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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial


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  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother


Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)







A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

long will make six boomerangs. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. distant. apart. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. away. wide and 2 ft. grasp it and hold the same as a club. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. 2 -. --Contributed by J. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . It is held in this curve until dry. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. To throw a boomerang. The pieces are then dressed round. A piece of plank 12 in.Fig. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. 1. Toronto. 1. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. until it is bound as shown in Fig. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. 1. Fig. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. 2. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. with the hollow side away from you. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. 2. E. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. Noble. Ontario.

which makes the building simpler and easier. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. and with a movable bottom. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. or rather no bottom at all. blocks . 6 in. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. long. A very light. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. but about 12 in. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. however. thick. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. forcing it down closely. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. high and 4 or 5 in. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. and it may be necessary to use a little water. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. made of 6-in.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. If the snow is of the right consistency. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. First. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. dry snow will not pack easily. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. the block will drop out. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. it is not essential to the support of the walls. A wall. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. one inside of the circle and the other outside. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. minus the top.

A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. or an old safe dial will do. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. D. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. Fig. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. 1. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. There is no outward thrust. 3. The piece of wood. wide. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. 3 -. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. A nail. Fig. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. a. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. Fig. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. is 6 or 8 in. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. Ore. Goodbrod. Union. and the young architect can imitate them. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. long and 1 in. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. above the ground. It also keeps them out. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. 2. 2. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. --Contributed by Geo. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. which can be made of wood. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. 1. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. which is about 1 ft. C.

allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key.When taking hot dishes from the stove. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. as the weight always draws them back to place. Syracuse. S. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. New York. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. one pair of special hinges. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. --Contributed by R. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. says the Sphinx. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. Merrill. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. If ordinary butts are used. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. the box locked . the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal.

Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. If the measuring has been done properly. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. All . make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. as shown in Fig. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. on drawing paper. draw one-half of it. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. Place the piece in a vise. 2. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. as shown. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther.and the performer steps out in view. allowing each coat time to dry. Alberta Norrell. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. To make a design similar to the one shown. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. Augusta. When the sieve is shaken. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. With the metal shears. It remains to bend the flaps. 3. If they do not. Ga. as shown in Fig. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. about 1-32 of an inch. 1. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. Fig. -Contributed by L. smooth surface. one for each corner. proceed as follows: First. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid.

Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. about 6 in. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. and in the positions shown in the sketch. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. causing it to expand. from the back end. as shown at AA. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. The current. if rolled under the shoe sole. B. H. is fitted tightly in the third hole.the edges should be left smooth. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . In boring through rubber corks. 25 German-silver wire. which is about 6 in. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. When the current is turned off. If a touch of color is desired. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. Colo. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. of No. in passing through the lamp. should be in the line. A piece of porcelain tube. A resistance. Galbreath. The common cork. long. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. heats the strip of German-silver wire. To keep the metal from tarnishing. 25 gauge German-silver wire. After this has dried. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. C. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. used for insulation. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. Denver. in diameter. --Contributed by R. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. R. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used.

The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. Purchase two long book straps. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. . as shown in Fig. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. 1. 2. Fig. between them as shown in Fig. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering.bottom ring. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. Kansas City. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. with thin strips of wood. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. --Contributed by David Brown. leaving a space of 4 in. 3. Mo.

A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. to form a handle. N. and a pocket battery. as . --Contributed by Katharine D. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. 3. and tack smoothly. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. These are shown in Fig. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. which is the right weight for family use. 36 in.. Fig. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. Pa. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. 2. 1. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. 1. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. and one weighing 25 lb. long. The folds are made over the string. Syracuse. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. having a gong 2-1/2 in. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole.An ordinary electric bell. Fig. just the right weight for a woman to use. 4. Y. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. in diameter.. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. The string is then tied. A. Morse. --Contributed by James M. Fig. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. Doylestown. Two strips of brass. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. one weighing 15 lb. C. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. Kane. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. 1. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. When the aeroplane tips. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. are mounted on the outside of the box.

2. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. Day. 2. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. Frame Made of a Rod . Y. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. such as brackets. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. Floral Park. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. bent as shown in Fig. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. long. AA. and many fancy knick-knacks. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. four washers and four square nuts. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. in diameter. if once used. --Contributed by Louis J. N. 1. 3/32 or 1/4 in. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. The saw. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. two 1/8 -in. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. machine screws.

it has the correct strength. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. though almost any color may be obtained. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. --Contributed by W. the most expensive. therefore.. of water. Rub off the highlights. allowing each time to dry. The buckle is to be purchased. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. If it colors the metal red. of water in which dissolve. A. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. green and browns are the most popular. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. be covered the same as the back. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. 1 part sulphuric acid. or silver. In the design shown. Of the leathers. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium.may be made of either brass. For etching. if copper or brass. Drying will cause this to change to purple. of course. Michigan. copper. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. Scranton. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. An Austrian Top [12] . as well as brass and copper. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. after breaking up. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. treat it with color. File these edges. using a swab and an old stiff brush. Silver is the most desirable but. use them in place of the outside nuts. Watch Fob For coloring silver. rounding and smoothing with emery paper.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. Apply two coats. as well as the depth of etching desired. Detroit. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. 1 part nitric acid.

Michigan. thick. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. 1-1/4 in. pass one end through the 1/16-in. hole. Ypsilanti. Parts of the Top To spin the top. A handle. wide and 3/4 in. starting at the bottom and winding upward. set the top in the 3/4 -in. 3/4 in. When the shank is covered. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. long. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. long. is formed on one end. . A 1/16-in. --Contributed by J. Bore a 3/4-in. allowing only 1-1/4 in. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. hole in this end for the top. 5-1/4 in.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make.F. in diameter. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. The handle is a piece of pine. Tholl.

For black leathers. Mich. --Contributed by Miss L. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. The baking surface. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. tarts or similar pastry. Augusta. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. having no sides. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. Northville. . the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. Houghton. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. A. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. --A.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. Ga. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. Alberta Norrell.

When you desire to work by white light. then solder cover and socket together. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. Centralia. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. says Studio Light. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. Mo. Stringing Wires [13] A. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . the same as shown in the illustration. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. two turns will remove the jar. --Contributed by Irl Hicks.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. glass fruit jar. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper.

1-1/4 in. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. 4 Vertical pieces. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. They are fastened. as shown in the cross-section sketch. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. 4 Braces. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. Janesville. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. Wis. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. 16 Horizontal bars. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. so it can be folded up. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. . --Contributed by Herman Fosel. square by 62 in. 1-1/4 in.for loading and development. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. square by 12 in. and not tip over.

Phillipsburg. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. After rounding the ends of the studs. Rosenthal. H. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. If the loop is tied at the proper place. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. The whole. The front can be covered . from scrap material. New York. Cincinnati. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. -Contributed by Charles Stem. --Contributed by Dr. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. and a loop made in the end. after filling the pail with water. C. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. O. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch.

Baltimore. The results will be poor. and. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. principally mayonnaise dressing. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. you are. sickly one. the mouth of which rests against a. 1 FIG. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. Wehr. by all rules of the game. Develop them into strong prints.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. Md. if you try to tone them afterward. either for contact printing or enlargements. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. FIG. thoroughly fix. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. In my own practice. --Contributed by Gilbert A. By using the following method. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. The . First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. the color will be an undesirable. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. If the gate is raised slightly. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints.

20 gr.. 1 and again as in Fig.... transfer it to a tray of water. Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete.... When the desired reduction has taken place. Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper... as it will appear clean much longer than the white. A good final washing completes the process. but... stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax... Iodide of potassium ... Put one on each corner of the blotting paper......... The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished. Cal. The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper. Gray. L. three times. long to admit the angle support. With a little practice.. An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in.. wide and 4 in. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away... being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects. preferably the colored kind. --Contributed by T. to make it 5 by 5 in. San Francisco.. thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses. 2. It will bleach slowly and evenly. 2 oz...... in this solution. The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone.......... They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder. The blotting paper can .. etc. Place the dry print.bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison.. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table.. without previous wetting. 16 oz. this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain. This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print....... when it starts to bleach.. where it will continue to bleach.. Water .. 5 by 15 in. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper.. in size. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes..." Cyanide of potassium .... Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig....

Make a design similar to that shown. the head of which is 2 in. --Contributed by J. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. --Contributed by L. Wisconsin. wide below the . the shaft 1 in. 3. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. 20 gauge. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. Oshkosh. Corners complete are shown in Fig.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. and a length of 5 in. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. having a width of 2-1/4 in.J. wide. Canada. Wilson Aldred Toronto. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. Monahan.

For coloring olive green. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. Allow this to dry. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. Do not put the hands in the solution. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. The metal must be held firmly. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. freehand. . Trace the design on the metal. 4. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. 1 part sulphuric acid. 1 Fig. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. using carbon paper. With files. With the metal shears. after folding along the center line. Apply with a small brush. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. 3. then trace the other half in the usual way. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. but use a swab on a stick. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. which gives the outline of the design Fig. After the sawing. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. 2. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. then coloring. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. as shown in Fig. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. Pierce a hole with a small drill. Fig. being held perpendicular to the work. Make one-half of the design. using a small metal saw.FIG. 1. After this has dried. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. using turpentine. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. deep. then put on a second coat. 1 part nitric acid.

or for serving an invalid's breakfast. --Contributed by M. Burnett. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. . Conn. Morse. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. New York. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. attach brass handles. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. Richmond. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. it does the work rapidly. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. then stain it a mahogany color. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. East Hartford. on a chopping board. Carl Cramer.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. Cal. --Contributed by H. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. Syracuse. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. as shown. After the stain has dried. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. M. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. thick. When this is cold. Ii is an ordinary staple. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. --Contributed by Katharine D. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice.

as shown in Fig. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C.. Cal. WARNECKE Procure some brass.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. two enameled. 1. some pieces of brass. square. saucers or pans. Richmond. Fig. Kissimmee. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. and several 1/8-in. indicating the depth of the slots. Atwell. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. --Contributed by Mrs. thick. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. A. 53 steel pens. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. . H. --Contributed by W. thick and 4 in. in width at the shank. one shaft. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. also locate the drill holes. not over 1/4 in. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. L. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. or tin. holes. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. 4. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. machine screws. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. Florida. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. about 3/16 in. 1/4 in. as shown at A. Jaquythe. brass. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered.

into the hole. 7. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. 3. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. with a 3/8-in. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. with the face of the disk. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. with 1/8-in. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. can be procured. and the ends filed round for the bearings. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. supply pipe. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. A 3/4-in. thick. wide and bend as shown in Fig. brass and bolted to the casing. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. 1. thick. machine screws. hole is drilled to run off the water. hole in the center. The shaft hole may also be filed square. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. long by 3/4 in. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. in diameter and 1/32 in. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. Fig. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. 2. These are connected to a 3/8-in. as shown. 3. 2. using two nuts on each screw. each about 1 in.. machine screws and nuts. as in Fig. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. wide. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. If metal dishes. long and 5/16 in. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. 6. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. Bend as shown in Fig. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. and pins inserted. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. lead should be run into the segments. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. 5. Fig. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. as shown in Fig. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. hole. Fig. about 1/32 in. a square shaft used. If the shaft is square. There should be a space of 1/16 in. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C.

arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. Be sure to have the cover. using four to each leg. The lower part. deep over all. Smith. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. Stain the wood before putting in the . A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. V. La Salle. long. --Contributed by F. or more in diameter. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. --Contributed by S. Ill. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. to make the bottom. we will call the basket. With a string or tape measure. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. three of which are in the basket. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. 8-1/2 in. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. Now you will have the box in two pieces. make these seams come between the two back legs. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. Cooke. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. The four legs are each 3/4-in. from the top of the box. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. Canada. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. high and 15 in. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. from the bottom end of the legs. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. When assembling. square and 30-1/2 in. Fasten with 3/4-in. screws. deep and 1-1/4 in. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. Hamilton. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges.

If all the parts are well sandpapered. wide and four strips 10 in. 1. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. Md.2 Fig. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. --also the lower edge when necessary. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. Packard. The folded part in the center is pasted together. Baltimore. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. and gather it at that point. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. wide. The side. 2. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. you can. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. sewing on the back side. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. as shown in the sketch. -Contributed by Stanley H. Fig. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. Boston. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. Mass. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer.lining.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . When making the display. Cover them with the cretonne. Sew on to the covered cardboards.

The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. and. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. It is not difficult to . Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. N. Fig. --Contributed by H. saving all the solid part. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. Orlando Taylor. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. with slight modifications. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. Gloversville. Mo. 3. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. L. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. Y. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. --Contributed by B. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. When through using the pad. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. Cross Timbers. Crockett. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. It is cleanly.

--Contributed by Edith E. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. After stirring. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. Bourne. Texas. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. and scrape out the rough parts. remove the contents. or if desired. across the face. it should be new and sharp. Both of these methods are wasteful. -Contributed by C. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. Mass. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. and secure it in place with glue or paste. are shown in the diagram. Lane. If a file is used. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. After this is done. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. S. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. Lowell. El Paso.

Des Moines.cooking utensil. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. --Contributed by Marion P. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. The process works well and needs no watching. Ill. After several hours' drying. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. circled over the funnel and disappeared. A Postcard Rack [25]. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. Greenleaf. F. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. Oak Park. --Contributed by Geo. Iowa. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. Ill. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. Canton. Oregon. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. Those having houses . He captured several pounds in a few hours. The insects came to the light. --Contributed by Loren Ward. Turl. As these were single-faced disk records. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. Wheeler.

--Contributed by Thomas E. and both exactly alike. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. Glenbrook. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. will do as well. by 2 ft. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. and the second one for the developing bench. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. Both sides can be put together in this way. thick. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. The single boards can then be fixed. boards are preferable. plane and pocket knife. Worcester. the best material to use being matched boards. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. Mass. but for cheapness 3/4 in. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. the bottom being 3/8 in. not even with the boards themselves. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. Dobbins. Conn.. material. Lay the floor next. and as they are simple in design.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. 6 in. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. --Contributed by Wm. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. 6 in. one on each side of what will be the . Only three pieces are required. Rosenberg. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1..

Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. is cut. hinged to it. nailing them to each other at the ridge. brown wrapping paper. 2 in section. Fig. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. wide. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. 6. The roof boards may next be put on. etc. by screwing to the floor. 6 and 9. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig.doorway. and to the outside board of the sides. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. below which is fixed the sink. 3 and 4. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. 9). These are all in section and are self-explanatory. The developing bench is 18 in. so that the water will drain off into the sink. of the top of the door for the same reason. In hinging the door. At the top of the doorway. and act as a trap for the light. and should be zinc lined. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. 7.. which is fixed on as shown .. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. 10). 5. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack.. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. 11. and the top as at C in the same drawing. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. so that it will fit inside the sink. It is shown in detail in Fig. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. as shown in Figs. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. 8. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. 9 by 11 in. and in the middle an opening. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. the closing side as at B. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. 6. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig.

Details of the Dark Rook .

Fig. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. 16. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. these being shown in Fig. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. or the room may be made with a flat roof. and a tank stand on it. preferably maple or ash. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. as at M. Erie. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. In use. The house will be much strengthened if strips. hole bored in the center for a handle. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. Fig. and a 3/8-in. Fig. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. as in Fig. 15. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. The handle should be at least 12 in. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. as at I. 18.in Fig. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. as shown in Fig. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. which makes it possible to have white light. or red light as at K. 19. 2. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. 1. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. --Contributed by W. 20. as shown in the sections. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. after lining with brown paper. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. Fig. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. 6. four coats at first is not too many. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. 16. 14. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. if desired. 17. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. are fastened in the corners inside. but not the red glass and frame. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. though this is hardly advisable. For beating up an egg in a glass. it is better than anything on the market. mixing flour and water. Karl Hilbrich. 13. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. screwing them each way into the boards. Pennsylvania. 13. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. A circular piece about 2 in. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition.

long. Kansas City. Mo.copper should be. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. about 3/8 in. To operate. --Contributed by L. Eureka Springs. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. New York. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. Mitchell. G. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . when put together properly is a puzzle. which. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. D. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. Schweiger. -Contributed by E. Smith. --Contributed by Wm. as shown in the sketch. Yonkers. Ark. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. for a handle. L.

. as shown in Fig. as well as improve its appearance. for the moment. the box will require a greater height in front. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. especially for filling-in purposes. as is usually the case. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. A number of 1/2-in. 3. which binds them together.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. the rustic work should be varnished. in order to thoroughly preserve it. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. 1. 2. The corks in use are shown in Fig. need them. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. The design shown in Fig. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. Having completed the bare box. If the sill is inclined. Each cork is cut as in Fig. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. holes should be drilled in the bottom. as shown in Fig. 3. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. After the box is trimmed. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. to make it set level.

and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. and observe results. can't use poison. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. share the same fate. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. it's easy. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. 3. F. etc. cabbages. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. But I have solved the difficulty. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. being partly eaten into. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. too dangerous. 1. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. 4. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. . which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. as shown in Fig. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. 2. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. Traps do no good. Each long projection represents a leg. life in the summer time is a vexation. drilled at right angles. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals.. When the corn is gone cucumbers.

cut some of it off and try again. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. About 9-1/2 ft. the coil does not heat sufficiently. and made up and kept in large bottles. of No. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. The solution can be used over and over again. . Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. long. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. -. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. cut in 1/2-in. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. If. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. Iowa. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. by trial. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. strips.

--Contributed by James M. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. Texas. Stir and mix thoroughly. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. C. and a strip. hot-water pot. Doylestown. Kane. . Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. it falls to stop G. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. Syracuse. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. of oleic acid with 1 gal. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. Fig 2. Knives. Morse. as shown in the sketch. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. is a good size--in this compound. D. Y. of whiting and 1/2 oz. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. Do not wash them. Pa. N. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. to cause the door to swing shut. In cleaning silver. but with unsatisfactory results. forks. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. --Contributed by Katharine D. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. coffee pot. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. Dallas.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. of gasoline. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. 1) removed.

--Contributed by Maurice Baudier. --Contributed by Theodore L. which is. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. Waverly. Ill. Harrisburg. La. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. Sprout. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. of course. Fisher. . --Contributed by Oliver S. New Orleans. using the paper dry. Pa. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. negatives. later fixed and washed as usual. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. but unfixed. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over.

the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. metal. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. 1. then . Fig. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. The harmonograph. In this uncertainty lies the charm. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. To obviate this difficulty. a harmonograph is a good prescription. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales.

The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. G. makes respectively 3. 1. to prevent any side motion. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and.. is about right for a 10-ft. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. exactly one-third. 1. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. one-fifth. Rosemont. R. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. is attached as shown at H. ceiling. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. A length of 7 ft. A small table or platform. Holes up to 3 in. such as a shoe buttoner. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. Ingham. Another weight of about 10 lb. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. for instance.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. --Contributed by Wm. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . one-fourth. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. provides a means of support for the stylus. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by James T. 1-3/4 by 2 in.. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. Chicago. of about 30 or 40 lb.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. or the lines will overlap and blur. that is. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. Gaffney. in diameter. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. J. K. Punch a hole. etc. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. Arizona. which can be regulated. as long as the other. A pedestal. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. A weight. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. and unless the shorter pendulum is. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. what is most important. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. The length of the short pendulum H. in the center of the circle to be cut. as shown in the lower part of Fig. with a nail set or punch. A small weight.

one for the sender and one for the receiver. Chicago. N. 6. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. distributing them over the whole card. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. 4. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. Morey. 5. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. -Contributed by W. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. Fig. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. and proceed as before. --Contributed by J. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. of course. The capacity of the vise. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. The two key cards are made alike. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever.J. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. Fig. 3. a correspondent of . Cape May City. 1. and 4 as in Fig. dividing them into quarters. Cruger. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. then put 2 at the top. 2. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter.J.H. then 3 as in Fig.

says Popular Electricity. of water. 22 gauge German-silver wire. remove the prints. 1/4 in. If constructed of the former. Augusta. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. 1/2 oz. Cut through the center. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. To assemble. Ga. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. 6 gauge wires shown. of 18-per-cent No. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. respectively. deep. of the uprights. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. Wind the successive turns of . wood-screws. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. --Contributed by L. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. long. drill 15 holes. of ferricyanide of potash. Alberta Norrell. from the top and bottom. 30 gr. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. After preparing the base and uprights. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. Asbestos board is to be preferred. acetic acid and 4 oz. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. the portion of the base under the coil. sheet of well made asbestos paper. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. citrate of iron and ammonia. After securing the tint desired. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice.

etc. screws. The case may be made of 1/2-in. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. Y. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. 14 gauge. Ampere. N. --Contributed by Frederick E. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. but these are not necessary. Ward. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. 16 gauge copper wire. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. rivets. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench.. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. square. Labels of some kind are needed. if one is not a smoker. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. then fasten the upright in place. Small knobs may be added if desired.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. cut and dressed 1/2 in. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. as they are usually thrown away when empty. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. which. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material.

In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. a piece of solder. tinner's acid. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. of water. and rub the point of the copper on it. --Contributed by W. lead. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. If the soldering copper is an old one. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. The material can be of any wood. brass. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright.. Kenosha. or has become corroded. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. D. as shown in the sketch.14 oz. Larson. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. The parts are put together with dowel pins. --C. of glycerine to 16 oz. Heat it until hot (not red hot). After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. the pure muriatic acid should be used. it must be ground or filed to a point. Wis. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. S. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. --Contributed by A. . Richmond. tin. Ark. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. galvanized iron. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. zinc. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. sandpaper or steel wool. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. particularly so when the iron has once been used. California. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. then to the joint to be soldered. G. and labeled "Poison. Copper. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. A. In soldering galvanized iron. E and F. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. This is considerable annoyance. Jaquythe. C. being careful about the heat. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. and one made of poplar finished black. Eureka Springs. especially if a large tub is used. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. B.

by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. Troy.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. The dimensions shown in Fig. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. 2. such as copper. round iron. Fig. 7/8 in. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. Take a 3/4-in. I bind my magazines at home evenings. Hankin. which gives two bound volumes each year. The punch A. 1. B. Place the band. in diameter. however. This will leave a clear hole. Six issues make a well proportioned book. Brass rings can be plated when finished. nut. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. with good results. a ring may be made from any metal. This completes the die. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. brass and silver. thick and 1-1/4 in. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . The metal used should be about 1/16 in. and drill out the threads. Y. in diameter. The covers of the magazines are removed. N. Apart from this. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. W. C. -Contributed by H. The disk will come out pan shaped. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. wide. D. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. Fig. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well.

2.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. C. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. as shown in Fig. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. and place them against the strings in the frame. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. which is fastened the same as the first. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. is nailed across the top. The covering can be of cloth. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. on all edges except the back. Place the cardboard covers on the book. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. deep. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. The sections are then prepared for sewing. 1 in Fig.4. Start with the front of the book. using . and a third piece. Coarse white thread. The covering should be cut out 1 in. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. threaded double. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. size 16 or larger. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. 5. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. 1/8 in. After drawing the thread tightly. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. and then to string No. Five cuts. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. allowing about 2 in. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. then back through the notch on the right side. is used for the sewing material. 2. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. 1. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. through the notch on the left side of the string No. If started with the January or the July issue. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. 1. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. of the ends extending on each side. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. . The string No. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. 1.

and. round iron. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. at opposite sides to each other.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. Place the cover on the book in the right position. Divine. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. Cal. --Contributed by Clyde E. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. and mark around each one. Tinplate. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. Nebr. Encanto. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. on which to hook the blade. College View. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. For the blade an old talking-machine . fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around.

E. as it is sometimes called. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. B. thick. and a long thread plug. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. Make the blade 12 in. F. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. Then on the board put . If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. Summitville. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. and 1/4 in. or double extra heavy. by 4-1/2 in.. in order to drill the holes in the ends. and file in the teeth. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in.. Moorhead. with a steel sleeve. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. bore. by 1 in. On the upper side. with 10 teeth to the inch. and 1/4 in. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. as shown. -Contributed by Willard J.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. hydraulic pipe. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. Hays. and another piece (B) 6 in. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). thick. Miss. C. long. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. Ohio. fuse hole at D. A. at the same end. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead.

18 gauge wire for the wiring. some sheet copper or brass for plates. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. of rubber-covered wire. of wire to each coil. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. high around this apparatus. as from batteries. Boyd. Philadelphia. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. 4 jars. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. Connect up as shown. A lid may be added if desired. If you are going to use a current of low tension. about 5 ft. H. the jars need not be very large. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. --Contributed by Chas. using about 8 in. and some No. The size of the jars depends on the voltage.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F.

3 and No. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. long. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. are important. wide and 2 in. two pieces 14 in. by 2 in. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. two for each jar. An iron washer. No. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. wide. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. is used to reduce friction. Construct the auto front (Fig. 4) of 3/4-in. long. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. B. In proportioning them the points A. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. 2 and 3. 5 on switch. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft.. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled.. and bolt through. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white.. The stock required for them is oak. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. making them clear those in the front runner. 3. 15-1/2 in. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. See Fig. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. The top disk in jar No. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. 11 in. A 3/4-in. The current then will flow through the motor. thick. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. A variation of 1/16 in. then apply a coat of thin enamel. wide and 3/4 in. 4 in. B. by 5 in. two pieces 30 in. with the cushion about 15 in. 4. 7 in. 2. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. apart. by 1-1/4 in. square by 14 ft. & S. The sled completed should be 15 ft.. 2. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. by 1-1/4 in. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. oak boards. and plane it on all edges. wide by 3/4 in. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. On the door of the auto front put the . square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. by 6 in. sheet brass 1 in. . Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. 2 is lower down than in No. and four pieces 14 in. 16-1/2 in. For the brass trimmings use No. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. 2. on No. beginning at the rear. however. 2 in. as they "snatch" the ice. and for the rear runners: A. above the ground. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. long. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. long by 22 in. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. The illustration shows how to shape it. C. First sandpaper all the wood. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. C. thick. For the front runners these measurements are: A. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. 27 B... Fig. gives full current and full speed. Equip block X with screw eyes. direct to wire across jars. B and C. steel rod makes a good steering rod. long. 34 in. Their size also depends on the voltage. 30 in. two pieces 34 in. Z. Use no nails. 1 and so on for No. by 5 in. Put arm of switch on point No. To wire the apparatus. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. 1 on switch..the way. or source of current. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. Use no screws on the running surface. At the front 24 or 26 in. 3 in. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. by 1 in. 1. by 2 in. The connection between point No. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. 1 is connected to point No. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. as they are not substantial enough. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A.

bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. fasten a cord through the loop. If desired. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. to improve the appearance. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. overshoes. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. The best way is to get some strong. such as used on automobiles. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. which is somewhat moist. brass plated. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. lunch. by 30 in. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. to the wheel. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . by 1/2 in. If the expense is greater than one can afford. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. parcels. such as burlap. Fasten a horn.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. a brake may be added to the sled. long. Then get some upholstery buttons. or with these for $25. etc. a number of boys may share in the ownership. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. cheap material. If desired. may be stowed within. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. cutting it out of sheet brass. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15.

--Contributed by Stewart H. Lexington.tree and bring. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. Leland. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. . Ill.

says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. With no other tools than a hacksaw. some files. made from 1/16-in. thick. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. the same diameter as the wheel. will be over the line FG. Fig. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. with twenty-four teeth. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . A small clearance space. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. Fig. a compass. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. 3. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. 2. which. sheet metal. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. The straight-edge. say 1 in. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. Draw a circle on paper. 1. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. outside diameter and 1/16 in. from F to G. This guide should have a beveled edge. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. London. though more difficult. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. First take the case of a small gearwheel. FC. CD. the cut will be central on the line. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. The Model Engineer. 4). Fig. mild steel or iron. when flat against it. E. by drawing diameters. so that the center of the blade. The first tooth may now be cut.

and the other outlet wire. 2. A bright. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. 1. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. No shock will be perceptible. hold in one hand. each in the center. . either the pencils for arc lamps. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. If there is no faucet in the house. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. as shown in Fig. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. Focus the camera in the usual manner. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. Make a hole in the other. B. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. ground it with a large piece of zinc. 1. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. electric lamp. R. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. and connect to one side of a 2-cp.Four Photos on One Plate of them. some wire and some carbons. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. as shown in Fig. transmitter. Then take one outlet wire. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. or several pieces bound tightly together. B. as shown in Fig. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator.

for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. Emsworth. One like a loaf of bread. But in this experiment. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. serves admirably. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. and will then burn the string C. at each end for terminals. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. J. Wrenn. D D are binding posts for electric wires. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. B. They have screw ends. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . even though there are no batteries in the circuit. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. one at the receiver can hear what is said. leaving about 10 in. Ashland. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. Slattery. or more of the latter has been used. of course. a transmitter which induces no current is used. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. Several battery cells. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. by 12 in. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. Dry batteries are most convenient. --Contributed by Geo. and again wind the wire around it. Then set the whole core away to dry. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. 36 wire around it. under the gable. as shown. and about that size. by 1 in. Pa. For a base use a pine board 10 in. A is a wooden block. as indicated by E E. Ohio. If desired. are also needed. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this.

Newark. At one side secure two receptacles. Place 16-cp. B B. 14 wire. C. Ohio. while C is open. in series with bindingpost.. 12 or No. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. as shown. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. The coil will commence to become warm. The apparatus is now ready for operation. until the hand points to zero on the scale. for the . How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. E. First make a support. B B. From the other set of binding-posts. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. Fig. and switch. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. F.wire. and one single post switch. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. Connect these three to switch. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. the terminal of the coil. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. The oven is now ready to be connected. D. run a No. and the lamps. 1. C. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. as shown. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. Turn on switch. D. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. These should have hollow ends. in parallel. 2. Jr. connecting lamp receptacles. Fig.

How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. high. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. The box is 5-1/2 in. from the lower end. Mine is wound with two layers of No. and D. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. 2. drill through the entire case and valve. is made of iron. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. Fig. 10 turns to each layer. a variable resistance. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. is then made and provided with a glass front. 4. After drilling. Dussault.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. 36 magnet wire instead of No. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. a battery. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities.. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. wind with plenty of No. inside measurements. 7. 14. --Contributed by J. Fig. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. thick. etc. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. 3. 4 in. If for 3-way. 3 amperes. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. although copper or steel will do. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. long. D. A wooden box. Montreal. long.or 4-way valve or cock. Fig. long and make a loop. The core. This may be made of wood. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. but if for a 4way. This is slipped on the pivot. deep. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. although brass is better. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. It is 1 in. 4 amperes. until the scale is full. The pointer or hand. as shown in the cut. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. Fig. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. 6. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. is made of wire. To make one. 5. drill in only to the opening already through. B.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. remove the valve. 5. 1. drill a hole as shown at H. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. where A is the homemade ammeter. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. wide and 1/8 in. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. E.E. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. D. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. to prevent it turning on the axle. 14 wire. 1/4 in. At a point a little above the center. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. C. 1. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . 1/2 in. a standard ammeter. wide and 1-3/4 in. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes.

This stopper should be pierced. By connecting the motor. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. in thickness . provided with a rubber stopper. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. D. and a metal rod. B. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. and the arc light. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. A. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. One wire runs to the switch. making two holes about 1/4 in. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. in diameter. F. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. and the other connects with the water rheostat. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker.performing electrical experiments. which is used for reducing the current. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. high. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. as shown. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. E. To start the light.

as shown in B. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. Jones. Fig. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. A piece of wood. 1. 1. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. If all adjustments are correct. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. 2. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. long. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. Fig. 2. as shown in C. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. If the interrupter does not work at first. Y. N. 1. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. B. A. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. As there shown. Turn on the current and press the button. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. where he is placed in an upright open . Carthage. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. Having finished the interrupter. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. Fig. --Contributed by Harold L. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. Having fixed the lead plate in position. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. To insert the lead plate. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. Fig.

All . by 7-1/2 in. which can be run by three dry cells. They need to give a fairly strong light. inside dimensions. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. from which the gong has been removed. A. light-colored garments. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. If it is desired to place the box lower down. The model. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. A white shroud is thrown over his body. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. Its edges should nowhere be visible. as the entire interior. If everything is not black. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. to aid the illusion. should be colored a dull black. especially the joints and background near A. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. dressed in brilliant. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. The skeleton is made of papier maché. giving a limp. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. by 7 in. and wave his arms up and down. the illusion will be spoiled. until it is dark there. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. and can be bought at Japanese stores. loosejointed effect. should be miniature electric lamps. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. is constructed as shown in the drawings. within the limits of an ordinary room. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. especially L. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. high. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. L and M..coffin. and must be thoroughly cleansed. with the exception of the glass. figures and lights. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. could expect from a skeleton. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. The glass should be the clearest possible. The lights. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in.

If a gradual transformation is desired.that is necessary is a two-point switch. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. --Contributed by Geo. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. Fry. Cal. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. W. fat spark. placed about a foot apart. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. after which it assumes its normal color. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. square block. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. Two finishing nails were driven in. as shown in the sketch. San Jose.

Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. to make it airtight. B and C. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. One of these plates is connected to metal top. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. soldered in the top. into the receiver G. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. the remaining space will be filled with air. F. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. The plates are separated 6 in. as shown. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. Cohen. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. and should be separated about 1/8 in. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. This is a wide-mouth bottle. In Fig. hydrogen gas is generated. or a solution of sal soda. New York. A (see sketch).Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. with two tubes. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. -Contributed by Dudley H. 1. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. In Fig. If a lighted match . by small pieces of wood.

Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. is made by drilling a 1/8in. copper pipe. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. is then coiled around the brass tube. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. London. C C. and the ends of the tube. as is shown in the illustration.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. N. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. Fig. copper pipe. P. 36 insulated wire. in diameter and 6 in. A piece of 1/8-in. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. which is plugged up at both ends. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. A 1/64-in. A. N. 1. A. 1/2 in. Fig. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. should be only 5/16 of an inch. of No. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. If desired. 2 shows the end view. The distance between the nipple. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. A. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. by means of the clips. One row is drilled to come directly on top. A. A nipple. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. either by passing a current of electricity around it. long. long. from the bottom. 1-5/16 in. says the Model Engineer. B. which forms the vaporizing coil. then a suitable burner is necessary. or by direct contact with another magnet. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple.

narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. Take two strips of stout cloth. larger all around than the book. trim both ends and the front edge. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. Fig. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. 3. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C.lamp cord. longer and 1/4 in. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. but if the paper knife cannot be used. boards and all. taking care not to bend the iron. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. this makes a much nicer book. 1/4 in. Turn the book over and paste the other side. Cut four pieces of cardboard. Fig. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. duck or linen. smoothly. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. cut to the size of the pages. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. should be cut to the diameter of the can. Fig. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. at the front and back for fly leaves. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. with a fine saw. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. A disk of thin sheet-iron. leaving the folded edge uncut. fold and cut it 1 in. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. 1. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. about 8 or 10 in. 2). Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board.

is fitted in it and soldered. Bedford City. Toronto. Parker. 18 in. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. Noble. . This will cause some air to be enclosed. In the bottom. the joint will be gas tight. pasting them down (Fig. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. E. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. B. H. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. D. and a little can. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. 4). --Contributed by James E. --Contributed by Joseph N. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. as shown. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. is made the same depth as B. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. or rather the top now. deep. C. Ont. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. Another can. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. A. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. Another tank. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. as shown in the sketch. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. without a head. of tank A is cut a hole.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. is turned on it. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. Va. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. which will just slip inside the little can. in diameter and 30 in. is perforated with a number of holes. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. is soldered onto tank A. but its diameter is a little smaller. A gas cock.

and the four diagonal struts.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. C. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. fastened in the bottom. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. The diagonal struts. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. making the width. J. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. which may be either spruce. The bridle knots. Fig. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. D. D. to prevent splitting. thus adjusting the . B. B. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. N. The wiring diagram. basswood or white pine. should be 1/4 in. exactly 12 in. A A. as shown at C. Fig. by 1/2 in. -Contributed by H. The small guards. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. and about 26 in. 2. with an electric-bell magnet. A. long. when finished. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. If the back armature. The armature. S. which moves to either right or left. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. If the pushbutton A is closed. H is a square knot. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. long. E. should be 3/8 in.. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. Beverly. B. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. should be cut a little too long. square by 42 in. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. Bott. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. The longitudinal corner spines. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. are shown in detail at H and J. tacks. and sewed double to give extra strength. shows how the connections are to be made. 1.

as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. shift toward F. and. --Contributed by Edw. Kan. however. Clay Center. Chicago. If the kite is used in a light wind. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. D. can be made of a wooden . Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. the batteries do not run down for a long time. to prevent slipping. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. Closing either key will operate both sounders.lengths of F and G. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. for producing electricity direct from heat. with gratifying results. E. A bowline knot should be tied at J. Stoddard. thus shortening G and lengthening F. as shown. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. and if a strong wind is blowing. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. Harbert. that refuse to slide easily. --Contributed by A.

Fasten a piece of wood. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. placed on top. C. to the cannon. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. A. or parallel with the compass needle. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. --Contributed by A. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. 14 or No. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. C. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. 16 single-covered wire. by means of machine screws or. The wood screw. and the current may then be detected by means. Then. with a number of nails. and also holds the pieces of wood. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. Chicago. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire.. A.frame. which conducts the current into the cannon. E. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. A and B. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. D. B. in position. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. E. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. A. F. When the cannon is loaded. spark. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. C. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. with a pocket compass. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after .

requiring a strong magnet. . hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. 1. Marion. In Fig. A and S. square and 3/8 in. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. to receive the screw in the center. Connect as shown in the illustration. H. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. Chicago. where there is a staple. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. within the reach of the magnet. To reverse. when in position at A'. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. --Contributed by Henry Peck. Mich. press the button. A hole for a 1/2 in. Fig. B. A and S. 1. L. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. Ohio. Bend the strips BB (Fig. screw is bored in the block. in this position the door is locked. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. Keil.the current is shut off. Big Rapids. A. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. 1. but no weights or strings. To unlock the door. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. with the long arm at L'. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. --Contributed by Joseph B. now at A' and S'. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. Fig. To lock the door. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook.

The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. When the holes are finished and your lines set. Thread the other end of the pipe. and may be made at very slight expense. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. Mass. When ready for use. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. long. West Somerville. J. Rand. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. --Contributed by C. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. put in the handle. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. if enameled white on the concave side. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. about 18 in. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. or for microscopic work. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. pipe with 1-2-in. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. hole. and C is a dumbbell.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. The standard and base. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. are enameled a jet black. gas-pipe. and if desired the handles may .

The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. long and 8 in. Warren. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. D. across. across. with a cover.. A. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. Fig. North Easton. Mass.be covered with leather. M. B. 1. which shall project at least 2 in. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . E. Make a cylindrical core of wood. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. inside the pail. 1. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. This peculiar property is also found in ice. --Contributed by C. high by 1 ft. Fig. 8 in. as shown at A in the sketch. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C.

. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. the firing should be gradual. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. Cover with paper and shellac as before. make two wood ends. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. 1). and 3/8 in. C. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. in diameter. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. diameter. 60%. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. in diameter. carefully centering it. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. about 1 in. thick. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. thick. long over the lid hole as a chimney. 2 in. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. Set aside for a few days until well dried. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. and on it set the paper wrapped core. pipe. After finishing the core. but it will burn a great deal of gas. let this dry thoroughly. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. to hold the clay mixture. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. L. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. 3) with false top and bottom. and with especial caution the first time. sand. and graphite. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. say 1/4 in. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support.-G. hotel china. C. layer of the clay mixture. wider than the kiln. C. E. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. if there is to be any glazing done. Line the pail. 15%. bottom and sides. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. cutting the hole a little smaller. Wind about 1/8 in. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. full length of iron core. W. 1390°-1410°. If the cover of the pail has no rim. long. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. 1). and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. and cut it 3-1/2 in. hard porcelain. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. if you have the materials. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. and 3/4 in. Fit all the parts together snugly. projecting from each end (Fig. as dictated by fancy and expense. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. It is placed inside the kiln. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. When lighted. as is shown in the sketch. of fine wire. Whatever burner is used. 1330°. but will be cheaper in operation. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. After removing all the paper. 25%. and your kiln is ready for business. passing wire nails through and clinching them. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. pipe 2-ft. which is the hottest part. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in.. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. or make one yourself. Fig. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. such . This done. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. 2. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. strip of sheet iron. pack this space-top. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. and varnish. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. The 2 in. the point of the blue flame. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end.. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this.mixture of clay.

The funnel. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. overlaps and rests on the body. Take the red cards. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. as shown in the sketch herewith. square them up. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. . the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. R. red and black. 8 in. 1. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. Then. C. all cards facing the same way. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. Chicago. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. with a plane. around the coil. and so on. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. leaving long terminals. 2. T. and divide it into two piles. length of . A. Then take the black cards. 2. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. and plane off about 1/16 in. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. --Contributed by J. diameter. about 1/16 in. C. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. square them up and place in a vise. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. procure a new deck. Washington. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. You can display either color called for. B. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. as in Fig.. as in Fig. 2). D. bind tightly with black silk. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. Next restore all the cards to one pack.53 in. every alternate card being the same color.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. taking care to have the first card red. Of course. the next black. and discharges into the tube. C. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards.

Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. All the horizontal pieces. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. B. D. to form a dovetail joint as shown. E. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. and this is inexpensive to build. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. It should be placed in an exposed location. the same ends will come together again. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. 1 gill of litharge. as the difficulties increase with the size.C.. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. B. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. the first thing to decide on is the size. E. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. To find the fall of snow. N. angle iron for the frame. C. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. Drill all the horizontal pieces. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. Long Branch. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. The bottom glass should be a good fit. A. about 20 in. F. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. and then the frame is ready to assemble. thus making all the holes coincide. When the glass is put in the frame a space. so that when they are assembled. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. Let . 1. through the holes already drilled. A. stove bolts.J. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. Fig. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. of the frame. 1 gill of fine white sand. stove bolts. The upright pieces. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. B. The cement.

and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. to the door knob. D. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . a centerpiece (A. Fasten the lever.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. and. Fig. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. B. on the door by means of a metal plate. having a swinging connection at C. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. if desired. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. A. Aquarium Finished If desired.

for the top. 2 at GG. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. to form the slanting part. --Contributed by Orton E. Y. F. another. Cut two of them 4 ft. long. PAUL S. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. 1. will open the door about 1/2 in. B. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. Fig. but mark their position on the frame. with a water pressure of 70 lb. to keep the frame from spreading. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. E. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. A small piece of spring brass. To make the frame. long. Buffalo. 1 is the motor with one side removed. AA. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. Fig. 1. Fig. White. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. I referred this question to my husband. which is 15 in. long. Fig. 2 is an end view. soldered to the end of the cylinder. as at E. 2 ft. from the outside top of the frame. and Fig. N.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. D. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. wide by 1 in. thus doing away with the spring. several lengths of scantling 3 in. hoping it may solve the same question for them. C. another. Do not fasten these boards now. 1 . WINTER In these days of modern improvements. Fig. long. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. 3 shows one of the paddles. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. to form the main supports of the frame. They are shown in Fig. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. and another. Fig. screwed to the door frame. according to the slant given C. Two short boards 1 in.. Cut two pieces 30 in. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. wide . 26 in. approximately 1 ft. 6 in. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. showing the paddle-wheel in position.

1. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. with the wheel and shaft in place. 4. by 1-1/2 in. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. and a 1/4 -in. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. hole from the tops to the 1-in. When it has cooled. 2) with a 5/8-in. iron. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. tapering from 3/16 in. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. in diameter. thick. then drill a 3/16-in. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). hole through the exact center of the wheel. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. iron 3 by 4 in. as shown in Fig. take down the crosspieces. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. Fasten them in their proper position. Fig. to a full 1/2 in. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. These are the paddles. long to the wheel about 8 in. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. steel shaft 12 in. Next secure a 5/8-in. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. Take the side pieces.along the edges under the zinc to form . after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. remove the cardboard. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. long and filling it with babbitt metal. Fig. Now block the wheel. GG. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. that is. Drill 1/8-in. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. from one end by means of a key. after which drill a 5/8 in. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. 24 in. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. 2) form a substantial base. pipe. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. Tack one side on. 2) and another 1 in. hole through its center. Fig. Make this hole conical.burlap will do -. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. (I. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. thick (HH. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. and drill a 1-in. hole to form the bearings. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. hole through their sides centrally. and drill a 1/8-in. holes. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. hole through them. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer.

light and the plate. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. on the lens. sewing machine. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. shutting out all light from above and the sides. but as it would have cost several times as much. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways.a water-tight joint. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. ice-cream freezer. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. as shown in the sketch at B. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. Do not stop down the lens. of course. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. place the outlet over a drain. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. any window will do. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. The best plate to use is a very slow one. Focus the camera carefully. It is obvious that. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. and leave them for an hour or so. and as near to it as possible. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. Drill a hole through the zinc. and the subject may move. but now I put them in the machine. If sheet-iron is used. or what is called a process plate. as this makes long exposure necessary.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. says the Photographic Times. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. . Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. Darken the rest of the window. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. Correct exposure depends. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. start the motor. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. If the bearings are now oiled. drill press. Raise the window shade half way. remove any white curtains there may be. it would be more durable. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction.

18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. as a slight current will answer. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. C. until the core slowly rises.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. 2. by twisting. or can be taken from an old magnet. A. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. On completing . The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. The current required is very small. a core. The glass tube may be a test tube. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. full of water. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. with binding posts as shown. hard rubber. or an empty developer tube. or wood. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. without detail in the face. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. D. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. and without fog. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. as shown in Fig. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. The core C. an empty pill bottle may be used. the core is drawn down out of sight. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. B. With a piece of black paper. which is made of iron and cork. and a base. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. 2. a glass tube. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch.

An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. water and 3 oz. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. is Benham's color top. 1 pt. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. according to his control of the current. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. and are changed by reversing the rotation. white lead. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. The colors appear different to different people. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. and make a pinhole in the center. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. whale oil. 1. and one not easy to explain. 1 lb. finest graphite. This is a mysterious looking instrument.

B. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words.. Chicago. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. fan-like. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. As this device is easily upset. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. In prize games. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. when the action ceases. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base.B. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. A. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. nearly every time.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. C. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. deuce. -Contributed by D. or three spot. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. thus partly filling bottles A and C. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. especially if the deck is a new one. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other.L. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. In making hydrogen. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. before cutting. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B.

Huron. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. Jr.. Detail of Phonograph Horn . Form a cone of heavy paper. 9 in. in length and 3 in. --Contributed by C. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. (Fig. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. 2. W. 3). Dak. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. that will fit loosely in the tube A.. . Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. Fig. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. Bently. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. Fig. long. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. 10 in. 4. 12 in. --Contributed by F. Detroit. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. Make a 10-sided stick. as shown in Fig. in diameter. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. S. 1. S. J. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. long and 3 in. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together.

it is equally easy to block that trick. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. Fig. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. A piece of tin. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. A. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . but bends toward D. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. Cut out paper sections (Fig. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. with a pin driven in each end. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. long. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. 6. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. allowing 1 in. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. will cause an increased movement of C. Denver. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. E.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. about the size of a leadpencil. Fortunately. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. push back the bolt. bend it at right angles throughout its length. A second piece of silk thread. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. making it three-ply thick. Remove the form. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. C. on one side and the top. and walk in. --Contributed by Reader.

Minn. B. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. are made 2 by 4 in. Paul. long. while the lower switch. The reverse switch. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. --Contributed by J. posts.. put together as shown in the sketch. and rest on a brick placed under each end. A. R. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. The 2 by 4-in. Fremont Hilscher. or left to right. long. The feet. S. By this arrangement one. Two wood-base switches. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. S.strip. is connected each point to a battery. will last for several years. S S.. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. 4 ft. The upper switch. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. are 7 ft. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. as shown. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. Jr. West St. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. B. W.

and the bearing B is fastened by staples. In Fig. 2 and 3. Fig. which is made of tin. cut in half. which will be described later. pulley wheel. The base is made of wood. Fig. 1. FF. either an old sewing-machine wheel. The hose E connects to the boiler. and in Fig. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine.every house. thick. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. 2. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. 3/8 in. and valve crank S. or anything available. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. the size of the hole in the bearing B. and a cylindrical . The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. and has two wood blocks. the other parts being used for the bearing B. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. and the crank bearing C. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. The valve motion is shown in Figs. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. The steam chest D. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. E. is an old bicycle pump. with two washers. The piston is made of a stove bolt. H and K.

G. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. powder can. at that. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. using the positive wire as a pen. Eustice. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. and the desired result is obtained. Fig. 3. Fry. --Contributed by Geo. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. and saturated with thick oil. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. is cut out of tin. G. The boiler. San Jose. can be an old oil can. of Cuba. . This engine was built by W. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. or galvanized iron. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. First. Wis. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. as it is merely a trick of photography.piece of hard wood. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. 4. This is wound with soft string. and a very amusing trick. J. to receive the connecting rod H. 1. C. Fig. as shown in Fig. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. The valve crank S. Schuh and A. W. Cal.

C. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. diameter. They may be of any size. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. and pass ropes around .A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. and place a bell on the four ends. Fig. When turning. Fig. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. 1 will be seen to rotate. and Fig. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. B. The smaller wheel. B. as shown. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. to cross in the center. Fig. 1 by covering up Figs. Cut half circles out of each stave. as shown at AA. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. considering the nature of the material employed in making it.

procure a wooden spool.G. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. as shown in the illustration. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. From a piece of thin . produces a higher magnifying power). and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. This in turn will act on the transmitter.M. which allows the use of small sized ropes. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. W. To make this lensless microscope. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. --Contributed by H. which accounts for the sound. A (a short spool. such as clothes lines. long. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. Mo. but not on all. St. Louis.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B.. from the transmitter. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers.

bent as shown.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. H. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A.) But an object 3/4-in. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. (The area would appear 64 times as large. C. i. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. and at the center. A. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. An innocent-looking drop of water. The spring. B. e. 1. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. To use this microscope. C. can be made of brass and the armature. 3. The pivot. if the distance is reduced to one-third. place a small object on the transparent disk. D. the object should be of a transparent nature. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. in which hay has been soaking for several days. held at arm's length. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. darting across the field in every direction. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. 2. cut out a small disk. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. Fig. if the distance is reduced to one-half. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. or 64 times. the diameter will appear twice as large. by means of brads. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. otherwise the image will be blurred. and look through the hole D. is made of iron. The lever. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. is fastened at each end by pins. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. D. which costs little or nothing to make. . fastened to a wooden base. E. as in all microscopes of any power. which are pieces of hard wood. the diameter will appear three times as large. Viewed through this microscope. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. and so on. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings.. B..

C. 16 in. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. brass: E. brass: B. between the armature and the magnet. wide and about 20 in. wide. long. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. wide. connection of D to nail. A switch. which are made to receive a pivot. The door. wood: F. brass. wide and set in between sides AA. 26 wire: E. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. . B. can be made panel as shown. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. wood: C. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. fastened near the end. wood. The binding posts. or taken from a small one-point switch. K. E. 1. is cut from a board about 36 in. Each side. The back. long and 14-1/2 in. similar to the one used in the sounder. thick. soft iron. Cut the top. wide.SOUNDER-A. nail soldered on A. or a single piece. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. wide. 2. K. C. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. A. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. D. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. should be about 22 in. AA. Fig. B. 16 in. and are connected to the contacts. brass or iron soldered to nail. KEY-A. D. long by 16 in. D. The base of the key. binding posts: H spring The stop. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. F. Fig. DD. coils wound with No. HH. FF. in length and 16 in. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in.

--Contributed by Carl Formhals. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. brads. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. When the electrical waves strike the needle. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. with 3/4-in. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. Ill. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. E. In operation. long. 13-1/2 in. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. cut in them. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. Make 12 cleats. AA. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. 2 and made from 1/4-in. as shown.. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. material.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. as shown in the sketch. Garfield. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides.

Brown. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. and thus decreases the resistance. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. Pushing the wire. A. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. pulls down the armature. will give a greater speed. Ridgewood. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. through which a piece of wire is passed. E. down into the water increases the surface in contact. B. A. When the pipe is used. The cord is also fastened to a lever. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. J. in order to increase the surface. --Contributed by R. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. A fairly stiff spring. filled with water. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. F. C. N. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. and. Y. A (see sketch). made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . the magnet. when used with a motor. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. N. --Contributed by John Koehler. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. Fairport. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube.

may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. even those who read this description. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. if desired. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. Of course. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. Borden. B. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. N. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring.for the secret contact. Gachville. --Contributed by Perry A. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram.

Nails for stops are placed at DD.. deep and 3/4 in. --Contributed by H. from the bottom. for 6-in. Jr. for 10in. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. Connect switch to post B. The top board is made 28-in. N. --Contributed by Dr. J. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. wide. East Orange. wide. apart. wide. in a semicircle 2 in. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. long and 5 in. With about 9 ft. as shown in Fig. Dobson. . 2. C. Two drawers are fitted in this space. From a piece of brass a switch. records and 5-5/8 in. Mangold. H. E.whenever the bell rings. The three shelves are cut 25-in. long and full 12-in. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. wide. and on both sides of the middle shelf. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. 1. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. D. where the other end of wire is fastened. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. A. wide. records. Cal. C. as shown in Fig. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. Compton. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. Washington. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. thick and 12-in.

to which is fastened a cord. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. E. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. A. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. which in operation is bent. closed. When the cord is passed over pulley C.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. as shown in Fig. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. Roanoke. Va. as shown by the dotted lines. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. B. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . --Contributed by Douglas Royer. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. 1.

or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. apart. B. 1 in. Notice the break (S) in the track. is compressed by wheels. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. D. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. thick (A. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. Fig. Bore two 1/4 in. 4 shows the wheel-holder. deep and 1/2 in. Cut two grooves. CC. In the sides (Fig. E. Now put all these parts together. Put the rubber tube. deep. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. Figs. If the wheels fit too tightly. thick. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. Do not fasten the sides too . Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. Fig. Fig. which should be about 1/2 in. Figs. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. long. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. in diameter. The crankpin should fit tightly. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. E. wide. 5) when they are placed. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. In these grooves place wheels. in diameter. it too loose. through one of these holes. wide. These wheels should be 3/4 in. 1. excepting the crank and tubing. 3. in diameter. in diameter. holes (HH. one in each end. square and 7/8 in. they will bind. they will let the air through. against which the rubber tubing. as shown in the illustration. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. 3). 4 and 5 show all the parts needed.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. to turn on pins of stout wire. but a larger one could be built in proportion. 1 in. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely.

fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. B. 1. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. If the motion of the wheels is regular. Cut six pieces. Fig. The three legs marked BBB. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. mark for hole and 3 in. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. from the bottom and 2 in. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. and are 30 in. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. 1. is all the expense necessary. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. 2. from that mark the next hole. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. iron. though a small iron wheel is better. 2. long. A in Fig. Take the center of the bar. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. Fig. mark again. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. In the two cross bars 1 in. from each end. Fig. Idana. because he can . Fig. from each end. tubing. 1. of material. 1. beyond each of these two. and 3-1/2 in. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. the other wheel has reached the bottom. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. --Contributed by Dan H. from each end. Two feet of 1/4-in. stands 20 in. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. 17-1/2 in. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. as it gives steadiness to the motion. For ease in handling the pump. To use the pump. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. as shown in Fig. AA. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. a platform should be added. The animal does not fear to enter the box. 15 in. 1. Kan. AA. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. costing 10 cents. Hubbard. Then turn the crank from left to right. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. the pump will give a steady stream. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. The screen which is shown in Fig. and mark for a hole.

long having two thumb screws. Philadelphia. Meyer. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. rub the zinc well. there is too much liquid in the jar. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. When the bichromate has all dissolved. sulphuric acid. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. and touches the bait the lid is released and. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. The battery is now ready for use. 2). it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. C. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. giving it a bright. . silvery appearance. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. --Contributed by H. dropping. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. shuts him in. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. of water dissolve 4 oz. If it is wet. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. The mercury will adhere.see through it: when he enters. The truncated. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. The battery is now complete. but if one casts his own zinc. If the battery has been used before. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. When through using the battery. of the top. potassium bichromate. Place the carbon in the jar. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. some of it should be poured out. and the solution (Fig. It is useful for running induction coils. acid 1 part). add slowly. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. or small electric motors. 4 oz. stirring constantly. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. If the solution touches the zinc. To cause a flow of electricity. or. however. until it is within 3 in. 14 copper wire. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. 1) must be prepared. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries.

When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. Madison. the battery circuit. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. e. The price of the coil depends upon its size. with slight changes.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. After putting in the coal. pressing the pedal closes the door. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. however. which opens the door. i. the jump-spark coil . With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. while the coal door is being opened.Fig. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. If.. Wis.

in a straight line from top to bottom. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. W W.described elsewhere in this book. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. coil. apart. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. as shown in Fig. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. while a 12-in. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. W W. 5. diameter. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. and closer for longer distances. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. 7. as shown in Fig. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. 6. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. Now for the receiving apparatus. . consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. being a 1-in. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. the full length of the coil. made of No. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. in a partial vacuum. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. 7). This coil. 6. Change the coil described. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. 7. Fig. After winding. which is made of light copper wire. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". to suit the distance the message is to be worked. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. This will make an excellent receiver.7.

How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. at any point to any metal which is grounded. after all. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. and hence the aerial line. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. A. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. being vertical. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). wireless is very simple when it is once understood. to the direction of the current. 1 to 4.The aerial line. These circles. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. which will be described later. in the air. using an electric motor and countershaft.6 stranded. B the bed and C the tailstock. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. 1). and for best results should extend up 50 ft. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. but simply illustrates the above to show that. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. A large cone pulley would then be required. above the ground. but it could be run by foot power if desired. as it matches the color well. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. being at right angles. For an illustration. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. where A is the headstock. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. Run a wire from the other binding post. may be easily made at very little expense. . To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. are analogous to the flow of induction. 90°. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. 90°. only. Figs. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. I run my lathe by power. The writer does not claim to be the originator. No.

The bearing is then ready to be poured. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. tapered wooden pin. Fig. on the under side of the bed. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. pitch and 1/8 in. thick.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. one of which is shown in Fig. Fig. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. just touching the shaft. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. Heat the babbitt well. To make these bearings. The headstock. 4. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. deep. and Fig. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . and runs in babbitt bearings. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. The bolts B (Fig. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. 5. Fig. Fig. 6. and it is well to have the shaft hot. If the bearing has been properly made. which pass through a piece of wood. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. but not hot enough to burn it. 5. 4. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. steel tubing about 1/8 in. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. After pouring. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. B. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. 6 Headstock Details D. which are let into holes FIG. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. too. 2 and 3. A.

which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. of the walk . but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. Take up about 5 ft. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. N. The tail stock (Fig. A. Ill. If not perfectly true. B.7 Details of Tailstock pipe.J. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. embedded in the wood. so I had to buy one. FIG.other machines. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. lock nut. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. the alarm is easy to fix up. and a 1/2-in. Newark. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. Oak Park. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. If one has a wooden walk. they may be turned up after assembling. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. This prevents corrosion.

to remove all traces of grease. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. Connect up an electric bell. Finally. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. clean the articles thoroughly. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. Do not touch the work with the hands again. 2). add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. Minneapolis. to roughen the surface slightly. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. before dipping them in the potash solution. Then make the solution . Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. and the alarm is complete. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. S. of water. Minn. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. add potassium cyanide again. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. water. To avoid touching it. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. hang the articles on the wires. --Contributed by R. leaving a clear solution. so that they will not touch. Jackson. save when a weight is on the trap. Fig. silver or other metal. (A. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath.

Before silver plating. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. as shown in Fig. Then. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. Take quick. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. when the point of the key touches the tin. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. Fig. but opens the door. Having finished washing the precipitate. Can be made of a 2-in. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. with the pivot 2 in. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. Fig. 3. Fig. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. and 4 volts for very small ones. square. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. piece of broomstick. long. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. If accumulators are used. 1 in. long. and the larger part (F. Make a somewhat larger block (E. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. a hand scratch brush is good. With an electric pressure of 3. A (Fig. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. and then treated as copper. When all this is set up. B should be of the same wood. zinc. 18 wire. --Model Engineer. of water. 1). slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. lead. which is held by catch B. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. about 25 ft. 1 not only unlocks. Where Bunsen cells are used. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. which . On brass. Fig. will serve for the key. A 1/4 in. 3) directly over the hole. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. 1. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. This solution. pewter. such metals as iron. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. must be about 1 in. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. an old electric bell or buzzer. make a key and keyhole. also. of clothesline rope and some No. The wooden block C. saw a piece of wood. I. which is advised. silver can be plated direct. If more solution is required. copper. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt.5 to 4 volts. with water. light strokes. Repeat six times. a circuit is completed. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. as at F. The wooden catch. Screw the two blocks together. from the lower end. In rigging it to a sliding door. hole in its center. shaking. 1).up to 2 qt. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. with water. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. thick by 3 in. nickel and such metals. if one does not possess a buffing machine. 10 in. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. use 2 volts for large articles. 3) strikes the bent wire L. German silver. To provide the keyhole.

which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. --Contributed by E. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. East Orange. . Fig. enlarged. should be cut a hole. On either side of the box. he points with one finger to the box. no painting inside is required. H. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. Next. half way from open end to closed end. so much the better. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. some black cloth. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. The interior must be a dead black. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. between the parlor and the room back of it. is the cut through which the rope runs. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. The box must be altered first. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. One thing changes to another and back again. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. One end is removed. To prepare such a magic cave. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. heighten the illusion. with a switch as in Fig. shows catch B. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. and black art reigns supreme. In front of you. B. H. Fig. Fig. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. with the lights turned low. and finally lined inside with black cloth.. the box should be painted black both inside and out. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. Fig. Objects appear and disappear. top. cut in one side. sides and end. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. and a slit. which unlocks the door. such as forks. he tosses it into the cave. 2. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. to throw the light toward the audience. floor. and hands its contents round to the audience. one-third of the length from the remaining end. 3. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. in his shirt sleeves. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. although a little more trouble. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). 2. some black paint. 1.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. 0. 116 Prospect St. surrounding a perfectly black space. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. H. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. and plenty of candles. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. He removes the bowl from the black box. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. or cave. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. The magician stands in front of this. Heavy metal objects. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. a few simple tools. the illumination in front must be arranged. the requisites are a large soap box. spoons and jackknives. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. Thus. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. Receiving the bowl again. Next. New Jersey. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. Klipstein. 1.

and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. Consequently. if. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. only he. The exhibitor should be . A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. which can be made to dance either by strings. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. and several black drop curtains. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. was identical with this. of course. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. you must have an assistant. had a big stage. his confederate behind inserts his hand. is on a table) so much the better. of course. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. which are let down through the slit in the top. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. and pours them from the bag into a dish. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. the room where the cave is should be dark. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. in which are oranges and apples. The illusion. one on each side of the box. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. The audience room should have only low lights. into the eyes of him who looks. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. a screen must be used. as presented by Hermann. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen.Finally. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. But illusions suggest themselves. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. and if portieres are impossible. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box.

held down by another disk F (Fig. their one end just slips under the strips b1. e1 and e2. and c4 + electricity. b2. b2. making contact with them as shown at y. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. Finally. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. 2. FIG. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. 2. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. or binding posts. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. Fig. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1.a boy who can talk. 1. terminal c3 will show +. or b2. c4.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. and a common screw. d. so arranged that. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. A represents a pine board 4 in. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. vice versa. as shown in Fig. respectively. at L. 1. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. making contact with them. c2. terminal c3 will show . respectively. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. b1. 2). by means of two wood screws. c3. and c2 to the zinc. On the disk G are two brass strips. when handle K is turned to one side. by 4 in. is shown in the diagram. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled..2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. b3. held down on disk F by two other terminals. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). f2. square. with three brass strips. About the center piece H moves a disk. held down on it by two terminals. and c1 – electricity. if you turn handle K to the right. c1. A. Then. respectively. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. b3. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in.

from five batteries. Joerin. B is a onepoint switch. 1. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. you have the current of one battery. . 2 you receive the current from two batteries. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. and then hold the receiver to your ear. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. E. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. --Contributed by Eugene F. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. from three batteries. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. and C and C1 are binding posts. when on No.. when on No. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. Newark. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. from four batteries. Tuttle. Jr. Ohio. thus making the message audible in the receiver. -Contributed by A. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. 5. and when on No. When switch B is closed and A is on No. when A is on No. 4. 3. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. jump spark coil.

Wis. so one can see the time. The device thus arranged. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. P. A. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. La. Redmond. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. as shown in the sketch. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. rule. E. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. B. over the bent portion of the rule. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. mark. which may be a button or other small object. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. Thus.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. A. and supporting the small weight. of Burlington. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. A. traveled by the thread. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. and placed on the windowsill of the car. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. per second.. per second for each second. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. is the device of H. New Orleans. mark. When you do not have a graduate at hand. Handy Electric Alarm .

soldered to the alarm winder. and with the same result. but may be closed at F any time desired. which illuminates the face of the clock. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. Crafton. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. C. Lane. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. S. for a wetting is the inevitable result. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. Then if a mishap comes. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. --C. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. When the alarm goes off. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. wrapping the wire around the can several times.which has a piece of metal. --Contributed by Gordon T. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. Instead. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. . Pa. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. B.

The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. and duplicates of all these. New York City. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. C. L. as shown in Fig. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. cannons. small machinery parts. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. engines. --Contributed by A. battery zincs. Macey.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. 1 . bearings. It is possible to make molds without a bench. ornaments of various kinds. binding posts. whence it is soon tracked into the house. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. but it is a mistake to try to do this. when it is being prepared. With the easily made devices about to be described. 1. Two cleats. If there is no foundry Fig. models and miniature objects. as shown. A. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. AA. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. which may. and many other interesting and useful articles. The first thing to make is a molding bench. BE. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders.

This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described." or upper half. high. is filled with coal dust. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. makes a very good sieve. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. J. G. 1. is nailed to each end of the cope. If the box is not very strong. white metal. The dowels. DD. The rammer. is about the right mesh. but this operation will be described more fully later on. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. CC. 2 . nailed to replace the bottom of a box. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. and this. is made of wood. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. CC. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. It is made of wood and is in two halves. which can be either aluminum. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. A slight shake of the bag Fig.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. Fig. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. which can be made of a knitted stocking. H. D. by 8 in. An old teaspoon. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. try using sand from other sources. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. A A. 2. and the lower pieces. previous to sawing. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. by 6 in.How to Make a Mold [96] . which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. II . the "cope. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. as shown. Fig. will be required. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. E. which should be nailed in." or lower part. The cloth bag.near at hand. and the "drag. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. as shown. and saw it in half longitudinally. and a sieve. A wedge-shaped piece. say 12 in. If desired the sieve may be homemade. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. a little larger than the outside of the flask. 1. The flask. F. is shown more clearly in Fig.

After ramming. and then more sand is added until Fig. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. as shown at C. and thus judge for himself. and if water is added. and by grasping with both hands. as it is much easier to learn by observation. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. in order to remove the lumps. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. or "cope. as described. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. turn the drag other side up. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. It is then rammed again as before. as shown at E. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it." in position. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. as shown at D. or "drag. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. Place another cover board on top. The sand is then ready for molding. and scatter about 1/16 in. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. In finishing the ramming. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. the surface of the sand at . The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. where they can watch the molders at work. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. as shown. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand.

The pattern is then drawn from the mold. made out of steel rod. after being poured. to give the air a chance to escape. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. Fig. . It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. is next cut. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. III. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. as shown at J. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. Place a brick or other flat. as shown at H. a channel being cut about 3/4 in.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern." or pouring-hole. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. thus holding the crucible securely. After drawing the pattern. thus making a dirty casting. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. in diameter. it shows that the sand is too wet. The "sprue. as shown at F. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. wide and about 1/4 in. deep. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. in order to prevent overheating. place the cope back on the drag. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. as shown at H. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. and then pour.E should be covered with coal-dust. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. as shown at G. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. as shown in the sketch. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. This is done with a spoon. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod.

In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. but any reasonable number may be used. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. used only for zinc. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. although somewhat expensive. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. may be used in either direction. --Contributed by Harold S. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. Referring to the figure. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. and. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. 15% lead. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. is very desirable. If a good furnace is available. Morton.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. or from any adjacent pair of cells. babbitt. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. and the casting is then ready for finishing. Minneapolis. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. Although the effect in the illustration . it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. white metal and other scrap available. battery zincs. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. In my own case I used four batteries. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. the following device will be found most convenient. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling.

shaft made. 2. backward. connected by cords to the rudder. Then replace the table. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. as shown at A. outward. B. 3/4 in. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. B. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. may be made of hardwood. If desired. To make it take a sheet-iron band. as shown in the illustration. By replacing the oars with paddles. A. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. The bearings. Chicago. Put a sharp needle point. which will be sufficient to hold it. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. Fig. Then walk down among the audience. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. The brass rings also appear distorted. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. --Contributed by Draughtsman. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. Make one of these pieces for each arm. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat.

drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. spoiling its appearance. A block of ice. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. should be made of wood. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. 3. It may seem strange that ice . it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. In the same way. 1. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. If galvanized iron is used. C. or the paint will come off. 2. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. If babbitt is used. The hubs. 2 and 3. being simply finely divided ice. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°.melted babbitt. E. 1. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. as shown in Fig. or under pressure. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. as shown in Fig. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. and a weight. Fig. W. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. Snow. A. but when in motion. The covers. when it will again return to its original state. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. 1. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. D. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost.

Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. but. --Contributed by Gordon T. by 1/2 in. Crafton. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. P. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. B. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . The rate of flow is often very slow. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. sometimes only one or two feet a day. and assume the shape shown at B. thus giving a high resistance contact. by 1/4. as per sketch. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself.should flow like water. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. Pressing either push button. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. Pa. or supporting it in some similar way. as shown on page 65. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. no matter how slow the motion may be. brass. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. square. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. but by placing it between books.. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. whenever there is any connection made at all. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. it will gradually change from the original shape A. Lane. which resembles ice in this respect. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. by 5 in. by 2 in. in.

The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. Wilkinsburg. G. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. and five dry batteries. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. cord. as shown. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. --Contributed by A. A is the circuit breaker. In the wiring diagram. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. and C. draft chain. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. I. the battery. Ward. furnace. alarm clock. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. B. pulleys. wooden supports. The success depends upon a slow current. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. Pa.thumb screws. about the size used for automobiles. as shown. E. J. C. draft. Indianapolis.000 ft. horizontal lever. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. weight. The parts are: A. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. K . The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. B. H. G. the induction coil. F. D. vertical lever. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out.

will fit nicely in them. material framed together as shown in Fig. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. The frame (Fig. where house plants are kept in the home. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. Artistic Window Boxes The top. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. such as used for a storm window. Mich. 2 are dressed to the right angle. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. as well as the bottom. Kalamazoo. which will provide a fine place for the plants. 3. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash.

Canada. However. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. as indicated by Fig. Thus. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts.. N. can be connected up in series. It must be remembered. 1 cp. Push the needle into the cork. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. since a battery is the most popular source of power.. this must be done with very great caution. 1 each complete with base. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. A certain number of these. which sells for 25 cents. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. in any system of lamps. Grant. so as to increase the current. after a rest. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. This is more economical than dry cells. is something that will interest the average American boy. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. but maintain the voltage constant. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. The 1/2-cp.. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. S. and cost 27 cents FIG. one can regulate the batteries as required. multiples of series of three. where they are glad to have them taken away. a cork and a needle. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. 1. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. However. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. e. and the instrument will then be complete.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. for some time very satisfactorily. i. as if drawn upon for its total output. and a suitable source of power. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. --Contributed by Wm. by connecting them in series. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. and will give the . Halifax. in diameter. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. W. in this connection.

. These will give 3 cp. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. by the proper combination of these. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. 1-cp. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. we simply turn on the water. However. If wound for 10 volts. where the water pressure is the greatest. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. Thus. although the first cost is greater. In conclusion. 2 shows the scheme. making. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. to secure light by this method. especially those of low internal resistance. if wound for 6 volts. lamps. and for Christmas trees. Fig. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. FIG. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. as in Fig. So. or 22 lights. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical.proper voltage. double insulated wire wherever needed. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. and running the series in parallel. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug.. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. lamp. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. and then lead No. 18 B & S. 11 series. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. Chicago. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. each. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. according to the water pressure obtainable. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. lamps. Thus. for display of show cases. and diffused light in a room. 3. which is the same as that of one battery. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. generates the power for the lights.

are cut just alike. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. switch. A indicates the ground. field of motor. --Contributed by F. CC. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. bars of pole-changing switch. and the sides. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. we were not bothered with them. thus reversing the machine. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. as shown in the sketch. and C. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. B. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. a bait of meat. After I connected up my induction coil. A. B. . Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. AA. BB.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. Santa Clara. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. brushes of motor. or a tempting bone. --Contributed by Leonard E. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. Cal. Ind. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. Parker. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. Emig. or from one pattern. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. outside points of switch. To reverse the motor. the letters indicate as follows: FF. center points of switch. DD. simply change the switch. Plymouth. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery.

which is in the door. Melchior.. The experiment works best . The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. thus locking the door. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. and a table or bench. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. or would remain locked. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. Hutchinson. a hammer. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. When the circuit is broken a weight. attached to the end of the armature B. merely push the button E. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. To unlock the door. Fry. W. one cell being sufficient. -Contributed by Claude B. San Jose. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. If it is not. Minn.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. A. Cal. as it is the key to the lock. 903 Vine St. a piece of string. The button can be hidden. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock.

attached at the other end. D. 3. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. 1). -. run through a pulley. forming a loop.. which pulls the draft open. Brockville. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. Ontario. Culebra. A. in the ceiling and has a window weight. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. where it will remain suspended as shown. 2. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. releasing the weight. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. 4). Wis. Schmidt. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. the stick falls away.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. as shown in Fig. Tie the ends of the string together. P. When the alarm rings in the early morning. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig.Contributed by F. --Contributed by Geo. the key turns. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. Canada. On another block of wood fasten two wires. C. I. Porto Rico. the current flows with the small arrows. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. Madison. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. 3. . W. 18 Gorham St. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. Crawford Curry.

or from a bed of flowers. Camden. J. Farley. First. and break the corners off to make them round. The cut shows the arrangement. thick. J. --Contributed by Wm. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret.. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. S. made with his own hands. get two pieces of plate glass. thence to a switch. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. Use a barrel to work on. and . N. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. or tree. square and 1 in. and then to the receiver.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. R. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. which fasten to the horn. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. and the other to the battery. D. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. Jr. Connect two wires to the transmitter. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. including the mouthpiece. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. 6 in. running one direct to the receiver.

and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. with pitch.. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. L. so the light . Then take a little of the coarsest powder. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. in length. using straight strokes 2 in. Then warm and press again with the speculum. and the under glass or tool convex. the coarse grinding must be continued. 2. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. twice the focal length away. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. 1. wide around the convex glass or tool. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. and label. A. When polishing the speculum. while walking around the barrel. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. then take 2 lb. as in Fig. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. wet till soft like paint. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. Fasten. 2. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. then 8 minutes. Fig.. When dry. or it will not polish evenly. also rotate the glass. Have ready six large dishes. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. spaces. with 1/4-in. melt 1 lb. and a large lamp. and is ready for polishing. set the speculum against the wall. a round 4-in. In a dark room. by the side of the lamp. When done the glass should be semitransparent.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. and spread on the glass. or less. of water. wetting it to the consistency of cream. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. unless a longer focal length is wanted. Use a binger to spread it on with. Fig.

Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. that was set aside.. The polishing and testing done. then ammonia until bath is clear. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). must be procured.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. Silver nitrate ……………………………. in the bath and leave until the silver rises.. and pour the rest into the empty dish.. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. 2. touched with rouge. also how the rays R from a star . a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. if a hill in the center.. fill the dish with distilled water. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. Solution D: Sugar loaf . as in K. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water.. 100 gr. the speculum is ready to be silvered. Fig. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. deep. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. 4 oz. When the focus is found.100 gr. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in..……………. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. The knife should not be more than 6 in.. Fig. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. or hills. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. Fig. If not. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use.………………………………. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. Then add 1 oz. Two glass or earthenware dishes. from the lamp. Now add enough of the solution A.. 39 gr. Then add solution B.. When dry. longer strokes. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. Nitric acid . 2. face down.. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. 25 gr. Place the speculum. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. the speculum will show some dark rings. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. 840 gr. with distilled water. With pitch. add the ammonia solution drop by drop. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. cement a strip of board 8 in. long to the back of the speculum. Alcohol (Pure) ……………. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) ….……………………………. Place the speculum S. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. 4 oz.

Mellish. Then I made the one described. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. Make the tube I of sheet iron. deg. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. My telescope is 64 in. About 20. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. is a satisfactory angle. with an outlay of only a few dollars. telescope can be made at home. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. long and cost me just $15. which proves to be easy of execution. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms.John E. two glass prisms. and proceed as for any picture.. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. stop down well after focusing. Thus an excellent 6-in. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. Place over lens.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. slightly wider than the lens mount. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. cover with paper and cloth. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. using strawboard and black paper. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. The flatter they are the less they will distort. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. . it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount.

-Contributed by A. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. The rays of the clear. push the button D. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. A. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. Ill. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. The paper is exposed. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. B. as shown in Fig. instead of the contrary. complete the arrangement. says the Master Painter. D. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. Do not stir it. add the plaster gradually to the water. 2. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. To unlock. but will not preserve its hardening. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. or powdered alum. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. through the lens of the camera and on the board. unobstructed light strike the mirror. Boody. and reflect through the negative. then add a little sulphate of potash. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. Fig. 1. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. . In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. Zimmerman. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting.

Connect the wires as shown in Fig. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. 1). throw . If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. 2. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. also provide them with a handle. Fasten on the switch lever. To reverse. but will remain suspended without any visible support. as at A and B. use a string. as in Fig. 2. Then blow through the spool. 3. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. so that it can rotate about these points. Fig. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. as shown in the sketch.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe.

Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. --Contributed by Geo.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. the armature. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. -Contributed by Morris L. --Contributed by R. Tex. Neb. B. carbon sockets. carbons. Take out. North Bend. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. San Marcos. rinse in alcohol. In the sketch. wash in running water. L. Thomas. . 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. although this is not necessary. San Antonio. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. Levy. and E E. binding posts. C C. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. Push one end of the tire into the hole. as shown in the sketch. Tex. A is the electricbell magnet. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. Go McVicker. D. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. and rub dry with linen cloth.

Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. long or more. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. Brooklyn. Bell. 36 magnet wire. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. wound evenly about this core. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. 14 or No. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. 16 magnet wire. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. --Contributed by Joseph B. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. By means of two or more layers of No.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch.

1. The primary is made of fine annealed No. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. The condenser is next wrapped . and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. diameter. 4. No. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. making two layers. 2 may be purchased at a small cost.which would be better to buy ready-made. long and 5 in. wide. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. then the strip of tin-foil. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. in length. with room also for a small condenser. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. hole is bored in the center of one end. or 8 in. coil illustrates the general details of the work. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. The following method of completing a 1-in. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. When cut and laid in one continuous length. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. long and 2-5/8 in. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. In shaping the condenser. This makes a condenser which may be folded. After the core wires are bundled. which is an important factor of the coil. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. and the results are often unsatisfactory. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. which is desirable. at a time. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. in diameter. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. one piece of the paper is laid down. Beginning half an inch from one end. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. but if it is not convenient to do this work. a box like that shown in Fig. 2 yd. A 7/8-in. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. and finally the fourth strip of paper. as shown in Fig. as the maker prefers. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. the entire core may be purchased readymade. about 6 in.

flange turned on one side. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. whole length. A. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. E. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. V-shaped copper strip. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. open switch C. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types.) The wiring diagram. B. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. F. which is insulated from the first. which allows wiring at the back. long and 12 in. I. one from bell. ready for assembling. wide. copper lever with 1-in. spark. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. round so that the inside . and one from battery. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. battery . by 12 in. and the other sheet. forms the other pole or terminal. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. Fig. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. B. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. long to key. to the door. the letters indicate as follows: A. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. 4 in. switch. bell. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. shows how the connections are made. lines H. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. shelf for clock. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back.securely with bands of paper or tape. The alarm key will turn and drop down. G. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article.. go. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. D. 3. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. C.

Short-circuit for three hours. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. . bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. instead of close to it. Use a glass or metal shade. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. from the bottom. That is what they are for. but add 5 or 6 oz. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. 2 in. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. of blue stone. but with the circuit. If desired for use immediately. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. This is for blowing. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. says the Model Engineer. and then rivet the seam. do not shortcircuit. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself.. This makes it impractical for running fan motors.diameter is 7 in. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. of zinc sulphate. London. The circuit should also have a high resistance. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. and the battery is ready for use. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. Line the furnace.

By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. grip the stick firmly in one hand. below the bottom of the zinc. g. while for others it will not revolve at all. square and about 9 in. affects . In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. or think they can do the same let them try it. as in the other movement. Enlarge the hole slightly. and therein is the trick. the second finger along the side. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. Make a hole through the center or this one arm.9 of a volt. Ohio. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. Outside of the scientific side involved. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. oxygen to ozone. If any or your audience presume to dispute. This type of battery will give about 0. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. for some it will turn one way. porcelain and paper. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. thus producing two different vibrations. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. long. and then. herein I describe a much better trick. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo.. To operate the trick. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. At least it is amusing. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. 1. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. for others the opposite way. but the thing would not move at all. If too low. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. imparting to them a violet tinge. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. Try it and see. 2. changes white phosphorus to yellow." which created much merriment.

Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. but small flowers. says the Photographic Times. but this is less satisfactory. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. if possible. and. that also can be obtained from hardware stores.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. however. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. and one of them is photomicrography. but not essential. a means for holding it vertical. To the front board is attached a box. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. insects. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. earth. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. a short-focus lens. an old tripod screw. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. chemicals. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone.

balloon. which is 15 ft. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. long and 3 ft. 7 ft. AB. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper.--Contributed by George C. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. Mass. in Cu.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. Fig. 10 ft 523 33 lb. 381 24 lb. 11 ft. 179 11 lb. Cap. Divide one-quarter of the circle . 905 57 lb. 5 in. Ft Lifting Power. 7-1/2 in. CD. wide from which to cut a pattern. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. 1. 7-1/2 in. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. 65 4 lb. 268 17 lb. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. 9 ft. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. 697 44 lb. Madison. 5 ft. or 31 ft. If the balloon is 10 ft. Boston. while it is not so with the quill. or 3 ft. A line. 113 7 lb. 6 ft. The following table will give the size. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. and a line. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. 12 ft. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. in diameter. 8 ft.

A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. The pattern is now cut. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. The amounts necessary for a 10- . Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. of beeswax and boil well together. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. The cloth segments are sewed together. Procure 1 gal. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. This test will show if the bag is airtight. of the very best heavy body. 3. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. cutting all four quarters at the same time. using a fine needle and No. and so on. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. 2. 70 thread. making a double seam as shown in Fig. on the curved line from B to C. 4. keeping the marked part on the outside. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. Repeat this operation four times. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas.

should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. A. The 3/4-in. as shown in Fig. C. 1 lb. B. pipe. this should be repeated frequently. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. In the barrel. All FIG. leaving the hand quite clean. When the clock has dried. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. Water 1 oz. with 3/4in. oil the spindle holes carefully. ].. it is not fit to use. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. 5 . Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. or a fan. 5. B. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. The outlet. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. C. until no more dirt is seen. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. a clean white rag. balloon are 125 lb. Vegetable oils should never be used. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. with water 2 in. of sulphuric acid. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. of iron. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. above the level of the water in barrel A. . . or dusting with a dry brush. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. of water will make 4 cu. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. using a fine brush. B. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. to the bag. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. A. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. A. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. Fill the other barrel. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes.ft. but if any grease remains on the hand.Green Iron ammonium citrate . should not enter into the water over 8 in. 150 gr. which may sound rather absurd. by fixing. of gas in one hour. if it is good it will dry off. 1 lb. After washing a part. of iron borings and 125 lb. capacity and connect them. with the iron borings. About 15 lb. ft.

This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. says the Moving Picture World. . keeping the fingers out of the solution. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. dry atmosphere will give best results. at the time of employment. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. fix in hypo. Dry in the dark. The negative pole.Water 1 oz. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. Exposure. The positive pole. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. Printing is done in the sun. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. Port Melbourne. or carbon.. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. This aerial collector can be made in . toning first if desired. 20 to 30 minutes. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. Dry the plates in the dark. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. or zinc. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. or battery. . of the cell is connected to a ground wire. and a vigorous negative must be used. The miniature 16 cp. A longer exposure will be necessary.000 ft. A cold. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. of any make. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. to avoid blackened skin. and keep in the dark until used.

How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. This will complete the receiving station. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. long. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. lay a needle. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. holes . a positive and a negative. lead pipe. forming a cup of the pipe. If the wave ceases. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. making a ground with one wire. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. and have the other connected with another aerial line. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. 5 in. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. in diameter. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid.various ways. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. If the waves strike across the needle. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. when left exposed to the air. and as less current will flow the short way. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. the resistance is less. both positive and negative. will soon become dry and useless. The storage cell. as described below. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. As the telephone offers a high resistance.

The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. This support or block. The other plate is connected to the zinc. Two binding-posts should be attached. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. B. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. When mixing the acid and water. a round one. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. says the Pathfinder. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. namely: a square hole. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. This. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. one to the positive. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. and the other to the negative. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. by soldering the joint. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. on each end. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. except for about 1 in.as possible. This box can be square. does not need to be watertight. or tube B. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. an oblong one and a triangular one. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. or tube C. D. of course.

using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. 3. about 20 in. wide. leaving about 1/16 in. 1. 1. deep and 4 ft. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. This punt. 2. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. as shown in Fig. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. all around the edge. Ill. C. The third piece of brass. in place on the wood. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. 2. back and under. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. thick cut two pieces alike. . Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. as shown in Fig. and has plenty of good seating capacity. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. Chicago. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. is built 15 ft. and match them together.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. wide. were fitted by this one plug. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. as it is not readily overturned. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. C. long. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. Only galvanized nails should be used. A and B. From a piece of brass 1/16 in.

1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. Tacoma. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. gas pipe. square (Fig 2). The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. B.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . thick and 3-1/2 in. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. In Fig.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. is cut 1 in. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. A piece of 1/4-in. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. A. Wash.

The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. it had to be borne in mind that. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning.--Contributed by Charles H. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. which the writer has made. Wagner." has no connection with the outside circuit. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. The winding of the armature. In designing. may be of interest to some of our readers. says the Model Engineer. or "rotor. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. no more current than a 16-cp. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. H. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. if possible. no special materials could be obtained. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . and to consume. with the exception of insulated wire. lamp. without auxiliary phase. which can be developed in the usual manner.

5. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. B. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. A. and filled with rivets. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. 1. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. were then drilled and 1/4-in. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. with the dotted line. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. Holes 5-32 in. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. about 2-1/2 lb. no steel being obtainable. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. 3. thick. bolts put in and tightened up. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. C. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. 2. The stator is wound full with No. also varnished before they were put in. holes. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. They are not particularly accurate as it is. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. being used. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. and all sparking is avoided. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. as shown in Fig. in diameter were drilled in the corners. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. wrought iron. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. this little machine is not self-starting. while the beginnings . Unfortunately. or "stator.the field-magnet. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. 4. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. After assembling a second time. to be filed out after they are placed together. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. as shown in Fig.

Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig.. and as each layer of wire was wound. N. Jr. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. 1. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. and as the motor runs at constant speed. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. The image should . as a means of illustrating songs. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. 2. Newark. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. One is by contact. and the other by reduction in the camera. 3-Contributed by C. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. E. if applied immediately. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. having no commutator or brushes. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. and would not easily get out of order. The lantern slide is a glass plate. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. No starting resistance is needed. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. as before stated. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. In making slides by contact. This type of motor has drawbacks. film to film. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. The rotor is wound with No. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. and especially of colored ones. McKinney. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. J. a regulating resistance is not needed. and all wound in the same direction. it would be very simple to build.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. If too late for alcohol to be of use.

3. about a minute. and then a plain glass. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. Draw lines with a pencil. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. as shown in Fig. Fig. 4. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. If the exposure has been correct. the formulas being found in each package of plates. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. These can be purchased from any photo material store. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. over the mat. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. C. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. 1. a little extra work will be necessary. to use a plain fixing bath. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. they are much used by travelers. as shown in Fig. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. D. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. and development should be over in three or four minutes. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. also. A. if possible. Being unbreakable. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. Select a room with one window. B. 5.appear in. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. It is best. except that the binding is different. 2. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots.

or other stout cloth. as shown at A. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. known as rods and cones. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. 2. Fig. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. 16 in. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. Corinth. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. long. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. Hastings. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. as shown at B. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. in diameter and 40 in. wide and 50 in. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. Fig. as shown in Fig. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. long. from the center of this dot draw a star. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. A piece of canvas. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. 1. in diameter and 20 in. Vt. while the dot will be in front of the other. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. holes bored in the end pieces. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. long. from the ends. from the end piece of the chair. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . 1. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. If the star is in front of the left eye. is to be used for the seat. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. These longer pieces can be made square. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears.

-Contributed by P. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. as well as to operate other household machines. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. as shown in Fig. per square inch. made from an ordinary sash cord. 1. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. in thickness and 10 in. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. O'Gara. J. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. A disk 1 in. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. as shown in Fig. A belt. Auburn. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. . Cal. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. 2. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans.

says the Scientific American. fairly accurate. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. thick and 2-1/2 in. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. . it serves a very useful purpose. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. and the construction is complete. divided by the number of threads to the inch. The part of a rotation of the bolt. then removing the object. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. direction. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. screwing it through the nut. Put the bolt in the hole. Bore a 1/4-in. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. with as fine a thread as possible. 3/4 in. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. wide. leaving it shaped like a bench. long. square for a support. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. to the top of the bench. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. A simple. will be the thickness of the object. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. Cut out a piece from the block combination. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. or inconvenient to measure.

Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. Oal. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. long is used for the center pole. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. Santa Maria. which show up fine at night. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. Place a 3/4-in. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. bolt in each hole. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. The wheel should be open . Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. Bore a 3/4-in. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. globe that has been thrown away as useless. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. piece of wood 12 ft. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. long. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. beyond the end of the wood. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. material 12 ft.

The coil. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. square and 3 or 4 in. long. C. L. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. at the top and 4 in. Graham. which should be 1/4 in. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. O. P.-Contributed by A. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. to be operated by the magnet coil. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. long. and on its lower end a socket. at the bottom. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. The boards may be nailed or bolted. of the ends with boards. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. 1/2 in. thick. Tex. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. long. in diameter. A cross bar. from the top end. is soldered. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. and the lower part 61/2 in. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. long. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. The width should be about 5-1/4 in.Side and Top View or have spokes. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. B. A. made of the same material. C. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. thick. thick is used for the armature. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. wide and 1/8 in. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. from the ends. A piece of brass 2 in. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. pieces used for the spokes. The spool . H and J. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. Fort Worth. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core.

which may be had by using German silver wire. one without either rubber or metal end. or a water rheostat heretofore described. D and E. 2. --Contributed by Arthur D. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. 2 the hat hanging on it. B. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. and place it against a door or window casing. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. and it will stay as if glued to the casing.000.J. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. S. This tie can be used on grain sacks. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. R. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. do it without any apparent effort. F. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. by soldering. Mass. and in numerous other like instances. Randolph. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. When you slide the pencil along the casing. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. C. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. that holds the lower carbon. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. and directly centering the holes H and J. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. for insulating the brass ferrule. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. is drilled. A. then with a firm. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. S. A soft piece of iron. This is a very neat trick if performed right. long. 1. Bradlev. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way.000 for irrigation work. The armature. At the bottom end of the frame.E. . and is adjusted in place by two set screws.--A.is about 2-1/2 in.

where it can be pressed without attracting attention. thick. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. A. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. about 1/8 in. for the secondary. in diameter and 2 in. S. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. About 70 turns of No.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. with a 3/16-in. about 1 in. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. Experiment with Heat [134] . The vibrator B. from the core and directly opposite. for adjustment. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. The vibrator. D. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. hole in the center. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. 1. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. and then 1. C. about 3/16 in. long and 1 in. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. Fig. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. in diameter. mixed with water to form a paste. Fig. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. 1. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. leaving the projections as shown. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. in diameter. S. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. for the primary. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. 2. long. F. may be made from a 3/8-in. The switch.500 turns of No. wide. The core of the coil. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. The coil ends are made from cardboard. B. in diameter and 1/16 in. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. is constructed in the usual manner. is connected to a flash lamp battery. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core.

one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. 1. The lock. which may be filed off and two holes substituted.Place a small piece of paper. board. brass plate. 1. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. between the boards. and then well clinched. as shown. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. with which to operate the dial. . to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. which is only 3/8-in. The three screws were then put in the hasp. and the same distance inside of the new board. lighted. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. The knob on the dial extends out too far. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. The hasp. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. Fig. 2 to fit the two holes. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. 16 in. The tin is 4 in. wide. thick on the inside. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. it laps down about 8 in. which seemed to be insufficient. which is cut with two holes. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. as shown in the sketch. was to be secured by only three brass screws. in an ordinary water glass. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. long and when placed over the board.

When the rear part is illuminated. If the box is made large enough. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. square and 8-1/2 in. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. high for use in window displays. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. black color. clear glass as shown. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. and the back left dark. but when the front part is illuminated. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. the glass. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. one in each division. or in the larger size mentioned. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. When making of wood. not shiny. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. square and 10-1/2 in. any article placed therein will be reflected in. which completely divides the box into two parts. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp.

This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. as it appears. long and 1 ft. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. When using as a window display. into the other. as shown in the sketch. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. When there is no electric current available. alternately. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly.. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. and with the proper illumination one is changed. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. . Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. a tank 2 ft. above the top of the tank. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. wide will be about the right size. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. as shown at A in the sketch.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

long. and a door in front. gauge for depth. Shape the under sides first. 1 in. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. square. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. thick and 3 in. with a length of 13 in. bore from each end. wide. one for each side. radius. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. hole bored the full length through the center. or ferrous sulphate. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. 6 in. two pieces 1-1/8 in. Iron sulphate. The 13-in. and boring two holes with a 1-in. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. then use a red-hot iron to finish. dried and mixed with linseed oil. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. long. high. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. If a planing mill is near. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. is the green vitriol. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. A small platform. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. but with a length of 12 in. lines gauged on each side of each. The pieces can then be taken out. 5 ft. wide. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. O. under sides together. as shown. each. Three windows are provided. hole. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. is built on the front. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. Columbus. and a solution of iron sulphate added. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. bit. however. from the ground. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. This hole must be continued . The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. 2 ft. and 6 ft. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. This precipitate is then washed. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. using a 3/4-in. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. square and 40 in.

To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult.through the pieces forming the base. The sketch shows one method of attaching. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. Directions will be found on the filler cans. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. three or four may be attached as shown. Electric globes--two." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. thick and 3 in. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. Saw the two blocks apart. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. If the parts are to be riveted. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. apply two coats of wax. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. hole in each block. When this is dry. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. When the filler has hardened. if shade is purchased. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. A better way. For art-glass the metal panels are . Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. square and drawing a diagonal on each. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach.

Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal. such as copper. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade.Construction of Shade .The Completed Lamp cut out. METAL SHADE . and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. as brass.

as shown in the sketch. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. one way and 1/2 in. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. the other. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. as in ordinary devices. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. 2 the front view of this stand. Figure 1 shows the side. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. and Fig. The arms holding the glass. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. the object and the background.

outside diameter. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. long. Cut another circular piece 11 in. uncork and recork again. wide and 11 in. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. thus forming a 1/4-in. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. as shown in the cut. as it is very poisonous. If the light becomes dim. Before mounting the ring on the base. Put the ring in place on the base. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. in diameter. and an inside diameter of 9 in. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. wide and 6-5/16 in. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. and swinging freely. channel in the circumference of the ring. about 1-1/4 in. pointing north and south. thick 5/8-in. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. as shown in the sketch. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. An ordinary pocket compass. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. in diameter for a base. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No.

above the half can.865 1. and north of the Ohio river.182 .420 . of the top. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. 1 oz. CC. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg.289 . and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders.715 . black oxide of manganese and some iron filings. in diameter and 8 in. EE. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. black oxide of copper. The results given should be multiplied by 1. to which a wire has been soldered for connections.088 . Corresponding mirrors. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. B.500 . Place on top the so- . A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes . Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. and mirrors. from the second to the third. into these cylinders. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. AA.600 . the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. are mounted on a base.

then they will not rust fast. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. In Fig. alcohol. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. the wheel will revolve in one direction. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. -Contributed by Robert Canfield.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. slender bottle. University Park. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. When renewing. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. little crystals forming in the liquid. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. of pulverized campor. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. which otherwise remains clear. always remove the oil with a siphon. Colo. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. says Metal Worker. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. 31 gr. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. Put the solution in a long. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. 62 gr.

Lloyd Enos. If zinc and copper are used. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. Solder in the side of the box . --Contributed by C. If two of them are floating on the same solution. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. Attach to the wires. A paper-fastener box. If zinc and carbon are used. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. on the under side of the cork. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. floating on a solution. will allow the magnet to point north and south. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. about 1-1/4 in. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. This is used in place of the spoon. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer.

and connect the two wires from the coil to them. 1-1/4 in. Rhamstine. 14 wire will do. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. Use a board 1/2. wide and 2-1/2 in. 1/2. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. C. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. Take a small piece of soft iron. E. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way.not shorter than 18 in. If the hose is not a tight fit. one on each side of the board. to it. Thos. The base. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. 10 wire about 10 in. G--No. or made with a little black paint. is made from a piece of No. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. H. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. To this standard solder the supporting wire. The bottom of the box.1-in. brass tubing. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. C.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch.in. B. Wind evenly about 2 oz. The standard. B. D. can be made of oak. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. glass tubing . the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. E. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. 1. F. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. away. A. D. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. Bore holes for binding-posts.Contributed by J. hole. Put ends. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. long. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. piece of 1/4-in. as shown in Fig. long that has about 1/4-in. The spring should be about 1 in. 3 in. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. wide and 6 in. C. .in. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. long. D. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. of No. A circular piece of cardboard. thick. and on the other around the glass tube. and then solder on the cover. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. A. of wire on each end extending from the coil. stained and varnished.

and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. 3-in. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. Smith. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. 5. long are used for the legs. Y. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. of No. 3. in diameter. 3 in. Wis. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. of mercury will be sufficient. J. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. long. canvas. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. Cuba. Milwaukee. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. N. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. about 1 in. from the right hand. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. making a support as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. long. long.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. long. four hinges. Teasdale. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. 1. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. two pieces 2-1/2 ft.of the coil. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. The iron plunger. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. two pieces 2 ft. D. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. . About 1-1/2 lb. E. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat.--Contributed by Edward M. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. is drawn nearer to the coil.--Contributed by R. of 8-oz. 2. When the glass becomes soft. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. long.

the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. long. leaving 8 in. 4. holding in the left hand. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. --Contributed by David A. This tube as described will be 8 in. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. Can. 2. The tube now must be filled completely. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury.. Seal the remaining 1/2 in.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. Measure 8 in. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. 6. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. Take 1/2 in. 3. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation.. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. Toronto. Break off the piece of glass. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . expelling all the air. small aperture in the long tube. 5. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. Keys. Fig. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. thus leaving a. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. of vacuum at the top. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel.

Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. 9 in. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. long. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. 6. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. as in Fig. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. thick. wide and 12 in. with each projection 3-in. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. 7. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. The large pulley is about 14 in. A crosspiece 3/4-in. wide and 5 ft. 1 in. as shown in Fig. thick. wide and 5 ft. Fig. long. from the end of same. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. wide and 5 ft. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. in diameter. cut in the shape shown in Fig. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. thick. 5. 4 in. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. long. wide and 3 in. 3 in. 4. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. as shown in Fig. material 2 in. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. thick. Four blocks 1/4 in. 1 in. joint be accurately put together. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. 1. 2. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. 3 in. wood screws. 3.6 -. and the single projection 3/4 in. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. thick. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. but yellow pine is the best. and 1/4 in.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. FIG. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. These are bent and nailed. long. This forms a slot.

The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. first removing the crank. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. R. Welsh. . leaving the greater part of the screw extending. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. by 1-in. Water 1 oz. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. Manhattan. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. Kan. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. says Photography. attach runners and use it on the ice.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. above the runner level. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. --Contributed by C.

--Contributed by Wallace C. 1 oz. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. as shown in Fig. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. 2.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. Printing is carried rather far. as shown in Fig. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. and very much cheaper. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. Treasdale. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. The print is washed. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. 1. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. --Contributed by Edward M. of water. This is done with a camel's hair brush. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. 3. also. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. . Newton. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. Mass. Leominster. from an ordinary clamp skate. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass.

long. say. which represents the back side of the door. Fig. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. high. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. Take two glass tubes. and 3 ft. too.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. Fig. Place a 10-in. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. 1 ft. Church. high for rabbits. --Contributed by H. about 10 in. The swing door B. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. fasten a 2-in. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. 1. 2. Then. hole. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. extending the width of the box. causing the door to swing back and up. wide and 4 in. 1. and to the bottom. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. Alexandria. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. with about 1/8-in. from one end. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. A. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. The thread is broken off at the . wide. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. as shown in the sketch. F. and bend them as shown in the sketch. square piece. 1-1/2 ft. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. Va.

by 5-in. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. 1 in. long. from the edge on each side of these openings. but cut it 1/4 in. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools.proper place to make a small hole. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. as shown in Fig. being 1/8 in. plates. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. camera and wish to use some 4. say 8 in. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. says Camera Craft. Fig. in size. This opening. D. and go in the holder in the same way. B. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. long. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. Out two rectangular holes. Jr. shorter. Paste a piece of strong black paper. wide. . On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. Crilly. Take two pieces of pasteboard. Chicago. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. making the appearance of the ordinary stage.. inside of the opening. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. 3. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. and exactly 5 by 7 in. wide and 5 in. high and 12 in. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. black surfaced if possible. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. 10 in. to be used as a driving pulley. horses and dogs. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. shorter at each end. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. trolley cars. wide. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. -Contributed by William M. 1. Cut an opening in the other piece. automobiles. C.by 7-in. A and B. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. in size. 2. Fig.

A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. in diameter. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. if it has previously been magnetized. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in.. long and 6 in. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile.in. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. A cell of this kind can easily be made. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. making a . This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. into which the dog is harnessed. The needle will then point north and south. wide will be required.

A is a block of l-in. File the rods to remove the copper plate. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. plaster of paris. fodder. Place the pan on the stove. filter. . All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. says Electrician and Mechanic. leaving about 1/2-in. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. B is a base of 1 in. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. with narrow flanges. of rosin and 2 oz. Do not paint any surface. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. in diameter and 6 in. 1/4 lb. This makes the wire smooth. Pack the paste in. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. fuel and packing purposes. zinc oxide. when the paraffin is melted. of water.in. only the joints. of the top. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. for a connection. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. under the spool in the paraffin. one that will hold about 1 qt. sal ammoniac. short time. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. and a notch between the base and the pan. pull out the wire as needed. F is a spool.watertight receptacle. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. pine. in which P is the pan. 1 lb. beeswax melted together. of the plate at one end. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. long which are copper plated. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. 3/4 lb. Form a 1/2-in.

One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. while for others it will not revolve at all. let them try it. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. or think they can do the same. and one friend tells me that they were . thus producing two different vibrations. Toledo. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. square and about 9 in. long. but the thing would not move at all. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig." which created much merriment. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. Ohio. grip the stick firmly in one hand. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. Enlarge the hole slightly. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. for some it will turn one way. and therein is the trick. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. 2. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. g. and he finally. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. as in the other movement. by the Hindoos in India. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. for others the opposite way. At least it is amusing. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. Try it and see. and then. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. from vexation. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. If any of your audience presume to dispute.. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. and many other things in order to make the arm operate.

If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. 2. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. To operate. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. m. Speeds between 700 and 1. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. 6. no rotation resulted. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. secondly. 4. p. gave the best results. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. The experiments were as follows: 1. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. A square stick with notches on edge is best. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. Thus a circular or . As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape.100 r. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. by means of a center punch. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. and. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. If the pressure was upon an edge. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. rotation was obtained. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. the rotation may be obtained. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. 5. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. 7. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. and I think the results may be of interest. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. 3. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression.

. A. at first. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. Ph. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. the upper portion is. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. D.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. . G. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. as shown. Sloan.D. Duluth. Lloyd. so far as can be seen from the photographs. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). --Contributed by G. unwetted by the liquid. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. Minn. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. A wire is tied around the can. or greasy. is driven violently away. --Contributed by M. forming a handle for carrying.. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. C. a piece of wire and a candle. Washington. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. and the resultant "basket splash." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. it will be clockwise. and the height of the fall about 6 in. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. if the pressure is from the left. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. hole drilled in the center. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. axle. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. with a 1/16-in. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. long. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. 1. about 2-5/8 in. thick and 1 in. as shown in Fig. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. flange and a 1/4-in. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. Each wheel is 1/4 in. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. in diameter. as shown.

is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . --Contributed by Maurice E. 5. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. San Antonio. The current. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. which must be 110 volt alternating current. lamp in series with the coil. This will save buying a track. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. The parts. and the locomotive is ready for running. as shown in Fig. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. each in its proper place. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point.50. bottom side up. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. is made from brass. are shown in Fig. Fig. 4.brass. Texas. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. holes 1 in. is made from a piece of clock spring. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. 2. bent as shown. put together complete. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. wide and 16 in. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. Fuller. Fig. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. with cardboard 3 in. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. or main part of the frame. long. wood. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. 6. 3. A trolley. 2. These ends are fastened together. 3/4 in. 1 from 1/4-in. 3. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. The first piece. The motor is now bolted. of No. as shown in Fig. If the ends are to be soldered. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig.

Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. as shown in Fig. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. Fig 1. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. and holes drilled in them. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. then continue to tighten much more. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. 1.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. 2. Cincinnati. When cold treat the other end in the same way. the length of a paper clip. and as this end . 3. as shown in Fig. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. but do not heat the center. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. The quarter will not go all the way down. Fig. O. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg.

2 and 1 respectively. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. or should the lathe head be raised. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. When the trick is to be performed. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. When the cutter A. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. and adjusted . For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. In the sketch. has finished a cut for a tooth. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. or apparent security of the knot. A pair of centers are fitted.

(4. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. at the same time striking light. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. watch fob ready for fastenings. Bott. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. --Contributed by Samuel C. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. Bunker. When connecting to batteries. dividing it into as many parts as desired. tea cosey. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. holding it in place with the left hand. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. Y. if but two parts. 2. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. The frame holding the mandrel.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. Second row: -Two book marks. and a nut pick. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter.) Make on paper the design wanted. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. swing lathe. (3.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. trace the outline. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. or one-half of the design. In this manner gears 3 in. note book.) Place the paper design on the leather and.to run true. tea cosey. --Contributed by Howard S. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. above the surface. (1. gentleman's card case or bill book. lady's belt bag. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. such as brass or marble. (2. lady's card case. twisted around itself and soldered. if four parts are to be alike. long. (6. N. Brooklyn. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). With such objects as coin purses and card cases. about 1-1/2 in. Fig. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. Make free-hand one quarter of the design.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). 1. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. coin purse. An ordinary machine will do. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. Fold over along these center lines. book mark. draw center lines across the required space. (5. blotter back.

Secure . some heavy rubber hose.How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. and an ordinary bottle.

The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. and bore a hole through the center.C. C. Florida. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. B. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. A. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. If the needle is not horizontal. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. The electrodes are made . from Key West. where it condenses. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. D. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. Thrust a pin. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes.. a distance of 900 miles.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. into which fit a small piece of tube. and push it through a cork. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle.

All wiring is done with No. and also to keep it steady in its flight. wide and 4 ft long. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. Four long beams 3/4 in. 2 in. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. long. 2 arm sticks 1 in. If 20-ft. 16 piano wire. use 10-ft. Powell. C. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. The operator can then land safely and . How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. by 3/4 in. wide and 4 ft. To make a glide. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. wide and 3 ft. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. take the glider to the top of a hill. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. as shown in Fig. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. 1. thick. long. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. D. long. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. long. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. apart and extend 1 ft. 1. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. long. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. or flying-machine. lengths and splice them. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. 1/2. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. using a high resistance receiver. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. as shown in Fig. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. thick. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. wide and 3 ft. several strips 1/2 in. 12 uprights 1/2 in. wide and 20 ft. which is tacked to the front edge. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. thick. slacken speed and settle. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. wide and 4 ft. square and 8 ft long. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. free from knots. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. as shown in Fig. Washington. 3/4 in.in. 1-1/2 in. Connect as shown in the illustration. 3. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. both laterally and longitudinally. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. lumber cannot be procured. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. --Contributed by Edwin L. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. 1-1/4 in. long for the body of the operator. thick. thick. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. 2. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. 1. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. 2.

Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. Glides are always made against the wind. Great care should be . The higher the starting point the farther one may fly.gently on his feet. Of course. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. but this must be found by experience.

Olson. as shown in Fig. a creature of Greek mythology. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. --Contributed by L. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place.exercised in making landings. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. 2. Bellingham. which causes the dip in the line. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. half man and half horse. 1. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . M. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. When heated a little.

While at the drug store get 3 ft. outside the box. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. about the size of door screen wire. of small rubber tubing. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. about the size of stove pipe wire. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. will complete the material list. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. square. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. long. this will cost about 15 cents. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. 14 in. The light from the . long and about 3/8 in. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. at the other. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. a piece of brass or steel wire. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. in diameter. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. making it 2-1/2 in.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered.

. --Photo by M. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. 2. Hunting.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. while others will fail time after time. If done properly the card will flyaway. as shown in the sketch. as shown in Fig. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. O. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. This is very simple when you know how. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. as shown in Fig. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. M. 1. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. Dayton.

it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. This game is played by five persons. hold the lump over the flame. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. then put it on the hatpin head. Cool in water and dry. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. as before. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. as shown. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. When the desired shape has been obtained. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. as described. place the other two. If a certain color is to be more prominent.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin." or the Chinese students' favorite game. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. closing both hands quickly. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs.

these sectors. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. or more in width. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. passing through neutralizing brushes. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. distribute electric charges . using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface.

The fork part is 6 in. Two pieces of 1-in. in diameter. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. 1 in. Fig. wide. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. as shown in Fig. The two pieces. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. after they are mounted. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. wide at one end. EE. and pins inserted and soldered. RR. 3/4 in. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. as shown in Fig. are made from solid. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. brass tubing and the discharging rods. free from wrinkles. The plates. to which insulating handles . are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. at the other. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. long. are made from 7/8-in. These pins. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. in diameter. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. and of a uniform thickness. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. material 7 in. Fig. in diameter. 2. 3. and 4 in. GG. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. long and the shank 4 in. The plates are trued up. 4. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. from about 1/4-in. The drive wheels. in diameter. The collectors are made. and the outer end 11/2 in. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. Two solid glass rods.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. D. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. long. in diameter. C C. or teeth. long and the standards 3 in. 1. in diameter. turned wood pieces. and this should be done before cutting the circle. 3. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. the side pieces being 24 in. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. in diameter and 15 in. 1-1/2 in. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate.

The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. one having a 2-in. Colorado City. D. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. 12 ft. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete..are attached. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. --Contributed by C. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. ball and the other one 3/4 in. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. wide and 22 ft. Lloyd Enos. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. in diameter. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. which are bent as shown. and the work was done by themselves. KK. Colo. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. long.

How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. string together. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. yet such a thing can be done. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house.is a good one. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. using a 1-in. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. as at A. They can be used to keep pins and needles. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. deep. pens . making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. and bore a hole 1/2 in. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. bit. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. The key will drop from the string. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold.

unless it would be the metal shears. inside the first on all. When the stamping is completed. etc. screw-driver and sheet copper of No.. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. above the work and striking it with the hammer. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. slim screw. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. or cigar ashes. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. 9. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. two spikes. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. Draw one-half the design free hand. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. they make attractive little pieces to have about. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. extra metal on each of the four sides. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. 2. very rapid progress can be made. using a nail filed to chisel edge. 7. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. Inside this oblong. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. 23 gauge. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. stamp the background promiscuously. 8. 6. about 3/4-in. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. 3.and pencils. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. inside the second on all. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. This is to make a clean. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. Having determined the size of the tray. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. sharp division between background and design. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. 5. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. They are easily made. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. file. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears.. Use . The second oblong was 3/4 in. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. flat and round-nosed pliers. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. 4. Raise the ends. Proceed as follows: 1. also trace the decorative design. above the metal. then the other side. etc. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. and the third one 1/4 in.

put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. 8. 6. 7. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. 10. 9. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. and fourth fingers. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. third fingers. The eyes. second fingers. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. first fingers. In the first numbering. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. and the effect will be most pleasing.

the product of 12 times 12. 2 times 2 equals 4.. viz. etc. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method.. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. which tens are added. which would be 16. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. Still. or the product of 6 times 6. etc. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. renumber your fingers. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. 11. Let us multiply 12 by 12. . The addition of 100 is arbitrary. or the product of 8 times 9. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. or numbers above 10. above 20 times 20. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. 12. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. etc. there are no fingers above. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. which would be 70. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. as high as you want to go. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. if we wish. above 15 times 15 it is 200. but being simple it saves time and trouble. and the six lower fingers as six tens. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. or 60. 25 times 25. thumbs. or 80. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. In the second numbering. 600. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. Two times one are two. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. Put your thumbs together. 400. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. first fingers.. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. At a glance you see four tens or 40.

Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. any two figures between 45 and 55. 3. however. whether the one described in second or third numbering.. the lump sum to add. or what. at the will of the observer. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. the inversion takes place against his will. thumbs. For figures ending in 6. thirties. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. when he removes his spectacles. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. in the case of a nearsighted person. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. .In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. lastly. not rotation. 75 and 85. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. first finger 17. and. the value which the upper fingers have. adding 400 instead of 100. forties. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. 21. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. The inversion and reversion did not take place. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. 8. Proceed as in the second lumbering. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. as one might suppose. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. It takes place also. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. And the lump sum to add. first fingers 22. beginning the thumbs with 16. being 80). Oppose the proper finger tips as before. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. or from above or from below. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. and so on. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. etc. further. For example. about a vertical axis. twenties. Take For example 18 times 18. which is the half-way point between the two fives. 7. 2. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. the value of the upper fingers being 20. the revolution seems to reverse.

holding it firmly in a horizontal position. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. A flat slide valve was used. as . the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. sometimes the point towards him. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. tee. The cylinder consists of a 3-in.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. Looking at it in semidarkness. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. and putting a cork on the point. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. when he knows which direction is right. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. the other appearance asserts itself. The ports were not easy to make. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When.

Ill. The eccentric is constructed of washers. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. in diameter. and make in one end a hollow. if continued too long without proper treatment. The tools are simple and can be made easily. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. it is easily built. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. about 2 in. . The steam chest is round. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. as in a vise. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. Springfield. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. apart. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. pipe. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. Fasten the block solidly. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. saw off a section of a broom handle.. Next take a block of wood. deep. If nothing better is at hand. pipe 10 in.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. such as is shown in the illustration. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. secure a piece of No. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. inexpensive. Beating copper tends to harden it and. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. Kutscher. across the head. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. bottom side up. H. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. across and 1/2 in. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. While this engine does not give much power. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. -Contributed by W.

Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. especially when the object is near to the observer. To produce color effects on copper. S. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. the other to the left. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. Hay. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. and. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. Camden. To overcome this hardness. --Contributed by W. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. O. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . This process is called annealing. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. as it softens the metal. Vinegar. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. C.will cause the metal to break. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out.

and lies to the right on the picture. . and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. diameter. as for instance red and green. while both eyes together see a white background. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. because. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. however. not two mounted side by side. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. they must be a very trifle apart. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. So with the stereograph. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. The further apart the pictures are." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. and without any picture. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. would serve the same purpose. orange. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. But they seem black.stereoscope. disappears fully. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. the further from the card will the composite image appear. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. with the stereograph. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. the left eye sees through a blue screen. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. from the stereograph. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. although they pass through the screen. the one for the left eye being blue. that for the right. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. In order to make them appear before the card. The red portions of the picture are not seen. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. only the orange rays may pass through. because of the rays coming from them. in the proper choice of colors. It is just as though they were not there. it.

in the shape of a crank. San Francisco. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. Cal. long and a hole drilled in each end. wide and 1 in. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. etc. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. A No. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. thick. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. This should only be bored about half way through the block. The weight of the air in round . The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. in diameter. 12 gauge wire. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. 1/4 in. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. wireless.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. Place a NO. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. or the middle of the bottle. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt.

long. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. .6) 1 in. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. will calibrate itself. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. internal diameter and about 34 in. wide and 4 in. the instrument. the contrary.. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. or a column of mercury (density 13. high. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. high. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. or. But if a standard barometer is not available. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. inside diameter and 2 in. long. but before attempting to put in the mercury. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. square. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. The 4 in. square. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. pine 3 in. wide and 40 in. and a slow fall. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. thick. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. 34 ft. In general. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. if you choose. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. a glass tube 1/8 in. Before fastening the scale. Only redistilled mercury should be used. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. high. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling.numbers is 15 lb. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. long. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. if accurately constructed. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. 30 in. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. a bottle 1 in. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31.

The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. 2. Number the pieces 1. 6 and 7. a cover from a baking powder can will do. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. long. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. the size of the outside of the bottle. thick. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. which is slipped quickly over the end. and place them as shown in Fig. Procure a metal can cover. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. 5. 3. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. Mark out seven 1-in. wide and 10 in. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. 1.

1. 5 over No. 3. Move 10-Move No. Move 2-Jump No. Make 22 sections. 3. Move 7-Jump No. Move 4-Jump No. Cape May Point. Move 5-Jump No. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. Move 15-Move No.-Contributed by W. Move 9-Jump No. 1 to No. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. 1. 2. 1 into No. each 10 ft. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. To make such a tent. 5's place. Move 13-Move No. 7's place.J. procure unbleached tent duck. Move 8-Jump No. Move 3-Move No. 2 over No. L. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. 3. 2 . but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. 6 into No. 3 into No. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. This can be done on a checker board. Move 14-Jump No. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. 6. using checkers for men. Move 12-Jump No. 7 over No. 2. 6 in. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. 6 over No. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. Move 6-Move No. long and 2 ft. 2's place. 5 over No. 6. Woolson. 5. N. which is the very best material for the purpose. 2 over No.Position of the Men move only one at a time. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. 6 to No. in diameter. 7 over No. 7. 2's place. Move ll-Jump No. as shown in Fig. 3 to the center. 5's place. shaped like Fig. l over No. 3 over No.

How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. These are ventilators. will do. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. Nail a thin sheet of brass. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. added. high. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. 6-in. Tress. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. Punch holes in the brass in . wide by 12 in.. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. wide at the bottom. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes.in. fill with canvas edging. Pa. 2. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. 9 by 12 in. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. Use blocks. --Contributed by G. 3 in. in diameter. In raising the tent. wide at the bottom. Emsworth. long and 4 in. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. long. made in two sections. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. After transferring the design to the brass. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. As shown in the sketch. Fig. 5. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. leaving the rest for an opening. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. 5) stuck in the ground.J. diameter. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. 2 in. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. from the top. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. Fig. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. Have the tent pole 3 in. 6. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. to a smooth board of soft wood. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. about 9 in. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. round galvanized iron. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. as in Fig.

the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. apart. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. The pattern is traced as before. When all the holes are punched. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. When the edges are brought together by bending. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. Chicago. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores.the spaces around the outlined figures. . It will not. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. but before punching the holes. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. Corr. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. cut out the brass on the outside lines. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. excepting the 1/4-in. bend into shape. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. around the outside of the pattern.

The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. or. or less. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. Que. or center on which the frame swings. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. partially filled with cream. better still. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. allowing 2 ft.. G.however. A cast-iron ring. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. between which is placed the fruit jar. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. Badger. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. E. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. pipe. Oregon. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. If a wheel is selected. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. These pipes are . The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. Stevens. Dunham. pipe is used for the hub. Mayger. A 6-in. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. --Contributed by H. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. --Contributed by Geo.

Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. Four braces made from 1/2-in. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. An extra wheel 18 in. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. pipe clamps. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. pipe. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. bent to the desired circle. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in.

The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. which was placed in an upright position. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. 3. while doing this. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. and the guide withdrawn. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. The performer. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. 1. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. and dropped on the table. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. as shown in Fig. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can.

Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. in diameter on another piece of tin. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. Colo. it requires no expensive condensing lens. Harkins. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. White. Louis.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. 1. -Contributed by C. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. Mo. in a half circle. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. first. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. Denver. 2. The box can be made of selected oak or . --Contributed by H. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. F. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. and second. D. St. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box.

The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. represented by the dotted line in Fig. focal length. and 2 in. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. Two or three holes about 1 in. but not tight. An open space 4 in. This will be 3/4 in. 3-1/2 in. 1. wide and 6-1/2 in. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. wide. wide and 5 in. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. high and must . 2. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. wide and 6-1/2 in. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. If a camera lens is used. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens.mahogany. 5-1/2 in. and. long and should be placed vertically. long. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. high and 11 in. AA. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. fit into the runners. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. wide by 5 in. The door covering this hole in the back. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. long. from each end. as shown in Fig. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. from each end of the outside of the box.

until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. C. Bradley. This process is rather a difficult one. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. April. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. the article may be propped up . Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box." etc. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. 1. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. calling that knuckle January. calling this February. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. --Contributed by Chas. West Toledo. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. and so on. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. June and November.. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. Ohio. then the second knuckle will be March. provided it is airtight. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. and extending the whole height of the lantern. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. as it requires an airtight case. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece.

but waxed. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. 1 and 2. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. in. or suspended by a string. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. Schenectady.with small sticks. taking care to have all the edges closed. . and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. The top of a table will do. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. H. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. giving it an occasional stir. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. one of lead and one of aluminum. running small motors and lighting small lamps. and set aside for half a day. in. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. --Contributed by J. 1. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. Crawford. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. 2. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. and the lead 24 sq. Y. In both Fig. In each place two electrodes. N. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. Pour in a little turpentine. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. fruit jars are required. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. the lid or cover closed. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in.

are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. He. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. which you warm with your hands. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. Cleveland. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. as well as others. O. This trick is very simple. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. he throws the other. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . You have an understanding with some one in the company.. you remove the glass. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. After a few seconds' time. as you have held it all the time. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner.

cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. Victor. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. . one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. Pull the ends quickly.-Contributed by E. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward.take the handiest one. in diameter in the center. Colo. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. Be sure that this is the right one. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. near a partition or curtain. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. Crocker. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. but in making one. J. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. if any snags are encountered. but by being careful at shores. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. put it under the glass. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. on a table.

by 8 in. as illustrated in the engraving. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. for the bow. by 2 in. 8 in. wide. 1/8 in. are as follows: 1 keelson. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. is 14 ft. wide 12-oz. 3 in.. 1. 7 ft. from the stern. 50 ft. 1 in. for the stern piece. wide and 12 ft. of rope. at the ends. long. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. 3 and 4. by 15 ft. by 12 in. long. one 6 in.. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. 1 in. Paint. long. 1 piece. by 16 ft. thick and 3/4 in. square by 16 ft. 14 rib bands. and. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. drilled and fastened with screws. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . screws and cleats. 2 and braced with an iron band. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. 2 in. and the other 12 in. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. 2 gunwales. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. the smaller is placed 3 ft. Both ends are mortised. long. wide and 12 ft. 3 in. of 1-1/2-yd. wide unbleached muslin. apart. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. clear pine. for cockpit frame. 1 in. 1 mast. from each end to 1 in. The keelson. 8 yd. by 2 in. 9 ft. 4 outwales. of 1-yd. Fig. for center deck braces. from the bow and the large one. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. by 10 ft. selected pine. 1 piece.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. by 16 ft. 1/4 in. 11 yd. 1 in. and is removed after the ribs are in place. and fastened with screws. ducking.

A piece of oak. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. apart. 5. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. 6 and 7. 1/4 in. screws. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. and fastened to them with bolts. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. thick 1-1/2 in. This block. thick. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. 1 in. long. Fig. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. A 6-in. Fig. wide. in diameter through the block. doubled. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. thick and 12 in. Before making the deck. long. is cut to fit under the top boards. a piece 1/4 in. from the bow. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. wide and 3 ft. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. long. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. Figs. wide and 14 in. A block of pine. The deck is not so hard to do. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. 3-1/2 ft. They are 1 in. 9. wood screws. The block is fastened to the keelson. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. A seam should be made along the center piece. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. 4 in. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. The trimming is wood. thick and 1/2 in. gunwales and keelson. 7 and 8. long is well soaked in water. thick. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. 6 in. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. Braces. wide. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. corner braces. length of canvas is cut in the center. also. 1 in. wide and 24 in. These are put in 6 in. is a cube having sides 6 in. The 11-yd. 6. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. .

Fig. --Contributed by O. The house will accommodate 20 families. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. E.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. Tronnes. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. 12. at the other. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. wide. long. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. Wilmette. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. Ill. . Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. each 1 in. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. in diameter and 10 ft. 10 with a movable handle. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. are used for the boom and gaff. wide at one end and 12 in. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. The sail is a triangle. is 6 in. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. The keel. apart in the muslin. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. The mast has two side and one front stay. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. long. thick by 2 in. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. 11. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. A strip 1 in. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles.

Fig. and 3 ft. with the ends and the other side rounding. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. five 1/2-in. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. one 11-1/2 in. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. flat-headed screws. wide. wide. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. Wilmette. long and five 1/2-in. Tronnes. and the other 18 in. flat on one side. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. Ill. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. 1. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. long. E.into two 14-in. --Contributed by O. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. 2 in. wide and 30 in. as shown in Fig. 2-1/2 in. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. flat headed screws. 3. wide and 2 ft. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. Take this and fold it over . thick. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. Bevel both sides of the pieces. square. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. thick. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. 4. about 5/16 in. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. 2. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. long. thick. 2-1/2 in. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. 5. 1 yd. Cut the maple. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. long. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one.

wide and 4-1/2 in. thick. The sides are 3-1/4 in. the mechanical parts can be put together. this square box is well sandpapered. After the glue. 2 and 3. about 3/8 in. C. forming an eye for a screw. Cut another piece of board. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. pieces 2-5/8 in. thick. 3 in. Mo. The front. If carefully and neatly made. F. long. Another piece. soaked with water and blown up. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. of each end unwound for connections. wide and 2-3/4 in. Figs. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. square. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. 3-1/4 in. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. are rounded. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. wide and 6-1/2 in. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. --Contributed by W. long. long. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. Wind three layers of about No. The bag is then turned inside out. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. About 1/2 in. The pointer is made as shown in Fig.once. B. 1. leaving a small opening at one corner. Make a double stitch all around the edge. and take care that the pieces are all square. long. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. long. E. long. and the four outside edges. wide and 2-1/2 in. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. long. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. is set. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. 6-1/2 in. square. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. St. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. but can be governed by circumstances. Bliss. wide and 6-3/4 in. wide and 5 in. When the glue is set. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. 1-1/4 in. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. 5 from 1/16-in. wide and 3 ft. and make a turn in each end of the wires. then centered. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. the top and bottom. wide . long. Glue a three cornered piece. 3/8 in. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. thick and 3 in. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. A. as well as the edges around the opening. Louis. C. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. Fig. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. D. A. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown.

The base is a board 5 in. 1/4 in. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. that has the end turned with a shoulder. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. Yorkshire. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in.R. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. C. The stronger the current. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. and as the part Fig. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. Like poles repel each other. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. W. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center .and 2-5/8 in. 1/16 in. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. R. hole is fastened to the pointer. the same size as the first. I. and fasten in place. Another strip of tin. These wires should be about 1 in. 4. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass.A. long. from the spindle. Place the tin. from one end. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. wide and 2-1/2 in. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. Fig. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. board. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. 5. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J.S. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. long. 4 is not movable. 4. --Contributed by George Heimroth. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. so it will just clear the tin. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. 5-1/2 in. L. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. Chapman.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. long. wide and 9 in. The end of the polar axis B. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. in diameter. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. The resistance is now adjusted to show . G. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. thick. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. A pointer 12 in. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. Fig. showing a greater defection of the pointer. F. Austwick Hall. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. Richmond Hill. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. bored in the back. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. When the current flows through the coil. the part carrying the pointer moves away. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. and the farther apart they will be forced.

30 min. 10 min. say Venus at the date of observation. and vice . The following formula will show how this may be found. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. A. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. thus: 9 hr. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. shows mean siderial. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. 1881. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. M. 10 min. at 9 hr. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index.

or. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. Conn. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. and then verify its correctness by measurement. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. owing to the low internal resistance. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches.m.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon.f. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. New Haven. . Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. --Contributed by Robert W. if one of these cannot be had. Hall. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell.

The boring bar. 1. thick. long. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. arsenic to every 20 lb. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. of alum and 4 oz. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. especially for cooking fish. cover up with the same. When the follower is screwed down.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. 1-3/4 in. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. Then. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . as shown in the accompanying picture. fresh grass. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. Wet paper will answer. Fig. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. put the fish among the ashes. leaves or bark. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. 3/8 in. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. and heap the glowing coals on top. inside diameter and about 5 in.

and threaded on both ends. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. fastened with a pin. pipe. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. about 1/2 in. pipe. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. thick. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . when they were turned in.

These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. 2. thick and 3 in. If the valve keeps dripping. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. and which gave such satisfactory results. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation.valve stems. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. was then finished on an emery wheel. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. 30 in. The rough frame. wide. long. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. 5. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. 3. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. then it should be ground to a fit. bent in the shape of a U. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. Fig. Iowa. the float is too high. as the one illustrated herewith. A 1-in. Fig. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. labor and time. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. It . Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. square iron. This plate also supports the rocker arms. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. however. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. 4. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. a jump spark would be much better. Clermont. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. Fig. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. but never one which required so little material.

This makes an easy adjustment. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. square and 5 ft. and a little junk. square. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. so it must be strong enough. from all over the neighborhood. in the ground with 8 ft. supported by a stout and serviceable rope." little and big. in fact. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . butting against short stakes. in diameter and 15 in. for the "motive power" to grasp. completes the merry-go-round. long. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. set 3 ft. Use a heavy washer at the head. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. and. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. Nieman. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. If it is to be used for adults. hole bored in the post. long is the pivot. rope is not too heavy. It looks like a toy. As there is no bracing. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. long. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. 3/4 in. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. with no trees or buildings in the way. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. long. being held in position by spikes as shown.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. The illustration largely explains itself. The crosspiece is 2 in. A malleable iron bolt. strengthened by a piece 4 in. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. A 3/4 -in. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. W. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. 12 ft. extending above. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. square and 2 ft. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. --Contributed by C. no matter what your age or size may be. from the center." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. strong clear material only should be employed. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. timber. The seats are regular swing boards. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction.

therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. away. a wreck. These ends are placed about 14 in. then it is securely fastened. light and strong. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. long. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. and sent to earth. square. 4. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. The backbone is flat.the fingers. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. Both have large reels full of . A reel is next made. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. 2. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. To wind the string upon the reel. The bow is now bent. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. 1/4 by 3/32 in. Having placed the backbone in position. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down.2 emery. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. 1. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. one for the backbone and one for the bow. if nothing better is at hand. and 18 in.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string.

the first tries to spear him by swift dives. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. the balance. The handle end is held down with a staple. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. often several hundred yards of it. Mass. he pays out a large amount of string. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever.-Contributed by S. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . Newburyport. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. Moody. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. common packing thread. If the second kite is close enough. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. Brooklyn. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. or glass-covered string. C. First. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. --Contributed' by Harry S. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. N. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull.string. Bunker. Y.

--Contributed by Earl R. such as mill men use. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. must be attached to a 3-ft. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. each the size of half the table top. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. lengths (Fig. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. cutting the circular piece into quarters. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. If the table is round. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. length of 2-in. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. Vt. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. Corinth. make the pad as shown in the illustration.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. Hastings. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. square (Fig. then a dust protector. then draw the string up tight. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table.

.9-1/4 in. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. trace the design carefully on the leather. from E to F. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. Calif. Oakland. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. hard pencil. 17-1/2 in. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. which spoils the leather effect. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp.. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. and E to G. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. G to H. 16-1/4 in. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. 2-1/4 in. Use a smooth. from C to D. E. Wharton.. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. . but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. 6-1/4 in.-Contributed by H. Moisten the .

get something with which to make a lining. Trace the openings for the handles. G-J. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. I made this motor . is taken off at a time. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. and E-G. also lines A-G. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. about 1/8 in. H-B.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. Cut it the same size as the bag. To complete the bag. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. wide. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. if not more than 1 in. with the rounded sides of the tools. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. Now cut narrow thongs. apart. place both together and with a leather punch. and corresponding lines on the other side. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. and lace through the holes.

M. --Contributed by J. Pasadena. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. in length. 1. 2-1/4 in. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. as shown in Fig. long. D. B. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. 24 gauge magnet wire. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. of No.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. each being a half circle. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. Shannon. iron. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. 2. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. 1. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. . Calif. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half.

balloon should be about 8 ft. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. pasted in alternately. from the bottom end. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . The gores for a 6-ft. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. high. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. and the gores cut from these. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. near the center. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. are the best kind to make. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. 1.

is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. A. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. 3. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke.widest point. --Contributed by R. 2. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. The steam. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. In starting the balloon on its flight. Fig. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. B. lap on the edges. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. coming through the small pipe A. As the boat is driven forward by this force. as shown in Fig. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . leaving a long wake behind. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. somewhat larger in size. in diameter. Staunton. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. using about 1/2-in. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. 1. After washing. The boat soon attains considerable speed. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. These are to hold the wick ball. as shown in Fig. 5. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. 4. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. so it will hang as shown in Fig. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. In removing grease from wood. saturating it thoroughly. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. after which the paint will adhere permanently. E. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. If the gores have been put together right. leaving the solution on over night.

high and 8 in. There are three ways of doing this: First. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. apart on these lines. in bowling form. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. Second. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. long and each provided with a handle. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. if you have several copies of the photograph. long. Third. The blocks are about 6 in. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. 1. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . wide by 6 in. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. as is shown in Fig. In using either of the two methods described.

N. Albany. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. 2. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. Rinse the plate in cold water. being careful not to dent the metal. Y. Fig.Fig. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. Hellwig. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. --Contributed by John A. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. not pointed down at the road at an angle. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . thick. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution.

It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. 5 in. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. Corner irons. Paine. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. A. wide and of any desired height. in diameter. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . A circular piece of wood. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. through which passes the set screw S. with a set screw. S. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. In Fig. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. 2 the front view. Richmond. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. CC. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. and. Break off the frame.upon any particular object. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. thick. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. A. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. which is 4 in. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. --Contributed by R. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. are screwed to the circular piece. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. and not produce the right sound. Va. 1 Fig. is fastened to a common camera tripod. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. With this device. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. B. These corner irons are also screwed to. 6 in. and Fig. long for the base. wide and 8 in.

-1. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. as only the can is visible. This horn. This will make a very compact electric horn. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. La Salle. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. I made a wheel 26 in. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. thus producing sound waves. pine boards. S. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. Ill. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. Lake Preston. R. . D. in diameter of some 1-in. Kidder. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw.

Purdy. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. If there is a large collection of coins. square. B. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. Feet may be added to the base if desired.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. 1. Fig. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. thick and 12 in. Doylestown. --Contributed by James R. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. The frame is made of a heavy card. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. the same thickness as the coins. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. O. 1. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. 2. Ghent. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. Kane. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. If the collection consists of only a few coins. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. --Contributed by C. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. A.

thick. One Cloud. a hammer or mallet. they become uninteresting. --Contributed by August T. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides.E. Noble. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. into which to place the screws . Wis. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. A rivet punch is desirable. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. Canada. though not absolutely necessary. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. plus a 3/8-in. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. Toronto. melted and applied with a brush. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. and then glued together as indicated. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. --Contributed by R. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax.J. several large nails. border all around. Milwaukee. --Contributed by J. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. Cal. for after the slides have been shown a few times. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. of developer. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. Neyer. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. If desired. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. cut and grooved.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. Smith. A lead pencil. The material required is a sheet of No. It will hold 4 oz. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner.

place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. draw one part. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. There are several ways of working up the design. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. screws placed about 1 in. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. Remove the screws. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. both outline and decoration. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. like the one shown. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. using 1/2-in. Punch rivet holes in holder and band.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. Take the nail. and file it to a chisel edge. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. never upon the metal directly. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in.

for the top. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. for the lower rails. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. 2. Do not bend it over or flatten it. being ball bearing. l-1/8 in. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. . Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. long. each 1 in. 3/4 in. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. using a 1/2in. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. long. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. square and 11 in. and two lengths. square and 181/2 in. The pedal. as shown in Fig. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. up from the lower end. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. 1. square. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. in the other. two lengths. 3. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. Rivet the band to the holder. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion.wall. Provide four lengths for the legs. About 1/2 yd. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. of 11-in. long.

The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. having quite a length of threads. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. Quackenbush. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. Ala. --Contributed by W. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. F. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. New York City. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. --Contributed by John Shahan. Attalla. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator.

are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. wide and 8-1/4 in. --Contributed by C. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. and the other 2-3/4 in. and 3/8 in. D. long. Luther. college or lodge colors. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. each 1-1/4 in. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. Two pieces of felt. The desired emblem. Ironwood. and two holes in the other. stitched on both edges for appearance. from one end. long. Purchase a 1/2-in. using class. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. long. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. in depth. Assemble as shown in the sketch. Mich. something that is carbonated. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. wide and 4-1/4 in. the end of the other piece is folded over.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. making a lap of about 1 in. initial. one about 1 in. from the end.. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class.

then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. or more in height. Schatz. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. as shown at B. and the cork will be driven out. Fig. 1/4 in. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. or a pasteboard box. A piece of lead. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. about 2 in. from the center and opposite each other. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . in diameter and 2 in. 2. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. Indianapolis. Punch two holes A. if desired by the operator. as shown in the sketch. This method allows a wide range of designs. 1. Ind. --Contributed by John H. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. which can be procured from a plumber. in the cover and the bottom.

are turned up as in Fig. as shown in Fig. metal. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. putting in the design. Fig. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. A piece of thick glass. it winds up the rubber band. or marble will serve. . 4. O. The pieces of tin between the holes A. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level.Rolling Can Toy lead. 1. allowing the two ends to be free. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. 5. Columbus. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. When the can is rolled away from you. on both top and bottom. and the ends of the bands looped over them. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. 3.

Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. wide and 20 in. thicker than the pinion. The edges should be about 1/8 in. I secured a board 3/4 in. A pencil may be used the first time over. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. or more thick on each side. 3 in. 1 in. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. hole through it. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. If it is desired to "line" the inside. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. mark over the design. New York City. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. face up.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. deep in its face. long and bored a 1/2-in. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. from each end. Next place the leather on the glass. After this has been done. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. and. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. thick.

Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. 1 top board. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. 1 piece for clamp. New York. in diameter. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. Cut the 2-in. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. --Contributed by A. 1 back board. Rice. thick top board. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. 2 by 2 by 18 in. 1 by 12 by 77 in. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. Syracuse. 1 by 9 by 80 in. 1 top board. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. 2 end rails. N. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. Y. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. lag screws as shown. 3 by 3 by 36. 3 by 3 by 6 in. 1 piece for clamp. M. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. 2. much of the hard labor will be saved.in the board into the bench top. 1 screw block. 2 side rails. pieces for the vise slides. 2 by 12 by 77 in. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. countersinking the heads of the vise end. Brooklyn. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. 3 by 3 by 20 in. 4 guides. 1 piece. 2 crosspieces. Fig. and fit it in place for the side vise. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. Now fit up the two clamps. Make the lower frame first. 1.

rule. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise.screws. 1 brace and set of bits. 1 pair dividers. in diameter. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. 1 jack plane or smoother. it can be easily found when wanted. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. 1 set chisels. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. 1 wood scraper. . as well as the pattern maker. If each tool is kept in a certain place. 1 cross cut saw.. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. 1 bench plane or jointer. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. 1 nail set. 1 claw hammer. They can be purchased at a hardware store. 1 countersink. 24 in. 1 monkey wrench.. 1 marking gauge. 24 in. 2 screwdrivers. 1 set gimlets. The bench is now complete. 3 and 6 in. 1 pocket level. 1 pair pliers. 1 compass saw. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. 1 rip saw. Only the long run.. 1 2-ft. The amateur workman.

To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. Fig. 1 oilstone. after constant use. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. will be easier to work. Kane. will sink into the handle as shown at D. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. try square. Fig. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. the projecting point A. becomes like A. but will not make . 2. Pa.1 6-in. ---Contributed by James M. 1. The calf skin. Doylestown. 3. being softer. 1.1. Fig. No. Fig. 2 and 00 sandpaper. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful.

give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. when dry. If cow hide is preferred. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. Turn the leather. White. Two pieces will be required of this size. New York City. which steam. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. After the outlines are traced. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. Having prepared the two sides. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. and the length 6-5/8 in.as rigid a case as the cow skin. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. lay the design on the face. the same method of treatment is used. will do just as well. . First draw the design on paper. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. The form can be made of a stick of wood. then prepare the leather. such as copper or brass. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. but a V-shaped nut pick. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. secure a piece of modeling calf. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. If calf skin is to be used. cover it completely with water enamel and. -Contributed by Julia A. water or heat will not affect.

from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. --Contributed by W. --Contributed by Chester L. . --Contributed by Chas. Herrman. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. and an adjustable friction-held loop. New York City. Richmond. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. Cal.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. C. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. as shown in the sketch. Maine. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. A. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. Portland. Jaquythe. Cobb.

A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. Mass. Middletown.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. Cambridge. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. This was very difficult. . --Contributed by Wm. was marked out as shown. Roberts. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. an inverted stewpan. Conn. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. A thick piece of tin.. --Contributed by Geo. for instance. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. B. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. Wright.

pulverized and applied. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. If any traces of the grease are left. The next morning there was no trace of oil. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. on a clear piece of glass.. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. which has been tried out several times with success. but only an odor which soon vanished. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. as shown. There was no quicklime to be had. Bone. A beautifully bound book. used as part of furniture. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. Illinois. well calcined and powdered. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. Indianapolis. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. When dry. Chicago. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. such as chair seats. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. If the article is highly polished. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. Herbert. Ind. L. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. . then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. and quite new. face down. and the grease will disappear. so some bones were quickly calcined. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. but not running over. --Contributed by C. apply powdered calcined magnesia. F. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. --Contributed by Paul Keller. of boiling water. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass.

deep and 5 in. says Scientific American. 2 in. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. New York. If properly adjusted. The pieces marked S are single.. the pieces . soft steel with the opening 6 in. wide and 12 in. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. set and thumbscrews. Tarrytown. A. --Contributed by Geo.. thick. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. Howe. long. 6 in. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. This coaster is simple and easy to make.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. high and are bolted to a block of wood. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel.

Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. Their size depends on the plate used. albums and the like. for sending to friends. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. to the underside of which is a block. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. they will look remarkably uniform. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. The seat is a board. A sharp knife. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. says Camera Craft. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. If the letters are all cut the same height. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. E. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. no doubt.

The puzzle is to get . This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. and. after. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. mount them on short pieces of corks. In cutting out an 0. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. using care to get it in the right position. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. photographing them down to the desired size. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. for example. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. So arranged. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. So made. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. pasting the prints on some thin card. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table.

G. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. hung on pivots. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. Bayley.J. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. with the longest end outside. so they will lie horizontal. Cape May Point. snow or anything to hide it. long that will just fit are set in. N. A hole 6 or 7 in. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. says the American Thresherman. squeezes along past the center of the tube. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. Old-Time Magic . Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. of its top. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. He smells the bait.-Contributed by I. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals.

Brooklyn. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. --Contributed by L.faced up. Pawtucket. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. Y. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. --Contributed by L. then spread the string. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. Idaho. then expose again. Parker. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. N. or rub the hands a little before doing so. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. Rhode Island. E. --Contributed by Charles Graham. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. Szerlip. Pocatello. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. Press the hands together. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve.

. thick. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. When the whole is quite dry. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. When the glue is thoroughly dry. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. whether he requires a single sword only. near the point end. long. dark red. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. or green oil paint. The handle is next made. or a complete suit of armor. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. end of the blade. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. 1 Fig. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in.. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. The blade should be about 27 in. using a straightedge and a pencil. The pieces. they will look very much like the genuine article. 3 Fig. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. wipe the blade . The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. wide and 2 in. Glue the other side of the blade. narrower. and if carefully made. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. 4 on the blade. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. full size. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. 2 Fig. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig.Genuine antique swords and armor. in width. says the English Mechanic. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. in building up his work from the illustrations. if any. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. 1.

. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. In making this scimitar. and 3 in. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. allowing for a good hold with both hands. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. not for use only in cases of tableaux. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. 3. preferably of contrasting colors. Both edges of the blade are sharp. 1/8 in.. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. take two pieces of wood. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. Fig. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. in diameter. as it is . 1. 4. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A.with light strokes up and down several times. the illustration. 1. This sword is about 68 in. 2. the other is flat or half-round. The length of the handle. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. thick and 5 in. of course. the other is flat or halfround. 3. about 1-1/2 in. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. should be about 9 in. in the widest part at the lower end. 1. In making. 2. the other two are identical. long. the length of the blade 28 in. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. follow the directions as for Fig. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. 1. shows only two sides. In the finished piece. square and of any length desired.

had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. A cold . or an insecure fastening. N. On each edge of the board. as there was some at hand. long. about 3/8 in. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. piping and jackets by hard water. and if so. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. Mass. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. 2 in. as shown in the sketch. Syracuse. It is made of a plank. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. as can the pitch bed or block. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. at the lower end. Franklin. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. square. Both can be made easily. A piece of mild steel. in an attempt to remove it. Morse. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. Doctors probed for the button without success. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. The thinness of the plank. each about 1 ft. --Contributed by John Blake. Y. --Contributed by Katharine D. however. and.

Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening.. 18 gauge. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. design down. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. When this has been done. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. using a small metal saw. plaster of Paris. When the desired form has been obtained. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. secure a piece of brass of about No. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. To remedy this.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. 5 lb. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. on the pitch. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. To put it in another way. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. 5 lb. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. tallow.. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. a file to reduce the ends to shape. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. Trim up the edges and file them .

make an unusual show window attraction. lb. A. 1 ft. Before giving the description. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. and hang a bird swing. living together in what seems like one receptacle. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. Fill the 3-in.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. lb. 1) and the other 12 in. in diameter (Fig. it may be well to know what horsepower means. Fig. in one second. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. or 550 ft. in diameter (Fig. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. over the smaller vessel. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. or fraction of a horsepower. . 3. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright.000 lb.000 ft. 1 ft. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. using powdered pumice with lye. --Contributed by Harold H. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. per second. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30.smooth. That is lifting 33.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. 30 ft. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. in one minute or 550 lb. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. per minute. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. Clean the metal thoroughly. in the center. but not to stop it. The smaller is placed within the larger. 2). one 18 in. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. space between the vessels with water. to keep it from floating. Cutter. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. This in turn divided by 33. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. and still revolve. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing.

To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. by L. Szerlip. F. Somerville. 2 Fig. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . Campbell. --Contributed. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. N.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. or on a pedestal. Diameter Fig. Brooklyn. Diameter 12 in.3 Fig. The effect is surprising. 1 Fig. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. Y. --Contributed by J. Mass.18 in.

A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. with the pliers. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. unsatisfactory. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. keeping the center high. away from the edge. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. Rivet the cup to the base. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. the same as removing writing from a slate. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. This compound is impervious to water. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. and then. with other defects. which. Do not be content merely to bend them over.copper of No. which may be of wood or tin. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. is. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. Polish both of these pieces. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. then by drawing a straightedge over it. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. as a rule. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. and cut out the shape with the shears. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. often render it useless after a few months service. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. using any of the common metal polishes. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. In riveting. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. and the clay . This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. to keep the metal from tarnishing. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. after which it is ready for use. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference.

The siphon is made of glass tubes.can be pressed back and leveled. Northville. Mich. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. 1. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. as shown in Fig. DeLoof. Dunlop. Scotland. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. Mich. It is made of a glass tube. 3/4 in. the device will work for an indefinite time. in diameter and 5 in. A. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. Grand Rapids. Shettleston. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. -Contributed by Thos. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. 2. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. --Contributed by John T. Houghton. . The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. --Contributed by A. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. long.

London. long. put up as ornaments. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall.1 FIG. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. This sword is 4 ft. in width and 2 in.FIG. long with the crossguard and blade of steel. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. stilettos and battle-axes. As the handle is to . The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. 1.

or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. 9. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. very broad. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. sharp edges on both sides. then glued on the blade as shown. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. When dry. 4. paint it a dark brown or black. long. 11 were used. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. glue and put it in place. The lower half of the handle is of wood. In Fig. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. narrower. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. This weapon is also about 1 ft. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. long with a dark handle of wood. in length. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. in length. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. Three large. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. Both handle and axe are of steel. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. string. 3 is shown a claymore. 5. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. The sword shown in Fig. This stiletto has a wood handle. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. The handle is of wood. The ball is made as described in Fig. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. with both edges of the blade sharp. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. The crossbar and blade are steel. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. 6. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. 8. studded with brass or steel nails. 7. one about 1/2 in. sometimes called cuirass breakers. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. 20 spike. is shown in Fig. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. These must be cut from pieces of wood. the same as used on the end of the handle. with both edges sharp. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. small rope and round-headed nails. firmly glued on. A German poniard is shown in Fig. the axe is of steel. in width. Cut two strips of tinfoil. the upper part iron or steel. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. When the whole is quite dry. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. wood with a keyhole saw. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. which is about 2-1/2 ft. In Fig. When the glue is thoroughly dry. This axe is made similar to the one . This sword is about 4 ft. In Fig. with wire or string' bound handle. This weapon is about 1 ft. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen.represent copper. A German stiletto. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord.

--Contributed by E. This will make a very good flexible belt. When wrapped all the way around. Old-Time Magic . and as the tension members are all protected from wear. such as braided fishline. high. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. 2. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. 10. W. Davis.described in Fig. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. together as shown in Fig.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. so the contents cannot be seen. Chicago. . will pull where other belts slip. the ends are tied and cut off.

Macdonald.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. N. causing the flowers to grow. apparently.J. --Contributed by A. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. in a few seconds' time. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. S. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. Calif. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. The dotted lines in Fig. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. Oakland. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. 1 and put together as in Fig. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. 2. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. filled with water. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. or using small wedges of wood. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. There will be no change in color. Before the performance. To make the flowers grow in an instant. As zinc is much lighter than iron. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . Bridgeton. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. some of the liquid. with the circle centrally located. about one-third the way down from the top. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. These wires are put in the jar. held in the right hand. four glass tumblers. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. an acid.

and kept ready for use at any time. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. Cal. 2 for height. Richmond. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. Jaquythe. practical and costs nothing. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. says a correspondent of Photo Era. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. unless some special device is used. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. and equally worthy of individual treatment. When many slides are to be masked. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. If the size wanted is No. not only because of the fact just mentioned. 4 for width and No. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. A. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . This outlines the desired opening. --Contributed by W. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. which are numbered for convenience in working. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in.

using the carbon paper. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then .Etching copper is not a very difficult process. The one shown is merely suggestive. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. and do not inhale the fumes. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. Draw a design. or. This done. With a stick. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. is about right for the No. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. not the water into the acid. or a pair of old tongs. 16 gauge. possibly. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. but they can be easily revived. about half and half. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. The decoration. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. Secure a sheet of No. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. too. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. When etched to the desired depth. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. the margin and the entire back of the metal. the paper is folded along the center line. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. may be changed. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. which is dangerous. a little less acid than water. and the extreme length 7 in. paint the design. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out.

and to keep the metal from tarnishing. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. repeat as many times as is necessary. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. 3. C and D. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. attached to a post at each end. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. to the table. Nail a board. as shown in the illustration. Fig. wide. . 3/8 in. as shown in Fig. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. or more wide. 5. long. as at H. 24 parts water. high. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. about 2-1/2 in. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. wide and of the same length as the table. Fig. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. about 1 in. 2. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. about 8 in. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. thick. so that when it is pressed down. long and 1 ft. and about 2-1/2 ft. Fig. Paint the table any color desired. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. about 3 ft. 2. 0 indicates the batteries. 4. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. 5. as in Fig. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. When the button S is pressed. 2. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. The connections are simple: I. It may be either nailed or screwed down. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. it will touch post F. A. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. and bore two holes. Then get two posts. 1.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. through it. the bell will ring. Fig. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. Cut out a piece of tin. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. with the wires underneath. in diameter and 1/4 in. J is another wire attached in the same way. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. Fig. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through.

the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. but they are somewhat difficult to make. These rings can be carved out. says the English Mechanic. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. such as . A wood peg about 2 in. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. the wood peg inserted in one of them. 1. After the glue is dry. long serves as the dowel.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. The circle is marked out with a compass. is to appear as steel. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. handle and all. long. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. thick. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig.. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. This weapon is about 22 in. The imitation articles are made of wood. 2.Imitation Arms and Armor . The entire weapon. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks.

When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. 6. etc. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. used at the end of the fifteenth century. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. 8. as before mentioned. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. or the amateur cannot use it well. The upper half of the handle is steel. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. as shown. The handle is of wood. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. with a sharp carving tool. covered with red velvet. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. If such a tool is not at hand. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. leaves. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. long. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. is shown in Fig. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. This weapon is about 22 in. . Its length is about 3 ft.ornamental scrolls. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. The lower half of the handle is wood. The entire handle should be made of one piece. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. the hammer and spike. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. The handle is of steel imitation. The spikes are cut out of wood. The axe is shown in steel. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. 5. also. 3. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. studded with large brass or steel nails. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. flowers. All of these axes are about the same length. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. as described in Fig. 2.

a three-base hit. then the other plays. 2. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. the knife resting on its back. as in Fig. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. The knife falling on its side (Fig. 5. Fig. Each person plays until three outs have been made. as shown in Fig. and so on for nine innings. 1. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. Chicago. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. 4). 3. 7) calls for one out. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. calls for a home run. . and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. 6. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors.

3. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. as shown in Fig. Somerville. 2. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. one of them burning . hypo to 1 pt. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. This he does. If it is spotted at all. Old-Time Magic . The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in.-Contributed by J. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. of water for an hour or two. Mass.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. with the rope laced in the cloth. 1. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. while the committee is tying him up. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. of the rope and holds it. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. Campbell. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. F. It may be found that the negative is not colored. as shown in Fig.

bolt. invisible to them (the audience). --Contributed by L. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. thus causing it to light. Thome. Ky. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. shades the light for a few seconds. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. 4 oz. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. the other without a light. of plumbago. He then walks over to the other candle. and. --Contributed by C. thick. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. Drill Gauge screw. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. New York City. etc. Brown. Evans. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb.. B. . of sugar. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. Lebanon. 4 oz. Ky. with which he is going to light the other candle. 3/4 in. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down.Contributed by Andrew G. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. of water and 1 oz. Louisville. of turpentine. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole.brightly. The magician walks over to the burning candle. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. showing that there is nothing between them.

This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. steady current. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. about 5 in. 5 in. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. H. thick. Denniston. --Contributed by C. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . Do not add water to the acid. Its current strength is about one volt. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. into a tube of several thicknesses. N. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. which will give a strong.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. diameter. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. long. In making up the solution. or blotting paper. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. To make the porous cell. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. for the material. but is not so good. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. Y. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. Pulteney. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup.

while the other end is attached by two screws. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. After much experimentation with bearings. As to thickness. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. a positive adjustment was provided. One hole was bored as well as possible. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. the other holding them apart. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described.station. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. To insure this.) may be obtained. but somewhat lighter. carrying the hour circle at one end. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. Finally. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. steel. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. The . The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. long with a bearing at each end. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. steel. one drawing them together. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. steel. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in.

The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. All set screws. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. excepting those on the declination axis." When this is done. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction.. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. Each shaft. need not be changed. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. Set the declination circle to its reading." Only a rough setting is necessary. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. Declination is read directly. in each direction from two points 180 deg." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper.. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. The aperture should be 1/4 in. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. The pole is 1 deg. To find a star in the heavens. and 15 min.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. subtract 24. is provided with this adjustment. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. apart. are tightened. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. Cassiopiae. turn the pointer to the star. 45 min. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. The pointer is directed to Alpha. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. and if it is not again directed to the same point. If the result is more than 24 hours. When properly set it will describe a great circle. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. All these adjustments. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. To locate a known star on the map. It is. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. Point it approximately to the north star. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. once carefully made. save the one in the pipe. Instead. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground .

The ball is found to be the genuine article. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. is folded several times. taking care not to add too much. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. -Contributed by Ray E. If this will be too transparent. 3 or 4 in. In reality the first ball. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. benzole. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. The dance will begin. New Orleans. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. which is the one examined. is the real cannon ball. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. then add 1 2-3 dr. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. La. Strosnider.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. add a little more benzole. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. cannon balls. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. as shown in the sketch.. Plain City. the others . long. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. of ether. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. a great effect will be produced. Ohio. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan.

Milwaukee. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. Return the card to the pack. as shown in the illustration. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. In boxes having a sliding cover. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. etc. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. San Francisco. Cal. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. 1). small brooches. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. without taking up any great amount of space. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. --Contributed by J. Somerville.. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. F. 2. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. taps. Campbell. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . Fig. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. Mass. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. Wis.

I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. . Beller. as shown in the illustration. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. Hartford. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. Connecticut. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. slides and extra brushes. thus giving ample store room for colors. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. from the bottom of the box. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. round pieces 2-1/4 in. prints. This box has done good service.

O. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. . West Lynn. 1). about threefourths full. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. -Contributed by C. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. or placed against a wall. with well packed horse manure. holes in the bottom of one.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. tacking the gauze well at the corners. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. Fill the upper tub. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. costing 5 cents. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. When the ends are turned under.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. will answer the purpose. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. Darke. 2). and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. Mass. FIG.

After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. they should be knocked out. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. and each bundle contains . when they are raised from the pan. M. If the following directions are carried out. if this is not available. --Contributed by L. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. Chicago. Eifel. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. oil or other fluid. If plugs are found in any of the holes. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. A pair of these shields will always come in handy.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. cutting the cane between the holes. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood.

and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. it should be held by a plug. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. held there by inserting another plug. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. a square pointed wedge. as it must be removed again. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. 1. then across and down.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. and. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. put about 3 or 4 in. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. as shown in Fig. No plugs . after having been pulled tight. In addition to the cane. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side.

During the weaving. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. we have 4. as for example. 40°. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. 4. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. 41°-30'. is the horizontal dial.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. 1. From table No. No weaving has been done up to this time. Fig. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. R. W. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. There are several different designs of sundials. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. 3. trim off the surplus rosin. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. is the base (5 in.42 in. as it always equals the latitude of the place.075 in.= 4. If handled with a little care. --Contributed by M. as shown in Fig. 1 lat.5 in.15+. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. This will make three layers. 5.075 in. When cool. After completing the second layer. or the style. called the gnomon. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. as the height of the line BC for lat.15 in. After finishing this fourth layer of strands.2 in. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. as shown in Fig. and for lat. lat. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations.3 in. for 2°. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . stretch the third one. -Contributed by E. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. D. If you have a table of natural functions. Their difference is . the height of which is taken from table No. Michigan. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. It consists of a flat circular table. 42° is 4. it is 4. All added to the lesser or 40°. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. Patrick. 1.2+. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. but the most common. 5 in. Fig. The style or gnomon. Detroit. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. Even with this lubrication. and the one we shall describe in this article. 3. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. 1. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. the height of the line BC. in this case) times the . using the same holes as for the first layer. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. 41 °-30'. the next smallest. and for 1° it would be .

and intersecting the semicircles.57 1. .tangent of the degree of latitude.30 1.66 1.46 3.46 .40 34° 3.55 4.77 2. draw two parallel lines AB and CD. with a radius of 5 in. 2.26 4.16 40 .88 36° 3.83 27° 2.82 5.66 latitude.94 1.82 2.97 5 7 4.38 .93 2. To layout the hour circle.50 26° 2.19 1. according to the size of the dial. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown.96 32° 3.20 60° 8.29 4-30 7-30 3.42 45 . Table NO.07 4. 2.16 1. using the points A and C as centers.41 38° 3. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 . base. Height of stile in inches for a 5in.66 48° 5.55 46° 5.55 30° 2.99 2.91 58° 8. Fig.89 50° 5. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No.57 3. or if of stone. Chords in inches for a 10 in.32 6.76 1.11 3. circle Sundial.39 .85 1.33 . Draw two semi-circles.59 2.00 40° 4. 2 for given latitudes. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style.55 5.49 30 .12 52° 6. Draw the line AD.79 4. Its thickness.40 1.06 2. an inch or two. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2.18 28° 2. 1.02 1.87 1.81 4. if of metal. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in.03 3.30 2. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks.82 3.42 . which will represent the base in length and thickness.37 5. long.63 56° 7. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in.33 42° 4.85 35 .49 3.14 5. or more.44 44° 4.28 . gives the 6 o'clock points. and for this size dial (10 in.42 1.93 6. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points.23 6. A line EF drawn through the points A and C.87 4.56 .10 6.68 5-30 6-30 5. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight.64 4 8 3.37 54° 6. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed. and perpendicular to the base or style. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial.27 2. For latitudes not given.

63 1. then the watch is slower. 2 and Dec. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No.87 6. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face. Each weapon is cut from wood. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time. June 15. The + means that the clock is faster. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15.06 2. April 16. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker.50 55 .34 5.14 1.10 4.54 60 .93 6. An ordinary compass.60 4.24 5.49 3.46 5. --Contributed by J. will enable one to set the dial. adding to each piece interest and value. says the English Mechanic. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time. Mitchell.79 6. Iowa. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen.50 . This correction can be added to the values in table No. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the .21 2.01 1.37 2. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. 3 Corrections in minutes to change.77 3. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole.57 1. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York.12 5. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.means that the dial is faster than the sun.add those marked + subtract those Marked .53 1..72 5.52 Table No. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached.19 2. and the . Sun time to local mean time. 25.49 5. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon. 3. each article can be labelled with the name. 3. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid. it will be faster. E. Sioux City.08 1. As they are the genuine reproductions.68 3. 900 Chicago.71 2.30 2. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco.46 4. and on these dates the dial needs no correction. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds. Sept. if west.82 3.from Sundial lime.98 4. London. and for the difference between standard and local time. after allowing for the declination.89 3. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west.

The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. 1. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. the length of which is about 5 ft. When putting on the tinfoil. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. 3. . long from the point where it is attached to the handle.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig.. Partisan. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color.

Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side.which is square. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. long with a round staff or handle. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. sharp on the outer edges. It is about 6 ft. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. A gisarm or glaive. 8. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. This weapon is about 6 ft. press it well into the carved depressions. 6 ft.. . 7. long with a round wooden handle. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. in diameter. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The extreme length is 9 ft. which are a part of the axe. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. The spear is steel. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. used about the seventeenth century. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. is shown in Fig. long. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. long. about 4 in. The length of this bar is about 5 in. The edges are sharp. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. the holes being about 1/4 in. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. 5. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft.

Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. 5. or in holes punched in a leather strap. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. This is important to secure neatness. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. the cross cords. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. are less durable and will quickly show wear. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. In Figs. H. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. The twisted cross cords should . B. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. 2 and 3. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. 4. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. Cut all the cords the same length. are put in place. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. Substances such as straw.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. 1. They can be made of various materials. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. Ohio. the most durable being bamboo. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. used for spacing and binding the whole together. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. Loudonville. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. Workman. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire.-Contributed by R. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. apart. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering.

A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. 3 in.be of such material. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. of the bottom. Four V-shaped notches were cut. M. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. in which was placed a piece of glass. The first design shown is for using bamboo. To remedy this. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. New Orleans. La. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. This was turned over the top of the other can. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. wide. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. as shown at B. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. shaped as shown at C. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. for a length extending from a point 2 in. Harrer. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. New York. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. below the top to within 1/4 in. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. bamboo or rolled paper. A slit was cut in the bottom. -Contributed by Geo. Lockport.

Cal. Shay. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. Y. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. Pasadena. Ill. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. do not throw away the gloves. --Contributed by Joseph H. N. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. --Contributed by Chas. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. It would be well to polish the brass at first. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. --Contributed by W. Maywood. wide. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. Schaffner. giving the appearance of hammered brass. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. is shown in the accompanying sketch. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform.tape from sticking to the carpet. the brass is loosened from the block. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. This plank. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. Newburgh. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. and two along the side for attaching the staff. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. After this is finished. Sanford. about 1/16 in. This should be done gradually. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. turned over but not fastened. H. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one.

Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. bent as shown. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. Unlike most clocks. the pendulum swings . Richmond. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. A. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. Cal. Marshall. K. in diameter. Oak Park. Ill. --E. Jaquythe. -Contributed by W.

which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. 7-1/2 in. bar. 6 in. away. The construction is very simple. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. by 1-5/16 in. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. about 6 in. is an electromagnet. on the board B. Two uprights. In using this method.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. B. thick. such as this one. high. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. high. and the other two 2-5/8 in. Chicago. A. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. Fasten another board. high. are secured in the base bar. 5/16 in. . Secure a board. 3/4 in. to the first one with screws or glue. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. Metzech.. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. says the Scientific American. --Contributed by V. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. wide that is perfectly flat. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. only have the opposite side up. the center one being 2-3/4 in. bearing on the latter. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. Now place the board to be joined. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. in diameter. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. wide. about 12 in. high and 1/4 in. C. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. long and at each side of this. and the result is not only novel but well worth while.

4. plates should be made 8 in. from one end. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. square inside. The trigger. or more. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. . A rectangular hole 3/16 in. 3. 1. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. Phoenixville. as shown at A. Pa. is fastened in the hole A. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. by driving a pin through the wood. 1. long. Fig. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. wide and 5 in. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. --Contributed by Elmer A. wide and 1 in. Vanderslice. Fig. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. square. 1. whose dimensions are given in Fig. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. 2. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger.

5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. -Contributed by J. one-half the length of the side pieces. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. Simonis. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. 5 parts of black filler. which allows 1/4 in. square. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. by weight. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. if only two bands are put in the . The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in.A. Fostoria. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. 2 parts of whiting. as shown in the illustration. Ohio. rubbing varnish and turpentine.

This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. is necessary. DeLoof. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. and the picture can be drawn as described. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. In use. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. Dartmouth. G. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. II. Michigan. --Contributed by Thos. which may be either of ground or plain glass. -Contributed by Abner B. London. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. A piece of metal. 1. deep. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. says the English Mechanic. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. If a plain glass is used. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black.lower strings. Mass. wide and about 1 ft. as shown in Fig. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. is set at an angle of 45 deg. keeps the strong light out when sketching. No. It must be kept moist and well . Shaw. In constructing helmets. long. in the opposite end of the box. A double convex lens. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. and it may be made as a model or full sized. A mirror. place tracing paper on its surface. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. preferably copper. Grand Rapids. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. 8 in.

and continue until the clay is completely covered. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. or some thin glue. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. as shown in Fig. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. This being done. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. and left over night to soak. Scraps of thin. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. on which to place the clay. as in bas-relief. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. The clay. a few clay-modeling tools. take. 1. brown. 2. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. will be necessary. All being ready. with a keyhole saw. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling.kneaded. 3. the clay model oiled. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. 1. and the deft use of the fingers. shown in Fig. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. After the clay model is finished. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. and over the crest on top. joined closely together. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand.

Indiana. The whole helmet. 1. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. will make it look neat. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. When perfectly dry. In Fig. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. as seen in the other part of the sketch. with the exception of the vizor. --Contributed by Paul Keller. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. 9. 7. or. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . 5. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. the piecing could not be detected. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. The band is decorated with brass studs.as possible. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. This contrivance should be made of wood. The center of the ear guards are perforated. which should be no difficult matter. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. Before taking it off the model. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. and so on. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. owing to the clay being oiled. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. square in shape. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. then another coating of glue. a few lines running down. one for each side. as shown: in the design. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. Indianapolis. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. should be modeled and made in one piece. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. a crest on top. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. the skullcap. When the helmet is off the model. and the ear guards in two pieces. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. In Fig. They are all covered with tinfoil. When dry.

also the switch B and the fuse block C. and C. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. GG. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. 3. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. about 80 ft. Fig. 1. Fig. thick. 1. 22 gauge resistance wire. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. one glass tube. Fig. Fig. 12 in. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. AA. 4 lb. Fig. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. of fire clay. The plate. and two large 3in. is shown in Fig. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. 4. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. above the collar. two ordinary binding posts. If a neat appearance is desired. high. If asbestos is used. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. each 4-1/2 in. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. long. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. thick sheet asbestos. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. 4. until it is within 1 in. 3 in. JJ. with slits cut for the wires. This will allow the plate. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. the fuse block. when they are placed in opposite positions. 1. AA. the holes leading to the switch. of the top. Fig. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. The mineral wool. wide and 15 in. 1. if the measurements are correct. The holes B and C are about 3 in. if this cannot be obtained. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. screws. 4. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. are allowed to project about 1 in. should extend about 1/4 in. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. is then packed down inside the collar. about 1/4 in. Fig. 4. and. one fuse block. 1. Fig. for connections. 2. Fig. long. of No. of mineral wool. long. 2. 1 in. 4. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. one oblong piece of wood. 1. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. The reverse side of the base. which can be bought from a local druggist. 2. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. 4. as it stands a higher temperature. in diameter and 9 in. 4. one small switch. Fig. about 1 lb. as shown in Fig. AA. This will make an open space between the plates. The two holes. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. or. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. Fig. German-silver wire is better. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. to receive screws for holding it to the base. Fig. as shown in Fig. FF. E and F. Fig. A round collar of galvanized iron.same size. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . as shown in Fig.

more wire should be added. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. when heated. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. A file can be used to remove any rough places. allowing a space between each turn. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. Can. Fig. This point marks the proper length to cut it. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. deep. --Contributed by W. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. it leaves a gate for the metal. Cut a 1/2-in. Fig. St. so that the circuit will not become broken. as the turns of the wires. above the rim. As these connections cannot be soldered. It should not be set on end. A. II. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. When this is done. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. This completes the stove. and pressed into it. Cal. When the tile is in place. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. when cool. Next. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. It should not be left heated in this condition. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. Richmond. causing a short circuit. Cnonyn. Jaquythe. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. If it is not thoroughly dry. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. While the clay is damp. 4.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. Catherines. H. If this is the case. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. The clay. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. will slip and come in contact with each other. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. --Contributed by R. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. KK. Cover over about 1 in. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. then. apart. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. steam will form when the current is applied. using care not to get it too wet. 2.

Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. the air can enter from both top and bottom. and the prints will dry rapidly. Louisville." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. constructed of 3/4-in. Then clip a little off the . as shown. square material in any size. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. --Contributed by Andrew G. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. is large enough. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. but 12 by 24 in. Ky. Thorne. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. and the frame set near a window. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. says the Photographic Times. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. the pie will be damaged.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin.

Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. Figs. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. thick and 3 in. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. 4 in. 2. high. wide and 7 in. 1. which gives the shaft a half turn. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. high. W. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. causing a break in the current. as shown. The board can be raised to place . Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. 1 and 3. at GG. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. -Contributed by S. Iowa. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. wide and 3 in. Fig. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. 1. 1. The connections are made as shown in Fig. 1/2 in. thick. As the shaft revolves. for the crank. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. An offset is bent in the center. each 1/2 in. 22 gauge magnet wire. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. in diameter. 1/2 in. allowing each end to project for connections. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft.Paper Funnel point. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. wide. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. The upright B. Herron. long. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. The connecting rod E. slip on two cardboard washers. each 1 in. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. A 1/8-in. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. in diameter and about 4 in. 2-1/2 in. thereby saving time and washing. open out. Le Mars. long. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. high. 1. which are fastened to the base. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. long. long. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. 14 in. Fig. The driving arm D. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. Fig. 3. thick and 3 in. Two supports.

the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. on a board. Dorchester. bottom side up. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. 3 in. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. Place the pot. as shown in the sketch. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. In designing the roost. in height. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. One or more pots may be used. --Contributed by William F. Stecher. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. . Mass. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. making a framework suitable for a roost.

A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. shelves. preferably. when combined. will produce the pattern desired. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. The materials required are rope or. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. ordinary glue. Fig. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. F. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. and give it time to dry. that it is heated. 1. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. if it is other than straight lines.. paraffin and paint or varnish. without any corresponding benefit. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. The bottom part of the sketch. F. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. Wind the . Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. grills and gratings for doors.. as shown in Fig. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. adopt the method described. 1. windows. etc. in diameter. odd corners.

These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. -Contributed by Geo. Fig. Lockport. six designs are shown. N. Harrer. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. cut and glue them together. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . M. 2.Fig. Y. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig.

says the English Mechanic.. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. As the . The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. chips of iron rust. which was used in front of a horse's head.. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig.. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. etc. when it will be observed that any organic matter. 1. and the sides do not cover the jaws. will be retained by the cotton. This piece of horse armor. but no farther. etc. London.

but the back is not necessary. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. 2. the same as in Fig. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. which can be made in any size. but for . and therefore it is not described. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. This will make the model light and easy to move around. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. except the thumb and fingers. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. This triangularshaped support. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. This can be made in one piece. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. In Fig. with the exception of the thumb shield. and will require less clay. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. the rougher the better. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. as shown in the sketch. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. which is separate. as the surface will hold the clay. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. 4. 2. 6 and 7. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. then another coat of glue. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. An arrangement is shown in Fig. This being done. All being ready. 8. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. and the clay model oiled. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. The armor is now removed from the model. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay.

and the instrument is ready for use. the two pieces of foil will draw together. each about 1/4 in. are glued to it. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. but 3-1/2 in. --Contributed by John G. cut into the shape shown in Fig. When locating the place for the screw eyes. 2. two in each jaw. 9. in depth. If it does not hold a charge. A piece of board. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. Fasten a polished brass ball to. will be about right. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. the top of the rod. The two pieces of foil. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. wide and 1/2 in. . Buxton. Redondo Beach. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. La Rue. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. Y. long. --Contributed by Ralph L. Goshen. fastened to the rod. are better shown in Fig. N. 1/2 in. running down the plate. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. the foils will not move. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. two for the jaws and one a wedge. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. Calif.

pine board. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. long. At a point 6 in. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. --Contributed by Mrs. about 15 in. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. as this will cut under the water without splashing. Corsicana. Bryan. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. silvered. A. is made of a 1/4-in. The can may be bronzed. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. as shown in the illustration. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. from the smaller end. Texas. 2-1/2 in. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. When a fish is hooked. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. hole bored through it. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. as indicated in the . used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. M. enameled or otherwise decorated.

as shown. will do as well as the more expensive woods. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. When it has dried over night. then with a nail. 22 is plenty heavy enough. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. A good size is 5 in. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. punch the holes. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. thick. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. and trace upon it the design and outline. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. If soft wood. Polish the metal. wide by 6 in. using a piece of carbon paper. Having completed the drawing. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. Next prepare the metal holder. long over all. Any kind of wood will do. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. take a piece of thin wood. Basswood or butternut. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. such as basswood or pine was used.Match Holder accompanying sketch. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. 3/8 or 1/4 in. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. using powdered pumice and lye. or even pine. put a coat or two of wax and polish . Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use.

wide and 5 in. If carving is contemplated. 2 in. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. Richmond. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. is used for the base of this instrument. Cal. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. . Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. Instead of the usual two short ropes. --Contributed by W. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. Two wire nails.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. thick. can be made on the same standards. each 1 in. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. long. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. It is useful for photographers. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. A. are used for the cores of the magnets. of pure olive oil. long. If one has some insight in carving. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. Jaquythe. the whole being finished in linseed oil. 1/2 in.

as shown by the dotted lines. 3. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. Lynas. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. A rubber band. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. when the key is pushed down. All of the parts for the armor have been described. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. at A. H. --Contributed by W. 1. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. except that for the legs. . and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. About 1 in. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. then covered with red. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. acts as a spring to keep the key open. about No. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. similar to that used in electric bells. cloth or baize to represent the legs. A piece of tin. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. the paper covering put on. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. cut in the shape of the letter T. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. 25 gauge. in the shape shown in the sketch. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. says the English Mechanic. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. London. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. as shown in Fig. leaving about 1/4 in.

Take the piece shown in Fig. These can be purchased at a stationery store. drill six 1/4-in. Cut them to a length or 40 in. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. and round off the ends to improve their appearance.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope.. A 1/4-in. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. hole in the center. In one end of the piece. 3 in. So set up. 1 and drill a 1/4in. 2. at each end. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. for the sake of lightness. can be made in a few minutes' time. and eight small holes. in the other end. make the same series of eight small holes and. The two pieces are bolted together. Silver paper will do very well. apart. one to another . completes the equipment. Fig. holes. flat headed carriage bolt. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. apart. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. long. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. Secure two strips of wood. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. says Camera Craft. not too tight. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. 1 in. about 1 in. By moving the position of the bolt from. or ordinary plaster laths will do. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. Instead of using brass headed nails.

A is the first string and B is the second. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. taking the same start as for the square fob. 2. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. Then take B and lay it over A. 1.of the larger holes in the strip. for instance. the one marked A. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. then B over C and the end stuck under A. lay Cover B and the one under D. Then draw all four ends up snugly. 2. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. and the one beneath C. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. D over A and C. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. 4. long. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. as in portraiture and the like. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. in Fig. of the ends remain unwoven. C over D and B. Start with one end. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. Fig. A round fob is made in a similar way. and lay it over the one to the right. but instead of reversing . as shown in Fig. doubled and run through the web of A. In this sketch. 2.

How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. especially if silk strings are used. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. Other designs can be made in the same manner. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. is to be made of leather. The round fob is shown in Fig. as B. Rupp. 5. Ohio. A loop. Monroeville. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. as in making the square fob. over the one to its right. always lap one string. as at A in Fig. 1-1/2 in. 3. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. --Contributed by John P. is left out at the center before starting on one side.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. long. the design of which is shown herewith.

Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. pressing it against the wood. Any smooth piece of steel. such as a nut pick. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. using the reverse side. -Contributed by A. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. When the supply of wax is exhausted. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. A. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. Mich. door facing or door panel.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. Houghton. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. beeswax or paraffin. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. it can be easily renewed. . and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. filling them with wax. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. Northville. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood.

Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. Ill. The tacks should be about 1 in. place it face down in the dish. --Contributed by O. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. if blueprints are used. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. but any kind that will not stick may be used. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. N. remaining above the surface of the board. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. Petersburg. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. Select the print you wish to mount. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. Thompson. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. J. and about 12 in. Enough plaster should.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. D. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. Y. Fold together on lines C. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. leaving about 1/4 in. New York. apart and driven in only part way. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. although tin ones can be used with good success. and after wetting. long. E and F. . those on matte paper will work best. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. thick. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. says Photographic Times. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. it is best to leave a plain white margin. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast.

at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. without mixing the solutions. will be rendered perfectly white. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. Lower into the test tube a wire. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. violets. bell flowers. roses. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble.. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. as shown in the right of the sketch. as shown at the left in the sketch. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. etc. One of the . filling the same about onehalf full.

to keep the core from coming off in turning. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. Fig. as shown in the sketch. in diameter and 1 in. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. The diaphragm. or delicate tints of the egg. Shabino. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. about 1/8s in. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . Millstown. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. as shown. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. A rod that will fit the brass tube. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. thick. made of heavy tin. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. 3. South Dakota. The tin horn can be easily made. 2. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. shading. The sound box. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. long and made of wood. turned a little tapering. When soldering these parts together. should be soldered to the box. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. L.. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. but which will not wobble loose. is about 2-1/2 in. and at the larger end. The first point should be ground blunt. long. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. 1. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. not too tightly. 1-7/8 in. --Contributed by L. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking.

Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch.Contributed by E. mice in the bottom. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. Victor. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. Chicago. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. says the Iowa Homestead. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. put a board on top. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. Colo. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. and. Jr. wondering what it was. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . and weighted it with a heavy stone. Ill. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. E. Gold. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four.

A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. N. . To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. Can. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. Ottawa. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. --Contributed by Lyndwode. Y. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. Pereira. Buffalo. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time.

--Contributed by Thos. Richmond. through which several holes have been punched. above the end of the dasher. Jaquythe. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. This cart has no axle. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. cut round. a piece of tin. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. longer than the length of the can. A. by means of a flatheaded tack. --Contributed by W. Grand Rapids. De Loof. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . Put a small nail 2 in. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. as it can be made quickly in any size. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. Mich. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. Cal. and at one end of the stick fasten. as shown.

2. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. The base may be made of a 1/2-in.1. 1 ft. wide and 3 ft. I reversed a door gong. The candles. Fig.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. deep and 3 in. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. Notches 1/8 in. board. were below the level of the bullseye. apart. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. New Orleans. of course. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. 2 in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. screwed it on the inside of a store box. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. thick. The baseboard and top are separable. Pa. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. 2. Kane. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. long. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. as shown. 2. wide. 1. La. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. wide and 1/8 in. 1/4 in. Doylestown. 1-1/2 in. --Contributed by James M. wide and as long as the box. cut in the center of the rounding edge. A wedge-shaped piece of .

For the handle. when placed as in Fig. the reason being that if both were solid. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. When not in use. as shown in Fig. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. wide into each side of the casing. 3. the shelf could not be put on the window. --Contributed by G. The block can also be used as a paperweight. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. After the glue has dried. it can be removed without marring the casing. etc. Mass. take two pieces of hard wood. Wood. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. to prevent its scratching the desk top. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. dressing one surface of each piece. stone or wood. will. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. Needles. as one end must be dropped in place before the other.Book Back Holders metal. the blade is put back into the groove . Cover the block with rubber. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. Ia. This device is very convenient for invalids.. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. scissors. West Union. A. wide rubber bands or felt. Worcester. by cutting away the ends. After completing the handle. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. 1. can be picked up without any trouble.

and sharpened to a cutting edge. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. Hutchins. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. Malden. square and 4 in. --Contributed by H. as shown in Fig. Cleveland. A. -Contributed by W. Ohio. is shown in the accompanying sketch. If desired. long. . thus carrying the car up the incline. Erie. --Contributed by Maud McKee. Each one is made of a hardwood block. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. Pa. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. 1. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. 1 in. A notch is cut in one side. Jacobs. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. 2. as shown in Fig. S. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. Mass. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block.

J. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. will be needed. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material.. One sheet of metal. a board on which to work it. N. 6 by 9-1/2 in. Cape May Point.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. Prepare a design for the front. . --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. This will insure having all parts alike. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. The letters can be put on afterward. and an awl and hammer. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. If one such as is shown is to be used.

that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. mandolin or guitar. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. If any polishing is required.Fasten the metal to the board. says Master Painter. behind or through the center of a table leg. 1/4 part. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. flat brush. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. in the waste metal. if desired. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. but weird and distant. 2 parts white vitriol. that can be worked in your own parlor. turpentine. only the marginal line is to be pierced. varnish. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. applied by means of a brush. The stick may be placed by the side of. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. Remove the metal. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. to right angles. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. 3/4 part. On the back. placed on a table. . So impressive are the results. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal." In all appearance. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. a violin. as shown. One coat will do. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. The music will not sound natural. or. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. 1 part. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. which is desirable. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. paste the paper design right on the metal. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid.

across the top. apart. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. 2. square bar iron. without them. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. wide. are shaped as shown in Fig.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. is bent square so as to form two uprights. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. long and spread about 8 in. . each 6 in. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. and is easy to construct. round-head machine screws. 3. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. The longest piece. London. thick by 1/2 in. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. With proper tools this is easy. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. long and measuring 26 in. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. Two pairs of feet. it might be difficult. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. each 28 in. long. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. says Work. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig.

Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. B. Fig. The brads are then removed. Place the corner piece of glass. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. C. 5.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. better still. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. After the glass is cut. as shown in Fig. The glass. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. A. special flux purchased for this purpose. 7. using rosin as a flux. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. Fig. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. The design is formed in the lead. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. or. is held by the brads. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. After the joints are soldered. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. 6. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. 5. on it as shown. cut a long piece of lead. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. While the piece of lead D. the latter being tapped to . D. and the base border. in the grooves of the borders. lead. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. 4.

--Contributed by W.the base of the clip. rocker bolt.. J. bolt. This ring can be made of 1-in. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. 8. not less than 4 in. Dreier. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. Two styles of hand holds are shown. Make three washers 3-in. Jr. H. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. wood screws in each washer. then drill a 3/4-in. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. in diameter and 1/4 in. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. rounded at the top as shown. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. Camden. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. and two wood blocks. This . but the one on the left is the one most generally used. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. square and of the length given in the drawing. as shown in Fig. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. in diameter and about 9 in. long. then flatten its end on the under side. A and B. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. long. N. and round the corners of one end for a ring. Secure a post. bolt. Bore a 3/4-in. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. Bore a 5/8-in. Fasten the plates to the block B. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. one on each side and central with the hole. long. plank about 12 ft. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. holes through their centers. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. plates. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. The center pin is 3/4-in. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. thick and drill 3/4-in.

apart for a distance of 3 ft. 2 by 4 in. bolts and rope. square by 5 ft. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. 2-1/2 in. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. 4 in. maple. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. The four 7-in.will make an excellent cover for a pot. New Orleans. because it will not stand the weather. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. long. hickory. 4 pieces. long. 7 in. 9 in. 16 screws. 4 pieces. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. by 3 ft. the money outlay will be almost nothing. of 1/4-in. horse and rings. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . straight-grained hickory. and some one can swing an axe. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. from one edge. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. If trees are convenient. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. 3/4 by 3 in. square by 9-1/2 ft. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. long. 1 by 7 in. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. long. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. long and 1 piece. 50 ft. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. by 6-1/2 ft. 1/2 in. 4 filler pieces. 1. 3 in. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. in diameter and 7 in. 4 in. by 2 ft. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 1-1/4in. long. Draw a line on the four 7-in. long. shanks. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. boards along the side of each from end to end. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. chestnut or ash. To substitute small. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. bit. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. screws. La. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. can make a first class gymnasium. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood.

hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. Bore a 9/16-in. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft..bored. piece of wood. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. apart. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. each 3 ft. at each end. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. boards coincide. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted.. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. deep and remove all loose dirt. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. so the 1/2-in. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. 2. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. from the end. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . 8 in. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. apart. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped.

the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. just visible against the dark evening sky. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. the effect is very striking. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. not even the tumbler. not much to look at in daytime. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others." which skimmed along the distant horizon. When the interest of the crowd. it is taken to the edge of the foot. and ascends the stem. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. And all he used was a black thread. and then passes in a curve across the base. in an endless belt. and materially heightened the illusion. was at its height. passing through a screweye at either end. . and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. W. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. He stretched the thread between two buildings. disappearing only to reappear again. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip.. If the tumbler is rotated. but most deceptive at dusk. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. it follows the edge for about 1 in. which at once gathered. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. apart. about 100 ft. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous.

long. 4 in. 2 cross braces. preferably cedar. long. 4 wood screws. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. 4 knee braces. and turned in a spiral D. La. so the point will be on top. deep. square and 6 ft. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. 2 by 3 in. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. from either side of the center. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. 4 bolts. 4 in. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. The cork will come out easily. long. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. by 7 ft. Bevel the ends of . 2 in. 8 in. long. 2 by 4 in. 2 base pieces. 2 side braces. 8 bolts. Fig. long. large spikes. 2 by 4 in. long. square and 51/2 ft.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. long. 1. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. by 3 ft. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. long. long and 1 doz. 7 in. by 10 ft. A wire about No. 6 in. To make the apparatus. 8 in. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. by 2 ft. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. 8 in. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. Chisel out two notches 4 in. New Orleans. 2 by 4 in. beginning at a point 9 in. wide and 1 in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier.

Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. Jaquythe. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. save the bars. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. so the bolts in both will not meet. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. jellies. except the bars.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. etc. . Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. Cal.the knee braces. and countersinking the heads. equipped with a strainer. The wood so treated will last for years. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. using four of the 7-in bolts. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. which face each other. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. leaving the strainer always in position. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. A. If using mill-cut lumber. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. leave it undressed. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. of 7 ft. Two endpieces must be made. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. --Contributed by W. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. screws. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. as shown in the diagram. After the trenches are dug. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. Richmond. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. A large sized ladle.. additional long. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. These will allow the ladle to be turned. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. ( To be Continued. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. but even unpainted they are very durable.

An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. In order to accomplish this experiment. A. which seems impossible.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. milling machine. Oil. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. it is necessary to place a stick. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. drill press or planer. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. . it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. of sufficient 1ength. thus holding the pail as shown. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. partly a barrier for jumps. or various cutting compounds of oil.

from each end. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. bolts. but 5 ft. to fasten the knee braces at the top. long. 2 bases. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. long. 4 knee braces. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. 1 cross brace. 7 in. ten 1/2-in. 4-1/2 in. beginning 1-1/2 in. bolts. by 3 ft. The material required is as follows: Two posts. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. bolts. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. and free from knots. Hand holds must be provided next. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. long. by 3 ft. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. square by 5-1/2 ft. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. long. projections and splinters. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. 3 in. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. 1 in. 2 by 4 in. square by 5 ft. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. Procure from a saw mill. is a good length. by 3 ft. long. long. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. To construct.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. 4 in. bolt. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. 4 in. The round part of this log must be planed. apart in a central position on the horse. in diameter--the larger the better. These are placed 18 in. piece of 2 by 4-in. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in.. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. long. wood yard or from the woods. two 1/2-in. long. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. 4 in. These are well nailed in place. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center.. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. 2 adjusting pieces. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. 2 by 4 in. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. in the ground. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . apart. stud cut rounding on one edge. 2 by 4 in.

Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. Also. then bending to the shape desired. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. water. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. etc. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. pipe and fittings. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. such as a dent. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. over and around. Jaquythe. but nevertheless. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. Cal. snow. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. no one is responsible but himself. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle.horse top. Such a hand sled can be made in a .--Contributed by W. A. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. it is caused by some obstruction. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. it is caused by an overloaded shell. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. Richmond. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height.

This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. France. --Contributed by J. thick. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. at E and F. Noble. 1. Vener. 1/4 or 3/16 in.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. Mass. --Contributed by James E. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. . are all the tools necessary. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. which. The end elevation. will give the length. Joerin. when straightened out. 2. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. is much better than a wood sled. Paris. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. --Contributed by Arthur E. in width and 1/32 in. Ontario. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. when complete. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. Boston. then run a string over each part. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. Toronto. These. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. W.

A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. The method shown in Figs. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. are nailed. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. and the latter will take on a bright luster. 3. AA and BB. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. It is best to use soft water. . A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. nor that which is partly oxidized. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. 4.

or unequal widths as in Fig. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. 2.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. 2. 3. Broad lines can be made. or various rulings may be made. as shown in Fig. Percy Ashley in Rudder. . If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. as shown in Fig. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. class ice-yacht. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. The materials used are: backbone. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. 8 and 9. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. 4. 1). A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

bent and drilled as shown. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. It can be made longer or shorter. out from the collar. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. pins to keep them from turning. The point should extend about 11/2 in. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig.Fig. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. 1. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. about 30 in. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. a tee and a forging. Both the lower . a larger size of pipe should be used. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. 1-Details of Lathe sort. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. A good and substantial homemade lathe. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. but if it is made much longer. The headstock is made of two tees. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. pipe. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. long. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee.

These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. UpDeGraff. To do this. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. and will answer for a great variety of work. Laporte. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. Fruitvale.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. else taper turning will result. Musgrove. or a key can be used as well. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. Held. as shown in Fig. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. Cal. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. thick as desired. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. --Contributed by M. M. 2. It is about 1 in. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. a corresponding line made on this. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. 1. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. Boissevain. 2. --Contributed by W. but also their insulating properties. --Contributed by W. W. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. Man. . and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. 2. a straight line should be scratched Fig. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. Indiana. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. 3/4 or 1 in. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. as shown in Fig. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed.

Smith. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. as shown. The handle is of pine about 18 in. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. Ark. In use. Cline. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. To obviate this. long. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. Ft. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. --Contributed by E. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. J.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. and the two loops are made of heavy wire.

trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. on starting the lathe. if this method is followed: First. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. After being entered. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. La. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. White. centering is just one operation too many. --Contributed by Walter W. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. which should be backed out of contact. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. Colo. Denver. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. take . --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. the drill does not need the tool. face off the end of the piece. This prevents the drill from wobbling. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. New Orleans. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. and when once in true up to its size. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily.

It can be used in a great number of tricks. and can be varied to suit the performer. After the wand is removed. unknown to the spectators. the cap is placed over the paper tube. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. The handkerchief rod. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. all the better. a long piece of glass tubing. The glass tube B. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. as shown in D. says the Sphinx. vanishing wand. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. is put into the paper tube A. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. shorter t h a n the wand. a bout 1/2 in. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. after being shown empty. shown at C. In doing this. by applying caustic soda or . so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. and this given to someone to hold.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler.

ends and bottom are made of hard wood. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. With care and patience. The brace at D is 1 in. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. can be made by the home mechanic. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. 1 Neck. as shown by K. 1/4 in. and glue it to the neck at F. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. Cut a piece of hard wood. preferably hard maple. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. 3/16. 1 Bottom. Glue strips of soft wood. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. 1 End. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. This dimension and those for the frets . A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. End. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in.potash around the edges of the letters. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. by 14 by 17 in. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. across the front and back to strengthen them. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. with the back side rounding. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. Glue the neck to the box. long. thick. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. square and 1-7/8 in. cut to any shape desired. 1. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. 2 Sides. The sides. and if care is taken in selecting the material. As the cement softens.

are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. E. Six holes. -Contributed by J. 3/16 in. thick and about 1 ft. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. wide and 11-1/2 ft. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. Carbondale. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. A board 1 in. toward each end. or backbone. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. but it is not. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. When it is completed you will have a canoe. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. 1) on which to stretch the paper. Norwalk. H. and beveled . Stoddard. long is used for a keel. Frary. in diameter. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. --Contributed by Chas. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. O.Pa. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels.should be made accurately. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit.

It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. Fig. or other place. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. Fig. as they are apt to do. Fig. as before described. slender switches of osier willow. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. twigs 5 or 6 ft. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. but before doing this. 3. a. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. two strips of wood (b. as shown in Fig. 13 in. probably. some tight strips of ash. These are better. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position.. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. 3/8 in. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. procure at a carriage factory. when made of green elm. and notched at the end to receive them (B. long are required. or similar material. Fig. 4). as shown in Fig. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. b. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. and. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. Osiers probably make the best ribs. The ribs. 3). 3. such as hazel or birch. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. thick. In drying. The cross-boards (B. 2). For the ribs near the middle of the boat. B. and so. but twigs of some other trees. Fig. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. 2. by means of a string or wire. and are not fastened. Green wood is preferable. 1. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. b. C. . apart. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. b. Any tough. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. long. 3). The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. in such cases. 1 and 2. such as is used for making chairbottoms. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. the loose strips of ash (b. buy some split cane or rattan. C. will answer nearly as well. two twigs may be used to make one rib. with long stout screws. thick. 2). Shape these as shown by A. in thickness and should be cut. For the gunwales (a. are next put in. wide by 26 in. which are easily made of long. Fig. 4. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. Fig. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff.) in notches. Fig. Fig.

Fig. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. apply a second coat of the same varnish. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. If the paper be 1 yd. It should be smooth on the surface. It should be drawn tight along the edges. however. When thoroughly dry. The paper is then trimmed. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. tacking it to the bottom-board. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. after wetting it. but with less turpentine. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. If not. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. 5). varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. When the paper is dry. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. of very strong wrapping-paper. and steady in the water. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. Being made in long rolls. if it has been properly constructed of good material. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. and very tough. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. preferably iron. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. wide. Then take some of the split rattan and. and held in place by means of small clamps. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. and as soon as that has soaked in. B. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. You may put in . and light oars. but neither stiff nor very thick. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before.

We procured a box and made a frame. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. fore and aft. and make a movable seat (A. 1. they will support very heavy weights. 5). 5.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. and if driven as shown in the cut. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. Fig. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. 2. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. Drive the lower nail first. Fig. Fig. 1 and the end in . The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. to fit it easily. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries.

and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. 5. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. 3. 4. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. This is an easy . is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. this makes the tube airtight. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed.Fig. being softer where the flame has been applied. Close the other end with the same operation. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. Pittsburg. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. and the result is. Pa. A good way to handle this work. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. This way has its drawbacks. and the glass. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes.

three. Oswald. fourth. very rapid progress can be made. also trace the decorative design. second. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. third. rivet punch. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. Seventh. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. with a piece of carbon paper. file. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. After the bulb is formed.way to make a thermometer tube. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. fifth. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. Sixth. Give the metal a circular motion. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. or six arms. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. above the metal. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. 23 gauge. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. four. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. above the work and striking it with the hammer. The candle holders may have two. then reverse. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. -Contributed by A. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. flat and round-nosed pliers. extra metal all around. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. thin screw. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. metal shears.

The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. Having pierced the bracket. drip cup. Metal polish of any kind will do. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. and holder. Small copper rivets are used.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration.

Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. Mother let me have a sheet. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. The gaff. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. winding the ends where they came together with wire. Shiloh. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. Fifty. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. thus it was utilized. Heat 6-1/2 oz.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. F. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. and in a week . I steer with the front wheel. except they had wheels instead of runners. if it has not absorbed too much ink. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. hammer. and it will be ready for future use. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. of glycerine to about 200 deg. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. Soak 1 oz. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. using a steel pen. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. alcohol 2 parts. A saw. and brace and bit were the tools used. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. when it will be ready for use. is a broomstick. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. deep. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. glycerine 4 parts. and water 24 parts. Twenty cents was all I spent. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. the stick at the bottom of the sail. and other things as they were needed. and add the gelatine. smooth it down and then remove as before. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. they were like an ice boat with a sail. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. The boom. all the rest I found. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. J. on a water bath. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. N. sugar 1 part.

a projecting lens . Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up. A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly.Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing.

yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. Fig. 3. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. are . at a distance of 24 ft. 8 in. A and B. A table. DD. slide to about 6 ft. but if such a box is not found. at a point 1 in. G. and. wire brads. wide. long. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. 1.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. The slide support. wide and 15 in. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. 1/2 to 3/4 in. or a lens of 12-in. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp.. The board is centered both ways. provided the material is of metal. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. If a small saw is used. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. H. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. thick. high. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. E. and 14 in. This ring is made up from two rings. or glue. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. above the center. focus enlarging a 3-in. and the lens slide. and a projecting lens 2 in. and the work carefully done. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. as desired. about 2 ft. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. well seasoned pine. describe a 9-in. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping.

Small strips of tin.constructed to slip easily on the table. St. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. B. Minn. light burning oil. A sheet . The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. placed on the water. P. the water at once extinguishes the flame. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. should the glass happen to upset. E. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. JJ. the strips II serving as guides. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. To reach the water. and when the right position is found for each. but not long enough. Paul. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered.-Contributed by G. apply two coats of shellac varnish. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. of safe. The arrangement is quite safe as. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick.

3 in.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. 2.. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. 3. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. from a tent company. --Contributed by J. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. 3. then the corners on one end are doubled over. form a piece of wire in the same shape. 1.H. 9 in. I ordered a canvas bag. to cover the mattresses. 12 ft. 4. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . Schenectady. Crawford. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. Fig. Y. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. by 12 ft. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. N. If one of these clips is not at hand. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. Fig.

2. 3/4 in. long. --Contributed by Walter W. White. and insert two binding-posts. To calibrate the instrument. through which the indicator works. Warren. An arc is cut in the paper. open on the edges. Fasten the wire with gummed label. Teasdale. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. 2. --Contributed by Edward M. Colo. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. Do not use too strong a rubber. 1/2 in. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. first mark the binding-post A. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. Fig. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. Fig. 2. 1. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. V. as shown in Fig. 3/4 in. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. insulating them from the case with cardboard. 1. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. drill two 3/16 in. C. 1/2 in. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. A Film Washing Trough [331] . 3 to swing freely on the tack. to keep it from unwinding. wide. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. Attach a piece of steel rod. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. so as to form two oblong boxes. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. Pa. Denver. A rubber band. in the center coil. holes in the edge.each edge. apart. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. to the coil of small wire for volts. D. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. long and 3/16 in. thick. Fold two strips of light cardboard. for amperes and the other post.

--Contributed by M. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. M. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. Cut a 1/4-in. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. with the large hole up. Dayton. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. Place this can on one end of the trough. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. Hunting. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. O.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. Wood Burning [331] . as shown. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width.

draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. mouth downward. then into this bottle place. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the .Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays.

Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. Whitehouse. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. N. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. many puzzling effects may be obtained. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. --Contributed by John Shahan. as shown in the sketch. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . Ala. Upper Troy. 2. wide and 4 in. Place the small bottle in as before. Auburn. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. If the cork is adjusted properly. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. thick. If the small bottle used is opaque. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. but not very thick. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. This will make a very pretty ornament. provided the bottle is wide. 3/4 in. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. --Contributed by Fred W. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume.Y. 1. long.

such as blades and pulleys. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. high without the upper half. K. B. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. A staple. 1. Milter. thick. W.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. --Contributed by D. as shown in Fig. 2 ft. Fig. The 21/2-in. in diameter and 1 in. 4. which gave considerable power for its size. Fig. which extended to the ground. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. thick and 3 in. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. Both bearings were made in this manner. G. iron rod. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. pulley F. to the shaft. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. Fig. wide. which was 6 in. 1. I. 1. 1. Fig. Its smaller parts. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. were constructed of 1-in. even in a light breeze. Fig. 1 in. 2. which was nailed to the face plate. 3. On a 1000-ft. sugar pine on account of its softness. If a transmitter is used. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. line. by the method shown in Fig. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. was keyed to shaft C. The shaft C. The bearing blocks were 3 in. was 1/4in. or ordinary telephone transmitters. 1. thick. long. The wire L was put . pulley.

R. To make the key. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. across the thin edge of a board. washers were placed under pulley F. 6. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. 2. hole for the shaft G was in the center. through the latter. 1. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. was 2 ft. 6. 1) 4 in. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. long and 3 in. G. The power was put to various uses. Fig. 5. cut out another piece of tin (X. Fig. 25 ft. square to the board P at the top of the tower. To lessen the friction here. This fan was made of 1/4-in. Fig. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. top down also. If you have no bell. The other lid. in the center of the board P. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. pine 18 by 12 in. 1. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. long and bend it as . 1. so that the 1/4-in. 1. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. long. Fig. long and bend it as shown at A. apart in the tower. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. and was cut the shape shown. strips. Fig. with all parts in place. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. Fig. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. providing one has a few old materials on hand. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. long and 1/2 in. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. was tacked.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. wide and 1 in. Fig. for instance. hole was bored for it. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. as. The smaller one. H. This completes the receiver or sounder. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. a 1/2-in. in diameter. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. when the windmill needed oiling. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. 3 in. long. There a 1/4-in. Two washers were placed on shaft C. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. with brass headed furniture tacks. 0. This board was 12 in. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. The bed plate D. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft.

When tired of this instrument. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . leaving the other wire as it is. Now. 2. causing a buzzing sound. and. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. although it can be made with but two. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. McConnell. fitted with paddles as at M. using cleats to hold the board frame. Before tacking it to the board. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. as indicated. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. The rear barrels are. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. after the manner of bicycle wheels. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. Thus a center drive is made. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. like many another device boys make. By adjusting the coils. Going back to Fig. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. -Contributed by John R. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels.shown. at the front. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. as shown at Water. 1. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels.

using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. there will not be much friction. or even a little houseboat. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. which will give any amount of pleasure. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. as shown in Fig. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. The speed is slow at first. To propel it. can be built. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. 3. There is no danger. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. feet on the pedals. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. If the journals thus made are well oiled. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. copper piping and brass tubing for base. 1. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it.

2. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. A. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. B. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. Shape small blocks of boxwood. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . D. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions.of pleasure for a little work. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. Fig. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. If magnifying glass cannot be had. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. Fig. and so creating a false circuit. Turn a small circle of wood. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. Fig. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. then the glass disc and then the other ring. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. If it is desired to make the light very complete. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. 2. Place one brass ring in cylinder. 1. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. Then melt out the rosin or lead. 1. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. Fig. or it may be put to other uses if desired. 2. C. 1. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder.

H. To operate this. S. X. such as is used for cycle valves. Swissvale. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . 5-1/4 by 10 in. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. C. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. D. after two turns have been made on the key. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . brass strip. by having the switch on the baseboard. Pa. while lying in bed. wire from batteries to switch. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. bracket. near the bed. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. The parts indicated are as follows: A. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time.india rubber tubing. 3/8 in. copper tubing. wire from light to switch. set alarm key as shown in diagram. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. Utah. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. switch. To throw on light throw levers to the left. which stops bell ringing. bell. F. dry batteries.. 4 in. shelf. key of alarm clock. When alarm goes off. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. In placing clock on shelf. long. contact post. --Contributed by C. I. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. brass rod. E. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. Throw lever off from the right to center. T. 4-1/2 in. if too small. long. and pulled tight. wide and 1/16 in. thick. after setting alarm. J. Ogden. some glue will secure them. or 1/4in. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. --Contributed by Geo. Brinkerhoff. Chatland. wire from bell to switch. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. C. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. G. B. To get the cylinder into its carriage.

gives the heater a more finished appearance. 1. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. will do the heating. about 3-1/2 in. A flannel bag. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. being careful not to get the sand in it. as . Fig. Minn. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. long. Make a shoulder. S. 1. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. Pull out the nail and stick.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. A small lamp of about 5 cp. 4 in. 1/4 in. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. 2. which can be made of an old can. Chapman. Fig. about 6 in. 2. beyond the end of the spindle. Lanesboro. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. as in Fig. All that is required is a tin covering. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. This is to form the fuse hole. wide. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. from one end. 3. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. for instance. Make the spindle as in Fig. in diameter. in diameter. letting it extend 3/4 in. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. Fig. place stick and all in a pail of sand. Having finished this. as at B. as at A. a bed warmer. --Contributed by Chas. as at A. making it as true and smooth as possible.

deep. thick. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. long. wide and 6 ft. good straight-grained pine will do. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. 6 in. The material must be 1-1/2 in. long. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Arthur E. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. The illustration shows how this is done. will be sufficient to make the trigger. ash. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. thick. 1 in. long. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. 1. 5/8 in. spring and arrows. wide and 3 ft. Joerin. thick. this is to keep the edges from splitting. A piece of tin. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . but if this wood cannot be procured. 11/2 in. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. 3/8 in. or hickory. wide and 3/8 in. A piece of oak.

and one for the trigger 12 in. The stick for the bow. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. 2. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. E. To throw the arrow. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. Fig. 6. in diameter. 4. A spring. Trownes. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. it lifts the spring up. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. When the trigger is pulled. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. as shown in Fig. 3. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. --Contributed by O. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. as shown in Fig. better still. or through the necessity of. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. The bow is not fastened in the stock. from the opposite end. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. 9. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. Fig. thick. from the end of the stock. To shoot the crossbow. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. Fig. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. Wilmette. having the latter swing quite freely. The trigger. 7. wide at each end. Ill. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. which is 1/4 in. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. Such a temporary safe light may be . 8. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. place the arrow in the groove.

and nail it in position as shown at A. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. The hinged cover E. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. since the flame of the candle is above A. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. or only as a camp on a short excursion. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. is used as a door. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. it is the easiest camp to make. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. This lamp is safe. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. respectively. make the frame of the wigwam. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. The cut should be about 5 ft. from the ground. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. says Photo Era. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. Remove the bottom of the box. making lighting and trimming convenient.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. C. By chopping the trunk almost through. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. and replace as shown at B. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. the bark lean-to is a . Branches and brush can easily be piled up. Remove one end. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. Moreover. from the ground. apart. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another.

so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. spruce. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. wide and 6 ft. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. Tongs are very useful in camp. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. will dry flat. In the early summer. a 2-in. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. 6 ft. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. wide. long and 2 or 3 ft. makes a good pair of tongs. thick. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. long. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. selecting a site for a camp. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. long and 1-1/2 in. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. make the best kind of a camp bed. . The bark is easily pried off with an ax. nails are necessary to hold it in place. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. and when the camp is pitched. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. deep and covered with blankets. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. For a permanent camp. are a convenient size for camp construction. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. and cedar. A piece of elm or hickory. For a foot in the middle of the stick. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. Sheets of bark.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. 3 ft. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. and split the tops with an ax. piled 2 or 3 ft. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. Where bark is used.

and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. . or even a rough lock for the camp larder. hinges. and affording accommodation for several persons.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried.

B. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. 1.. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. A. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. wide. about 4 in. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. Pa. Kane. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. to another . Doylestown. the interior can. deep and 4 in. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. I drove a small cork. and provide a cover or door. --Contributed by James M. changing the water both morning and night. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. Fig. B.

This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. for instance. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. This makes . The diagram. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. 3. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. until. The current is thus compelled. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. 2. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. if necessary. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. a liquid. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. fused into one side. 4 and 5). care being taken to have the rubber ring centered.glass tube. limit. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. such as ether. 2. which project inside and outside of the tube. Fig. to pass through an increasing resistance. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. C. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. for instance. E. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw.

two holes. making it 1/16 in. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. as shown in the left-hand sketch. therefore. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. is composed of wrought sheet iron. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. hole is . are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. Alpena. on a lathe. set at 1/8 in. Fig. or even 1/16 in. larger than the dimensions given. After cleaning them with the solution. assemble and rivet them solidly. which may be of any thickness so that. 3-3/8 in. between centers. they will make a frame 3/4 in. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. Then the field can be finished to these marks. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. tap. cannot be used so often. as shown in Fig. thick. bent at right angles as shown. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. in diameter. screws. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. but merely discolored. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. which will make it uniform in size. 3-3/8 in. The bearing studs are now made. If the thickness is sufficient. Before removing the field from the lathe. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. 2. clamp the template. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. Fig. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. When the frame is finished so far. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. to allow for finishing. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. when several pieces are placed together. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. brass. drill the four rivet holes. and for the outside of the frame. Michigan. thicker. 4-1/2 in. 1.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. After the template is marked out. mark off a space. These holes are for the bearing studs. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. in diameter. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. or pattern. by turning the lathe with the hand. thick. 3. A 5/8in. brass or iron. A.

or otherwise finished.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. soldered into place. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . The shaft of the armature. and build up the solder well. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. solder them to the supports. is turned up from machine steel. file them out to make the proper adjustment. brass rod is inserted. When the bearings are located. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. Fig. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. into which a piece of 5/8-in. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. 4.

as shown in Fig. After they . thick. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. 3.. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. 5. thick. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. holes through them for rivets. 9. sheet fiber. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. hole and tap it for a pin. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. Make the core 3/4 in. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. The sides are also faced off and finished. 7. 6. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. 3. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. by 1-1/2 in. washers. then drill a 1/8-in. wide. 8. inside diameter. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. to allow for finishing to size. 1-1/8 in. The pins are made of brass. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. or segments. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. thick are cut like the pattern. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. thick and 1/4 in. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. Procure 12 strips of mica. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. brass rod. 1/8 in. When this is accomplished. 3/4 in. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. 6. being formed for the ends. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. deep and 7/16 in. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. as shown m Fig. Find the centers of each segment at one end. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. 3/4 in. Armature-Ring Core. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. as shown in Fig. wide. and then they are soaked in warm water. and held with a setscrew. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. threaded. When annealed. After the pieces are cut out. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. Rivet them together. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. as shown in Fig. thick.

about 100 ft. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. Fig. and bring the end of the wire out at B. The winding is started at A. are soldered together. 1. wide and 1 in. shown at B. This winding is for a series motor. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. thick. by bending the end around one of the projections. To connect the wires. after the motor is on the stand. The source of current is connected to the terminals. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. 5. Fig. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. they are glued to the core insulation. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. All connections should be securely soldered. of No. After one coil. long. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. 8 in. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. 1. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. Run one end of the field wire. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. shown at A. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. The field is wound with No. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. until the 12 slots are filled. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. The two ends are joined at B. being required. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. sheet fiber. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. of the wire. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. When the glue is set. sheet fiber. and wind on four layers. which will take 50 ft. or side. yet it shows a series of . In starting to wind. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. the two ends of the wire. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust.have dried. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. 6 in. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. of the end to protrude. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass.

The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. as in the case of a spiral. which serves as the ground wire. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. and one. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. one from each of the eight contacts. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. or. still more simply. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. is fastened to the metallic body. A 1/2-in. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. Nine wires run from the timer.

Without this attachment. 45 deg. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. circle. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. board. It should be . wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. 6 in. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. of the dial. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. long. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. thus giving 16 different directions. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top.The Wind Vane. Covering these is a thin. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in.

The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. long to give the best results. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. however. N. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. Before tacking the fourth side. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. will be enough for the two sides. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. will be sufficient. if not too high. Blackmer. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. Fill the box with any handy ballast.about 6 ft. according to who is going to use it. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. is most satisfactory. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. and securely nail on the top of the box. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. -Contributed by James L. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. To make it. To work these outlines. Place the leather on some level. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. called a chip carving knife. Cut 3-in. Y. also a piece of new carpet. though a special knife. 14 by 18 in. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. and about 6 in. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. or. thus making a universal joint. . The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. high. making it heavy or light. will answer the purpose just as well. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. Buffalo.

Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. A good leather paste will be required. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. Paste the silk plush to the inner side. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing. An ordinary sewing-machine . Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine.

Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. or a hip that has been wrenched. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. square and tying a piece of . B. a needle and some feathers. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. can be thrown away when no longer needed. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. away from it. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. If a fire breaks out. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. Y. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. N. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. temporary lameness. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. as in cases of a sprained ankle. and tie them together securely at the bottom. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show.will do if a good stout needle is used. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. --Contributed by Katharine D. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. and fasten the feathers inside of it. of common salt and 10 lb. Syracuse. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. Morse. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. rather than the smooth side. of water.

and tacked it to the boards. commonly called tintype tin. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. Wis. made up of four layers of No. thus helping the rats to enter. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. letting it go at arm's length. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. E. and the receiver is ready for use. Albany. This not only keeps the rats out. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. long. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. and a coil of wire. Ashland. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. long. high. the corners being wired. 1/8 in. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. A. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. The diaphragm C. --Contributed by J. is cut on the wood. . It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. N. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. --Contributed by John A. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. The end is filed to an edge. as shown. One end is removed entirely. G. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given.string to each corner. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. which is the essential part of the instrument. Hellwig. The body of the receiver. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. Paterson. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown.J. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. board all around the bottom on the inside. etc. N. deep. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. A small wooden or fiber end. There is a 1-in. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. wound on the head end. Gordon Dempsey. B. setting traps. wide and 1/16 in. The coil is 1 in. The strings should be about 15 in. F. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in.. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. Y. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. but not sharp. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. laying poisoned meat and meal. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. cut to the length of the spool.

a piece of small wire. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. gold. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. and bend each strip in shape. To clean small articles. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. to . Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. Take a piece of string or. better still. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. begin with the smallest scrolls. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. The vase is to have three supports. A single line will be sufficient. wide. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium.

from E to F.. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. through which to slip the fly AGH. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. 3-1/2 in. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. About 1 in. 3-1/4 in. Work down the outside line of the design. Press or model down the leather all around the design. from C to D. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. wide when stitching up the purse. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. from the lines EF on the piece. 6-3/8 in. . After taking off the pattern.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. sharp pencil. Fold the leather on the line EF. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. using a duller point of the tool. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. Trace also the line around the purse. and does not require coloring. 4-1/4 in. thus raising it. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened.. as shown in the sketch. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF.which the supports are fastened with rivets.

on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. Then nail the wheel down firmly. 1 was cut. and cut out a wheel. Make the lug 1/4 in. deep. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. following the dotted lines. Fit this to the two .How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. First. 3. as shown in Fig. then nail it. with pins or small nails. 1. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. and a model for speed and power. being cast in wooden molds. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. as well as useful. around the wheel. It is neat and efficient. and. Now take another piece of wood. then place the square piece out of which Fig. deep. with the open side down. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. and the projections B. It can be made without the use of a lathe. 2. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. the "open" side. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. with a compass saw. all the way around. When it is finished. Cut off six pieces 12 in. thick.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. square. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. and which will be very interesting. This also should be slightly beveled. leaving the lug a. long. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. b. by 12 ft. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. and cut it out as shown in Fig. with the largest side down. 1/2 in. and tack the other piece slightly.

1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. place it between two of the 12-in. hole entirely through at the same place. and boring a 3/8-in. Take the mold apart.pieces just finished. holes through it. Now take another of the 12-in. then bolt it together. square pieces of wood. hole 1/4 in. as shown by the black dots in Fig. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. and cut it out as shown in Fig. and lay it away to dry. as shown by the . hole bored through its center. square pieces of wood. 1. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. Now put mold No. slightly beveled. and bore six 1/4-in. and clean all the shavings out of it. After it is finished. 4. in the center of it. one of which should have a 3/8-in. deep. bolts.

Pour metal into mold No. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles.1. 6. 4. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. place the entire machine in a vise. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel.1. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. Fig. true it up with a square. Now take mold No. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. Then bolt the castings together. and connect to the boiler. and bore three 1/4-in. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. Now cut out one of the 12-in. holes. lay it on a level place. and lay it away to dry. d. screw down.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. A piece of mild steel 5 in. and pouring metal in to fill it up.2. This will cast a paddle-wheel. fasten a 3/8-in. and pour babbitt metal into it. only the one is left-handed. and the other in the base. put the top of the brace through this hole. b. Using the Brace . where the casting did not fill out. in diameter must now be obtained. and 3/8-in. Put this together in mold No. instead of the right-handed piece. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. 6. Commencing 1-1/2 in. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. wide and 16 in. Let it stand for half an hour. holes at d. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. place it under the drill. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. one in the lug. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. This is the same as Fig. and two 1/4-in.black dots in Fig. B. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. take an ordinary brace. drill in it. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. and drill them in the same manner. After it is fitted in. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. as shown in illustration. so that it will turn easily. 1. and run in babbitt metal again. This is for a shaft. and drill it entirely through. long. one in the projections. This is mold No. as shown by the black dots in Fig.2. until it is full. and the exhaust hole in projection b. 5. the other right-handed. over the defective part. long. from the one end. see that the bolts are all tight.

while it is running at full speed. will do good service. long. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. and with three small screw holes around the edge. Plan of Ice Boat . and. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. and the other 8 ft. and if instructions have been carefully followed.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. turn the wheel to the shape desired. At each end of the 6ft. with a boss and a set screw. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. Then take a knife or a chisel. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. piece and at right angles to it.. one 6 ft. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood.

plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. The tiller. piece and at right angles to it. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. plank. Over the middle of the 6-ft. where they often did considerable damage. in diameter in the center. tapering to 1-1/2 in. in diameter at the base. distant. leaving 1 ft. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. plank nail 8-in. long. long and 2-1/2 in. 3. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. at the butt and 1 in. 2 by 3 in. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. projecting as in Fig. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. This fits in the square hole. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. Make your runners as long as possible. in the top before the skate is put on. 1. Fig. bolt the 8-ft. On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in. as the runners were fastened. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between t