throw . but will remain suspended without any visible support. Then blow through the spool. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. 2. To reverse. as in Fig. use a string. as at A and B. so that it can rotate about these points. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. 2. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. as shown in the sketch. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. also provide them with a handle. 3.

binding posts. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. although this is not necessary. San Marcos. Take out. and E E. B. and rub dry with linen cloth. A is the electricbell magnet. wash in running water. --Contributed by R. D. Thomas. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. carbons. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. Go McVicker. L. Tex. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. Push one end of the tire into the hole. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. .Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. carbon sockets. North Bend. C C. the armature. as shown in the sketch. Levy. Tex. -Contributed by Morris L. rinse in alcohol. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. San Antonio. Neb. --Contributed by Geo. In the sketch.

wound evenly about this core. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. By means of two or more layers of No. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. Brooklyn.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. 16 magnet wire. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. 36 magnet wire. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. 14 or No. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. --Contributed by Joseph B. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . Bell. long or more.

each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. in length. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. Beginning half an inch from one end. about 6 in. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box.which would be better to buy ready-made. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. at a time. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. The condenser is next wrapped . If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. which is an important factor of the coil. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. with room also for a small condenser. After the core wires are bundled. In shaping the condenser. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. as shown in Fig. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. or 8 in. diameter. the entire core may be purchased readymade. 2 yd. hole is bored in the center of one end. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. one piece of the paper is laid down. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. wide. as the maker prefers. long and 5 in. coil illustrates the general details of the work. but if it is not convenient to do this work. The primary is made of fine annealed No. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. 1. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. then the strip of tin-foil. and the results are often unsatisfactory. and finally the fourth strip of paper. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. long and 2-5/8 in. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. A 7/8-in. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. No. When cut and laid in one continuous length. making two layers. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. which is desirable. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. in diameter. The following method of completing a 1-in. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. a box like that shown in Fig. 4. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. This makes a condenser which may be folded.

. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. B. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. copper lever with 1-in.) The wiring diagram. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. C. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. shows how the connections are made. flange turned on one side. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection.securely with bands of paper or tape. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. 4 in. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. spark. V-shaped copper strip. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. shelf for clock. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. The alarm key will turn and drop down. long to key. I. by 12 in. which allows wiring at the back. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. G. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. one from bell. 3. to the door. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. B. forms the other pole or terminal. the letters indicate as follows: A. lines H. switch. round so that the inside . go. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. A. which is insulated from the first. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. E. wide. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. long and 12 in. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. ready for assembling. battery . D. and one from battery. and the other sheet. bell. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. open switch C. Fig. F. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. whole length.

Line the furnace.. The circuit should also have a high resistance. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. of blue stone. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. do not shortcircuit. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. This is for blowing. .diameter is 7 in. of zinc sulphate. London. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. Short-circuit for three hours. Use a glass or metal shade. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. 2 in. but with the circuit. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. but add 5 or 6 oz. instead of close to it. and the battery is ready for use. If desired for use immediately. That is what they are for. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. and then rivet the seam. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. says the Model Engineer. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. from the bottom.

Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. or think they can do the same let them try it. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. 2. as in the other movement. g. grip the stick firmly in one hand. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. thus producing two different vibrations. below the bottom of the zinc. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. 1. oxygen to ozone. but the thing would not move at all. the second finger along the side. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. Outside of the scientific side involved. long. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. the thumb and second finger changing places: e.9 of a volt.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. If too low. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. porcelain and paper. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. Enlarge the hole slightly. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made.. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. To operate the trick. At least it is amusing." which created much merriment. Ohio. and then. for others the opposite way. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. square and about 9 in. changes white phosphorus to yellow. herein I describe a much better trick. while for others it will not revolve at all. and therein is the trick. imparting to them a violet tinge. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. Try it and see. This type of battery will give about 0. affects . for some it will turn one way. If any or your audience presume to dispute.

Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. earth. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. but this is less satisfactory. a short-focus lens. insects. if possible. To the front board is attached a box. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. says the Photographic Times. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. however. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. chemicals. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. and one of them is photomicrography. a means for holding it vertical. an old tripod screw. but not essential. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. and. but small flowers.

which is 15 ft. 6 ft. The following table will give the size. 5 in. 11 ft. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. 179 11 lb. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. 8 ft. or 31 ft.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. 65 4 lb. while it is not so with the quill. 7-1/2 in. 268 17 lb. 1. CD. 5 ft. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. long and 3 ft. 381 24 lb. Divide one-quarter of the circle . or 3 ft. Madison. 697 44 lb. in Cu. Cap. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. and a line. balloon. 7-1/2 in. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. in diameter. AB. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. 113 7 lb. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. A line. Ft Lifting Power. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print.--Contributed by George C. 12 ft. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. 905 57 lb. 10 ft 523 33 lb. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. wide from which to cut a pattern. If the balloon is 10 ft. Boston. 9 ft. Mass. 7 ft. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. Fig.

keeping the marked part on the outside. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. on the curved line from B to C. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. 70 thread. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. of beeswax and boil well together. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. The pattern is now cut. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. 3. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. Procure 1 gal. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. Repeat this operation four times. using a fine needle and No. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. cutting all four quarters at the same time. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. 4. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. making a double seam as shown in Fig. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. The cloth segments are sewed together. 2. and so on. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. The amounts necessary for a 10- . This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. This test will show if the bag is airtight. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. of the very best heavy body. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts.

of iron. until no more dirt is seen. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. The 3/4-in. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. . it is not fit to use. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. capacity and connect them. The outlet. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. 5. which may sound rather absurd. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. B. balloon are 125 lb. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. to the bag. of iron borings and 125 lb. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. ft. C. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. A. but if any grease remains on the hand. as shown in Fig. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B.ft. or a fan. Vegetable oils should never be used. A. above the level of the water in barrel A.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. of sulphuric acid. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. 5 . How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed.. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. . leaving the hand quite clean.Green Iron ammonium citrate . All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. pipe. using a fine brush. if it is good it will dry off. with the iron borings. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. of gas in one hour. 1 lb. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. When the clock has dried. About 15 lb. ]. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. oil the spindle holes carefully. A. In the barrel. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. After washing a part. with water 2 in. B. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. 150 gr. with 3/4in. a clean white rag. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. or dusting with a dry brush. this should be repeated frequently. Fill the other barrel. of water will make 4 cu. should not enter into the water over 8 in. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. All FIG. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. B. 1 lb. Water 1 oz. C. by fixing. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel.

to avoid blackened skin.. Exposure. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. . A longer exposure will be necessary. The positive pole. and keep in the dark until used. of any make. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. at the time of employment. dry atmosphere will give best results. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. says the Moving Picture World. Dry in the dark. Port Melbourne. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use.000 ft. Printing is done in the sun. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. or carbon. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. and a vigorous negative must be used. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. or battery. fix in hypo. or zinc. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. 20 to 30 minutes. Dry the plates in the dark.Water 1 oz. toning first if desired. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. The miniature 16 cp. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. keeping the fingers out of the solution. A cold. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. The negative pole. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. . This aerial collector can be made in . of the cell is connected to the aerial line.

How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. will soon become dry and useless. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. in diameter. the resistance is less. and have the other connected with another aerial line. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. lead pipe. The storage cell. a positive and a negative. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. If the wave ceases. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. lay a needle. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. both positive and negative. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. 5 in. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. This will complete the receiving station. making a ground with one wire. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight.various ways. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. when left exposed to the air. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. holes . forming a cup of the pipe. long. As the telephone offers a high resistance. as described below. If the waves strike across the needle. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. and as less current will flow the short way.

The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. a round one. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. The other plate is connected to the zinc. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. on each end. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid.as possible. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. or tube B. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. namely: a square hole. does not need to be watertight. one to the positive. This. except for about 1 in. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. of course. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. This support or block. and the other to the negative. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. says the Pathfinder. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. by soldering the joint. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. Two binding-posts should be attached. B. D. an oblong one and a triangular one. or tube C. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. When mixing the acid and water. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . This box can be square. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C.

In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. were fitted by this one plug. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. wide. Only galvanized nails should be used. as it is not readily overturned. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. 1. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. This punt. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. leaving about 1/16 in. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. all around the edge. thick cut two pieces alike. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. C. wide. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. 2. is built 15 ft.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. C. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. as shown in Fig. in place on the wood. as shown in Fig. and match them together. deep and 4 ft. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. The third piece of brass. long. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. 2. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. Ill. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. 1. and has plenty of good seating capacity. A and B. . 3. back and under. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. about 20 in. Chicago.

B. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. A. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. square (Fig 2). thick and 3-1/2 in. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. Wash. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. A piece of 1/4-in. is cut 1 in.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. Tacoma. gas pipe. In Fig.

to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. which the writer has made. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. or "rotor. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor.--Contributed by Charles H. and to consume. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. without auxiliary phase. H. which can be developed in the usual manner. may be of interest to some of our readers. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. it had to be borne in mind that. no special materials could be obtained. if possible. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum." has no connection with the outside circuit. The winding of the armature. In designing. no more current than a 16-cp. Wagner. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. with the exception of insulated wire. lamp. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. says the Model Engineer. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of .

which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. while the beginnings . When put together they should make a piece 2 in. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. holes. After assembling a second time. 2. or "stator. 5. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. and all sparking is avoided. being used. and filled with rivets. C. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. B. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. bolts put in and tightened up. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. in diameter were drilled in the corners." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. Holes 5-32 in. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. as shown in Fig. to be filed out after they are placed together. also varnished before they were put in. about 2-1/2 lb. wrought iron. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in.the field-magnet. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. 1. A. no steel being obtainable. were then drilled and 1/4-in. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. They are not particularly accurate as it is. The stator is wound full with No. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. thick. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. Unfortunately. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. with the dotted line. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. 3. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. this little machine is not self-starting. as shown in Fig. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. 4. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current.

has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. J. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. 2. and especially of colored ones. One is by contact. as shown in Fig. The image should . Fold the paper on the long dotted line. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. If too late for alcohol to be of use. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. McKinney. and all wound in the same direction. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. E. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. The rotor is wound with No. 1. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. as before stated. having no commutator or brushes.. and would not easily get out of order. No starting resistance is needed. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. This type of motor has drawbacks. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. N. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. Jr. Newark.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. if applied immediately. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. film to film. and the other by reduction in the camera. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. a regulating resistance is not needed. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. it would be very simple to build. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. and as the motor runs at constant speed. In making slides by contact. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. 3-Contributed by C. and as each layer of wire was wound. as a means of illustrating songs. The lantern slide is a glass plate.

Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. over the mat. Draw lines with a pencil. C. A. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. Select a room with one window.appear in. It is best. a little extra work will be necessary. B. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. and development should be over in three or four minutes. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. to use a plain fixing bath. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. they are much used by travelers. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. 2. and then a plain glass. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. also. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. as shown in Fig. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. 5. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. Fig. about a minute. D. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. Being unbreakable. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . 1. if possible. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. the formulas being found in each package of plates. If the exposure has been correct. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. These can be purchased from any photo material store. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. 3. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. except that the binding is different. 4. as shown in Fig. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density.

Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. long. These longer pieces can be made square. 1. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. 2. in diameter and 40 in. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. If the star is in front of the left eye. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. or other stout cloth. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. Hastings. in diameter and 20 in. A piece of canvas. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. from the ends. known as rods and cones. Fig. Fig. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. as shown at B. Corinth. Vt. long. long. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. as shown in Fig. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. 16 in. 1. holes bored in the end pieces. is to be used for the seat. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. as shown at A. wide and 50 in. while the dot will be in front of the other. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. from the end piece of the chair. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. from the center of this dot draw a star.

O'Gara. A belt. as shown in Fig. 2. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. per square inch. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. as shown in Fig.-Contributed by P. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. J. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. 1. A disk 1 in. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. made from an ordinary sash cord. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. Cal. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. . which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. in thickness and 10 in. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. as well as to operate other household machines. Auburn. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb.

direction. and the construction is complete. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. A simple. Bore a 1/4-in. Cut out a piece from the block combination. fairly accurate. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. thick and 2-1/2 in. 3/4 in. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. long. leaving it shaped like a bench. Put the bolt in the hole. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. it serves a very useful purpose. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. The part of a rotation of the bolt. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. says the Scientific American. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. divided by the number of threads to the inch. screwing it through the nut. . will be the thickness of the object. wide. to the top of the bench. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. then removing the object. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. with as fine a thread as possible. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. or inconvenient to measure. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. square for a support. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire.

from the end that is to be used for the bottom. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. piece of wood 12 ft. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. material 12 ft. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. long. Place a 3/4-in. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. globe that has been thrown away as useless. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. The wheel should be open . Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. Bore a 3/4-in. Santa Maria. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. beyond the end of the wood. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. bolt in each hole. which show up fine at night. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. long is used for the center pole.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. Oal.

The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. B. 1/2 in. wide and 1/8 in. thick. A piece of brass 2 in. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. from the top end. L. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. is soldered. Graham. A. H and J. P. at the bottom. long. of the ends with boards. square and 3 or 4 in. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. which should be 1/4 in. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. from the ends. The spool . at the top and 4 in. O. and on its lower end a socket. Tex. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. in diameter. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. long. thick is used for the armature. long. to be operated by the magnet coil. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. pieces used for the spokes.Side and Top View or have spokes. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. long. C. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. The width should be about 5-1/4 in.-Contributed by A. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. made of the same material. Fort Worth. The coil. and the lower part 61/2 in. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. A cross bar. wide and 1/8 in. thick. C. The boards may be nailed or bolted.

This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. When you slide the pencil along the casing. --Contributed by Arthur D. for insulating the brass ferrule.is about 2-1/2 in. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. or a water rheostat heretofore described. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. that holds the lower carbon. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. by soldering. and it will stay as if glued to the casing.000 for irrigation work. The armature. one without either rubber or metal end. Mass. and in numerous other like instances.J. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. . At the bottom end of the frame. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. D and E. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. is drilled. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. and directly centering the holes H and J. B. 1. 2. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. A soft piece of iron.E. long. Bradlev. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. which may be had by using German silver wire. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. and place it against a door or window casing. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. A. F.--A. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil.000. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. S. This tie can be used on grain sacks. 2 the hat hanging on it. S. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. do it without any apparent effort. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. R. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. This is a very neat trick if performed right. C. Randolph. then with a firm.

The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. The core of the coil. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. in diameter and 2 in. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. 1. hole in the center. F. 1. is connected to a flash lamp battery. for adjustment. is constructed in the usual manner. mixed with water to form a paste. Fig. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. for the primary. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. C. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. about 3/16 in. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. D. long. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. Fig. may be made from a 3/8-in. from the core and directly opposite. About 70 turns of No. in diameter and 1/16 in. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. wide. Experiment with Heat [134] . The switch.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. The vibrator. The vibrator B. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. S. thick. in diameter. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. S. The coil ends are made from cardboard. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. with a 3/16-in. leaving the projections as shown. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. about 1 in. 2. long and 1 in. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. for the secondary. A. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. about 1/8 in. B. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. and then 1. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. in diameter. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in.500 turns of No.

The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. The lock. between the boards. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. brass plate. 1. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. as shown. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. The hasp. in an ordinary water glass. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. with which to operate the dial. and the same distance inside of the new board. 16 in. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. board. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. 1. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. which is only 3/8-in. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. The knob on the dial extends out too far. which is cut with two holes. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. as shown in the sketch. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. and then well clinched. thick on the inside. Fig. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. which seemed to be insufficient. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. wide.Place a small piece of paper. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. The tin is 4 in. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. long and when placed over the board. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. it laps down about 8 in. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. 2 to fit the two holes. The three screws were then put in the hasp. . was to be secured by only three brass screws. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. lighted.

the glass. or in the larger size mentioned. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. black color. not shiny. clear glass as shown. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. When making of wood. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. If the box is made large enough. square and 8-1/2 in. any article placed therein will be reflected in. high for use in window displays. but when the front part is illuminated. When the rear part is illuminated. and the back left dark. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. which completely divides the box into two parts.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. one in each division. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. square and 10-1/2 in. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other.

This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. When using as a window display. as it appears. . into the other. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in.. alternately.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. as shown in the sketch. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. as shown at A in the sketch. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. When there is no electric current available. long and 1 ft. wide will be about the right size. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. and with the proper illumination one is changed. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. a tank 2 ft. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. above the top of the tank.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

-Contributed by Mack Wilson. gauge for depth. two pieces 1-1/8 in. as shown. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. wide. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. radius. high. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. bore from each end. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. with a length of 13 in. under sides together. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. from the ground. wide. If a planing mill is near. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. however. long. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. 2 ft. each. The 13-in. or ferrous sulphate. Columbus. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. Shape the under sides first. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. This precipitate is then washed. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. using a 3/4-in. and a door in front. hole. 5 ft. long. lines gauged on each side of each. is the green vitriol. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. one for each side. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. thick and 3 in. and 6 ft. square and 40 in. bit. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. but with a length of 12 in. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. 1 in. square. Three windows are provided. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. and boring two holes with a 1-in. The pieces can then be taken out. O. dried and mixed with linseed oil. and a solution of iron sulphate added. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. then use a red-hot iron to finish. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. This hole must be continued . A small platform. is built on the front. 6 in. Iron sulphate. hole bored the full length through the center. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness.

When this is dry. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. Electric globes--two. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. hole in each block. When the filler has hardened. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. if shade is purchased. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. thick and 3 in. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp.through the pieces forming the base. If the parts are to be riveted. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. A better way. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. Directions will be found on the filler cans. square and drawing a diagonal on each. Saw the two blocks apart. The sketch shows one method of attaching. apply two coats of wax. three or four may be attached as shown. For art-glass the metal panels are .

Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal. and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. as brass. such as copper.The Completed Lamp cut out. METAL SHADE .Construction of Shade .

one way and 1/2 in. Figure 1 shows the side. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. as in ordinary devices. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. the other. the object and the background. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. The arms holding the glass. as shown in the sketch. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. and Fig. 2 the front view of this stand. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length.

outside diameter. channel in the circumference of the ring. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. in diameter. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . and swinging freely. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. wide and 6-5/16 in. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. Before mounting the ring on the base. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. If the light becomes dim. wide and 11 in. in diameter for a base. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. thus forming a 1/4-in. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. as shown in the cut. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. uncork and recork again. as it is very poisonous. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. An ordinary pocket compass. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. long. and an inside diameter of 9 in. about 1-1/4 in. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. thick 5/8-in.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. Put the ring in place on the base. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. as shown in the sketch. pointing north and south. Cut another circular piece 11 in. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle.

are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. EE. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. and mirrors.182 . Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg.865 1. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. are mounted on a base. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. to which a wire has been soldered for connections. 1 oz. and north of the Ohio river. Corresponding mirrors.600 .3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. into these cylinders. The results given should be multiplied by 1. AA.420 . are fitted at an angle of 45 deg.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other.715 . The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders.088 . the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. black oxide of copper. of the top.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country.289 . CC. above the half can. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. B. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes . How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. Place on top the so- . black oxide of manganese and some iron filings.500 . from the second to the third. in diameter and 8 in. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current.

-Contributed by Robert Canfield. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. 31 gr. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. When renewing. 62 gr. Put the solution in a long. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. of pulverized campor. In Fig. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. which otherwise remains clear. University Park. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. says Metal Worker. then they will not rust fast. alcohol.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. the wheel will revolve in one direction. little crystals forming in the liquid. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. slender bottle. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. always remove the oil with a siphon. Colo. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole.

a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. If zinc and copper are used. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. will allow the magnet to point north and south. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. --Contributed by C. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. Attach to the wires. floating on a solution. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. If zinc and carbon are used. If two of them are floating on the same solution. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. A paper-fastener box. This is used in place of the spoon. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. Solder in the side of the box .A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. about 1-1/4 in. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. on the under side of the cork. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. Lloyd Enos. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south.

B. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. stained and varnished. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. brass tubing. The spring should be about 1 in. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. E. C. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. wide and 6 in. Take a small piece of soft iron. C. F.1-in. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. 1-1/4 in. C. is made from a piece of No. Wind evenly about 2 oz. The base. of No. A circular piece of cardboard. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. Rhamstine. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. A. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. as shown in Fig. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. D. . long for the base and fasten the coil to it. The standard. The bottom of the box. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. A. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. piece of 1/4-in. thick. 3 in. to it. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. or made with a little black paint. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. D. G--No.in. glass tubing . square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. To this standard solder the supporting wire. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. Put ends. Bore holes for binding-posts. and then solder on the cover. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. can be made of oak. Use a board 1/2. Thos. of wire on each end extending from the coil. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. B. wide and 2-1/2 in. hole. E. If the hose is not a tight fit. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose.in. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. away. long. 10 wire about 10 in.Contributed by J. H. 14 wire will do. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in.not shorter than 18 in. long. D. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. one on each side of the board. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. 1/2. long that has about 1/4-in. and on the other around the glass tube. 1. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way.

About 1-1/2 lb. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. Wis. making a support as shown in Fig. long. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. of 8-oz. Y. as shown in Fig. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. 3-in. long. Teasdale. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. 3 in. of No.--Contributed by R. canvas. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. 1. from the right hand. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. Cuba.--Contributed by Edward M. J. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. Smith. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. four hinges. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. E. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. 2. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. long. long are used for the legs. long. is drawn nearer to the coil. 5. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. of mercury will be sufficient. 3. . two pieces 2 ft. in diameter. D. N. about 1 in. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. The iron plunger. When the glass becomes soft. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. Milwaukee. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. long.of the coil. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested.

This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. 5. 3. Can. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury.. --Contributed by David A. expelling all the air. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. Fig. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. Take 1/2 in. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. leaving 8 in. 4. small aperture in the long tube. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. This tube as described will be 8 in. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. 2. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed.. The tube now must be filled completely. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. Break off the piece of glass. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. Measure 8 in. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. thus leaving a. of vacuum at the top. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . Toronto. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. 6. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. Keys. long. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. holding in the left hand.

4 in.6 -. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. with each projection 3-in. 3 in. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. 1 in. thick. This forms a slot. thick. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. as in Fig. as shown in Fig. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. FIG. from the end of same. in diameter. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. 7. wide and 5 ft. 3 in. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. A crosspiece 3/4-in. 6. wide and 3 in. long. 1 in. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. and 1/4 in. Fig. cut in the shape shown in Fig. 4. Four blocks 1/4 in. as shown in Fig. The large pulley is about 14 in. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. wide and 5 ft. 3. 1. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. wide and 12 in. long. 2. joint be accurately put together. 9 in. thick. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. 5. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. wood screws.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. but yellow pine is the best. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. thick. These are bent and nailed. thick. and the single projection 3/4 in. long. long. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. wide and 5 ft. material 2 in.

Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. --Contributed by C. . Welsh. above the runner level. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. first removing the crank. says Photography. Manhattan. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. attach runners and use it on the ice. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. by 1-in. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. R. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. Water 1 oz. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. Kan. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string.

The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. Leominster. Newton. Mass. . also. 1. --Contributed by Edward M. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. 2. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. The print is washed. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. 3. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. from an ordinary clamp skate. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. Treasdale. This is done with a camel's hair brush. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. --Contributed by Wallace C. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. as shown in Fig. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. Printing is carried rather far. 1 oz. as shown in Fig. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. of water. and very much cheaper.

board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. 2. Place a 10-in. causing the door to swing back and up. high for rabbits. wide and 4 in. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. too. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. high. as shown in the sketch. Fig. The thread is broken off at the . 1 ft. wide. which represents the back side of the door. long. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. Then. Fig. from one end. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. fasten a 2-in. and bend them as shown in the sketch. and 3 ft. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. and to the bottom. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. --Contributed by H. about 10 in. Va. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. hole. A.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. Alexandria. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. 1-1/2 ft. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. 1. say. extending the width of the box. 1. Take two glass tubes. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. Church. F. square piece. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. The swing door B. with about 1/8-in.

D. says Camera Craft. camera and wish to use some 4. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. Take two pieces of pasteboard. Cut an opening in the other piece. horses and dogs. plates. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. black surfaced if possible. long. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. shorter. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. high and 12 in. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around.by 5-in.. and go in the holder in the same way. 1 in. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. to be used as a driving pulley. A and B. wide. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. 3. Out two rectangular holes. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. . Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. wide. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. from the edge on each side of these openings. 10 in. Fig. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. as shown in Fig. in size. inside of the opening. being 1/8 in. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. C. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. 1. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. B. long. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. 2. Fig. and exactly 5 by 7 in.proper place to make a small hole. Jr. Paste a piece of strong black paper. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. trolley cars. wide and 5 in. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. -Contributed by William M. automobiles. say 8 in. This opening. but cut it 1/4 in. Chicago. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. in size.by 7-in. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. Crilly. shorter at each end.

How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in.in. into which the dog is harnessed.. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. making a . long and 6 in. A cell of this kind can easily be made. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. if it has previously been magnetized. The needle will then point north and south. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. wide will be required. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. in diameter.

All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. of rosin and 2 oz. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. under the spool in the paraffin. 1/4 lb. in which P is the pan. and a notch between the base and the pan. Pack the paste in. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. File the rods to remove the copper plate. F is a spool. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only.watertight receptacle. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. says Electrician and Mechanic. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. A is a block of l-in. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. pine. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. fuel and packing purposes. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. when the paraffin is melted. . sal ammoniac. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. with narrow flanges. leaving about 1/2-in. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. in diameter and 6 in. fodder. for a connection. only the joints. short time. of water. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. B is a base of 1 in. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. 3/4 lb. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. pull out the wire as needed. zinc oxide. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. one that will hold about 1 qt. long which are copper plated. Do not paint any surface.in. plaster of paris. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. 1 lb. Form a 1/2-in. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. beeswax melted together. filter. of the top. of the plate at one end. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. Place the pan on the stove. This makes the wire smooth.

for others the opposite way. and then. as in the other movement. Try it and see. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. let them try it. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. by the Hindoos in India. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick." which created much merriment. and therein is the trick. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body.. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. long. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. thus producing two different vibrations. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. At least it is amusing. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. Enlarge the hole slightly. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. but the thing would not move at all. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. and he finally. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. from vexation. 2. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. If any of your audience presume to dispute. Ohio. and one friend tells me that they were . In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. or think they can do the same. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. for some it will turn one way. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. while for others it will not revolve at all. g. Toledo.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. grip the stick firmly in one hand. square and about 9 in.

and I think the results may be of interest. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. secondly. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. the rotation may be obtained. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. no rotation resulted. A square stick with notches on edge is best. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. 2. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric.100 r. by means of a center punch. 6. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. Speeds between 700 and 1. m. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. gave the best results. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. Thus a circular or . It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. 3. 5. and. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. 7. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. If the pressure was upon an edge. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. To operate. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. The experiments were as follows: 1. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. 4. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. p. rotation was obtained. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left.

elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. A wire is tied around the can. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. at first. unwetted by the liquid. the upper portion is. if the pressure is from the left. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. A. Minn. . That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. and not to friction of the pin in the hole.D. Sloan. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. and the height of the fall about 6 in. Duluth. as shown." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in.. C. Washington. a piece of wire and a candle. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid.. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. Lloyd. Ph. D. G. forming a handle for carrying. it will be clockwise. so far as can be seen from the photographs. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. --Contributed by G. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. is driven violently away. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. --Contributed by M. or greasy. and the resultant "basket splash. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. long. axle." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. 1. as shown. thick and 1 in. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. in diameter. as shown in Fig. about 2-5/8 in. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. Each wheel is 1/4 in. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. flange and a 1/4-in. with a 1/16-in. hole drilled in the center.

holes 1 in. lamp in series with the coil. --Contributed by Maurice E. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. of No. This will save buying a track. 2. 6. put together complete. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles.brass. These ends are fastened together. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. 4. as shown in Fig. 2. which must be 110 volt alternating current. as shown in Fig. wood. San Antonio. The parts. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . with cardboard 3 in.50. The motor is now bolted. are shown in Fig. 3/4 in. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. bottom side up. or main part of the frame. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. is made from a piece of clock spring. 3. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. 3. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. 5. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. wide and 16 in. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. The first piece. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. is made from brass. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. The current. A trolley. bent as shown. Fig. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. and the locomotive is ready for running. Fuller. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. Fig. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. 1 from 1/4-in. long. If the ends are to be soldered. each in its proper place. Texas.

the length of a paper clip. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. 1. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. as shown in Fig. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. O. then continue to tighten much more. and holes drilled in them. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. as shown in Fig. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. Fig. Cincinnati. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. When cold treat the other end in the same way. The quarter will not go all the way down. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. and as this end . Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. 2.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. 3. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. but do not heat the center. Fig 1. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble.

A pair of centers are fitted. or should the lathe head be raised. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. When the cutter A. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. or apparent security of the knot. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. When the trick is to be performed. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. has finished a cut for a tooth. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. 2 and 1 respectively. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. and adjusted . In the sketch. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe.

(1. N. watch fob ready for fastenings. or one-half of the design. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. 1. coin purse. An ordinary machine will do. 2. In this manner gears 3 in. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter.to run true. holding it in place with the left hand. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. (3. dividing it into as many parts as desired. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. above the surface.) Place the paper design on the leather and. lady's belt bag. gentleman's card case or bill book. trace the outline. Fold over along these center lines. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. --Contributed by Samuel C. about 1-1/2 in. if four parts are to be alike. When connecting to batteries. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. Bunker.) Make on paper the design wanted. --Contributed by Howard S. blotter back.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. twisted around itself and soldered. (5. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. Brooklyn. note book. (2. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. Second row: -Two book marks.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. book mark. (4. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. and a nut pick. Bott. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. (6. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. lady's card case. Fig. tea cosey. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. swing lathe. tea cosey. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. long. if but two parts. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . such as brass or marble.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. The frame holding the mandrel. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). draw center lines across the required space. at the same time striking light. Y. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated.

How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. and an ordinary bottle. some heavy rubber hose. Secure .

Florida. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. Thrust a pin. a distance of 900 miles. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. from Key West.. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. C. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. and bore a hole through the center. A. and push it through a cork. D. B. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. where it condenses. The electrodes are made . If the needle is not horizontal. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle.C. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. into which fit a small piece of tube. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass.

First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. All wiring is done with No. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. and also to keep it steady in its flight. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. thick. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. 1/2. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. wide and 20 ft. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. --Contributed by Edwin L. Powell. Connect as shown in the illustration. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. wide and 4 ft. thick. Four long beams 3/4 in. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. long. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. 1. apart and extend 1 ft. 3. square and 8 ft long. 1. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. 2. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. 2 in. 1-1/2 in. 12 uprights 1/2 in. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. thick. The operator can then land safely and . get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. lengths and splice them. long. long. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. slacken speed and settle. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. use 10-ft. or flying-machine. take the glider to the top of a hill. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. thick. long. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. long for the body of the operator. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. using a high resistance receiver. lumber cannot be procured. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. as shown in Fig.in. 1. To make a glide. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. wide and 4 ft. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. 2. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. free from knots. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. 16 piano wire. Washington. wide and 3 ft. D. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. wide and 4 ft long. If 20-ft. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. C. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. both laterally and longitudinally. several strips 1/2 in. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. 3/4 in. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. 2 arm sticks 1 in. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. wide and 3 ft. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. by 3/4 in. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. long. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. thick. which is tacked to the front edge. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. 1-1/4 in.

gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing.gently on his feet. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. Great care should be . The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. Glides are always made against the wind. Of course. but this must be found by experience. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes.

The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. --Contributed by L. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. 1. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. Bellingham. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. When heated a little.exercised in making landings. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. which causes the dip in the line. as shown in Fig. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. half man and half horse. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. M. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. Olson. a creature of Greek mythology. 2. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying.

the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. 14 in. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. a piece of brass or steel wire. long. long and about 3/8 in. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. outside the box. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. at the other. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. in diameter. about the size of stove pipe wire. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. will complete the material list. The light from the . soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. square. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. this will cost about 15 cents. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. making it 2-1/2 in. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. While at the drug store get 3 ft. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. of small rubber tubing. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. about the size of door screen wire.

--Photo by M. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. as shown in Fig. O. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. M. but puzzling when the trick is first seen.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. If done properly the card will flyaway. while others will fail time after time. as shown in the sketch. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. 1. 2. . as shown in Fig. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. Dayton. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. This is very simple when you know how. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. Hunting.

four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . as shown. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop." or the Chinese students' favorite game. then put it on the hatpin head. closing both hands quickly.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. Cool in water and dry. place the other two. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. hold the lump over the flame. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. as before. If a certain color is to be more prominent. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. When the desired shape has been obtained. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. This game is played by five persons. as described. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand.

these sectors. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. distribute electric charges . or more in width. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. passing through neutralizing brushes. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held.

in diameter and 15 in. and of a uniform thickness. free from wrinkles. The plates. after they are mounted. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. at the other. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. as shown in Fig. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. These pins. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. long and the shank 4 in. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. and pins inserted and soldered. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. Two pieces of 1-in. The collectors are made. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. EE. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. The plates are trued up. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. in diameter. and 4 in. in diameter. in diameter. and this should be done before cutting the circle. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. long. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. 3. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. brass tubing and the discharging rods. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. 1. 3/4 in. Fig. long and the standards 3 in. or teeth. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. wide at one end. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. are made from 7/8-in. turned wood pieces. in diameter. Two solid glass rods. are made from solid. 1-1/2 in. in diameter. and the outer end 11/2 in. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. The two pieces. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. RR. wide. material 7 in. Fig. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. in diameter. from about 1/4-in. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. 4. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. to which insulating handles . should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. GG. 2. 3. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. 1 in. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. The drive wheels. C C. as shown in Fig. The fork part is 6 in. D. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. the side pieces being 24 in. long.

one having a 2-in. --Contributed by C. in diameter. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. KK. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . ball and the other one 3/4 in. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. wide and 22 ft. D. Lloyd Enos. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft.. and the work was done by themselves. Colo. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. Colorado City. long. 12 ft.are attached. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. which are bent as shown.

using a 1-in. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. yet such a thing can be done. and bore a hole 1/2 in. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. string together. bit. The key will drop from the string. They can be used to keep pins and needles. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. pens . deep. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch.is a good one. as at A. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up.

If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. Inside this oblong. etc. they make attractive little pieces to have about. When the stamping is completed. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. inside the second on all. Proceed as follows: 1. slim screw. inside the first on all. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. etc. Draw one-half the design free hand. 2. 6. file. 5. stamp the background promiscuously. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. Raise the ends. and the third one 1/4 in. flat and round-nosed pliers. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. extra metal on each of the four sides. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. 9. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. sharp division between background and design. 3. very rapid progress can be made. unless it would be the metal shears. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in.and pencils. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears.. or cigar ashes. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. using a nail filed to chisel edge. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. They are easily made. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. then the other side. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. 23 gauge. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. also trace the decorative design. above the work and striking it with the hammer. The second oblong was 3/4 in. This is to make a clean. two spikes. 4. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. above the metal. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. 7. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. Use . Having determined the size of the tray. 8.. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. about 3/4-in.

The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. 9. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. and fourth fingers. 10. second fingers. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . 7. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. The eyes. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. third fingers. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. 8.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. and the effect will be most pleasing. In the first numbering. 6. first fingers. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown.

We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. and 20 plus 16 equals 36.. 600. 25 times 25. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. Put your thumbs together. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. or 80. above 15 times 15 it is 200. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. etc. At a glance you see seven tens or 70.. Two times one are two. if we wish. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. or numbers above 10. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. first fingers. which would be 70. etc. In the second numbering. or the product of 8 times 9. there are no fingers above. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. but being simple it saves time and trouble. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. etc. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. the product of 12 times 12. At a glance you see four tens or 40. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. viz. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. 2 times 2 equals 4. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. renumber your fingers. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. Still. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. . thumbs. and the six lower fingers as six tens. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. 11. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. above 20 times 20. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. which tens are added. 12. Let us multiply 12 by 12. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144.. or 60. which would be 16. as high as you want to go. or the product of 6 times 6. 400.

lastly. 7. 75 and 85. first finger 17. about a vertical axis. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. beginning the thumbs with 16. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. Take For example 18 times 18. first fingers 22. further. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. any two figures between 45 and 55. whether the one described in second or third numbering. the lump sum to add. The inversion and reversion did not take place. when he removes his spectacles. and so on. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. etc. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. And the lump sum to add. not rotation. Proceed as in the second lumbering. the revolution seems to reverse. the inversion takes place against his will. the value which the upper fingers have. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. or from above or from below. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. 3. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. the upper fingers representing a value of 20.. being 80). For figures ending in 6. however. as one might suppose. or what. twenties. For example. 8. thirties. . forties. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. at the will of the observer. It takes place also. in the case of a nearsighted person. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. which is the half-way point between the two fives. adding 400 instead of 100. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. the value of the upper fingers being 20. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. 21. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. and. thumbs. 2.

Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. the other appearance asserts itself. when he knows which direction is right. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. Looking at it in semidarkness. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. and putting a cork on the point. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. sometimes the point towards him. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. The ports were not easy to make. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. tee. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. A flat slide valve was used. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. as . and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. The cylinder consists of a 3-in.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head.

Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. bottom side up. Ill. The tools are simple and can be made easily. such as is shown in the illustration. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. secure a piece of No. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. If nothing better is at hand. pipe 10 in. Next take a block of wood. -Contributed by W. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. Fasten the block solidly. deep. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. inexpensive. H. and make in one end a hollow. Beating copper tends to harden it and. saw off a section of a broom handle. across the head. across and 1/2 in. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. pipe. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. . apart. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. Kutscher. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in.. it is easily built. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. in diameter. The eccentric is constructed of washers. While this engine does not give much power. The steam chest is round. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. Springfield.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. if continued too long without proper treatment. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. about 2 in. as in a vise. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate.

Hay. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. S. This process is called annealing. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. the other to the left. C. O. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture.will cause the metal to break. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. Camden. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . as it softens the metal. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. To produce color effects on copper. Vinegar. especially when the object is near to the observer. and. To overcome this hardness. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. --Contributed by W. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid.

In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. disappears fully. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. and then with the left eye through the blue glass." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. The further apart the pictures are. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. although they pass through the screen. however. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. and lies to the right on the picture. But they seem black. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. diameter. would serve the same purpose. it. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. The red portions of the picture are not seen. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. because. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. that for the right. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. from the stereograph. . at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. In order to make them appear before the card. It is just as though they were not there. only the orange rays may pass through. with the stereograph. the further from the card will the composite image appear. the left eye sees through a blue screen. in the proper choice of colors. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. So with the stereograph. orange. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. they must be a very trifle apart. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground.stereoscope. and without any picture. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. while both eyes together see a white background. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. the one for the left eye being blue. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. as for instance red and green. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. not two mounted side by side. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. because of the rays coming from them.

etc. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. wide and 1 in. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. This should only be bored about half way through the block. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. long and a hole drilled in each end. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. 12 gauge wire. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. San Francisco. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. wireless. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. 1/4 in. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. Cal. The weight of the air in round . A No. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. in diameter. Place a NO. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. or the middle of the bottle. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. in the shape of a crank. thick.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire.

6) 1 in. if accurately constructed. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. long. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. In general. internal diameter and about 34 in.numbers is 15 lb. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. wide and 40 in. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. square. Before fastening the scale. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. high. a glass tube 1/8 in. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. long. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. and a slow fall. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. the instrument. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. high. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. square. long. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. high. 34 ft. will calibrate itself. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in.. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. 30 in. The 4 in. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. Only redistilled mercury should be used. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. pine 3 in. the contrary. But if a standard barometer is not available. a bottle 1 in. or. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. or a column of mercury (density 13. wide and 4 in. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. inside diameter and 2 in. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. thick. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. but before attempting to put in the mercury. if you choose. . The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube.

thick. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. Mark out seven 1-in.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. which is slipped quickly over the end. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . long. 1. Procure a metal can cover. Number the pieces 1. and place them as shown in Fig. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. wide and 10 in. 2. a cover from a baking powder can will do. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. 5. 6 and 7. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. the size of the outside of the bottle. 3. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch.

How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. Move 3-Move No. as shown in Fig. using checkers for men. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. Move 8-Jump No. Move 14-Jump No. Move 9-Jump No. shaped like Fig.-Contributed by W. 3 to the center. 1 to No. Move 7-Jump No. 2. Move ll-Jump No. 5. N. Move 6-Move No. Move 10-Move No. 7's place. 6 into No. Woolson. 6 over No. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. L. 7 over No. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. 7 over No. which is the very best material for the purpose. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads.J. 6 in. l over No. Move 13-Move No. long and 2 ft. 2's place. Make 22 sections. This can be done on a checker board. 2 over No. To make such a tent. 1. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. Move 12-Jump No.Position of the Men move only one at a time. 5 over No. 2 . 5 over No. 5's place. Cape May Point. 3. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. 1. 1 into No. Move 4-Jump No. Move 2-Jump No. 3. each 10 ft. Move 5-Jump No. 3 over No. 5's place. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. 6 to No. 2 over No. 6. in diameter. 2. 3 into No. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. 6. Move 15-Move No. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. 7. procure unbleached tent duck. 3. 2's place.

from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. made in two sections. In raising the tent. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. Punch holes in the brass in . added. in diameter. Pa. from the top. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. 2 in. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. 2. fill with canvas edging. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. 5) stuck in the ground. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. After transferring the design to the brass. These are ventilators. will do. wide by 12 in. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. as in Fig. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. --Contributed by G. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. As shown in the sketch. 5. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. about 9 in. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. Fig. diameter. round galvanized iron. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. 6-in. leaving the rest for an opening. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. long and 4 in. Use blocks. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. wide at the bottom. Have the tent pole 3 in..J. Fig. 6. wide at the bottom. to a smooth board of soft wood. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. Emsworth.in. 9 by 12 in. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. Tress. 3 in. Nail a thin sheet of brass. long. high. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip.

The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. Corr. bend into shape. It will not. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. Chicago. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. . around the outside of the pattern. but before punching the holes. When the edges are brought together by bending. excepting the 1/4-in. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads.the spaces around the outlined figures. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. The pattern is traced as before. When all the holes are punched. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. apart. cut out the brass on the outside lines. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better.

A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. Stevens. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. If a wheel is selected. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. pipe is used for the hub. --Contributed by H. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. between which is placed the fruit jar. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. E. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. Mayger. or less. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft.however. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction.. These pipes are . Que. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. --Contributed by Geo. better still. or. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. Oregon. or center on which the frame swings. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. partially filled with cream. A 6-in. Dunham. G. pipe. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. A cast-iron ring. Badger. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. allowing 2 ft. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle.

The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. Four braces made from 1/2-in. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. bent to the desired circle. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. pipe clamps. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. An extra wheel 18 in. pipe. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in.

The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. and dropped on the table. 1. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. 3. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. and the guide withdrawn. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. as shown in Fig. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. The performer. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. while doing this. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. which was placed in an upright position.

The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. F. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. Mo. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. St. first. Harkins. 1. in diameter on another piece of tin. it requires no expensive condensing lens. and second. Colo. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. --Contributed by H. The box can be made of selected oak or . Denver. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. Louis. in a half circle. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. D. 2. -Contributed by C. White. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features.

The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. fit into the runners. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. from each end. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. as shown in Fig. focal length. 3-1/2 in. The door covering this hole in the back. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. long and should be placed vertically. high and 11 in. 2. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. and. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. AA. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. An open space 4 in. This will be 3/4 in. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. from each end of the outside of the box. Two or three holes about 1 in. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. wide and 5 in.mahogany. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. and 2 in. but not tight. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. long. 1. wide by 5 in. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. long. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. wide and 6-1/2 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. high and must . 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. 5-1/2 in. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. If a camera lens is used. wide. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. represented by the dotted line in Fig. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip.

Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box." etc. and extending the whole height of the lantern. and so on. 1. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. Ohio. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. --Contributed by Chas. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. calling this February. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. C. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece.. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. then the second knuckle will be March. June and November. West Toledo. the article may be propped up . but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. calling that knuckle January. April. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. provided it is airtight. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. Bradley. This process is rather a difficult one. as it requires an airtight case.

and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. Y. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. Pour in a little turpentine. Schenectady. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. and set aside for half a day. 1 and 2. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. in. In each place two electrodes. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. Crawford. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq.with small sticks. . the lid or cover closed. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. 2. H. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. running small motors and lighting small lamps. one of lead and one of aluminum. and the lead 24 sq. or suspended by a string. N. The top of a table will do. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. In both Fig. giving it an occasional stir. taking care to have all the edges closed. 1. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. in. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. --Contributed by J. fruit jars are required. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. but waxed. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one.

everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. as well as others. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. O. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. After a few seconds' time. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. you remove the glass. You have an understanding with some one in the company. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. He. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. This trick is very simple. which you warm with your hands. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. as you have held it all the time. Cleveland. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass.. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. at the time of request for handkerchiefs.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. he throws the other.

cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. Colo. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. but by being careful at shores. J. Victor. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. Be sure that this is the right one. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. if any snags are encountered. in diameter in the center. but in making one. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. on a table. Pull the ends quickly. Crocker. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely.take the handiest one.-Contributed by E. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. put it under the glass. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. . and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. near a partition or curtain.

long. for the stern piece. for the bow. from the stern. 1 piece. by 10 ft. 1/4 in. by 12 in. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. 2 gunwales. 1 mast. by 2 in. by 16 ft. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. apart. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. 2 in. clear pine. by 2 in. for cockpit frame. of 1-1/2-yd. and the other 12 in. of rope. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. 1. 11 yd. long. by 16 ft. wide and 12 ft. 8 yd. at the ends. 1 in. 3 in. thick and 3/4 in. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. are as follows: 1 keelson. The keelson. 1 in. from each end to 1 in. wide and 12 ft. and. 7 ft. long. 50 ft. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. the smaller is placed 3 ft. 2 and braced with an iron band. one 6 in. screws and cleats. wide. for center deck braces. and fastened with screws. 3 in.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. by 8 in. Fig. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. wide 12-oz. 9 ft. is 14 ft. 4 outwales. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. Both ends are mortised. selected pine. 1 in. Paint. ducking. 3 and 4. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. 1 piece.. square by 16 ft. as illustrated in the engraving. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. long. drilled and fastened with screws.. 8 in. 14 rib bands. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. wide unbleached muslin. and is removed after the ribs are in place. from the bow and the large one. 1 in. 1/8 in. of 1-yd. by 15 ft.

Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. screws. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. in diameter through the block. is cut to fit under the top boards. The trimming is wood. Fig. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. 1 in. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. wide and 14 in. 4 in. . 3-1/2 ft. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. 7 and 8. corner braces. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. thick and 1/2 in. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. long is well soaked in water. wide. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. The block is fastened to the keelson. wood screws. 6. wide. from the bow. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. long. thick. 6 in. wide and 24 in. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. They are 1 in. also. long. Before making the deck. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. a piece 1/4 in. These are put in 6 in. This block. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. Fig. gunwales and keelson. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. doubled. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. length of canvas is cut in the center. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. long. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. apart. The deck is not so hard to do. A 6-in. Braces. The 11-yd. 5. 1 in. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. A block of pine. wide and 3 ft. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. thick. thick and 12 in. A seam should be made along the center piece. is a cube having sides 6 in. 9. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. and fastened to them with bolts. thick 1-1/2 in. 6 and 7. A piece of oak. Figs. 1/4 in. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales.

or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. each 1 in. A strip 1 in. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. Wilmette. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. 10 with a movable handle. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. E. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. at the other. The house will accommodate 20 families. thick by 2 in. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. The sail is a triangle. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. in diameter and 10 ft. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. Ill. --Contributed by O. Fig. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. wide at one end and 12 in. The keel. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. is 6 in. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. Tronnes. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. 11. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. long. wide. The mast has two side and one front stay. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. are used for the boom and gaff. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. long. 12. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. . Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. apart in the muslin. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast.

wide. long and five 1/2-in. wide and 2 ft. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. 5. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. about 5/16 in. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. 1. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. Wilmette. Fig. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. long. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. Bevel both sides of the pieces. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. --Contributed by O. one 11-1/2 in. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. as shown in Fig. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. five 1/2-in. 2-1/2 in. E. long. 2 in. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. 2. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. and 3 ft. with the ends and the other side rounding. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. and the other 18 in. flat-headed screws. 1 yd. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. flat on one side. Take this and fold it over . 3. thick. Ill. wide and 30 in. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. Tronnes. wide. Cut the maple. square. long. flat headed screws. thick. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. 2-1/2 in. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind.into two 14-in. thick. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. 4.

A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. wide and 6-1/2 in. 1-1/4 in. Bliss. 1. square. B. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. thick. about 3/8 in. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. E. long.once. C. The front. About 1/2 in. --Contributed by W. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. A. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. soaked with water and blown up. 3 in. Glue a three cornered piece. Mo. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. After the glue. When the glue is set. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. long. forming an eye for a screw. square. wide and 4-1/2 in. but can be governed by circumstances. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. St. then centered. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. and make a turn in each end of the wires. thick and 3 in. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. 3-1/4 in. thick. long. 6-1/2 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. If carefully and neatly made. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. Make a double stitch all around the edge. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. leaving a small opening at one corner. 5 from 1/16-in. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. wide and 2-3/4 in. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. Wind three layers of about No. wide and 6-3/4 in. D. F. as well as the edges around the opening. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. Figs. The sides are 3-1/4 in. Cut another piece of board. wide . These wires are about 2-1/2 in. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. C. of each end unwound for connections. 3/8 in. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. are rounded. the mechanical parts can be put together. and take care that the pieces are all square. wide and 5 in. long. pieces 2-5/8 in. The bag is then turned inside out. long. is set. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. Louis. 2 and 3. Fig. long. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. long. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. Another piece. the top and bottom. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. A. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. wide and 3 ft. and the four outside edges. long. this square box is well sandpapered.

The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. C. the part carrying the pointer moves away. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. G. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. --Contributed by George Heimroth. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. in diameter.R. These wires should be about 1 in. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. thick. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. W. long. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. that has the end turned with a shoulder. 5. Place the tin. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. Richmond Hill. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. The base is a board 5 in. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. wide and 2-1/2 in. I. and the farther apart they will be forced. 5-1/2 in. and as the part Fig. 4. Chapman. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. board. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. The end of the polar axis B. bored in the back.A. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. Yorkshire. Another strip of tin. 1/16 in. the same size as the first. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete.and 2-5/8 in. The resistance is now adjusted to show .S. Fig. R. hole is fastened to the pointer. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. showing a greater defection of the pointer. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. from one end. long. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. long. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. A pointer 12 in. from the spindle. When the current flows through the coil. Austwick Hall. so it will just clear the tin. The stronger the current. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. L. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. and fasten in place. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. Fig. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. wide and 9 in. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. 4 is not movable. 4. F. 1/4 in. Like poles repel each other. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin.

Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. 10 min. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. M. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. 10 min. thus: 9 hr. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. shows mean siderial. The following formula will show how this may be found. A.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. at 9 hr. say Venus at the date of observation. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. 1881. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. and vice . 30 min. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr.

f. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. and then verify its correctness by measurement. Hall. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. --Contributed by Robert W. . The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. if one of these cannot be had.m. New Haven.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. or. Conn. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. owing to the low internal resistance. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc.

Wet paper will answer. Fig. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. especially for cooking fish. fresh grass. arsenic to every 20 lb.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. 3/8 in. 1-3/4 in. The boring bar. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. cover up with the same. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. When the follower is screwed down. as shown in the accompanying picture. put the fish among the ashes. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. of alum and 4 oz. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. long. Then. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. inside diameter and about 5 in. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. leaves or bark. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . and heap the glowing coals on top. 1. thick. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants.

when they were turned in. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . pipe. about 1/2 in. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. thick. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. fastened with a pin. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. and threaded on both ends. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. pipe. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages.

3. but never one which required so little material. a jump spark would be much better. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. wide. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. however. A 1-in.valve stems. Fig. It . Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. and which gave such satisfactory results. bent in the shape of a U. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. Clermont. Fig. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. This plate also supports the rocker arms. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. 5. Fig. as the one illustrated herewith. thick and 3 in. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. then it should be ground to a fit. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. Iowa. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. the float is too high. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. 30 in. 4. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. The rough frame. square iron. 2. If the valve keeps dripping. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. was then finished on an emery wheel. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. long. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. labor and time. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws.

and a little junk. for the "motive power" to grasp. long. with no trees or buildings in the way. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. square.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. long is the pivot. square and 2 ft. It looks like a toy. A malleable iron bolt. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. from the center. strengthened by a piece 4 in. supported by a stout and serviceable rope." little and big. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. long. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. in fact. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. in diameter and 15 in. extending above. 12 ft. This makes an easy adjustment. Nieman. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. in the ground with 8 ft. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. The seats are regular swing boards. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . completes the merry-go-round. A 3/4 -in. As there is no bracing. --Contributed by C. The crosspiece is 2 in. long. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. Use a heavy washer at the head. no matter what your age or size may be. rope is not too heavy. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. being held in position by spikes as shown. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. timber. so it must be strong enough. If it is to be used for adults. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. hole bored in the post. 3/4 in. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. butting against short stakes. The illustration largely explains itself. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. from all over the neighborhood. strong clear material only should be employed. and. square and 5 ft. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. W. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. set 3 ft. which adds greatly to the flying sensation.

all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. a wreck. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. 4. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. away. To wind the string upon the reel. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. The backbone is flat. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. and 18 in. Both have large reels full of . square. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. and sent to earth. The bow is now bent. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. light and strong. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. one for the backbone and one for the bow. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig.2 emery. A reel is next made. 2. long. 1. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. if nothing better is at hand.the fingers. 1/4 by 3/32 in. as shown in Fig. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. These ends are placed about 14 in. Having placed the backbone in position. then it is securely fastened.

Y. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. Brooklyn. First. common packing thread. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull.-Contributed by S. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away.string. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . Bunker. C. often several hundred yards of it. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. or glass-covered string. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. Newburyport. The handle end is held down with a staple. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. the balance. --Contributed' by Harry S. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. N. If the second kite is close enough. Mass. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. Moody. he pays out a large amount of string. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise.

A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. each the size of half the table top. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. such as mill men use. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. must be attached to a 3-ft. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. cutting the circular piece into quarters. lengths (Fig. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. length of 2-in. make the pad as shown in the illustration. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. Corinth. then a dust protector. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . square (Fig. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. Hastings. Vt. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. --Contributed by Earl R. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. If the table is round. then draw the string up tight.

Oakland. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. Moisten the . which spoils the leather effect. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. from E to F. . How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag.. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. 16-1/4 in. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. 17-1/2 in. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. E. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. from C to D. hard pencil. and E to G.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. G to H. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. Calif. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. 6-1/4 in..9-1/4 in.-Contributed by H. trace the design carefully on the leather. 2-1/4 in. Wharton. Use a smooth.. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B.

lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. H-B. with the rounded sides of the tools. Now cut narrow thongs. Cut it the same size as the bag. I made this motor . apart. wide. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. and E-G. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. To complete the bag. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. also lines A-G. if not more than 1 in. and corresponding lines on the other side. about 1/8 in. Trace the openings for the handles. get something with which to make a lining. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. place both together and with a leather punch. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. G-J. and lace through the holes. is taken off at a time.

1. 2. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. Pasadena. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax.M. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. 2-1/4 in. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. as shown in Fig. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. in length. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. . which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. D. iron. Shannon. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. --Contributed by J. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. long. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. of No.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. Calif. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. each being a half circle. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. B. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. 24 gauge magnet wire. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. 1. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft.

Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . The widest place should be 53-1/2 in.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. balloon should be about 8 ft. high. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. and the gores cut from these. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. pasted in alternately. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. near the center. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. The gores for a 6-ft. from the bottom end. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. are the best kind to make. 1.

the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. Fig. 5. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. After washing. as shown in Fig. so it will hang as shown in Fig. 2. 1. in diameter. In starting the balloon on its flight. saturating it thoroughly. using about 1/2-in. As the boat is driven forward by this force. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. The steam. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. coming through the small pipe A. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. as shown in Fig. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. leaving the solution on over night. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. The boat soon attains considerable speed. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. E.widest point. lap on the edges. --Contributed by R. Staunton. B. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. after which the paint will adhere permanently. If the gores have been put together right. In removing grease from wood. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. These are to hold the wick ball. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. leaving a long wake behind. 4. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . 3. A. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. somewhat larger in size. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney.

1. Third. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . In using either of the two methods described. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. The blocks are about 6 in. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. wide by 6 in. long. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. high and 8 in. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. as is shown in Fig. apart on these lines. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. Second. There are three ways of doing this: First. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. in bowling form. if you have several copies of the photograph. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. long and each provided with a handle.

The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. N. Y. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. not pointed down at the road at an angle. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed .Fig. Hellwig. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. 2. Albany. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. thick. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. Fig. Rinse the plate in cold water. --Contributed by John A. being careful not to dent the metal. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig.

Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. A circular piece of wood. In Fig. with a set screw. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. long for the base. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. --Contributed by R. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. A. B. Va. 6 in. and not produce the right sound. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. is fastened to a common camera tripod. 2 the front view. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. A. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. which is 4 in. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. With this device. are screwed to the circular piece. 5 in. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. S. CC. wide and of any desired height. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. wide and 8 in. Corner irons.upon any particular object. thick. and Fig. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. and. in diameter. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. Paine. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. Break off the frame. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. Richmond. through which passes the set screw S. 1 Fig. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. These corner irons are also screwed to. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in.

it can be mounted on the inside of the can. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. .Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. as only the can is visible. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. D. Lake Preston. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. in diameter of some 1-in. Kidder. thus producing sound waves. S. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. -1. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. I made a wheel 26 in. Ill. This will make a very compact electric horn. R. This horn. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. La Salle. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. pine boards. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained.

1. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. O. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . Feet may be added to the base if desired. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. The frame is made of a heavy card. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. Ghent. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. the same thickness as the coins. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. square. Kane. thick and 12 in. 1. --Contributed by James R. If the collection consists of only a few coins. A. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. B. Doylestown. Purdy. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. If there is a large collection of coins. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. Fig. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. --Contributed by C. 2. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack.

plus a 3/8-in. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. of developer. several large nails. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. Milwaukee. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. If desired. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. into which to place the screws . Neyer. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. It will hold 4 oz. One Cloud. Smith. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. melted and applied with a brush. border all around. Noble. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. and then glued together as indicated. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. --Contributed by J. A rivet punch is desirable. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. A lead pencil. a hammer or mallet. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. The material required is a sheet of No. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. thick. --Contributed by R. Cal. --Contributed by August T. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. Toronto. Wis. Canada.J.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. for after the slides have been shown a few times. cut and grooved. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. and a stout board upon which to work up the design.E. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. though not absolutely necessary. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. they become uninteresting.

Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. using 1/2-in. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. Take the nail. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. There are several ways of working up the design. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. never upon the metal directly.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. like the one shown. screws placed about 1 in. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. and file it to a chisel edge. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. Remove the screws. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. both outline and decoration. draw one part. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut.

This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. 1. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. square and 181/2 in. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. long. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. for the top. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. being ball bearing. two lengths. of 11-in. . The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. up from the lower end. square and 11 in. using a 1/2in. l-1/8 in. 3/4 in. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. square. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. 3. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. long. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. The pedal. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. 2. Provide four lengths for the legs. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. each 1 in. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. Rivet the band to the holder. long. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. as shown in Fig. for the lower rails. and two lengths. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. About 1/2 yd. Do not bend it over or flatten it. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. in the other.wall.

--Contributed by John Shahan. Quackenbush. having quite a length of threads.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. --Contributed by W. Attalla. F. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. Ala. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. New York City. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way.

and the other 2-3/4 in. long. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. initial. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. from the end. long. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. from one end. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . something that is carbonated.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. each 1-1/4 in.. and 3/8 in. Purchase a 1/2-in. college or lodge colors. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. D. Ironwood. stitched on both edges for appearance. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. Mich. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. The desired emblem. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. Luther. wide and 4-1/4 in. Two pieces of felt. using class. and two holes in the other. --Contributed by C. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. one about 1 in. Assemble as shown in the sketch. in depth. wide and 8-1/4 in. making a lap of about 1 in. the end of the other piece is folded over. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. long.

Indianapolis.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. in diameter and 2 in. as shown in the sketch. This method allows a wide range of designs. as shown at B. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. or more in height. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. in the cover and the bottom. 1/4 in. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. about 2 in. Fig. --Contributed by John H. which can be procured from a plumber. Punch two holes A. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. Schatz. 2. or a pasteboard box. 1. A piece of lead. if desired by the operator. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. from the center and opposite each other. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. and the cork will be driven out. Ind. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé.

thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. 1. or marble will serve. Fig. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. and the ends of the bands looped over them. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. are turned up as in Fig. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. 4. as shown in Fig. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. it winds up the rubber band.Rolling Can Toy lead. The pieces of tin between the holes A. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. 3. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. A piece of thick glass. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. When the can is rolled away from you. . non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. metal. on both top and bottom. Columbus. O. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. 5. allowing the two ends to be free. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. putting in the design.

wide and 20 in. or more thick on each side. from each end. deep in its face. If it is desired to "line" the inside. The edges should be about 1/8 in. mark over the design. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. long and bored a 1/2-in. I secured a board 3/4 in. hole through it. New York City. A pencil may be used the first time over. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. After this has been done. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. and. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. 1 in. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . Next place the leather on the glass. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. 3 in. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. thicker than the pinion. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. thick. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. face up. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire.

Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. 1 screw block. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. 1 top board. Syracuse. 1 piece for clamp. 3 by 3 by 36. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. Brooklyn. M.in the board into the bench top. N. 2 crosspieces. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. 2 side rails. 2 by 2 by 18 in. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . 3 by 3 by 20 in. 1 by 12 by 77 in. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. pieces for the vise slides. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. countersinking the heads of the vise end. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. Make the lower frame first. 1 top board. 2. much of the hard labor will be saved. 3 by 3 by 6 in. Cut the 2-in. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. Now fit up the two clamps. lag screws as shown. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. 1 by 9 by 80 in. 2 by 12 by 77 in. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. Rice. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. in diameter. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. 1 piece. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. and fit it in place for the side vise. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. 4 guides. 2 end rails. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. New York. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. 1. 1 back board. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. --Contributed by A. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. Fig. Y. 1 piece for clamp. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. thick top board.

1 nail set. 24 in. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. 1 countersink. Only the long run. 1 set chisels. 1 marking gauge. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. 1 jack plane or smoother. 1 rip saw. . As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. as well as the pattern maker. 1 pair pliers. 1 pair dividers. They can be purchased at a hardware store.. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. 3 and 6 in. it can be easily found when wanted. 1 pocket level. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. 1 brace and set of bits. The bench is now complete. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. If each tool is kept in a certain place. rule. 1 cross cut saw. 1 monkey wrench. 1 2-ft. in diameter. 2 screwdrivers. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. 24 in. 1 wood scraper. 1 compass saw. 1 claw hammer. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used.screws.. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood.. 1 set gimlets. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. 1 bench plane or jointer. The amateur workman.

but will not make . 1. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. Kane. Fig. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. Fig. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. No. Fig. The calf skin. will sink into the handle as shown at D. 2 and 00 sandpaper. Doylestown. being softer. 3. Pa.1 6-in. the projecting point A. Fig. 2. will be easier to work. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. 1 oilstone. 1. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. ---Contributed by James M. try square. becomes like A.1. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. after constant use.

give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. which steam. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. cover it completely with water enamel and. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. but a V-shaped nut pick. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. when dry. If cow hide is preferred. such as copper or brass.as rigid a case as the cow skin. lay the design on the face. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. secure a piece of modeling calf. water or heat will not affect. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. Having prepared the two sides. Two pieces will be required of this size. If calf skin is to be used. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. New York City. Turn the leather. After the outlines are traced. then prepare the leather. The form can be made of a stick of wood. White. . The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. First draw the design on paper. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. and the length 6-5/8 in. the same method of treatment is used. will do just as well. -Contributed by Julia A. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape.

--Contributed by W. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. as shown in the sketch. C. . Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. Cobb. --Contributed by Chas. Richmond. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. Maine. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. and an adjustable friction-held loop. Herrman. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. --Contributed by Chester L. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. Cal. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. New York City. Portland. A. Jaquythe. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down.

--Contributed by Geo. B. Cambridge. Mass. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. This was very difficult. Conn. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base.. A thick piece of tin. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. for instance. was marked out as shown. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. Middletown. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. --Contributed by Wm.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. Wright. Roberts. . The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. an inverted stewpan.

then immerse the print in it and squeegee. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. pulverized and applied. There was no quicklime to be had. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. of boiling water. and quite new. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. as shown. used as part of furniture. Chicago. Bone. apply powdered calcined magnesia. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. such as chair seats. well calcined and powdered. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. . No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. Illinois. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. If any traces of the grease are left. When dry. but only an odor which soon vanished. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. on a clear piece of glass. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. so some bones were quickly calcined. Ind. and the grease will disappear. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. face down. which has been tried out several times with success. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. L. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper.. but not running over. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. Indianapolis. If the article is highly polished. --Contributed by C. Herbert. The next morning there was no trace of oil. A beautifully bound book. F. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. --Contributed by Paul Keller. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book.

--Contributed by Geo. wide and 12 in. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. set and thumbscrews.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. thick. New York. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. A. deep and 5 in. Howe. The pieces marked S are single. the pieces . The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. soft steel with the opening 6 in.. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. Tarrytown. 2 in. high and are bolted to a block of wood. long.. This coaster is simple and easy to make. says Scientific American. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. If properly adjusted. 6 in.

The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. The seat is a board. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. they will look remarkably uniform. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. for sending to friends. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. says Camera Craft. E. albums and the like. If the letters are all cut the same height. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . A sharp knife. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. to the underside of which is a block. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. no doubt. Their size depends on the plate used. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months.

Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. In cutting out an 0. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. So arranged. after. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. The puzzle is to get . mount them on short pieces of corks. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. So made. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. photographing them down to the desired size. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. and. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. using care to get it in the right position. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. for example. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. pasting the prints on some thin card.

snow or anything to hide it. hung on pivots. with the longest end outside. of its top. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. Cape May Point. G.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. Old-Time Magic .-Contributed by I. A hole 6 or 7 in. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit.J. long that will just fit are set in. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. so they will lie horizontal. He smells the bait.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. Bayley. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. squeezes along past the center of the tube. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. N. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . says the American Thresherman. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand.

Rhode Island. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. --Contributed by L. or rub the hands a little before doing so. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. Brooklyn. --Contributed by L. Press the hands together. then expose again. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. Parker. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. Pocatello. Pawtucket. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through.faced up. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. then spread the string. N. Szerlip. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. Y. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. --Contributed by Charles Graham. Idaho. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. E. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole.

then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. or designs in this article are from authentic sources.. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. whether he requires a single sword only. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. The handle is next made. in building up his work from the illustrations. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. 1. long. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle.. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. full size. says the English Mechanic. wipe the blade . Glue the other side of the blade. and if carefully made. using a straightedge and a pencil. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. 1 Fig. The pieces. they will look very much like the genuine article. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. in width. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. wide and 2 in. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands.Genuine antique swords and armor. or a complete suit of armor. end of the blade. if any. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. The blade should be about 27 in. 2 Fig. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. When the whole is quite dry. narrower. near the point end. 4 on the blade. or green oil paint. 3 Fig. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. thick. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. When the glue is thoroughly dry. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. dark red.

take two pieces of wood. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. Fig. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig.with light strokes up and down several times. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. follow the directions as for Fig. 2. about 1-1/2 in.. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. the illustration. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. preferably of contrasting colors. shows only two sides. In making. 4. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. 1. in the widest part at the lower end. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. 2. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. allowing for a good hold with both hands. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. the other is flat or halfround. thick and 5 in. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. 1. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. This sword is about 68 in. long. in diameter. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. as it is . of course. Both edges of the blade are sharp. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. 1. The length of the handle. not for use only in cases of tableaux. the length of the blade 28 in. In the finished piece. 3. the other is flat or half-round. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. 1. and 3 in. 3.. the other two are identical. square and of any length desired. should be about 9 in. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. In making this scimitar. 1/8 in.

are fastened two pieces of strap iron. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. long. and if so. however. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. at the lower end. piping and jackets by hard water. A cold . and. square. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. The thinness of the plank. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. Franklin. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. as shown in the sketch. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. Morse. --Contributed by John Blake. It is made of a plank. in an attempt to remove it. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. each about 1 ft. On each edge of the board. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. 2 in. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. Mass. Syracuse. or an insecure fastening. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. Doctors probed for the button without success. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. as there was some at hand. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. Both can be made easily. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. --Contributed by Katharine D. N. as can the pitch bed or block. about 3/8 in. A piece of mild steel. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. Y.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator.

To remedy this. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over.. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. When the desired form has been obtained. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. The metal will probably be warped somewhat.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. To put it in another way. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. design down. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. tallow. 18 gauge. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. a file to reduce the ends to shape. on the pitch. using a small metal saw. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. 5 lb. The illustration shows an iron receptacle.. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. When this has been done. Trim up the edges and file them . plaster of Paris. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. 5 lb. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. secure a piece of brass of about No. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown.

in the center. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. per second. to keep it from floating. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. space between the vessels with water. This in turn divided by 33. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. 3. 1) and the other 12 in. 2). in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. per minute.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. The smaller is placed within the larger. Fig.000 lb. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. Cutter. 1 ft. 1 ft. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. in one minute or 550 lb. make an unusual show window attraction. lb. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. --Contributed by Harold H. 30 ft. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. A. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. it may be well to know what horsepower means. Before giving the description. one 18 in. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. Clean the metal thoroughly. or fraction of a horsepower. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. Fill the 3-in. or 550 ft. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. in one second.smooth. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. using powdered pumice with lye.000 ft. . long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. over the smaller vessel. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. living together in what seems like one receptacle. in diameter (Fig. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. but not to stop it. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. and still revolve.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. lb. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. in diameter (Fig. That is lifting 33. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. and hang a bird swing. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run.

Mass. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two.18 in. 2 Fig. --Contributed by J. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes.3 Fig. Campbell. Diameter Fig. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. or on a pedestal.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. --Contributed. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. Y. Diameter 12 in. N. The effect is surprising. Brooklyn. by L. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . 1 Fig. Somerville. F. Szerlip.

away from the edge. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. keeping the center high. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. and the clay . with the pliers. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. then by drawing a straightedge over it. after which it is ready for use. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. This compound is impervious to water. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. and cut out the shape with the shears. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. which. with other defects. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. to keep the metal from tarnishing.copper of No. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. the same as removing writing from a slate. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. is. Rivet the cup to the base. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. which may be of wood or tin. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. Do not be content merely to bend them over. as a rule. often render it useless after a few months service. and then. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. unsatisfactory. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. In riveting. Polish both of these pieces. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. using any of the common metal polishes. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch.

Grand Rapids. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. 3/4 in. --Contributed by John T. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. --Contributed by A. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. 2. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. Houghton. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. as shown in Fig. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. 1. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. The siphon is made of glass tubes. It is made of a glass tube. A.can be pressed back and leveled. Mich. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. Scotland. in diameter and 5 in. Dunlop. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. the device will work for an indefinite time. Mich. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. DeLoof. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. -Contributed by Thos. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. . Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. Northville. Shettleston. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. long.

long. London. put up as ornaments. in width and 2 in. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. 1. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. stilettos and battle-axes.FIG. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. This sword is 4 ft.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. long with the crossguard and blade of steel. As the handle is to . allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in.1 FIG. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles.

The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. sharp edges on both sides. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. in length. 11 were used. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. The ball is made as described in Fig. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. very broad. 20 spike. A German poniard is shown in Fig. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. In Fig. then glued on the blade as shown. In Fig. string. is shown in Fig. When the glue is thoroughly dry. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. with wire or string' bound handle. 5. A German stiletto. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. studded with brass or steel nails. paint it a dark brown or black. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. in width. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. Three large. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. 4. the upper part iron or steel. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. The handle is of wood. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. firmly glued on. the same as used on the end of the handle. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. These must be cut from pieces of wood. 3 is shown a claymore. which is about 2-1/2 ft. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. one about 1/2 in.represent copper. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. glue and put it in place. When dry. the axe is of steel. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. 7. The crossbar and blade are steel. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. small rope and round-headed nails. long with a dark handle of wood. Both handle and axe are of steel. 9. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. wood with a keyhole saw. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. sometimes called cuirass breakers. In Fig. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. This weapon is about 1 ft. with both edges sharp. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. The lower half of the handle is of wood. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. This stiletto has a wood handle. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. The sword shown in Fig. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. 6. in length. This sword is about 4 ft. with both edges of the blade sharp. This axe is made similar to the one . narrower. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. long. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. Cut two strips of tinfoil. 8. This weapon is also about 1 ft. When the whole is quite dry. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint.

described in Fig. so the contents cannot be seen. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. This will make a very good flexible belt. together as shown in Fig. the ends are tied and cut off. will pull where other belts slip. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. W. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. such as braided fishline. Old-Time Magic . When wrapped all the way around. 2. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. 10.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. high. . Davis. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. --Contributed by E. Chicago.

Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end.J. some of the liquid. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. causing the flowers to grow. 2. These wires are put in the jar. As zinc is much lighter than iron. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. about one-third the way down from the top. There will be no change in color. Before the performance. Bridgeton. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. Macdonald. To make the flowers grow in an instant.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. or using small wedges of wood. four glass tumblers. held in the right hand. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. Oakland. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. with the circle centrally located. 1 and put together as in Fig. filled with water. --Contributed by A. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. an acid. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. The dotted lines in Fig. S. Calif. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. in a few seconds' time. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. apparently. N. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks.

This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. not only because of the fact just mentioned. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. 2 for height. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. Cal. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. --Contributed by W.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. When many slides are to be masked. says a correspondent of Photo Era. Richmond. unless some special device is used. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. and kept ready for use at any time. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. and equally worthy of individual treatment. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. which are numbered for convenience in working. A. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. 4 for width and No. This outlines the desired opening. practical and costs nothing. If the size wanted is No. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. Jaquythe. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately.

about half and half. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. which is dangerous. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. and the extreme length 7 in. Draw a design. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. not the water into the acid. Secure a sheet of No. the paper is folded along the center line. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. paint the design. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. but they can be easily revived. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. possibly. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. may be changed. With a stick. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. This done. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. and do not inhale the fumes. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. using the carbon paper. a little less acid than water.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. The decoration. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. or a pair of old tongs. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. or. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . too. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. The one shown is merely suggestive. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. 16 gauge. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. the margin and the entire back of the metal. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. When etched to the desired depth. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. is about right for the No.

2. Fig. so that when it is pressed down. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. about 1 in. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. about 8 in. to the table. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. as in Fig. 3. 0 indicates the batteries. repeat as many times as is necessary. Cut out a piece of tin. in diameter and 1/4 in. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. or more wide. attached to a post at each end. 2. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. through it. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. wide. Fig. 4. as shown in the illustration. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. Fig. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. The connections are simple: I. 24 parts water. A. When the button S is pressed. C and D. and bore two holes. It may be either nailed or screwed down. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. Nail a board. 5. Fig. thick. high. 2. as at H. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. long. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. about 3 ft. as shown in Fig. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. 5. 3/8 in. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. and about 2-1/2 ft. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. . Paint the table any color desired. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. the bell will ring. Fig. it will touch post F.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. long and 1 ft. with the wires underneath. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. about 2-1/2 in. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. Then get two posts. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. 1. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. J is another wire attached in the same way. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. wide and of the same length as the table. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round.

The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. A wood peg about 2 in. thick. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. After the glue is dry. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. handle and all. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. This weapon is about 22 in. 1. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. The entire weapon. long serves as the dowel. says the English Mechanic. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. The imitation articles are made of wood. The circle is marked out with a compass.Imitation Arms and Armor . the wood peg inserted in one of them. These rings can be carved out. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. such as . the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. but they are somewhat difficult to make. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. long. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. is to appear as steel. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike.. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. 2. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary.

long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. The spikes are cut out of wood. 3. The lower half of the handle is wood. etc. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. with a sharp carving tool. or the amateur cannot use it well. The upper half of the handle is steel. The handle is of steel imitation. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. as shown. long. 8. studded with large brass or steel nails. covered with red velvet. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. The handle is of wood. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. . A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. is shown in Fig. used at the end of the fifteenth century. also. 5. The axe is shown in steel. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. All of these axes are about the same length. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. leaves. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. 2. 6. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. the hammer and spike. the base having a brad to stick into the ball.ornamental scrolls. This weapon is about 22 in. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. flowers. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. Its length is about 3 ft. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. The entire handle should be made of one piece. as before mentioned. If such a tool is not at hand. as described in Fig.

1. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. a three-base hit. 3. Chicago. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. 4). A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. 6. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. 2. The knife falling on its side (Fig.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. as in Fig. then the other plays. and so on for nine innings. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. 5. Each person plays until three outs have been made. 7) calls for one out. calls for a home run. Fig. . the knife resting on its back. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board.

How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. 2. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. This he does. F. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. with the rope laced in the cloth. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. Campbell. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. of the rope and holds it. 3. of water for an hour or two.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant.-Contributed by J. as shown in Fig. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. If it is spotted at all. Mass. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. 1. hypo to 1 pt. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. Somerville. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. one of them burning . The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. Old-Time Magic . the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. It may be found that the negative is not colored. as shown in Fig. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. while the committee is tying him up. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz.

--Contributed by L. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart.Contributed by Andrew G. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. Ky. Brown. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. thick. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. The magician walks over to the burning candle. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. --Contributed by C. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. of sugar. . Thome. thus causing it to light. of plumbago. B. New York City. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood.brightly. bolt. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. shades the light for a few seconds. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. 4 oz. the other without a light. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. with which he is going to light the other candle. of water and 1 oz. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. Louisville. and. etc. Ky. showing that there is nothing between them. Evans. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb.. Drill Gauge screw. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. Lebanon. 4 oz. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. 3/4 in. He then walks over to the other candle. of turpentine. invisible to them (the audience).

about 5 in. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. into a tube of several thicknesses. Y. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. steady current. long. Its current strength is about one volt. Do not add water to the acid. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. or blotting paper. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. but is not so good.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. H. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. Denniston. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. thick. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. To make the porous cell. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. N. diameter. for the material. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. which will give a strong. In making up the solution. --Contributed by C. Pulteney. 5 in. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup.

steel. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts.) may be obtained. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. The . thus saving much work in fitting up joints. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. a positive adjustment was provided. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws.station. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. steel. the other holding them apart. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. long with a bearing at each end. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. As to thickness. one drawing them together. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. After much experimentation with bearings. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. One hole was bored as well as possible. while the other end is attached by two screws. but somewhat lighter. steel. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. carrying the hour circle at one end. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. To insure this. Finally. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in.

. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. turn the pointer to the star. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. Each shaft. The pole is 1 deg. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. The aperture should be 1/4 in. It is. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. excepting those on the declination axis. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. apart. in each direction from two points 180 deg. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. To find a star in the heavens." When this is done. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. save the one in the pipe. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. All these adjustments. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. If the result is more than 24 hours. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question." Only a rough setting is necessary. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. are tightened. The pointer is directed to Alpha. once carefully made. All set screws. Cassiopiae. is provided with this adjustment. Point it approximately to the north star. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. and 15 min. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. Declination is read directly. 45 min. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. subtract 24. Set the declination circle to its reading. and if it is not again directed to the same point. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. To locate a known star on the map. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. Instead. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. need not be changed. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal.. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. When properly set it will describe a great circle. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result.

Strosnider. Plain City. taking care not to add too much. 3 or 4 in. benzole. -Contributed by Ray E. The ball is found to be the genuine article. is the real cannon ball. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. of ether. a great effect will be produced.. In reality the first ball. which is the one examined. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. then add 1 2-3 dr. add a little more benzole. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. the others . cannon balls. La. Ohio. If this will be too transparent.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. The dance will begin. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. long. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. New Orleans. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. as shown in the sketch. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. is folded several times.

etc. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. 1). Fig. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. Wis. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. F. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. small brooches. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. Campbell. --Contributed by J. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. San Francisco. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara.. without taking up any great amount of space. Cal. taps. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. In boxes having a sliding cover. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. as shown in the illustration. Mass. Milwaukee. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . Somerville. 2. Return the card to the pack. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band.

Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. This box has done good service. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. thus giving ample store room for colors. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. Hartford. . The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. Beller. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. prints. slides and extra brushes. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. Connecticut. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. as shown in the illustration. from the bottom of the box.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. round pieces 2-1/4 in.

a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. . This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. Darke. Fill the upper tub. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. O.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. holes in the bottom of one. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. 2). tacking the gauze well at the corners. FIG. When the ends are turned under. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. -Contributed by C. will answer the purpose. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. about threefourths full. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. 1). West Lynn. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. Mass. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. costing 5 cents. with well packed horse manure.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. or placed against a wall.

when they are raised from the pan. oil or other fluid. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. cutting the cane between the holes. --Contributed by L. and each bundle contains . After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. if this is not available. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. Eifel. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. If the following directions are carried out. If plugs are found in any of the holes. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. they should be knocked out. Chicago. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. M. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane.

and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. 1. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. held there by inserting another plug. and. then across and down. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. after having been pulled tight. put about 3 or 4 in. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. as it must be removed again. a square pointed wedge. No plugs . which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. In addition to the cane. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. as shown in Fig. it should be held by a plug. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs.

and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. the next smallest. as shown in Fig.075 in. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. When cool. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. Their difference is . Detroit. D. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. 40°. and for lat. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. R. W. lat. and for 1° it would be .3 in. using the same holes as for the first layer.075 in. 41 °-30'. we have 4. No weaving has been done up to this time.15+. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. as shown in Fig.= 4. The style or gnomon. It consists of a flat circular table. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. Fig. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. This will make three layers. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. Patrick. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. called the gnomon. 3. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. 5 in. as the height of the line BC for lat. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. All added to the lesser or 40°. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. If you have a table of natural functions. If handled with a little care. After completing the second layer. in this case) times the . Fig. for 2°. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. the height of the line BC.15 in. or the style. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. trim off the surplus rosin. There are several different designs of sundials. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. From table No. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. 1 lat. 5. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand.2 in. 1. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. 3. as it always equals the latitude of the place. the height of which is taken from table No. Even with this lubrication.5 in. 42° is 4. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. and the one we shall describe in this article. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. as for example. but the most common. --Contributed by M. is the base (5 in. -Contributed by E.42 in. it is 4. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. 1. 1. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. is the horizontal dial. 41°-30'. stretch the third one. 4. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC.2+. During the weaving. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. Michigan. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB.

85 1. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2. or more. circle Sundial.42 45 .91 58° 8. .88 36° 3. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial. with a radius of 5 in.66 1.42 1.76 1. long.82 5.30 1. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in.66 latitude.16 1. which will represent the base in length and thickness. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 . and intersecting the semicircles.28 . 2 for given latitudes. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks. Chords in inches for a 10 in.41 38° 3.03 3. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No. if of metal.49 3.68 5-30 6-30 5.07 4.11 3.37 54° 6.14 5.81 4. according to the size of the dial. and perpendicular to the base or style.37 5. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style. draw two parallel lines AB and CD.49 30 .56 . in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in.97 5 7 4.79 4. gives the 6 o'clock points. To layout the hour circle.00 40° 4.85 35 .82 2.23 6. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown.38 .40 1.64 4 8 3. 1. For latitudes not given.27 2.83 27° 2. Draw the line AD.66 48° 5.10 6.40 34° 3.29 4-30 7-30 3. 2. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No.87 1.55 5.26 4.57 3. 2.99 2.tangent of the degree of latitude. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points. or if of stone. Table NO.59 2. A line EF drawn through the points A and C.12 52° 6.33 .82 3.02 1.96 32° 3.87 4.93 6. using the points A and C as centers.50 26° 2.33 42° 4. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight.55 46° 5. and for this size dial (10 in. Height of stile in inches for a 5in.19 1.57 1.55 30° 2. Its thickness.20 60° 8.18 28° 2.39 .16 40 .06 2. Fig.44 44° 4.77 2.46 .63 56° 7. base.94 1.42 . Draw two semi-circles.46 3.93 2. an inch or two.30 2.89 50° 5.55 4.32 6.

--Contributed by J. adding to each piece interest and value. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time. 900 Chicago.34 5.89 3.. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year. Sept. 3.72 5. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face.82 3.21 2. Each weapon is cut from wood. then the watch is slower.54 60 . and for the difference between standard and local time. June 15.24 5. says the English Mechanic.93 6.add those marked + subtract those Marked . after allowing for the declination. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the . will enable one to set the dial.from Sundial lime. Sun time to local mean time.68 3.14 1. This correction can be added to the values in table No.98 4. it will be faster.87 6. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen.71 2. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3.52 Table No.46 4. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid.37 2.19 2. each article can be labelled with the name. and the . reducing the answer to minutes and seconds. An ordinary compass. and on these dates the dial needs no correction. April 16.57 1. 2 and Dec. 3. The + means that the clock is faster.50 55 . Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. if west. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached.79 6. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west. Mitchell.46 5.60 4. As they are the genuine reproductions. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No.50 .53 1.means that the dial is faster than the sun.30 2. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker.63 1.12 5. London. E.49 3.49 5. 25. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.77 3.06 2. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time.01 1.10 4. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole. Iowa. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York. Sioux City. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco. 3 Corrections in minutes to change.08 1.

If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. Partisan. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. 1. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft.. When putting on the tinfoil. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. . the length of which is about 5 ft. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. 3.

Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. 7. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. the holes being about 1/4 in. which are a part of the axe. . about 4 in.which is square. A gisarm or glaive. The spear is steel. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. sharp on the outer edges. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. long with a round wooden handle. 5. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig.. 8. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. The length of this bar is about 5 in. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. press it well into the carved depressions. is shown in Fig. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. in diameter. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. The extreme length is 9 ft. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. 6 ft. This weapon is about 6 ft. long. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. The edges are sharp. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. long with a round staff or handle. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. long. It is about 6 ft. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. used about the seventeenth century. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands.

H. Substances such as straw. 1. apart. Loudonville. 2 and 3. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. Workman. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. B. In Figs. used for spacing and binding the whole together. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. as shown in Fig. are put in place.-Contributed by R. are less durable and will quickly show wear. 5. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. the cross cords. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. 4. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. Cut all the cords the same length. Ohio. They can be made of various materials. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. The twisted cross cords should . This is important to secure neatness. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. or in holes punched in a leather strap. the most durable being bamboo. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired.

The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. wide. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. below the top to within 1/4 in. New Orleans. in which was placed a piece of glass. as shown at B. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. 3 in. Four V-shaped notches were cut. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . of the bottom. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. La. A slit was cut in the bottom. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. To remedy this. for a length extending from a point 2 in. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. Lockport. Harrer. bamboo or rolled paper. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy.be of such material. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. -Contributed by Geo. M. The first design shown is for using bamboo. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. shaped as shown at C. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. This was turned over the top of the other can. New York. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper.

Pasadena. Schaffner. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. wide. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. Sanford.tape from sticking to the carpet. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. This should be done gradually. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. --Contributed by Chas. Cal. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. Newburgh. N. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. do not throw away the gloves. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. H. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. Maywood. After this is finished. giving the appearance of hammered brass. It would be well to polish the brass at first. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. about 1/16 in. the brass is loosened from the block. turned over but not fastened. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. Shay. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. This plank. --Contributed by W. Ill. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. Y. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. --Contributed by Joseph H. is shown in the accompanying sketch. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. and two along the side for attaching the staff. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper.

bent as shown. Unlike most clocks. -Contributed by W. the pendulum swings . Cal. A. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. Ill. K. Marshall. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. --E. Jaquythe. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. Oak Park. Richmond. in diameter.

the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. the center one being 2-3/4 in. Two uprights. A. bearing on the latter. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. high. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. 5/16 in. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. The construction is very simple. C.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. 6 in. high. 3/4 in. Secure a board. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. --Contributed by V. by 1-5/16 in. Now place the board to be joined. on the board B. . The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. Metzech. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. away. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. only have the opposite side up. wide. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. wide that is perfectly flat. thick. and the other two 2-5/8 in. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. long and at each side of this. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. In using this method. is an electromagnet. high and 1/4 in. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. Chicago. such as this one. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. says the Scientific American. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. about 6 in. Fasten another board. to the first one with screws or glue. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. B. 7-1/2 in. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. in diameter. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. high. are secured in the base bar. bar.. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. about 12 in.

by driving a pin through the wood. plates should be made 8 in. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. or more. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. The trigger.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. square inside. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. 3. Pa. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. Fig. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. 1. Vanderslice. long. Fig. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. 1. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. 4. Phoenixville. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. wide and 5 in. wide and 1 in. 1. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. . Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. is fastened in the hole A. whose dimensions are given in Fig. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. square. --Contributed by Elmer A. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. from one end. 2. as shown at A.

when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position.A. one-half the length of the side pieces. -Contributed by J. 5 parts of black filler. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. rubbing varnish and turpentine. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. Fostoria. Simonis. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. by weight. which allows 1/4 in. if only two bands are put in the . on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. square. Ohio. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. as shown in the illustration. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. 2 parts of whiting.

2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. and it may be made as a model or full sized. A piece of metal. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. London. Shaw. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. deep. Grand Rapids. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. preferably copper. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. 1. Dartmouth. as shown in Fig. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. is necessary. II. and the picture can be drawn as described. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. DeLoof. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. Michigan. If a plain glass is used. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. long. says the English Mechanic. wide and about 1 ft. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. is set at an angle of 45 deg. No. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. A mirror. In use. place tracing paper on its surface. in the opposite end of the box. G. Mass. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. keeps the strong light out when sketching. It must be kept moist and well . --Contributed by Thos. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. In constructing helmets. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. A double convex lens. -Contributed by Abner B. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection.lower strings. 8 in. which may be either of ground or plain glass. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post.

A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. with a keyhole saw. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. 3. Scraps of thin. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. or some thin glue. and continue until the clay is completely covered. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. After the clay model is finished. and over the crest on top. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. on which to place the clay. The clay. brown.kneaded. All being ready. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. and the deft use of the fingers. 1. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. This being done. the clay model oiled. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. 1. take. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . and left over night to soak. will be necessary. as shown in Fig. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. joined closely together. a few clay-modeling tools. shown in Fig. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. 2. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. as in bas-relief. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue.

6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. owing to the clay being oiled. Before taking it off the model. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. 1. then another coating of glue. The band is decorated with brass studs. --Contributed by Paul Keller. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. Indiana. or. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. should be modeled and made in one piece. the skullcap. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. When perfectly dry. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. In Fig.as possible. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. 9. a few lines running down. Indianapolis. will make it look neat. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. and the ear guards in two pieces. one for each side. and so on. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. The whole helmet. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. 5. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. which should be no difficult matter. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. In Fig. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. The center of the ear guards are perforated. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. as shown: in the design. When dry. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. as seen in the other part of the sketch. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. square in shape. They are all covered with tinfoil. the piecing could not be detected. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. When the helmet is off the model. with the exception of the vizor. 7. This contrivance should be made of wood. a crest on top.

1. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. Fig. Fig. each 4-1/2 in. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. and two large 3in. 2. The reverse side of the base. This will allow the plate. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. 4. 4. until it is within 1 in. German-silver wire is better. E and F. 1. 4 lb.same size. AA. Fig. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. This will make an open space between the plates. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. thick. Fig. as shown in Fig. Fig. GG. of fire clay. high. 3. FF. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. if the measurements are correct. If a neat appearance is desired. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. wide and 15 in. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. 1. and C. when they are placed in opposite positions. if this cannot be obtained. above the collar. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. two ordinary binding posts. of No. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. 1. about 1/4 in. or. Fig. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . as it stands a higher temperature. about 1 lb. long. is shown in Fig. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. as shown in Fig. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. 1. Fig. 2. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. Fig. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. in diameter and 9 in. AA. screws. of the top. one fuse block. 1 in. one glass tube. Fig. for connections. 22 gauge resistance wire. 4. long. Fig. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. 1. the fuse block. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. The mineral wool. one oblong piece of wood. long. AA. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. one small switch. Fig. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. Fig. 2. the holes leading to the switch. which can be bought from a local druggist. also the switch B and the fuse block C. Fig. A round collar of galvanized iron. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. and. 4. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. If asbestos is used. of mineral wool. 4. The holes B and C are about 3 in. 3 in. The plate. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. JJ. is then packed down inside the collar. 4. thick sheet asbestos. with slits cut for the wires. about 80 ft. should extend about 1/4 in. are allowed to project about 1 in. to receive screws for holding it to the base. 12 in. The two holes. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. 4. as shown in Fig.

The clay. will slip and come in contact with each other. deep. using care not to get it too wet. steam will form when the current is applied. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. H. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. It should not be left heated in this condition. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. When the tile is in place. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. 4. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. allowing a space between each turn. St. then. --Contributed by W. This completes the stove. Fig. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. above the rim. A. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. As these connections cannot be soldered. causing a short circuit. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. Jaquythe. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. Cover over about 1 in. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. II. Cal. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. This point marks the proper length to cut it.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. when heated. It should not be set on end. it leaves a gate for the metal. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . It should have the proper consistency to mould well. Catherines. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. Fig. when cool. Cnonyn. 2. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. KK. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. Richmond. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. While the clay is damp. If it is not thoroughly dry. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. --Contributed by R. apart. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. Next. When this is done. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. If this is the case. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. Can. Cut a 1/2-in. more wire should be added. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. so that the circuit will not become broken. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. A file can be used to remove any rough places. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. as the turns of the wires. and pressed into it.

constructed of 3/4-in. is large enough. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. says the Photographic Times. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. Then clip a little off the . Thorne. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. the pie will be damaged. square material in any size. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. but 12 by 24 in. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. the air can enter from both top and bottom.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. and the frame set near a window. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. Louisville. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. Ky. --Contributed by Andrew G. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. and the prints will dry rapidly. as shown. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A.

A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. 2. high. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. Fig. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. The upright B. -Contributed by S. Two supports. Fig. The board can be raised to place . are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. 3. wide. 22 gauge magnet wire. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. long. Iowa. slip on two cardboard washers. each 1/2 in. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. A 1/8-in. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. allowing each end to project for connections. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. causing a break in the current. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. which gives the shaft a half turn. wide and 3 in. thick and 3 in. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. as shown. thereby saving time and washing. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. thick. 1. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. each 1 in. at GG. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. The driving arm D. 2-1/2 in. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. 14 in. high. 1 and 3. in diameter. 1/2 in. The connecting rod E. for the crank. thick and 3 in. open out. 1. As the shaft revolves.Paper Funnel point. long. An offset is bent in the center. Fig. wide and 7 in. long. long. 4 in. Le Mars. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. high. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. in diameter and about 4 in. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. W. Herron. which are fastened to the base. 1. 1/2 in. 1. Figs. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. The connections are made as shown in Fig.

as shown in the sketch. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. Stecher. In designing the roost. Dorchester. bottom side up. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. . on a board. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. in height. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. Mass. One or more pots may be used. 3 in. --Contributed by William F. Place the pot. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. making a framework suitable for a roost. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot.

If the meter is warmed 10 deg. paraffin and paint or varnish. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. The bottom part of the sketch. without any corresponding benefit. if it is other than straight lines. grills and gratings for doors. windows. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. F. Wind the . shelves. etc. odd corners. and give it time to dry.. in diameter. as shown in Fig.. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. 1. when combined. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. Fig. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. preferably. ordinary glue. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. that it is heated. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. 1. F. The materials required are rope or. will produce the pattern desired. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. adopt the method described.

Y. Lockport. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . M. -Contributed by Geo. cut and glue them together. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. Harrer. Fig. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. N.Fig. six designs are shown. 2.

A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. will be retained by the cotton. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. and the sides do not cover the jaws. which was used in front of a horse's head. etc. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. chips of iron rust. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers.. London. As the . but no farther. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. when it will be observed that any organic matter.. 1. etc. This piece of horse armor.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it.. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. says the English Mechanic.

except the thumb and fingers. but the back is not necessary. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. which is separate. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. This can be made in one piece. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. as shown in the sketch. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. then another coat of glue. This being done. 2. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. 6 and 7. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. 2. This will make the model light and easy to move around. 8. This triangularshaped support.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. which can be made in any size. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. An arrangement is shown in Fig. the same as in Fig. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. and will require less clay. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. the rougher the better. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. but for . The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. The armor is now removed from the model. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. In Fig. 4. as the surface will hold the clay. and therefore it is not described. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. All being ready. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. and the clay model oiled. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. with the exception of the thumb shield. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the.

are glued to it. La Rue. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. N. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. in depth. Calif. will be about right. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. 1/2 in. Buxton. two for the jaws and one a wedge. two in each jaw. If it does not hold a charge. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. 9. When locating the place for the screw eyes. each about 1/4 in. 2. The two pieces of foil. A piece of board. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. long. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. running down the plate. but 3-1/2 in.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. Redondo Beach. Y. --Contributed by Ralph L. Fasten a polished brass ball to. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. . fastened to the rod. wide and 1/2 in. the two pieces of foil will draw together. and the instrument is ready for use. Goshen. the top of the rod. --Contributed by John G. are better shown in Fig. cut into the shape shown in Fig. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. the foils will not move.

the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. --Contributed by Mrs. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. A. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. M. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. as shown in the illustration. When a fish is hooked. pine board. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. long. Texas. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. enameled or otherwise decorated. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. At a point 6 in. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. is made of a 1/4-in. from the smaller end. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. The can may be bronzed. silvered. Corsicana. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. 2-1/2 in. Bryan. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. as indicated in the . hole bored through it. as this will cut under the water without splashing. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. about 15 in. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can.

This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. long over all. A good size is 5 in. Basswood or butternut. take a piece of thin wood. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. Next prepare the metal holder. put a coat or two of wax and polish . or even pine." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. Having completed the drawing. using powdered pumice and lye. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. as shown. wide by 6 in. If soft wood. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. then with a nail. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. will do as well as the more expensive woods. 3/8 or 1/4 in. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. Any kind of wood will do. using a piece of carbon paper. Polish the metal. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. punch the holes. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. thick. such as basswood or pine was used. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. When it has dried over night. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. and trace upon it the design and outline.Match Holder accompanying sketch. 22 is plenty heavy enough.

thick. --Contributed by W. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. Richmond. 2 in. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. Cal. wide and 5 in. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. Jaquythe. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. each 1 in. Instead of the usual two short ropes. If carving is contemplated. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. Two wire nails.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. can be made on the same standards. is used for the base of this instrument. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. long. . 1/2 in. are used for the cores of the magnets. the whole being finished in linseed oil. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. A. It is useful for photographers. of pure olive oil. long. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. If one has some insight in carving.

H. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. --Contributed by W. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. at A. leaving about 1/4 in. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. says the English Mechanic. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. About 1 in. as shown in Fig. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. All of the parts for the armor have been described. acts as a spring to keep the key open. 25 gauge. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. the paper covering put on. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. . except that for the legs. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. 1. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. in the shape shown in the sketch. as shown by the dotted lines. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. London. cloth or baize to represent the legs. cut in the shape of the letter T. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. about No. when the key is pushed down. similar to that used in electric bells. 3. then covered with red. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. Lynas. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. A rubber band. A piece of tin. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size.

says Camera Craft. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. holes. Take the piece shown in Fig. By moving the position of the bolt from. flat headed carriage bolt. Cut them to a length or 40 in. apart. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. These can be purchased at a stationery store. at each end. Instead of using brass headed nails. 1 in. can be made in a few minutes' time. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. So set up. one to another . apart. Silver paper will do very well.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. long. In one end of the piece. 2. A 1/4-in. drill six 1/4-in. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. not too tight. Secure two strips of wood. completes the equipment. for the sake of lightness. The two pieces are bolted together. 1 and drill a 1/4in. 3 in. Fig. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. make the same series of eight small holes and. in the other end.. about 1 in. hole in the center. or ordinary plaster laths will do. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. and eight small holes.

and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. 2. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. D over A and C. Then draw all four ends up snugly. but instead of reversing .of the larger holes in the strip. for instance. C over D and B. 2. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. In this sketch. Then take B and lay it over A. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. then B over C and the end stuck under A. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. Fig. taking the same start as for the square fob. of the ends remain unwoven. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. 4. in Fig. doubled and run through the web of A. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. and the one beneath C. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. and lay it over the one to the right. lay Cover B and the one under D. as in portraiture and the like. A round fob is made in a similar way. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. as shown in Fig. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. long. the one marked A. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. Start with one end. A is the first string and B is the second. 2. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. 1. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in.

A loop. Other designs can be made in the same manner. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. Ohio. Monroeville. is left out at the center before starting on one side. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. is to be made of leather. over the one to its right. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. always lap one string. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. 5. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. 1-1/2 in. especially if silk strings are used. Rupp. long. The round fob is shown in Fig. the design of which is shown herewith. --Contributed by John P. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. as in making the square fob. as B. as at A in Fig. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. 3.

beeswax or paraffin. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. using the reverse side. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. filling them with wax. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. Houghton. it can be easily renewed. -Contributed by A. pressing it against the wood. When the supply of wax is exhausted. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. . such as a nut pick. door facing or door panel. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. A. Northville. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. Mich. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. Any smooth piece of steel. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose.

This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. if blueprints are used. and after wetting. Thompson. and about 12 in. place it face down in the dish. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. leaving about 1/4 in. N. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. E and F. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. remaining above the surface of the board. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. says Photographic Times. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. thick. although tin ones can be used with good success. apart and driven in only part way. . Enough plaster should. J. New York. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. long. Petersburg. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. Ill. --Contributed by O. D. Y. Fold together on lines C. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. but any kind that will not stick may be used. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. Select the print you wish to mount. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. those on matte paper will work best. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. it is best to leave a plain white margin. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. The tacks should be about 1 in.

Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. One of the . etc. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. bell flowers. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. roses. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water.. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. as shown at the left in the sketch. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. Lower into the test tube a wire. filling the same about onehalf full. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. violets. as shown in the right of the sketch. without mixing the solutions. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. will be rendered perfectly white. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire.

The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking.. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. as shown. 1. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. 1-7/8 in. The tin horn can be easily made. The sound box. should be soldered to the box. L. When soldering these parts together. long. not too tightly. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. thick. and at the larger end. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. long and made of wood. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. --Contributed by L. A rod that will fit the brass tube. made of heavy tin. turned a little tapering. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. to keep the core from coming off in turning. shading. in diameter and 1 in. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. 2.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. Fig. Millstown. as shown in the sketch. The diaphragm. 3. about 1/8s in. or delicate tints of the egg. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. is about 2-1/2 in. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. Shabino. South Dakota. The first point should be ground blunt. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. but which will not wobble loose. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support.

Contributed by E. E. Chicago. Ill. Jr. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. says the Iowa Homestead. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. mice in the bottom. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. Gold. Victor. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . while playing in the yard close to a grain house. and. and weighted it with a heavy stone. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. wondering what it was.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. Colo. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. put a board on top. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch.

Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. Pereira. Y. Buffalo. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. N. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. . with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. Can. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. Ottawa. --Contributed by Lyndwode. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation.

All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. as shown. longer than the length of the can. This cart has no axle. Put a small nail 2 in. by means of a flatheaded tack. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. above the end of the dasher. Mich. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. Grand Rapids. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. --Contributed by Thos. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. and at one end of the stick fasten. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so .How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. as it can be made quickly in any size. Cal. through which several holes have been punched. Richmond. a piece of tin. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. Jaquythe. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. cut round. De Loof. --Contributed by W. A.

The base may be made of a 1/2-in. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. screwed it on the inside of a store box.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. wide and as long as the box. Pa. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. of course. Notches 1/8 in. Fig. 2. 2. 1/4 in. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. La. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. A wedge-shaped piece of . Doylestown. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. were below the level of the bullseye. wide and 3 ft. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. long. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. board. deep and 3 in. 1. New Orleans. --Contributed by James M. Kane. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. 1-1/2 in. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. wide. apart. wide and 1/8 in.1. cut in the center of the rounding edge. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. 2. as shown. 1 ft. thick. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. 2 in. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. The baseboard and top are separable. The candles. I reversed a door gong.

will. it can be removed without marring the casing. After completing the handle. Mass. Ia. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. can be picked up without any trouble. the reason being that if both were solid. scissors. Worcester. After the glue has dried. Wood. the blade is put back into the groove . the shelf could not be put on the window. dressing one surface of each piece. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. 3. wide rubber bands or felt. to prevent its scratching the desk top. when placed as in Fig. by cutting away the ends. take two pieces of hard wood. The block can also be used as a paperweight. West Union. For the handle. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. etc. as shown in Fig.. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade.Book Back Holders metal. Needles. When not in use. This device is very convenient for invalids. 1. stone or wood. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. Cover the block with rubber. A. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. --Contributed by G. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. wide into each side of the casing. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf.

to fit a mortise cut in the bench. --Contributed by Maud McKee. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. A. Each one is made of a hardwood block. square and 4 in. Erie. as shown in Fig. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. 1 in. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. 1. Ohio. Hutchins. -Contributed by W. --Contributed by H. Pa. Malden. Mass. S. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. . is shown in the accompanying sketch. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. If desired. A notch is cut in one side. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. as shown in Fig.and sharpened to a cutting edge. long. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. 2. Cleveland. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. Jacobs. thus carrying the car up the incline. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it.

. N. and an awl and hammer. This will insure having all parts alike. . and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. a board on which to work it. Prepare a design for the front. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. 6 by 9-1/2 in. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. The letters can be put on afterward. will be needed. If one such as is shown is to be used. Cape May Point. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming.J. One sheet of metal.

which is desirable. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. If any polishing is required. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. to right angles. or. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. 2 parts white vitriol. only the marginal line is to be pierced. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. One coat will do. The music will not sound natural. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. flat brush. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. if desired. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. as shown. Remove the metal. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. applied by means of a brush. 1 part. The stick may be placed by the side of. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. On the back. turpentine. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. placed on a table. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. in the waste metal. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. So impressive are the results. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise.Fasten the metal to the board. 3/4 part. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. 1/4 part. a violin. but weird and distant. varnish." In all appearance. . says Master Painter. behind or through the center of a table leg. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. that can be worked in your own parlor. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. mandolin or guitar. paste the paper design right on the metal.

Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. London. apart. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. 3.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. 2. With proper tools this is easy. and is easy to construct. long and spread about 8 in. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. is bent square so as to form two uprights. across the top. . The longest piece. each 28 in. it might be difficult. long. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. without them. are shaped as shown in Fig. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. Two pairs of feet. says Work. thick by 1/2 in. square bar iron. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. long and measuring 26 in. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. round-head machine screws. each 6 in. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. wide. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood.

The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. or. Fig. on it as shown. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. better still. D. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. as shown in Fig. After the joints are soldered. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. B. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. Fig. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. 4. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. C.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. While the piece of lead D. special flux purchased for this purpose. and the base border. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. After the glass is cut. A. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. 5. 7. in the grooves of the borders. is held by the brads. the latter being tapped to . using rosin as a flux. Place the corner piece of glass. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. lead. The glass. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. The brads are then removed. 5. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. cut a long piece of lead. The design is formed in the lead. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. 6. This method is pursued until the glass is complete.

then flatten its end on the under side. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. long. J. plank about 12 ft. H. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. wood screws in each washer. rocker bolt. and round the corners of one end for a ring. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. N. and two wood blocks. as shown in Fig. Two styles of hand holds are shown. Dreier. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. --Contributed by W. Make three washers 3-in. rounded at the top as shown. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. plates. in diameter and about 9 in. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. Fasten the plates to the block B. A and B. one on each side and central with the hole. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. thick and drill 3/4-in. Jr. Secure a post. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post.. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. holes through their centers. bolt. This ring can be made of 1-in. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. then drill a 3/4-in. This . in diameter and 1/4 in. bolt. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. not less than 4 in. square and of the length given in the drawing. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. 8. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. Bore a 5/8-in.the base of the clip. Bore a 3/4-in. The center pin is 3/4-in. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. long. long. Camden. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in.

and some one can swing an axe. 1-1/4in. square by 5 ft. long. long. square by 9-1/2 ft. boards along the side of each from end to end. long. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. 2 by 4 in. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools.will make an excellent cover for a pot. 1. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. chestnut or ash. long. To substitute small. bolts and rope. long. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. 7 in. of 1/4-in. horse and rings. 1 by 7 in. can make a first class gymnasium. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. Draw a line on the four 7-in. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. If trees are convenient. 2-1/2 in. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. hickory. 3 in. The four 7-in. 4 pieces. 16 screws. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. bit. straight-grained hickory. La. 4 filler pieces. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. because it will not stand the weather. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. maple. shanks. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. 9 in. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. 3/4 by 3 in. New Orleans. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. 4 in. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. long. the money outlay will be almost nothing. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. apart for a distance of 3 ft. 4 in. 50 ft. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. by 2 ft. in diameter and 7 in. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. 1/2 in. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. from one edge. by 3 ft. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. long and 1 piece. 4 pieces. screws. by 6-1/2 ft.

in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. apart. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. 8 in. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones.bored. so the 1/2-in. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving .. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in.. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. each 3 ft. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. Bore a 9/16-in. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. from the end. at each end. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. boards coincide. 2. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. piece of wood. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. deep and remove all loose dirt. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. apart. and once tightened the bar will be rigid.

W. which at once gathered. it follows the edge for about 1 in. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus." which skimmed along the distant horizon. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. When the interest of the crowd. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. about 100 ft. and materially heightened the illusion. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. passing through a screweye at either end. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. was at its height. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. in an endless belt. the effect is very striking. not much to look at in daytime. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. He stretched the thread between two buildings. If the tumbler is rotated. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. just visible against the dark evening sky..platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. . and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. disappearing only to reappear again. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. it is taken to the edge of the foot. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. and ascends the stem. and then passes in a curve across the base. but most deceptive at dusk. apart. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. not even the tumbler. And all he used was a black thread. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided.

8 in. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. To make the apparatus. 2 by 4 in. A wire about No. preferably cedar. by 7 ft. beginning at a point 9 in. deep. by 2 ft. 2 by 3 in. 2 by 4 in. 2 cross braces.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. 8 bolts. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. long. 7 in. long. by 10 ft. 4 in. long. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. New Orleans. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. large spikes. long. long. long and 1 doz. 8 in. 4 bolts. square and 6 ft. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. long. 8 in. square and 51/2 ft. Fig. The cork will come out easily. 4 knee braces. Chisel out two notches 4 in. 4 in. by 3 ft. 6 in. 2 by 4 in. from either side of the center. 2 in. long. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. 1. and turned in a spiral D. Bevel the ends of . 4 wood screws. 2 side braces. so the point will be on top. 2 base pieces. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. wide and 1 in. long. La.

additional long. Jaquythe. leaving the strainer always in position. from the bottom of the base up along the posts.the knee braces. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. which face each other. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. save the bars. so the bolts in both will not meet. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. etc. except the bars. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. as shown in the diagram. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. jellies. Cal. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. but even unpainted they are very durable. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. equipped with a strainer. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. . screws. The wood so treated will last for years. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. and countersinking the heads. A large sized ladle. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. ( To be Continued. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. These will allow the ladle to be turned. using four of the 7-in bolts. Two endpieces must be made.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. A. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. --Contributed by W. Richmond. If using mill-cut lumber. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. After the trenches are dug. of 7 ft.. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. leave it undressed. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint.

it is necessary to place a stick. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. drill press or planer. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. of sufficient 1ength. thus holding the pail as shown. partly a barrier for jumps. In order to accomplish this experiment. or various cutting compounds of oil. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. which seems impossible. A. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. . Oil. milling machine.

square by 5 ft. long. long. 2 by 4 in. by 3 ft. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. 2 adjusting pieces. These are well nailed in place. long. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. bolt. and free from knots. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. from each end. 4 in. Procure from a saw mill. in the ground. 2 by 4 in. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. 2 bases. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. but 5 ft. long. in diameter--the larger the better. to fasten the knee braces at the top. 4 knee braces. apart in a central position on the horse. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. To construct. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . 3 in. long. bolts. square by 5-1/2 ft. stud cut rounding on one edge. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. ten 1/2-in. These are placed 18 in.. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. 7 in. The round part of this log must be planed. by 3 ft. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. long. Hand holds must be provided next. 1 in. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. 1 cross brace. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. long. beginning 1-1/2 in. bolts. by 3 ft. The material required is as follows: Two posts. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. piece of 2 by 4-in. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. 4 in. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. apart. bolts. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. 4-1/2 in. is a good length. wood yard or from the woods. projections and splinters. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. two 1/2-in. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. 2 by 4 in. 4 in. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft.. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. long.

Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. no one is responsible but himself. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. Also. but nevertheless. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. such as a dent. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead.horse top. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. it is caused by some obstruction. Cal.--Contributed by W. etc. A. over and around. water. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. Such a hand sled can be made in a . then bending to the shape desired. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. pipe and fittings. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. Jaquythe. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. snow. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. it is caused by an overloaded shell. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. Richmond. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating.

when straightened out. The end elevation. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. when complete. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. is much better than a wood sled. Noble. Boston. France. 2. Mass. Joerin.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. are all the tools necessary. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. --Contributed by Arthur E. Vener. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. Toronto. --Contributed by James E. These. which. will give the length. at E and F. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. Ontario. --Contributed by J. in width and 1/32 in. 1. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. . shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. thick. Paris. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. then run a string over each part. W. 1/4 or 3/16 in.

A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. AA and BB. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. 3. are nailed. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. 4. and the latter will take on a bright luster. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. The method shown in Figs. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. . 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. It is best to use soft water. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. nor that which is partly oxidized. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs.

Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. 2. Broad lines can be made. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. 4. Percy Ashley in Rudder. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. The materials used are: backbone. as shown in Fig. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. 8 and 9. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. . 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. class ice-yacht. 3. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. or various rulings may be made. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. or unequal widths as in Fig. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. 2. as shown in Fig. 1).

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. pipe. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. a larger size of pipe should be used. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. out from the collar. A good and substantial homemade lathe. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. The headstock is made of two tees. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron.Fig. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. about 30 in. bent and drilled as shown. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. pins to keep them from turning. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. but if it is made much longer. long. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. The point should extend about 11/2 in. Both the lower . The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. a tee and a forging. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. It can be made longer or shorter. 1. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. 1-Details of Lathe sort.

These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. UpDeGraff. . Held. Cal. a corresponding line made on this. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. --Contributed by W. or a key can be used as well. --Contributed by W. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. Indiana. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. Boissevain. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. but also their insulating properties. a straight line should be scratched Fig. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. To do this. Fruitvale. 2. as shown in Fig. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. as shown in Fig. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. else taper turning will result. Musgrove. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. Man. 1. 3/4 or 1 in. thick as desired. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. 2. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. and will answer for a great variety of work. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. M. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. W. It is about 1 in. 2. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. Laporte. --Contributed by M.

Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. long. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. Cline. J. Ark. --Contributed by E. Smith. Ft. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. In use. The handle is of pine about 18 in. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. as shown. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. To obviate this.

centering is just one operation too many. on starting the lathe. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. and when once in true up to its size. face off the end of the piece. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. the drill does not need the tool. Colo. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. which should be backed out of contact. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. take . New Orleans. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. --Contributed by Walter W. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. This prevents the drill from wobbling. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. Denver. La. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. After being entered. if this method is followed: First. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. White. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual.

so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. It can be used in a great number of tricks. The handkerchief rod. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. says the Sphinx. the cap is placed over the paper tube. is put into the paper tube A. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. The glass tube B. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. a long piece of glass tubing. all the better. In doing this. a bout 1/2 in. unknown to the spectators. vanishing wand. after being shown empty. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. and this given to someone to hold. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. shorter t h a n the wand. by applying caustic soda or . shown at C. and can be varied to suit the performer. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. as shown in D. After the wand is removed.

3/16. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. preferably hard maple. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. Glue strips of soft wood. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. by 14 by 17 in. and if care is taken in selecting the material. 1 Neck. This dimension and those for the frets . 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. The brace at D is 1 in. 1/4 in. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. Cut a piece of hard wood. long. square and 1-7/8 in. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. as shown by K. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. 2 Sides. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. cut to any shape desired. 1 End. End. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. 1. across the front and back to strengthen them. with the back side rounding. Glue the neck to the box. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. The sides. and glue it to the neck at F. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. With care and patience. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. thick. 1 Bottom. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry.potash around the edges of the letters. As the cement softens. can be made by the home mechanic. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top.

and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. 1) on which to stretch the paper. E. but it is not. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. -Contributed by J. and beveled . thick and about 1 ft. Norwalk.should be made accurately. toward each end. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. H. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. wide and 11-1/2 ft. Six holes. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat.Pa. long is used for a keel. Stoddard. in diameter. When it is completed you will have a canoe. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. or backbone. --Contributed by Chas. Carbondale. O. 3/16 in. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. A board 1 in. Frary.

It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. b. 4. 3. 3/8 in. as before described. Green wood is preferable. Fig. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. with long stout screws. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. Osiers probably make the best ribs. which are easily made of long. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. For the gunwales (a. as shown in Fig. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. Fig. long. B. buy some split cane or rattan. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. 2). some tight strips of ash. Any tough. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. and so. are next put in. will answer nearly as well. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. such as hazel or birch. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. and are not fastened. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. or other place. These are better. 1. thick. in such cases. slender switches of osier willow. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. Fig. Fig. 3. 3). In drying. b. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. the loose strips of ash (b.. two strips of wood (b. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. when made of green elm. 13 in. twigs 5 or 6 ft. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire.) in notches. . Fig. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. in thickness and should be cut. and notched at the end to receive them (B. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. The cross-boards (B. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. a. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. or similar material. as they are apt to do. Fig. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. as shown in Fig. apart. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. Fig. 1 and 2. b. Fig. C. Fig. 2). wide by 26 in. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. and. two twigs may be used to make one rib. 3). but before doing this. long are required. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. 2. Shape these as shown by A. thick. but twigs of some other trees. C. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. 4). such as is used for making chairbottoms. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. probably. procure at a carriage factory. The ribs. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. by means of a string or wire.

Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. wide. however. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. Being made in long rolls. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. of very strong wrapping-paper. if it has been properly constructed of good material. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. 5). in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. but with less turpentine. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. tacking it to the bottom-board. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. It should be drawn tight along the edges. It should be smooth on the surface. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. after wetting it. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. Then take some of the split rattan and. and light oars. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. When thoroughly dry. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. and very tough. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. and steady in the water. but neither stiff nor very thick. preferably iron. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. and held in place by means of small clamps. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. and as soon as that has soaked in. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. The paper is then trimmed. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. Fig. When the paper is dry.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. You may put in . apply a second coat of the same varnish. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. B. If the paper be 1 yd. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. If not.

) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. 1. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. and if driven as shown in the cut.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. Fig. 5). For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. they will support very heavy weights. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. 2. 1 and the end in . We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. fore and aft. to fit it easily. Drive the lower nail first. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. Fig. Fig. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. 5. We procured a box and made a frame. and make a movable seat (A. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry.

A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. 3. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. 5. A good way to handle this work. this makes the tube airtight. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig.Fig. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. Pa. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. This way has its drawbacks. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. Close the other end with the same operation. This is an easy . and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. being softer where the flame has been applied. and the result is. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. and the glass. 4. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. Pittsburg.

Work from the center along concentric rings outward. second. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. third. Oswald. Give the metal a circular motion. very rapid progress can be made. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. 23 gauge. rivet punch. with a piece of carbon paper. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. file. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. three. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. flat and round-nosed pliers. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. then reverse. After the bulb is formed. Sixth. thin screw. above the metal. fifth. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . also trace the decorative design. four.way to make a thermometer tube. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. Seventh. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. -Contributed by A. The candle holders may have two. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. extra metal all around. or six arms. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. metal shears. fourth. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. above the work and striking it with the hammer.

Having pierced the bracket. drip cup. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. and holder. Small copper rivets are used. Metal polish of any kind will do.

Twenty cents was all I spent. hammer. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. N. The gaff. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. except they had wheels instead of runners. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. smooth it down and then remove as before. on a water bath. Fifty. sugar 1 part. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. using a steel pen. glycerine 4 parts. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. and add the gelatine. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. Mother let me have a sheet. I steer with the front wheel. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. thus it was utilized. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. they were like an ice boat with a sail. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. A saw. deep. F. and other things as they were needed. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. Soak 1 oz. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. and it will be ready for future use. Heat 6-1/2 oz. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. when it will be ready for use. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. and brace and bit were the tools used. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. all the rest I found. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. J. The boom. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. of glycerine to about 200 deg. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. winding the ends where they came together with wire. is a broomstick. the stick at the bottom of the sail. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. Shiloh. if it has not absorbed too much ink. alcohol 2 parts. and water 24 parts. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. and in a week .Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original.

Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. a projecting lens . Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up. A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly.

The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. A table. or glue. The slide support. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. slide to about 6 ft. well seasoned pine. 8 in. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. wide and 15 in. wire brads. This ring is made up from two rings.. 1. above the center. H. at a point 1 in. and the work carefully done. 1/2 to 3/4 in. at a distance of 24 ft. or a lens of 12-in. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. focus enlarging a 3-in. and. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. describe a 9-in. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. 3. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. about 2 ft. If a small saw is used. long. G. and the lens slide. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. and 14 in. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. and a projecting lens 2 in.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. E. The board is centered both ways. wide. A and B. DD. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. provided the material is of metal. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. Fig. are . long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. as desired. but if such a box is not found. thick. high. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in.

Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. the strips II serving as guides. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. B. Small strips of tin. The arrangement is quite safe as. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. light burning oil. and when the right position is found for each. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. St. apply two coats of shellac varnish.constructed to slip easily on the table. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in.-Contributed by G. E. Paul. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. but not long enough. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. P. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. A sheet . placed on the water. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. the water at once extinguishes the flame. Minn. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. should the glass happen to upset. of safe. JJ. To reach the water.

keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer.H. 2. Fig. by 12 ft. to cover the mattresses.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. 3. If one of these clips is not at hand. --Contributed by J. from a tent company. Crawford. form a piece of wire in the same shape. 9 in. 3 in. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. Fig. then the corners on one end are doubled over. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. N. I ordered a canvas bag. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along .. Schenectady. 4. Y. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. 12 ft. 3. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. 1.

The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. 1. --Contributed by Edward M. thick. open on the edges. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. drill two 3/16 in. to the coil of small wire for volts. 3 to swing freely on the tack. Colo. long and 3/16 in. apart. insulating them from the case with cardboard. D. long. White. Pa. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. Fig. V. first mark the binding-post A. in the center coil. 1/2 in. wide. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. C. for amperes and the other post. 3/4 in. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. Denver. 3/4 in. 2. 1. and insert two binding-posts. A Film Washing Trough [331] . 1/2 in. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. Warren. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. Attach a piece of steel rod. Do not use too strong a rubber. holes in the edge. A rubber band. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. as shown in Fig. 2. Fasten the wire with gummed label. --Contributed by Walter W. Fig. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. Fold two strips of light cardboard. to keep it from unwinding. so as to form two oblong boxes.each edge. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. 2. To calibrate the instrument. An arc is cut in the paper. through which the indicator works. Teasdale.

Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. Hunting. --Contributed by M. as shown. with the large hole up. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. Dayton. Wood Burning [331] . The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. O. M. Place this can on one end of the trough. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. Cut a 1/4-in. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet.

draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. mouth downward.Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. then into this bottle place.

Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system .Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. provided the bottle is wide. but not very thick. 3/4 in. --Contributed by John Shahan. Auburn. 2. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. long. 1. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. as shown in the sketch. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. Ala. This will make a very pretty ornament. --Contributed by Fred W.Y. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. Upper Troy. wide and 4 in. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. If the small bottle used is opaque. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. If the cork is adjusted properly. thick. many puzzling effects may be obtained. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. N. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. Whitehouse. Place the small bottle in as before. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig.

high without the upper half. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. or ordinary telephone transmitters. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. I. B. Fig. W. even in a light breeze. sugar pine on account of its softness. to the shaft. Fig. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. were constructed of 1-in. line. 1. The bearing blocks were 3 in. 4. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. pulley. wide. 1. Fig. such as blades and pulleys. If a transmitter is used. Fig. was keyed to shaft C. 2. The shaft C. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. long. iron rod. On a 1000-ft. was 1/4in. A staple. 2 ft. by the method shown in Fig. The 21/2-in. Milter. which extended to the ground. Its smaller parts. thick. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. --Contributed by D. 1 in. G. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. in diameter and 1 in. 1.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. Fig. The wire L was put . 3. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. Both bearings were made in this manner. pulley F. which gave considerable power for its size. K. 1. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. which was 6 in. 1. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. as shown in Fig. thick and 3 in. which was nailed to the face plate. thick.

2. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. apart in the tower. square to the board P at the top of the tower. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. long and bend it as . after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. wide and 1 in. There a 1/4-in. Fig. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. through the latter. providing one has a few old materials on hand. 1) 4 in. long and 1/2 in. with brass headed furniture tacks. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. top down also. 5. long and 3 in. hole for the shaft G was in the center. 1. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. long. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. in the center of the board P. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. and was cut the shape shown. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. was tacked. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. To lessen the friction here. Fig. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. pine 18 by 12 in. The other lid.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. long. washers were placed under pulley F. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. for instance. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. across the thin edge of a board. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. a 1/2-in. Fig. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. 1. strips. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. Fig. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. 3 in. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. This fan was made of 1/4-in. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. long and bend it as shown at A. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. To make the key. The bed plate D. The power was put to various uses. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. 6. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. 25 ft. R. The smaller one. 1. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. Two washers were placed on shaft C. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. This completes the receiver or sounder. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. H. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. cut out another piece of tin (X. 0. If you have no bell. This board was 12 in. was 2 ft. G. Fig. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. as. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. 6. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. so that the 1/4-in. Fig. in diameter. with all parts in place. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. when the windmill needed oiling. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. Fig. 1. hole was bored for it.

Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. causing a buzzing sound.shown. as shown at Water. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. By adjusting the coils. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. Going back to Fig. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. When tired of this instrument. Now. McConnell. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. leaving the other wire as it is. at the front. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. using cleats to hold the board frame. -Contributed by John R. The rear barrels are. although it can be made with but two. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. as indicated. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. Thus a center drive is made. after the manner of bicycle wheels. 1. like many another device boys make. 2. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. fitted with paddles as at M. Before tacking it to the board. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . and. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough.

If the journals thus made are well oiled. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. as shown in Fig. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . or even a little houseboat. To propel it. copper piping and brass tubing for base. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. There is no danger. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. which will give any amount of pleasure. there will not be much friction. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. can be built. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. feet on the pedals.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. The speed is slow at first. 1. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. 3.

1. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. Fig. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. Fig. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. 1. If it is desired to make the light very complete.of pleasure for a little work. 2. Place one brass ring in cylinder. Shape small blocks of boxwood. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. Fig. A. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. Fig. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. Turn a small circle of wood. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. or it may be put to other uses if desired. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. C. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. and so creating a false circuit. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. Then melt out the rosin or lead. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . 2. 1. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. D. then the glass disc and then the other ring. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. If magnifying glass cannot be had. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. B. 2. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions.

When alarm goes off. Throw lever off from the right to center. while lying in bed. 4-1/2 in. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. D. bell. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. S. bracket. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. shelf. and pulled tight. T. wide and 1/16 in. F. wire from light to switch. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. The parts indicated are as follows: A. key of alarm clock. To operate this. thick. set alarm key as shown in diagram. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. --Contributed by C. wire from bell to switch. Chatland. J. dry batteries. E. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. I. --Contributed by Geo. Utah. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. near the bed. Swissvale. switch. C. 3/8 in. or 1/4in. 5-1/4 by 10 in. X. Pa. some glue will secure them. brass rod. after setting alarm. Brinkerhoff. long.. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. long. such as is used for cycle valves. Ogden. C. after two turns have been made on the key. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. 4 in. which stops bell ringing. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. contact post. G. by having the switch on the baseboard. In placing clock on shelf. B. H. brass strip. To get the cylinder into its carriage. wire from batteries to switch. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . To throw on light throw levers to the left. if too small.india rubber tubing. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. copper tubing.

Make the spindle as in Fig. --Contributed by Chas. 2. Minn. 1/4 in. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. will do the heating. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. gives the heater a more finished appearance. wide. about 6 in. beyond the end of the spindle. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. Having finished this. This is to form the fuse hole. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. a bed warmer. Pull out the nail and stick. A flannel bag. in diameter. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. as at B. about 3-1/2 in. Fig. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. as in Fig. 2. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. in diameter. from one end. letting it extend 3/4 in. as . Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. long. S.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. A small lamp of about 5 cp. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. 1. 3. making it as true and smooth as possible. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. Make a shoulder. 1. 4 in. which can be made of an old can. All that is required is a tin covering. place stick and all in a pail of sand. as at A. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. Lanesboro. Fig. as at A. Chapman. for instance. Fig. being careful not to get the sand in it. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth.

long. 1. A piece of oak. will be sufficient to make the trigger. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. or hickory. long. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. this is to keep the edges from splitting. wide and 6 ft. wide and 3/8 in. 3/8 in. The material must be 1-1/2 in. Joerin. thick. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . wide and 3 ft. thick. 1 in. 6 in. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. long. thick. spring and arrows. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. good straight-grained pine will do. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. A piece of tin. ash. The illustration shows how this is done. but if this wood cannot be procured. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. 5/8 in. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. deep. 11/2 in. --Contributed by Arthur E.

Fig. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. Fig. 7. as shown in Fig. 3. The bow is not fastened in the stock. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. E. 6. Wilmette. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. 9. wide at each end. from the opposite end. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. To shoot the crossbow. or through the necessity of. thick. from the end of the stock. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. it lifts the spring up. Trownes. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. which is 1/4 in. The trigger. in diameter. --Contributed by O. place the arrow in the groove. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. Ill. The stick for the bow. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. 2. 4. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. having the latter swing quite freely. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. A spring. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. When the trigger is pulled. Fig. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. as shown in Fig. 8. To throw the arrow. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. Such a temporary safe light may be . The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. and one for the trigger 12 in. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. better still.

By chopping the trunk almost through. says Photo Era. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. C. The hinged cover E. since the flame of the candle is above A. it is the easiest camp to make. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. is used as a door. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. or only as a camp on a short excursion. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. from the ground. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. Remove one end. from the ground. and replace as shown at B. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. make the frame of the wigwam. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. and nail it in position as shown at A. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. The cut should be about 5 ft. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. Moreover. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. respectively. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. making lighting and trimming convenient. the bark lean-to is a . Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. Remove the bottom of the box. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. apart. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. This lamp is safe. Branches and brush can easily be piled up.

A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. . piled 2 or 3 ft. long and 1-1/2 in. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. spruce. long and 2 or 3 ft. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. A piece of elm or hickory. For a permanent camp. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. Tongs are very useful in camp. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. make the best kind of a camp bed. 6 ft. and split the tops with an ax. makes a good pair of tongs. In the early summer. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. and cedar. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. 3 ft. selecting a site for a camp. deep and covered with blankets. a 2-in. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. and when the camp is pitched. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. long. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. For a foot in the middle of the stick. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. wide and 6 ft. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. will dry flat. wide. thick. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. nails are necessary to hold it in place. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. are a convenient size for camp construction. Sheets of bark. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. Where bark is used. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock.

or even a rough lock for the camp larder. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. hinges. and affording accommodation for several persons. . Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried.

Doylestown. the interior can. Kane. changing the water both morning and night.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. to another .. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. wide. deep and 4 in. about 4 in. Pa. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. 1. B. B. and provide a cover or door. I drove a small cork. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. Fig. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. A. --Contributed by James M. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within.

3. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. for instance. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. fused into one side. such as ether. E. which project inside and outside of the tube. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. This makes . 4 and 5). With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. C. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. 2. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum.glass tube. The current is thus compelled. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. 2. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. The diagram. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. if necessary. a liquid. Fig. for instance. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. until. to pass through an increasing resistance. limit. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises.

The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. mark off a space. drill the four rivet holes. After the template is marked out. screws. they will make a frame 3/4 in. as shown in the left-hand sketch.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. brass or iron. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. in diameter. between centers. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. thicker. set at 1/8 in. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. A 5/8in. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. but merely discolored. or even 1/16 in. as shown in Fig. thick. which will make it uniform in size. and for the outside of the frame. when several pieces are placed together. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. Alpena. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. or pattern. Before removing the field from the lathe. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. Fig. larger than the dimensions given. Michigan. Fig. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. making it 1/16 in. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. 3-3/8 in. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. thick. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. bent at right angles as shown. 3. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. 4-1/2 in. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. The bearing studs are now made. hole is . by turning the lathe with the hand. cannot be used so often. clamp the template. brass. in diameter. These holes are for the bearing studs. to allow for finishing. 3-3/8 in. is composed of wrought sheet iron. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. tap. which may be of any thickness so that. 2. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. A. When the frame is finished so far. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. therefore. assemble and rivet them solidly. After cleaning them with the solution. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. If the thickness is sufficient. 1. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. Then the field can be finished to these marks. two holes. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. on a lathe. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth.

leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. soldered into place. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. Fig. and drilled to receive the armature shaft.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. file them out to make the proper adjustment. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. is turned up from machine steel. The shaft of the armature. into which a piece of 5/8-in. and build up the solder well. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. brass rod is inserted. 4. or otherwise finished. When the bearings are located. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. solder them to the supports.

as shown in Fig. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. Armature-Ring Core. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. The pins are made of brass. When this is accomplished. wide. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. When annealed. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. as shown in Fig. 3. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. thick. 6. then drill a 1/8-in. brass rod. 3/4 in. sheet fiber. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. washers.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. thick. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. holes through them for rivets. Make the core 3/4 in. as shown m Fig. as shown in Fig. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. 1-1/8 in.. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. to allow for finishing to size. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. thick. After they . thick are cut like the pattern. inside diameter. as shown in Fig. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. by 1-1/2 in. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. deep and 7/16 in. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. Rivet them together. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. 3. 1/8 in. hole and tap it for a pin. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. 9. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. 6. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. 5. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. thick and 1/4 in. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. The sides are also faced off and finished. and then they are soaked in warm water. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. and held with a setscrew. threaded. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. or segments. being formed for the ends. Find the centers of each segment at one end. 7. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. After the pieces are cut out. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. Procure 12 strips of mica. 8. wide.

sheet fiber. 6 in. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. 5. or side. Fig. which will take 50 ft. shown at A. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. The winding is started at A.have dried. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. by bending the end around one of the projections. sheet fiber. All connections should be securely soldered. Run one end of the field wire. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. the two ends of the wire. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. The field is wound with No. they are glued to the core insulation. 1. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. and bring the end of the wire out at B. After one coil. 1. shown at B. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. about 100 ft. 8 in. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. of No. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. wide and 1 in. To connect the wires. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. The two ends are joined at B. of the wire. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. The source of current is connected to the terminals. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. In starting to wind. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. are soldered together. until the 12 slots are filled. When the glue is set. of the end to protrude. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. This winding is for a series motor. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. yet it shows a series of . long. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. Fig. and wind on four layers. after the motor is on the stand. being required. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. thick.

The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. which serves as the ground wire. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. still more simply. A 1/2-in. as in the case of a spiral. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. is fastened to the metallic body. and one. one from each of the eight contacts. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. Nine wires run from the timer. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. or. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves.

The pointer end of the needle is painted black. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. It should be . wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial.The Wind Vane. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. circle. Without this attachment. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. 45 deg. Covering these is a thin. board. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. of the dial. 6 in. long. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. thus giving 16 different directions. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it.

The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. . A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. Fill the box with any handy ballast. if not too high. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. also a piece of new carpet. making it heavy or light. will be sufficient. -Contributed by James L. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. N. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. To work these outlines. will be enough for the two sides. will answer the purpose just as well. or. Cut 3-in. Place the leather on some level. though a special knife. and about 6 in. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. Blackmer. high. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. according to who is going to use it. 14 by 18 in. To make it.about 6 ft. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. and securely nail on the top of the box. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. is most satisfactory. thus making a universal joint. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. called a chip carving knife. Y. Buffalo. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. Before tacking the fourth side. long to give the best results. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. however.

An ordinary sewing-machine . Paste the silk plush to the inner side. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing. A good leather paste will be required. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown.

If a fire breaks out. Syracuse. rather than the smooth side. can be thrown away when no longer needed. of water. and tie them together securely at the bottom. a needle and some feathers. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. or a hip that has been wrenched. B. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. N. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. Morse. and fasten the feathers inside of it. temporary lameness. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. --Contributed by Katharine D. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. of common salt and 10 lb. as in cases of a sprained ankle. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. square and tying a piece of . Y. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. away from it.will do if a good stout needle is used. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. and put the solution in thin glass bottles.

The end is filed to an edge. board all around the bottom on the inside. but not sharp. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. Albany. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. --Contributed by John A. 1/8 in. This not only keeps the rats out. N. G. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. One end is removed entirely. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. and tacked it to the boards. is cut on the wood. A small wooden or fiber end. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. the corners being wired. There is a 1-in. F. and a coil of wire. as shown. Paterson. thus helping the rats to enter. N. setting traps. The coil is 1 in. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. E.J. long. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. long. Ashland. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. B.. wound on the head end. Y. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. and the receiver is ready for use. etc.string to each corner. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. cut to the length of the spool. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. --Contributed by J. The body of the receiver. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. deep. which is the essential part of the instrument. commonly called tintype tin. wide and 1/16 in. The strings should be about 15 in. . Wis. laying poisoned meat and meal. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. letting it go at arm's length. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. Gordon Dempsey. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. The diaphragm C. high. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. made up of four layers of No. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. Hellwig. A.

Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. To clean small articles. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. The vase is to have three supports. a piece of small wire. A single line will be sufficient. better still.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. to . wide. and bend each strip in shape. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. Take a piece of string or. begin with the smallest scrolls. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. gold. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper.

which the supports are fastened with rivets. 6-3/8 in. Fold the leather on the line EF. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. About 1 in. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. Press or model down the leather all around the design. sharp pencil. through which to slip the fly AGH. from E to F.. . Work down the outside line of the design. After taking off the pattern. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. as shown in the sketch. 3-1/2 in. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. from C to D. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. and does not require coloring. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. 4-1/4 in. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. 3-1/4 in. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. wide when stitching up the purse. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. Trace also the line around the purse.. thus raising it. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. from the lines EF on the piece. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. using a duller point of the tool. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B.

place it on one of the square pieces of wood. and a model for speed and power. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. with the largest side down. 1. and which will be very interesting. It can be made without the use of a lathe. then nail it. Now take another piece of wood. as shown in Fig. leaving the lug a. long. Fit this to the two . around the wheel. with a compass saw. following the dotted lines. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. This also should be slightly beveled. It is neat and efficient. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. being cast in wooden molds. all the way around.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. the "open" side. and the projections B. and cut it out as shown in Fig. and tack the other piece slightly. b. thick. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. as well as useful. deep. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. square. 2. with the open side down. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. Cut off six pieces 12 in. First. then place the square piece out of which Fig. with pins or small nails. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. When it is finished. 3.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. 1 was cut. deep. and. and cut out a wheel. by 12 ft. Then nail the wheel down firmly. Make the lug 1/4 in. 1/2 in. The entire cut should be slightly beveled.

then bolt it together. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. and bore six 1/4-in. 4. and clean all the shavings out of it. hole 1/4 in. in the center of it.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. Take the mold apart. Now take another of the 12-in. as shown by the . hole entirely through at the same place. and boring a 3/8-in. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. 1. Now put mold No. deep. bolts. as shown by the black dots in Fig. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. square pieces of wood. hole bored through its center. and cut it out as shown in Fig. After it is finished. and lay it away to dry. one of which should have a 3/8-in.pieces just finished. holes through it. place it between two of the 12-in. square pieces of wood. slightly beveled.

2. screw down. holes. instead of the right-handed piece. as shown in illustration. and drill them in the same manner. Now cut out one of the 12-in. 1. one in the projections. and run in babbitt metal again. as shown by the black dots in Fig. After it is fitted in. 4. 5. long. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. and lay it away to dry. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. Fig. and pouring metal in to fill it up. so that it will turn easily. and the exhaust hole in projection b. Pour metal into mold No. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. only the one is left-handed. 6. see that the bolts are all tight. Commencing 1-1/2 in. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. This is the same as Fig. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. Put this together in mold No. place the entire machine in a vise. one in the lug.1. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. in diameter must now be obtained. holes at d. This is for a shaft. take an ordinary brace. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. and drill it entirely through. A piece of mild steel 5 in. wide and 16 in. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. place it under the drill. and two 1/4-in. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. B. and 3/8-in. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. Let it stand for half an hour.2. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. from the one end. the other right-handed. d. Using the Brace . The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. This is mold No. 6. and connect to the boiler. over the defective part. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles.1. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. and pour babbitt metal into it. true it up with a square. long. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. until it is full. Now take mold No.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. This will cast a paddle-wheel. and bore three 1/4-in.black dots in Fig. put the top of the brace through this hole. fasten a 3/8-in. drill in it. and the other in the base. lay it on a level place. b. Then bolt the castings together. where the casting did not fill out. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings.

and if instructions have been carefully followed. and the other 8 ft. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. and with three small screw holes around the edge. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. and the pleasure many times repays the effort.. Then take a knife or a chisel. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. turn the wheel to the shape desired. piece and at right angles to it. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. Plan of Ice Boat . while it is running at full speed. with a boss and a set screw.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. and. long. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. will do good service. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. At each end of the 6ft. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. one 6 ft.

Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. at the butt and 1 in. boards to make the platform. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. Fig. long. which may come in handy in heavy winds. Make your runners as long as possible. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . distant. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. as the runners were fastened. should be of hardwood. plank. long. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. To the under side of the 8-ft. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. in front of the rudder block. piece and at right angles to it. plank nail 8-in. 1. Fig. The tiller. in the top before the skate is put on.These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used. On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in. long and 2-1/2 in. 3. 8 a reef point knot. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. projecting as in Fig. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. tapering to 1-1/2 in. in diameter in the center. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. in diameter. at the top. 1. in diameter at the base. Over the middle of the 6-ft. Run the seam on a machine. at the end. leaving 1 ft. so much the better will be your boat. bolt the 8-ft. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. and about 8 in. where they often did considerable damage. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. The spar should be 9 ft. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. 2 by 3 in. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. This fits in the square hole. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in.

--Contributed by John D. and when we pushed the button up in the shop the rat would be thrown 2 or 3 ft. The .another from the zinc plate through the intervening yard and into the shop. in the air and let out a terrific squeak. S S. binding-posts fastening the springs S S. wide. Its parts are as follows: A. Pa. Ariz. P. to block B. so that they come in contact at C. It is quite evident that when a rat put its two fore feet on the edge of the pan in order to eat the mush which it contained. W is a piece of wax crayon just long enough to break the contact at C when inserted as shown in the illustration. When these parts have been put together in the manner described. Adams. that an electrical connection would be made through the body of the rat. Electric Rat Trap How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359] A fire alarm which is both inexpensive and simple in construction is shown in the illustration. and place it behind a stove. --Contributed by J. allowing the springs to contact at C. B. bent into a hook at each end. Mechanicsburg. R. small piece of wood. but one that will afford any amount of amusement. To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359] This is a very simple device. Simple Fire Alarm When the stove becomes too hot the wax will melt at the ends. block of wood nailed to A. The arrangement proved quite too effective. Phoenix. A good sized induction coil was through connected with these wires and about six dry batteries were used to run the induction coil whenever a push button was manipulated. connect the device in circuit with an electric bell. two pieces of sheet brass about 1/4 in. Comstock. P. for after a week the rats all departed and the boys all regretted that their fun was at an end. and the alarm bell will ring.

and the pole works in the wheel as an axle. Then get a 10-cent frying pan. Put the works back in the metal shell and solder it to the frying pan by the pieces turned out as in Fig. dial and works out of the shell and cut some pieces out of the metal so that when the pieces left are turned back it will have the appearance as in Fig. Take the glass. Arbor Wheels [359] Emery wheel arbors should be fitted with flanges or washers having a slight concave to their face. The seat arms may be any length desired. 6 in. An old wheel is mounted at the top of the pole.center post rests in an auger hole bored in an old stump or in a post set in the ground. A passenger rides in each seat and the motorman takes his station at the middle. and drill a hole in the center so the shaft for the hands will easily pass through and extend out far enough to replace the two hands. Gild t