P. 1
The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

|Views: 58|Likes:
Publicado porTimmot

More info:

Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

08/17/2011

pdf

text

original

Sections

  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother

THE BOY MECHANIC VOLUME I

Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)

BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I

THE

700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
HOW TO CONSTRUCT
WIRELESS OUTFITS, BOATS, CAMP EQUIPMENT, AERIAL. GLIDERS, KITES, SELF-PROPELLED VEHICLES ENGINES, MOTORS, ELECTRICAL APPARATUS, CAMERAS
AND

HUNDREDS OF OTHER THINGS WHICH DELIGHT EVERY BOY

WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
COPYRIGHTED, 1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO

POPULAR MECHANICS CO.
PUBLISHERS

A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

It is held in this curve until dry. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. 1. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . A piece of plank 12 in. away. until it is bound as shown in Fig.Fig. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. 1. 2. as shown in Fig. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. wide and 2 ft. --Contributed by J. grasp it and hold the same as a club. 1.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. 2. distant. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. 2 -. Noble. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. Fig. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. To throw a boomerang. with the hollow side away from you. apart. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. E. as shown in Fig. long will make six boomerangs. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. Ontario. Toronto. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. The pieces are then dressed round. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps.

The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. minus the top. First. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. but about 12 in. one inside of the circle and the other outside. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. however. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. and with a movable bottom. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. If the snow is of the right consistency. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. A wall. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. or rather no bottom at all. high and 4 or 5 in. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. which makes the building simpler and easier. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. forcing it down closely. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. it is not essential to the support of the walls. made of 6-in. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. A very light. and it may be necessary to use a little water. thick. the block will drop out. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. 6 in.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. blocks . long. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. dry snow will not pack easily.

is 6 or 8 in. Ore. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. It also keeps them out. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. The piece of wood. long and 1 in. a. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. Goodbrod. 2. above the ground. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. wide. and the young architect can imitate them. C. or an old safe dial will do. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. Fig. 1. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. 1. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. 2. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. which is about 1 ft. A nail. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. Fig. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. 3 -. Fig. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. Union. There is no outward thrust. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. which can be made of wood. D. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. 3. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. --Contributed by Geo. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position.

Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. Merrill. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use.When taking hot dishes from the stove. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. the box locked . he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. If ordinary butts are used. as the weight always draws them back to place. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. Syracuse. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. New York. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. says the Sphinx. --Contributed by R. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. one pair of special hinges. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. S. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person.

3. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. Fig. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. Alberta Norrell. one for each corner. as shown in Fig. as shown. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. It remains to bend the flaps. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. If they do not. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. To make a design similar to the one shown. 1. All . Make allowance for flaps on two sides. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. allowing each coat time to dry. When the sieve is shaken. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. If the measuring has been done properly. smooth surface. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. Ga. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. With the metal shears. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. about 1-32 of an inch. as shown in Fig. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. 2. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. on drawing paper. proceed as follows: First. draw one-half of it. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther.and the performer steps out in view. Augusta. Place the piece in a vise. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. -Contributed by L. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No.

Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. heats the strip of German-silver wire. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. in diameter. about 6 in. used for insulation. A piece of porcelain tube. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. After this has dried. To keep the metal from tarnishing. A resistance. The current. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. in passing through the lamp. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. as shown at AA. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. H. 25 German-silver wire. If a touch of color is desired. should be in the line. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. of No. The common cork. B. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. When the current is turned off. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. smooth it off with pumice stone and water.the edges should be left smooth. In boring through rubber corks. if rolled under the shoe sole. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. is fitted tightly in the third hole. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. and in the positions shown in the sketch. 25 gauge German-silver wire. R. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. --Contributed by R. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. which is about 6 in. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . cover it with banana-oil lacquer. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. Colo. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. C. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. Galbreath. from the back end. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. Denver. long. causing it to expand. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D.

bottom ring. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. Kansas City. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. as shown in Fig. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. 3. . 1. with thin strips of wood. Purchase two long book straps. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. 2. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. Mo. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. leaving a space of 4 in. --Contributed by David Brown. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. Fig. between them as shown in Fig. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth.

3. Fig. as . which is the right weight for family use. A. are mounted on the outside of the box. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. C. 36 in. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. The folds are made over the string. 4. 2. Pa. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. 1. having a gong 2-1/2 in. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. Kane. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. Fig. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. The string is then tied. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. one weighing 15 lb. Y. When the aeroplane tips. Doylestown. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. just the right weight for a woman to use. Syracuse. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. to form a handle. These are shown in Fig. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. and tack smoothly. Two strips of brass. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. 1. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole.. in diameter.An ordinary electric bell. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. and one weighing 25 lb. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. Fig. long. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. --Contributed by James M. and a pocket battery. Morse.. N. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. 1. --Contributed by Katharine D.

in diameter.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. if once used. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. four washers and four square nuts. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. Frame Made of a Rod . which can be purchased at a local hardware store. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. two 1/8 -in. bent as shown in Fig. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. machine screws. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. 3/32 or 1/4 in. N. and many fancy knick-knacks. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. such as brackets. long. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. 2. 1. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. --Contributed by Louis J. 2. Floral Park. Day. AA. Y. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. The saw.

leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. File these edges. 1 part sulphuric acid. green and browns are the most popular. treat it with color. Watch Fob For coloring silver. as well as brass and copper. For etching. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. therefore. if copper or brass. An Austrian Top [12] . though almost any color may be obtained. Rub off the highlights. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. Silver is the most desirable but. --Contributed by W. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. Detroit. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. Drying will cause this to change to purple. A. the most expensive. The buckle is to be purchased. of water in which dissolve. after breaking up. using a swab and an old stiff brush. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. If it colors the metal red. it has the correct strength. Of the leathers. rounding and smoothing with emery paper.may be made of either brass. Scranton. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. of course. use them in place of the outside nuts. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. 1 part nitric acid. Michigan.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. Apply two coats. copper. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. be covered the same as the back. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. as well as the depth of etching desired. In the design shown. or silver. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. of water. allowing each time to dry. With carbon paper trace these on the metal.. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt.

A 1/16-in.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. Bore a 3/4-in. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. long. . hole.F. in diameter. is formed on one end. Parts of the Top To spin the top. allowing only 1-1/4 in. hole in this end for the top. set the top in the 3/4 -in. 3/4 in. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. Tholl. 1-1/4 in. thick. Ypsilanti. long. The handle is a piece of pine. starting at the bottom and winding upward. wide and 3/4 in. When the shank is covered. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. --Contributed by J. Michigan. A handle. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. pass one end through the 1/16-in. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. 5-1/4 in.

Houghton. having no sides. --A. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. Mich.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. For black leathers. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. Augusta. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. Northville. tarts or similar pastry. Alberta Norrell. The baking surface. --Contributed by Miss L. Ga. A. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. . The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven.

then solder cover and socket together. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. When you desire to work by white light. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. two turns will remove the jar. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. the same as shown in the illustration. Centralia. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. says Studio Light. glass fruit jar. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. Mo. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. Stringing Wires [13] A.

for loading and development. 4 Vertical pieces. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. . as shown in the cross-section sketch. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. square by 62 in. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. so it can be folded up. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. square by 12 in. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. They are fastened. 1-1/4 in. Wis. Janesville. 4 Braces. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. 1-1/4 in. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. and not tip over. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. 16 Horizontal bars.

1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. Rosenthal. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. H. and a loop made in the end. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. If the loop is tied at the proper place. O. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. The front can be covered . was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. from scrap material. The whole. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. --Contributed by Dr. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. New York. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. After rounding the ends of the studs. after filling the pail with water. -Contributed by Charles Stem. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. Cincinnati. Phillipsburg. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. C.

you are. the mouth of which rests against a. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. FIG. By using the following method. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. If the gate is raised slightly. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. if you try to tone them afterward. Develop them into strong prints. and. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. --Contributed by Gilbert A. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. Md. 1 FIG. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. the color will be an undesirable. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. In my own practice. The . either for contact printing or enlargements. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. principally mayonnaise dressing. Wehr. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. Baltimore. The results will be poor. thoroughly fix. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. sickly one. by all rules of the game. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed.

. With a little practice.. wide and 4 in. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig.. 16 oz. in size.. this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain. The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished. An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in. 2 oz.. Iodide of potassium .......... The blotting paper can . Gray.... When the desired reduction has taken place.. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes. Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper. thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses. 2.. Place the dry print. L.. but. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away... --Contributed by T. A good final washing completes the process. etc... They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder. preferably the colored kind. This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print. to make it 5 by 5 in. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table.. as it will appear clean much longer than the white. It will bleach slowly and evenly....bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison.. transfer it to a tray of water........" Cyanide of potassium ... The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper. without previous wetting.... 5 by 15 in.. Put one on each corner of the blotting paper.. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects.... A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper. 1 and again as in Fig.... Cal...... long to admit the angle support.... three times. Water .. 20 gr. where it will continue to bleach. stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax.... Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete. San Francisco... when it starts to bleach. The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone. in this solution.

Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. and a length of 5 in. 20 gauge. Monahan. Wilson Aldred Toronto.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. the shaft 1 in. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. wide below the . Canada. having a width of 2-1/4 in. wide. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. Oshkosh. 3. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. Wisconsin. --Contributed by J. Corners complete are shown in Fig. the head of which is 2 in. Make a design similar to that shown. --Contributed by L.J.

freehand. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. which gives the outline of the design Fig. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. After the sawing. After this has dried. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. deep. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. Allow this to dry. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. after folding along the center line. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke.FIG. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. Make one-half of the design. For coloring olive green. 1. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. but use a swab on a stick. With the metal shears. Apply with a small brush. then put on a second coat. With files. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. using a small metal saw. then trace the other half in the usual way. 1 Fig. using carbon paper. Do not put the hands in the solution. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. 1 part sulphuric acid. 1 part nitric acid. as shown in Fig. Trace the design on the metal. 2. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. The metal must be held firmly. . then coloring. Pierce a hole with a small drill. using turpentine. 3. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. Fig. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. 4. being held perpendicular to the work. The lines at A and B will need to be cut.

. When this is cold. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. Ii is an ordinary staple. attach brass handles. thick. --Contributed by H. Conn. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. then stain it a mahogany color. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. Carl Cramer. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. or for serving an invalid's breakfast.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. it does the work rapidly. M. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. --Contributed by M. Syracuse. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. East Hartford. Cal. After the stain has dried. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. New York. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. Burnett. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. Morse. on a chopping board. Richmond. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. --Contributed by Katharine D. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. as shown.

The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. WARNECKE Procure some brass. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. thick and 4 in. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. indicating the depth of the slots. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. not over 1/4 in. --Contributed by Mrs. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. holes. in width at the shank. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. 4. Kissimmee. brass.. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. --Contributed by W. Richmond. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. thick. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. also locate the drill holes. Atwell. as shown in Fig. one shaft. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. or tin. 1/4 in. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. square. Fig. two enameled. as shown at A. 53 steel pens. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. H. Florida. Cal. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. . 1. L. and several 1/8-in. saucers or pans. A. about 3/16 in. Jaquythe. some pieces of brass. machine screws.

Fig. thick. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. hole in the center. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. 3. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. 5. about 1/32 in. 2. long by 3/4 in. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. and the ends filed round for the bearings. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. A 3/4-in. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. The shaft hole may also be filed square. lead should be run into the segments. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. 6. and pins inserted. wide and bend as shown in Fig. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. supply pipe. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. in diameter and 1/32 in. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. 2. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. can be procured. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. with 1/8-in. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. each about 1 in. as in Fig. If metal dishes. long and 5/16 in. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. with a 3/8-in. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. brass and bolted to the casing.. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. 1. 7. Bend as shown in Fig. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. Fig. thick. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. If the shaft is square. a square shaft used. These are connected to a 3/8-in. as shown in Fig. into the hole. hole is drilled to run off the water. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. wide. Fig. as shown. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. machine screws and nuts. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . 3. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. with the face of the disk. using two nuts on each screw.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. There should be a space of 1/16 in. machine screws. hole.

The lower part. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. from the top of the box. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. Smith. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. square and 30-1/2 in. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. deep over all. Cooke. we will call the basket. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. screws. using four to each leg. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. With a string or tape measure. Stain the wood before putting in the . to make the bottom. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. long. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. deep and 1-1/4 in. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. make these seams come between the two back legs. Fasten with 3/4-in. La Salle. Now you will have the box in two pieces. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. Ill. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. When assembling. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. high and 15 in. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. Be sure to have the cover. Canada. 8-1/2 in. from the bottom end of the legs. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. --Contributed by S. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. --Contributed by F. The four legs are each 3/4-in. Hamilton. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. or more in diameter. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. V. three of which are in the basket.

How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. The side. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. with the crudest of tools and a little practice.lining. sewing on the back side. Sew on to the covered cardboards. Packard. Md. and gather it at that point. wide and four strips 10 in. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. When making the display. you can. Boston.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. The folded part in the center is pasted together. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. 2. Cover them with the cretonne. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. wide. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. --also the lower edge when necessary. Baltimore. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. -Contributed by Stanley H. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. 1. Mass. If all the parts are well sandpapered. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. Fig.2 Fig. as shown in the sketch. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig.

a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. It is cleanly. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. Crockett. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. with slight modifications. 3. saving all the solid part. It is not difficult to . and. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by H. N. When through using the pad. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. Y. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. Fig. Mo. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. L. Cross Timbers. Orlando Taylor. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. --Contributed by B. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. Gloversville. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads.

Lane. remove the contents. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. and scrape out the rough parts. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. S. it should be new and sharp. across the face. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. --Contributed by Edith E. Bourne. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. El Paso. If a file is used. and secure it in place with glue or paste. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. Both of these methods are wasteful. or if desired. Mass. are shown in the diagram. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . After stirring. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. Texas. -Contributed by C. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. Lowell. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. After this is done.

These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. The insects came to the light. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. F. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. Oak Park. --Contributed by Geo. Greenleaf. --Contributed by Loren Ward. Ill. Canton. Wheeler. circled over the funnel and disappeared. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. Ill. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. Those having houses . After several hours' drying. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. A Postcard Rack [25]. As these were single-faced disk records.cooking utensil. The process works well and needs no watching. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. Oregon. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. --Contributed by Marion P. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. He captured several pounds in a few hours. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. Des Moines. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. Turl. Iowa. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle.

not even with the boards themselves. Only three pieces are required. Both sides can be put together in this way. by 2 ft. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. Rosenberg. the best material to use being matched boards. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. and both exactly alike. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. Conn. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. Worcester. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. will do as well. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw.. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. Glenbrook. The single boards can then be fixed. --Contributed by Wm.. 6 in.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. --Contributed by Thomas E. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. plane and pocket knife. and the second one for the developing bench. and as they are simple in design. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. 6 in. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. material. the bottom being 3/8 in. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. but for cheapness 3/4 in. thick. one on each side of what will be the . Dobbins. boards are preferable. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. Lay the floor next. Mass. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in.

fix a narrow piece between the side boards. Fig. etc. as shown in Figs. 9). one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. by screwing to the floor. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. which is fixed on as shown . and shown to a larger scale in Fig. and should be zinc lined.. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. so that it will fit inside the sink. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. 5. below which is fixed the sink. The roof boards may next be put on.doorway. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. It is shown in detail in Fig. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. 8. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces.. 6. and the top as at C in the same drawing. 2 in section. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. nailing them to each other at the ridge. and to the outside board of the sides. 3 and 4. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. 11. In hinging the door. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. 9 by 11 in. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. and act as a trap for the light. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. the closing side as at B. and in the middle an opening. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. is cut. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. At the top of the doorway. 10). A shelf for bottles and another for plates. 7. The developing bench is 18 in. 6. wide. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. 6 and 9.. of the top of the door for the same reason. brown wrapping paper. so that the water will drain off into the sink. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. hinged to it.

Details of the Dark Rook .

Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. 16. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. 17. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. Fig. Pennsylvania. For beating up an egg in a glass. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. or red light as at K. 6. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. 13. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. The house will be much strengthened if strips. as at I. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. as shown in the sections. 1. it is better than anything on the market. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. mixing flour and water. Fig. 19. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. and a 3/8-in. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. four coats at first is not too many. Fig. as at M. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. after lining with brown paper. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. Erie. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. these being shown in Fig. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. 2. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. as shown in Fig. Karl Hilbrich. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. Fig. A circular piece about 2 in. --Contributed by W. or the room may be made with a flat roof. 20. 14. 15. In use. hole bored in the center for a handle. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. which makes it possible to have white light. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. though this is hardly advisable. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig.in Fig. 13. The handle should be at least 12 in. as in Fig. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. 18. preferably maple or ash. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. and a tank stand on it. screwing them each way into the boards. are fastened in the corners inside. 16. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. if desired. but not the red glass and frame.

The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. Ark. Mo. -Contributed by E. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. L.copper should be. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. Eureka Springs. as shown in the sketch. Yonkers. when put together properly is a puzzle. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. which. G. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. To operate. long. Kansas City. New York. Smith. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. --Contributed by L. for a handle. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. Mitchell. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. --Contributed by Wm. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. Schweiger. D. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. about 3/8 in. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading.

1 is very simple and easy to construct. especially for filling-in purposes. 3. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. After the box is trimmed. the rustic work should be varnished. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. as shown in Fig. in order to thoroughly preserve it. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. to make it set level.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. 3. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. Having completed the bare box. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. for the moment. the box will require a greater height in front. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. A number of 1/2-in. The corks in use are shown in Fig. If the sill is inclined. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. The design shown in Fig. as is usually the case. which binds them together. as well as improve its appearance. 2. need them. as shown in Fig. holes should be drilled in the bottom. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. Each cork is cut as in Fig. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. . 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. 1. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers.

share the same fate. Each long projection represents a leg. and observe results. can't use poison. 4. life in the summer time is a vexation. etc. cabbages. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. being partly eaten into. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. 2. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. 3. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. When the corn is gone cucumbers. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. But I have solved the difficulty. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. it's easy. as shown in Fig.. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. too dangerous. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. drilled at right angles. F. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. Traps do no good. . 1. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary.

About 9-1/2 ft. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. -. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. the coil does not heat sufficiently.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. The solution can be used over and over again. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. long. and made up and kept in large bottles. cut some of it off and try again. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. . of No.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. Iowa. by trial. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. cut in 1/2-in. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. If. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. strips. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way.

allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. hot-water pot. Doylestown. Knives. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. to cause the door to swing shut. as shown in the sketch. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. C. . --Contributed by Katharine D. Morse. of gasoline. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. and a strip. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. N. D. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. of whiting and 1/2 oz. Pa. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. Syracuse. Fig 2. Texas. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. Do not wash them. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. Kane. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. Y. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. it falls to stop G. but with unsatisfactory results. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. of oleic acid with 1 gal. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. forks. In cleaning silver. coffee pot. Dallas. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. is a good size--in this compound. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. --Contributed by James M.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. 1) removed. Stir and mix thoroughly.

A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. --Contributed by Theodore L. New Orleans. Pa. Waverly. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. . Fisher. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. Harrisburg. Sprout. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Ill. negatives. --Contributed by Oliver S. of course. which is. but unfixed.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. La. using the paper dry. later fixed and washed as usual. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire.

The harmonograph. a harmonograph is a good prescription. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. To obviate this difficulty. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. metal. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. 1. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. Fig. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. then . The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. In this uncertainty lies the charm. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing.

The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. exactly one-third. Ingham. --Contributed by Wm. for instance. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. in the center of the circle to be cut. Punch a hole. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. J. Arizona. in diameter. or the lines will overlap and blur. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. etc. G. such as a shoe buttoner. as shown in Fig. of about 30 or 40 lb. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . A weight. as long as the other. what is most important. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. which can be regulated. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. that is. one-fifth. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges.. Chicago. makes respectively 3. 1. with a nail set or punch. A small weight. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. K. The length of the short pendulum H. A pedestal. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. Another weight of about 10 lb. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. 1-3/4 by 2 in. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. Gaffney. one-fourth. Rosemont. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. is about right for a 10-ft. --Contributed by James T. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. is attached as shown at H. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. Holes up to 3 in. 1. provides a means of support for the stylus. A length of 7 ft. as shown in the lower part of Fig. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross.. ceiling. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. R. A small table or platform. to prevent any side motion. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. and unless the shorter pendulum is. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit.

These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case.J. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. 6. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. one for the sender and one for the receiver.J. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. 5. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. a correspondent of . Fig. then 3 as in Fig. 1. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. The capacity of the vise. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. -Contributed by W. The two key cards are made alike. Morey. then put 2 at the top. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. Cruger. distributing them over the whole card. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. Cape May City. Chicago. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. --Contributed by J. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. N.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. of course. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. dividing them into quarters. and 4 as in Fig. 2. Fig. 3. 4.H. and proceed as before.

from the top and bottom. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. of ferricyanide of potash. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. 22 gauge German-silver wire. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. wood-screws. --Contributed by L. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. says Popular Electricity. drill 15 holes. sheet of well made asbestos paper. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. Wind the successive turns of . 6 gauge wires shown. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. 1/2 oz. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. of 18-per-cent No. Cut through the center. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. Asbestos board is to be preferred. long. 30 gr. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. Ga. Augusta. To assemble. of the uprights. deep. respectively. 1/4 in. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. citrate of iron and ammonia. acetic acid and 4 oz.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. Alberta Norrell. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. After preparing the base and uprights. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. remove the prints. the portion of the base under the coil. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. If constructed of the former. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. of water. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. After securing the tint desired.

which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. N. if one is not a smoker. --Contributed by Frederick E.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. cut and dressed 1/2 in. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. as they are usually thrown away when empty. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench.. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. square. Ward. The case may be made of 1/2-in. screws. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . then fasten the upright in place. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. Y. which. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. Ampere. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. 14 gauge. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. Labels of some kind are needed. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. but these are not necessary. rivets. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. 16 gauge copper wire. etc. Small knobs may be added if desired.

14 oz. and one made of poplar finished black. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. Richmond. especially if a large tub is used. and rub the point of the copper on it. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. or has become corroded. Jaquythe. being careful about the heat. The material can be of any wood. tin. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. G. brass. S. the pure muriatic acid should be used. E and F. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. --C. lead. This is considerable annoyance. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. of water. C. tinner's acid. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. particularly so when the iron has once been used. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. California. B. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. --Contributed by W. Larson. of glycerine to 16 oz. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. then to the joint to be soldered. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. . D. sandpaper or steel wool. Copper. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. If the soldering copper is an old one. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. Ark. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. The parts are put together with dowel pins. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by A. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. it must be ground or filed to a point. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. a piece of solder. galvanized iron. A. and labeled "Poison. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. zinc. In soldering galvanized iron. Heat it until hot (not red hot). Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. Wis. Eureka Springs. Kenosha. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket..

This completes the die. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. B. with good results. -Contributed by H. thick and 1-1/4 in. The dimensions shown in Fig. Take a 3/4-in. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . such as copper. The covers of the magazines are removed. I bind my magazines at home evenings. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. however. wide. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. This will leave a clear hole. nut. 2. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. which gives two bound volumes each year. and drill out the threads. Place the band. Y. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. brass and silver. The punch A. a ring may be made from any metal. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. Brass rings can be plated when finished. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. The disk will come out pan shaped. W. 1. C. in diameter. Hankin. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. in diameter. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. Apart from this. Six issues make a well proportioned book. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. round iron. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. N. Fig. D. 7/8 in. Fig.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. Troy.

A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. using . the thread being carried across from each tie from No. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. 1. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. of the ends extending on each side. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. 1 in Fig. Coarse white thread. threaded double. Start with the front of the book. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. through the notch on the left side of the string No.4. and a third piece. . They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. which is fastened the same as the first. and then to string No. 1/8 in. The string No. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. as shown in Fig. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. on all edges except the back. 2. is used for the sewing material. is nailed across the top. If started with the January or the July issue. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. 5. Five cuts. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. allowing about 2 in. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. C. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. 1. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. deep. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. Place the cardboard covers on the book. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. then back through the notch on the right side. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. size 16 or larger. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. 1. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. The covering can be of cloth. After drawing the thread tightly. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. 2. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. and place them against the strings in the frame. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. The covering should be cut out 1 in. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. The sections are then prepared for sewing. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections.

round iron. Cal. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. College View. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. and mark around each one. --Contributed by Clyde E. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. on which to hook the blade. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. Place the cover on the book in the right position. Divine. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. and. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. at opposite sides to each other. Tinplate. Nebr. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. Encanto.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. For the blade an old talking-machine . zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson.

Then on the board put . hydraulic pipe. Ohio. thick. as shown. and 1/4 in. Make the blade 12 in. bore. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. and another piece (B) 6 in. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. On the upper side. Moorhead. or double extra heavy. F. with a steel sleeve. by 1 in. thick. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. B. long. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. E. as it is sometimes called. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. fuse hole at D. Miss. A. at the same end. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush.. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. and 1/4 in. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. and a long thread plug. and file in the teeth.. Hays. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. with 10 teeth to the inch. C. -Contributed by Willard J. in order to drill the holes in the ends. by 4-1/2 in. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. Summitville. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in.

of rubber-covered wire. Boyd. the jars need not be very large. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. high around this apparatus. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . 18 gauge wire for the wiring. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. using about 8 in. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. H. --Contributed by Chas. of wire to each coil. Philadelphia. Connect up as shown. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. 4 jars. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. as from batteries. A lid may be added if desired. about 5 ft. some sheet copper or brass for plates. and some No. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. If you are going to use a current of low tension.

At the front 24 or 26 in. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. 5 on switch. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. An iron washer. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. oak boards. above the ground. Put arm of switch on point No. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. long. Use no nails. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. with the cushion about 15 in. 3 in. long by 22 in. Their size also depends on the voltage. C. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. square by 14 ft. 2 and 3. 15-1/2 in. No. Construct the auto front (Fig. 4) of 3/4-in. wide.. 2. by 1-1/4 in. 1 on switch. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. by 1-1/4 in. . A 3/4-in.. 2 in.. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. steel rod makes a good steering rod. two pieces 34 in. 27 B. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. by 2 in. by 5 in. gives full current and full speed. thick. The stock required for them is oak. making them clear those in the front runner. are important. apart. C. by 1 in. wide and 3/4 in. 3. The current then will flow through the motor. 3 and No. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in.. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. 1 and so on for No. First sandpaper all the wood. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. direct to wire across jars. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled.. See Fig. & S.. on No. 2. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in.. and for the rear runners: A. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. or source of current. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. is used to reduce friction. Equip block X with screw eyes. and four pieces 14 in. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. 2 is lower down than in No. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. and plane it on all edges. sheet brass 1 in. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. 34 in. The sled completed should be 15 ft. two pieces 14 in. 11 in. To wire the apparatus. 4. For the front runners these measurements are: A. The top disk in jar No. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. For the brass trimmings use No. B. B. Fig. 1. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. On the door of the auto front put the . BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. long. B and C. beginning at the rear. by 5 in. two for each jar. as they are not substantial enough. then apply a coat of thin enamel. Use no screws on the running surface. A variation of 1/16 in. Z. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. 30 in. and bolt through. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. by 2 in. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. thick. In proportioning them the points A. two pieces 30 in. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. wide and 2 in. The connection between point No. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. 1 is connected to point No. 16-1/2 in. as they "snatch" the ice. 4 in. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood.the way. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. 2. 7 in. by 6 in. long. wide by 3/4 in. The illustration shows how to shape it. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. however. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. long.

a brake may be added to the sled. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. such as burlap. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. to the wheel. long. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. If desired. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. parcels. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. may be stowed within. by 1/2 in. to improve the appearance. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. lunch. which is somewhat moist. Then get some upholstery buttons. such as used on automobiles. brass plated. Fasten a horn. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. fasten a cord through the loop. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. If the expense is greater than one can afford. a number of boys may share in the ownership. or with these for $25. overshoes. cutting it out of sheet brass. etc. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. If desired. by 30 in. cheap material. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. The best way is to get some strong. Then put a leather covering over the burlap.

Leland. --Contributed by Stewart H. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. Ill.tree and bring. . The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. Lexington.

The first tooth may now be cut. E. so that the center of the blade. Fig. With no other tools than a hacksaw.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. by drawing diameters. say 1 in. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. when flat against it. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. mild steel or iron. First take the case of a small gearwheel. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. thick. a compass. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. The straight-edge. London. Draw a circle on paper. with twenty-four teeth. from F to G. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. the same diameter as the wheel. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. 1. The Model Engineer. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . CD. A small clearance space. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. 4). Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. outside diameter and 1/16 in. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. made from 1/16-in. will be over the line FG. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. Fig. 2. though more difficult. FC. which. the cut will be central on the line. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. Fig. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. 3. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. This guide should have a beveled edge. some files. sheet metal.

Make a hole in the other. No shock will be perceptible. hold in one hand. B. as shown in Fig.Four Photos on One Plate of them. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. R. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. each in the center. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. as shown in Fig. electric lamp. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. If there is no faucet in the house. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. ground it with a large piece of zinc. transmitter. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. or several pieces bound tightly together. . The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. 1. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. 2. some wire and some carbons. either the pencils for arc lamps. Then take one outlet wire. 1. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. Focus the camera in the usual manner. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. and the other outlet wire. A bright. B. as shown in Fig.

Ashland. B. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. J. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. D D are binding posts for electric wires. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. or more of the latter has been used. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. Several battery cells.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. and about that size. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. and will then burn the string C. by 1 in. --Contributed by Geo. Pa. by 12 in. Slattery. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. and again wind the wire around it. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. as shown. a transmitter which induces no current is used. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. under the gable. A is a wooden block. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. Wrenn. leaving about 10 in. They have screw ends. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. Emsworth. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. are also needed. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. For a base use a pine board 10 in. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. one at the receiver can hear what is said. serves admirably. Dry batteries are most convenient. at each end for terminals. But in this experiment. Then set the whole core away to dry. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. as indicated by E E. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. If desired. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. One like a loaf of bread. Ohio. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. 36 wire around it. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . of course.

Connect these three to switch. in parallel. 1. in series with bindingpost. while C is open. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. Fig. and switch. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. 12 or No. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. These should have hollow ends. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. B B. B B. Jr. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. connecting lamp receptacles. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. F. The oven is now ready to be connected. D. Turn on switch. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. and one single post switch. 2. Fig. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C.wire. for the . as shown. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. The coil will commence to become warm.. until the hand points to zero on the scale. as shown. From the other set of binding-posts. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. Newark. The apparatus is now ready for operation. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. At one side secure two receptacles. D. 14 wire. C. First make a support. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. C. Place 16-cp. run a No. Ohio. E. the terminal of the coil. and the lamps. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling.

the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. 3 amperes. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. a standard ammeter. is made of iron. The box is 5-1/2 in. etc. a variable resistance. 5. 3. drill in only to the opening already through. 2. as shown in the cut. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. inside measurements. The core. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. high. --Contributed by J. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig.E. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. This may be made of wood. Fig. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. although brass is better. It is 1 in. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. 5. Dussault. drill a hole as shown at H. 1. long. To make one. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. 36 magnet wire instead of No. If for 3-way. The pointer or hand. is then made and provided with a glass front. 1/4 in. deep. a battery. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. 10 turns to each layer. D. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. remove the valve. from the lower end. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it.. long and make a loop. wide and 1/8 in. 4 amperes. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. A wooden box. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. until the scale is full. but if for a 4way. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. B.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. This is slipped on the pivot. After drilling. wind with plenty of No. 1/2 in. and D. Fig. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. Montreal. thick. 1. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. 14.or 4-way valve or cock. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. to prevent it turning on the axle. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. wide and 1-3/4 in. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. 14 wire. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . long. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. D. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. is made of wire. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. 7. drill through the entire case and valve. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. E. Mine is wound with two layers of No. where A is the homemade ammeter. At a point a little above the center. 4. 4 in. although copper or steel will do. Fig. Fig. C. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. 6.

in thickness . in diameter. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. high. as shown. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. and the arc light. One wire runs to the switch. provided with a rubber stopper. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. A. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large.performing electrical experiments. This stopper should be pierced. which is used for reducing the current. and the other connects with the water rheostat. making two holes about 1/4 in. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. F. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. and a metal rod. To start the light. E. By connecting the motor. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. B. D.

Jones. Having finished the interrupter. If all adjustments are correct. 2. To insert the lead plate. as shown in C. As there shown. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. A piece of wood. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. as shown in B. 1. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. Fig. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. --Contributed by Harold L. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. Having fixed the lead plate in position. N. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. If the interrupter does not work at first. Fig. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. long. Fig. 1. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. B. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. A. 1. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. Turn on the current and press the button. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. Carthage. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. 2. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. where he is placed in an upright open . Fig. Y. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose.

This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. The lights. until it is dark there. by 7 in. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. inside dimensions. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. with the exception of the glass. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf.. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. especially the joints and background near A. and wave his arms up and down. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. from which the gong has been removed. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. L and M. A. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. The glass should be the clearest possible. within the limits of an ordinary room. and must be thoroughly cleansed. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. which can be run by three dry cells. the illusion will be spoiled. and can be bought at Japanese stores. The model. to aid the illusion. If it is desired to place the box lower down. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. high. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. could expect from a skeleton. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. A white shroud is thrown over his body. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. loosejointed effect. should be miniature electric lamps. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. especially L. by 7-1/2 in. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. as the entire interior. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. They need to give a fairly strong light. If everything is not black. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. All . light-colored garments.coffin. should be colored a dull black. is constructed as shown in the drawings. dressed in brilliant. figures and lights. The skeleton is made of papier maché. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. Its edges should nowhere be visible. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. giving a limp.

and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. placed about a foot apart. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. Two finishing nails were driven in. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. If a gradual transformation is desired. --Contributed by Geo. square block. San Jose. fat spark. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. as shown in the sketch. Cal. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. W. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. after which it assumes its normal color. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. Fry. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype.that is necessary is a two-point switch. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in.

which is filled with melted rosin or wax. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. -Contributed by Dudley H. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. to make it airtight. by small pieces of wood. If a lighted match . With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. F. B and C. the remaining space will be filled with air. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. 1. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. and should be separated about 1/8 in. A (see sketch). as shown. with two tubes. One of these plates is connected to metal top. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. New York.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. In Fig. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. This is a wide-mouth bottle. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. hydrogen gas is generated. The plates are separated 6 in. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. In Fig. soldered in the top. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. Cohen. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. or a solution of sal soda. into the receiver G. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. 1 is seen the sending apparatus.

N. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. by means of the clips. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. 1-5/16 in. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. 36 insulated wire. One row is drilled to come directly on top. Fig. 1/2 in. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. A. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. should be only 5/16 of an inch. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. then a suitable burner is necessary. long. copper pipe. 1. long. B. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. A. as is shown in the illustration. from the bottom. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. which forms the vaporizing coil. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. P. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. London. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. If desired. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. says the Model Engineer. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. copper pipe. A. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. and the ends of the tube. either by passing a current of electricity around it. 2 shows the end view. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. A piece of 1/8-in. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. C C. is then coiled around the brass tube. The distance between the nipple. of No. A 1/64-in. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. is made by drilling a 1/8in. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. which is plugged up at both ends. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. A nipple. or by direct contact with another magnet. in diameter and 6 in. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. Fig. N. A. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in.

fold and cut it 1 in. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. cut to the size of the pages. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. 2). clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. 1/4 in. leaving the folded edge uncut. trim both ends and the front edge. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. longer and 1/4 in. this makes a much nicer book.lamp cord. Fig. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. Cut four pieces of cardboard. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. 1. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. Fig. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . should be cut to the diameter of the can. 3. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. Take two strips of stout cloth. with a fine saw. boards and all. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. but if the paper knife cannot be used. Fig. taking care not to bend the iron. at the front and back for fly leaves. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. about 8 or 10 in. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. Turn the book over and paste the other side. duck or linen. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. larger all around than the book. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. A disk of thin sheet-iron. smoothly.

Va. Another can. as shown in the sketch. is perforated with a number of holes. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. A gas cock. without a head. 4). is made the same depth as B. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. C. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. --Contributed by Joseph N. Noble. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. H. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. Parker. is soldered onto tank A. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. E. 18 in. but its diameter is a little smaller. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. is fitted in it and soldered. or rather the top now. . A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. In the bottom. in diameter and 30 in. as shown. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. Toronto. is turned on it. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. D. deep. and a little can. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. the joint will be gas tight. B. pasting them down (Fig. This will cause some air to be enclosed. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. which will just slip inside the little can. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. Another tank. of tank A is cut a hole. --Contributed by James E. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. Bedford City. Ont. A.

2. making the width. N. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. H is a square knot. B. are shown in detail at H and J. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. The longitudinal corner spines. and sewed double to give extra strength. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. thus adjusting the . as shown at C. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. which may be either spruce. when finished. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. C. Fig. B. The armature. If the pushbutton A is closed. S. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. exactly 12 in.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. D. -Contributed by H.. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. should be cut a little too long. Bott. A A. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. The diagonal struts. fastened in the bottom. D. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. The small guards. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. Fig. tacks. with an electric-bell magnet. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. A. The wiring diagram. The bridle knots. If the back armature. 1. and about 26 in. basswood or white pine. and the four diagonal struts. J. which moves to either right or left. should be 1/4 in. B. E. by 1/2 in. to prevent splitting. should be 3/8 in. long. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. square by 42 in. Beverly. long. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. shows how the connections are to be made. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in.

the batteries do not run down for a long time. for producing electricity direct from heat. Closing either key will operate both sounders. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. with gratifying results. --Contributed by A.lengths of F and G. as shown. and. If the kite is used in a light wind. thus shortening G and lengthening F. and if a strong wind is blowing. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. E. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. Kan. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. D. shift toward F. Chicago. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. Stoddard. that refuse to slide easily. to prevent slipping. can be made of a wooden . Clay Center. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. Harbert. --Contributed by Edw. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. A bowline knot should be tied at J. however.

A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. A. A and B. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. with a pocket compass. E. C. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. with a number of nails. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. spark. 14 or No. and also holds the pieces of wood. B. D. in position.frame. which conducts the current into the cannon. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. Fasten a piece of wood. or parallel with the compass needle. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. to the cannon. F. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. 16 single-covered wire. C. Then. C. A. by means of machine screws or. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. Chicago. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. The wood screw. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. When the cannon is loaded. and the current may then be detected by means. E. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current.. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . placed on top. --Contributed by A. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. A.

H. 1. with the long arm at L'. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. now at A' and S'. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. Fig. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. --Contributed by Joseph B. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. . Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. L. Bend the strips BB (Fig. to receive the screw in the center. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. but no weights or strings. Chicago. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. screw is bored in the block. Marion. within the reach of the magnet. A hole for a 1/2 in. Ohio. where there is a staple. Big Rapids. press the button. requiring a strong magnet. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. 1. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. Connect as shown in the illustration. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. B. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. square and 3/8 in. To reverse. when in position at A'. A. In Fig. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity.the current is shut off. A and S. To unlock the door. A and S. Fig. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. in this position the door is locked. --Contributed by Henry Peck. Keil. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. 1. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. To lock the door. Mich. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm.

The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. When ready for use. and C is a dumbbell. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. pipe with 1-2-in. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. if enameled white on the concave side. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. about 18 in. put in the handle. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. West Somerville. and may be made at very slight expense. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. gas-pipe. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. long. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. Thread the other end of the pipe. are enameled a jet black. J. and if desired the handles may . Mass. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. --Contributed by C. When the holes are finished and your lines set. The standard and base. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. or for microscopic work. hole. Rand.

as shown at A in the sketch. M. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. A. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. high by 1 ft. Mass. long and 8 in. E. across. 1. Warren. inside the pail. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. D. which shall project at least 2 in. Fig.. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . 1. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. North Easton. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. This peculiar property is also found in ice. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. with a cover. Make a cylindrical core of wood. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. Fig. across. 8 in.be covered with leather. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. --Contributed by C. B.

and cut it 3-1/2 in. 1). Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. pack this space-top.. After removing all the paper. bottom and sides. and graphite. 2. in diameter. such . 2 in. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. as is shown in the sketch. pipe. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. After finishing the core. 3) with false top and bottom. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. It is placed inside the kiln. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. in diameter.. If the cover of the pail has no rim. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. if you have the materials. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. 25%. 15%. thick. but will be cheaper in operation. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. C. about 1 in. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. projecting from each end (Fig. The 2 in. L. C. 1390°-1410°. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. long over the lid hole as a chimney. 1). E. W. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. which is the hottest part. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. When lighted. the point of the blue flame. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. or make one yourself. with heavy paper and cover the core with same.. and your kiln is ready for business. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. Line the pail. to hold the clay mixture. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. Wind about 1/8 in. but it will burn a great deal of gas. C. and with especial caution the first time. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. diameter. passing wire nails through and clinching them. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. Fig. layer of the clay mixture. as dictated by fancy and expense. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. and on it set the paper wrapped core. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. the firing should be gradual. Fit all the parts together snugly. sand. and 3/4 in. long. hotel china. of fine wire. Whatever burner is used. This done. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. thick. and varnish.mixture of clay. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. carefully centering it. and 3/8 in. pipe 2-ft. make two wood ends. strip of sheet iron. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. if there is to be any glazing done. hard porcelain. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. 60%. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. say 1/4 in. 1330°. wider than the kiln. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail.-G. Cover with paper and shellac as before. Set aside for a few days until well dried. cutting the hole a little smaller. let this dry thoroughly. full length of iron core.

8 in. Washington. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. every alternate card being the same color. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. C. --Contributed by J.. taking care to have the first card red. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. 1. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. around the coil. 2). all cards facing the same way. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. C. and discharges into the tube. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. overlaps and rests on the body. red and black. Next restore all the cards to one pack. C. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. The funnel. Then take the black cards. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. procure a new deck. as in Fig. bind tightly with black silk. as shown in the sketch herewith. length of . T. leaving long terminals. . diameter. and so on. A. as in Fig. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. 2. Then. about 1/16 in.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. Chicago. Take the red cards. square them up and place in a vise. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. and plane off about 1/16 in. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. D. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. with a plane. 2. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. the next black. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall.53 in. Of course. You can display either color called for. R. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. square them up. and divide it into two piles. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. B.

so that when they are assembled. through the holes already drilled. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. 1 gill of fine white sand. C. It should be placed in an exposed location. To find the fall of snow. N. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. When the glass is put in the frame a space. B. F. to form a dovetail joint as shown. Long Branch. the same ends will come together again. The cement. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. Let . 1 gill of litharge. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. D. and then the frame is ready to assemble. All the horizontal pieces. Fig. about 20 in. thus making all the holes coincide. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. B. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. B. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. Drill all the horizontal pieces. E. stove bolts. The bottom glass should be a good fit. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. as the difficulties increase with the size. 1. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. A. E. stove bolts. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. A. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter.C. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file.J. of the frame.. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. the first thing to decide on is the size. and this is inexpensive to build. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. The upright pieces. angle iron for the frame.

Aquarium Finished If desired. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. on the door by means of a metal plate. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. B. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. to the door knob. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . and. a centerpiece (A. if desired. Fasten the lever. A. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. D.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. having a swinging connection at C. Fig. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump.

with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. 3 shows one of the paddles. hoping it may solve the same question for them. another. Cut two of them 4 ft. which is 15 in. They are shown in Fig. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. 1. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. soldered to the end of the cylinder. F. Fig. 2 is an end view. wide by 1 in. long. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. 6 in. with a water pressure of 70 lb. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. 2 at GG. thus doing away with the spring. to form the slanting part. Fig. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. according to the slant given C. to form the main supports of the frame. Fig. 1 . long. Two short boards 1 in. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. Do not fasten these boards now. C. E. and Fig. screwed to the door frame. Y. --Contributed by Orton E. long. Fig. White. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. N. approximately 1 ft. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. 1. AA. I referred this question to my husband. from the outside top of the frame. A small piece of spring brass. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. as at E. Fig. To make the frame. for the top. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. 1 is the motor with one side removed. Cut two pieces 30 in. will open the door about 1/2 in. D. PAUL S. B.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. showing the paddle-wheel in position. and another. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. to keep the frame from spreading. 2 ft. several lengths of scantling 3 in. Fig. another. 26 in. but mark their position on the frame. wide . A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. Buffalo. long..

2) and another 1 in. remove the cardboard. 2) form a substantial base. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. and drill a 1/8-in. 1. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. hole through them. Fig. (I. GG. to a full 1/2 in. hole from the tops to the 1-in. Now block the wheel. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. after which drill a 5/8 in. Fig. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. 24 in. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. and a 1/4 -in. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. as shown in Fig. thick. iron. then drill a 3/16-in. Tack one side on. Fig. iron 3 by 4 in. and drill a 1-in. in diameter.burlap will do -. from one end by means of a key. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. steel shaft 12 in. hole through its center. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. Fasten them in their proper position. take down the crosspieces. 4.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. Make this hole conical. thick (HH. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. These are the paddles. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. 2) with a 5/8-in. hole through the exact center of the wheel. hole to form the bearings. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. that is. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. long to the wheel about 8 in. hole through their sides centrally. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. Take the side pieces. tapering from 3/16 in. holes. pipe. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel.along the edges under the zinc to form . Drill 1/8-in. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. Next secure a 5/8-in. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. by 1-1/2 in. long and filling it with babbitt metal. When it has cooled. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). with the wheel and shaft in place.

light and the plate. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. . in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. The best plate to use is a very slow one. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. Do not stop down the lens. or what is called a process plate. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. sewing machine. drill press. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. as this makes long exposure necessary. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. Focus the camera carefully. Drill a hole through the zinc. If sheet-iron is used. it would be more durable. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. but now I put them in the machine. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. place the outlet over a drain. and leave them for an hour or so. start the motor. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. of course. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. on the lens. as shown in the sketch at B. says the Photographic Times. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. but as it would have cost several times as much. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. Darken the rest of the window. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera.a water-tight joint. It is obvious that. any window will do.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. and as near to it as possible. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. Raise the window shade half way. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. ice-cream freezer. shutting out all light from above and the sides. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. and the subject may move. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. Correct exposure depends. remove any white curtains there may be. If the bearings are now oiled.

a glass tube. the core is drawn down out of sight. as a slight current will answer. without detail in the face. a core. C. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. B. and without fog. by twisting. an empty pill bottle may be used. The glass tube may be a test tube. full of water. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. With a piece of black paper. 2. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. 2. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. A. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. as shown in Fig. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. or an empty developer tube. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. D. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. hard rubber. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. On completing . reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. with binding posts as shown. or wood. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. and a base. or can be taken from an old magnet. until the core slowly rises. The core C. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. which is made of iron and cork. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. The current required is very small.

according to his control of the current. white lead. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. and one not easy to explain. whale oil. 1 lb. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. and are changed by reversing the rotation.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. and make a pinhole in the center. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. The colors appear different to different people. is Benham's color top. This is a mysterious looking instrument. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. finest graphite. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . water and 3 oz. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. 1 pt. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. 1.

deuce. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. before cutting. especially if the deck is a new one. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown..B. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. A. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. or three spot. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. -Contributed by D. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. nearly every time. thus partly filling bottles A and C. Chicago. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water.L. In making hydrogen. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. In prize games. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. As this device is easily upset. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. fan-like. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. B. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. C. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. when the action ceases. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which .

Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. S. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. 1. long. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. Detail of Phonograph Horn . S. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. in diameter. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue.. J. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. 12 in. W. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. 3). Dak. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. Detroit. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. 2.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. --Contributed by C. that will fit loosely in the tube A. Form a cone of heavy paper. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. Make a 10-sided stick. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. (Fig. Fig.. long and 3 in. . 10 in. 4. in length and 3 in. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. Huron. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. Fig. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. Jr. 9 in. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. --Contributed by F. Bently. as shown in Fig.

4 and temporarily fastened in position. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. push back the bolt. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. 6. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. and walk in. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. long. A second piece of silk thread. bend it at right angles throughout its length. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. A. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. making it three-ply thick. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. it is equally easy to block that trick. allowing 1 in. C. Fig. Fortunately. with a pin driven in each end. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. Cut out paper sections (Fig. Remove the form. on one side and the top. about the size of a leadpencil. E. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . A piece of tin. will cause an increased movement of C. but bends toward D. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. Denver. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. --Contributed by Reader.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue.

is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. West St. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. Fremont Hilscher. while the lower switch. is connected each point to a battery. long. and rest on a brick placed under each end. are 7 ft. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. --Contributed by J. put together as shown in the sketch. The upper switch. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. The feet. 4 ft. as shown. By this arrangement one. B.. Jr. B. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. S. S S. will last for several years. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. long. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. are made 2 by 4 in. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. Two wood-base switches.. A. Minn. The reverse switch. R. posts. Paul. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. The 2 by 4-in.strip. W. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. S. or left to right.

cut in half. 1. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. 2. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. 3/8 in. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base.every house. The base is made of wood. 2 and 3. is an old bicycle pump. The steam chest D. The hose E connects to the boiler. thick. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. which is made of tin. The valve motion is shown in Figs. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. and a cylindrical . and the crank bearing C. with two washers. or anything available. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. pulley wheel. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. The piston is made of a stove bolt. and in Fig. Fig. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. Fig. either an old sewing-machine wheel. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. the other parts being used for the bearing B. and valve crank S. H and K. the size of the hole in the bearing B. which will be described later. In Fig. and has two wood blocks. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. E. FF.

This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. Eustice. G. to receive the connecting rod H. G. Fry. as shown in Fig. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. C. J. using the positive wire as a pen. 4. --Contributed by Geo. Schuh and A. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. The boiler. Cal. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. 3. powder can. This engine was built by W. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. and saturated with thick oil. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. as it is merely a trick of photography. W. and a very amusing trick. San Jose. of Cuba. at that. can be an old oil can. Fig. Fig. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. This is wound with soft string. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. is cut out of tin. or galvanized iron. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. The valve crank S. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. . 1. First.piece of hard wood. and the desired result is obtained. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. Wis.

On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. 1 will be seen to rotate. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. as shown. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. and Fig. B. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. C. The smaller wheel. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. Fig. diameter.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. Cut half circles out of each stave. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. and place a bell on the four ends. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. When turning. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. They may be of any size. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. Fig. 1 by covering up Figs. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. as shown at AA. Fig. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. to cross in the center. B. and pass ropes around .

. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. W. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. From a piece of thin . such as clothes lines. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. but not on all. which allows the use of small sized ropes. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. --Contributed by H. St. from the transmitter. This in turn will act on the transmitter. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. A (a short spool. Louis. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. produces a higher magnifying power). To make this lensless microscope. which accounts for the sound.M. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. as shown in the illustration. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. Mo.G. long. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. procure a wooden spool.

Fig. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. A. cut out a small disk. if the distance is reduced to one-half. C. and at the center.. i. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. bent as shown. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. B. if the distance is reduced to one-third. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. or 64 times. by means of brads. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. which are pieces of hard wood. otherwise the image will be blurred. is fastened at each end by pins. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. B. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. 3.) But an object 3/4-in. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. Viewed through this microscope. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. the object should be of a transparent nature. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. and look through the hole D. An innocent-looking drop of water. To use this microscope. C. fastened to a wooden base. e. D. and so on.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. The lever. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. . The spring. which costs little or nothing to make. (The area would appear 64 times as large. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. The pivot. as in all microscopes of any power. is made of iron. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. 2. E. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. the diameter will appear twice as large. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. H. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. 1. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. can be made of brass and the armature. the diameter will appear three times as large. D.. held at arm's length. in which hay has been soaking for several days. place a small object on the transparent disk. darting across the field in every direction.

should be about 22 in. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. E. . D. brass. B. wide and about 20 in. long and 14-1/2 in. FF. long by 16 in. Fig. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. K. 16 in. long. D. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. 2. wood. KEY-A. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. binding posts: H spring The stop. can be made panel as shown. D. wood: F. Each side. thick. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. C. connection of D to nail. soft iron. wide. in length and 16 in. K. and are connected to the contacts. The binding posts. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. fastened near the end. nail soldered on A. wide and set in between sides AA. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. wood: C. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. brass or iron soldered to nail. between the armature and the magnet. The back. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. Cut the top. or taken from a small one-point switch. F. coils wound with No. is cut from a board about 36 in. The door. or a single piece. DD. A switch. AA. brass: E. wide. The base of the key.SOUNDER-A. Fig. similar to the one used in the sounder. B. 26 wire: E. HH. wide. brass: B. A. which are made to receive a pivot. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. wide. 16 in. 1. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. C.

long. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. E. cut in them. When the electrical waves strike the needle. as shown. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. AA. with 3/4-in. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. In operation.. Make 12 cleats. material. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. 2 and made from 1/4-in. 13-1/2 in. as shown in the sketch. brads. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. --Contributed by Carl Formhals.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. Ill. Garfield. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire .

will give a greater speed. through which a piece of wire is passed. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. in order to increase the surface. pulls down the armature. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. the magnet. --Contributed by John Koehler. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. E. filled with water. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . A fairly stiff spring. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. When the pipe is used. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. The cord is also fastened to a lever. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. and. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. Brown. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. N. J. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. --Contributed by R. N. A. Pushing the wire. C. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. F. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. and thus decreases the resistance. Ridgewood. when used with a motor. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. A. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. B. down into the water increases the surface in contact. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. Fairport. Y.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. A (see sketch). made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell.

After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts.for the secret contact. even those who read this description. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. N. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. Gachville. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. Of course. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. Borden. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. if desired. B. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. --Contributed by Perry A. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram.

apart. for 6-in. The top board is made 28-in. wide. H. deep and 3/4 in. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. wide. records and 5-5/8 in. for 10in. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. Cal.. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. Nails for stops are placed at DD. J. where the other end of wire is fastened. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. C. records. D. --Contributed by H. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. 2. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. From a piece of brass a switch. C. wide. long and 5 in. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. --Contributed by Dr. N. Washington. thick and 12-in. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. Compton. as shown in Fig.whenever the bell rings. wide. E. Two drawers are fitted in this space. Mangold. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. 1. Dobson. . in a semicircle 2 in. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. Jr. With about 9 ft. A. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. as shown in Fig. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. wide. Connect switch to post B. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. long and full 12-in. East Orange. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. The three shelves are cut 25-in. from the bottom. and on both sides of the middle shelf.

Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. A. closed.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. as shown by the dotted lines. B. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. Va. E. When the cord is passed over pulley C. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. which in operation is bent. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. as shown in Fig. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. 1. to which is fastened a cord. Roanoke.

5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. 3. square and 7/8 in. they will bind. Notice the break (S) in the track. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. in diameter. which should be about 1/2 in. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. The crankpin should fit tightly. E. through one of these holes. These wheels should be 3/4 in. Fig. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. Fig. Cut two grooves. Now put all these parts together. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. in diameter. wide. 3). apart. in diameter. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. in diameter. one in each end. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. wide. Figs. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. deep. long. Do not fasten the sides too . Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. 1 in. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. Figs. but a larger one could be built in proportion. it too loose. CC.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. In these grooves place wheels. B. thick (A. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. holes (HH. 1. In the sides (Fig. E. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. 4 shows the wheel-holder. is compressed by wheels. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. D. they will let the air through. excepting the crank and tubing. Fig. If the wheels fit too tightly. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. against which the rubber tubing. 5) when they are placed. Put the rubber tube. deep and 1/2 in. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. to turn on pins of stout wire. 1 in. as shown in the illustration. thick. Bore two 1/4 in.

Hubbard. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. Fig. and mark for a hole. iron. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. 1. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. 1. Fig. In the two cross bars 1 in. and 3-1/2 in. though a small iron wheel is better. B. Then turn the crank from left to right. long. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. tubing.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. The screen which is shown in Fig. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. from that mark the next hole. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. as shown in Fig. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. because he can . 15 in. of material. Cut six pieces. 1. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. mark for hole and 3 in. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. mark again. Take the center of the bar. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. Idana. The three legs marked BBB. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. Fig. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. stands 20 in. The animal does not fear to enter the box. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. The top and bottom pieces marked AA.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. from the bottom and 2 in. Fig. and are 30 in. AA. 1. from each end. 2. AA. as it gives steadiness to the motion. is all the expense necessary. 1. --Contributed by Dan H. beyond each of these two. To use the pump. If the motion of the wheels is regular. the other wheel has reached the bottom. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. For ease in handling the pump. A in Fig. from each end. from each end. the pump will give a steady stream. Two feet of 1/4-in. 2. costing 10 cents. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. a platform should be added. Kan. 17-1/2 in.

Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. If the solution touches the zinc. If the battery has been used before. silvery appearance. If it is wet. The truncated.see through it: when he enters. 14 copper wire. It is useful for running induction coils. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. --Contributed by H. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. The mercury will adhere. Meyer. stirring constantly. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. or. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. The battery is now ready for use. however. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. 2). and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. When through using the battery. dropping. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. potassium bichromate. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. . When the bichromate has all dissolved. giving it a bright. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. Philadelphia. 1) must be prepared. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. long having two thumb screws. shuts him in. of the top. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. but if one casts his own zinc. there is too much liquid in the jar. 4 oz. The battery is now complete. or small electric motors. until it is within 3 in. of water dissolve 4 oz. rub the zinc well. add slowly. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. To cause a flow of electricity. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. some of it should be poured out. Place the carbon in the jar. acid 1 part). C. and the solution (Fig. and touches the bait the lid is released and. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. sulphuric acid. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector.

Fig. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. Madison. After putting in the coal. pressing the pedal closes the door. e. the jump-spark coil . This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. i. while the coal door is being opened. however. If. The price of the coil depends upon its size. Wis. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. with slight changes. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door.. which opens the door. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. the battery circuit.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace.

made of No. 7. while a 12-in. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. W W. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. This coil. Change the coil described. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. 7). which is made of light copper wire. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. as shown in Fig. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. After winding. 6. being a 1-in. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. W W. in a straight line from top to bottom. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig.7. This will make an excellent receiver. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in.described elsewhere in this book. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. 5. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. 6. 7. . along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. in a partial vacuum. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. diameter. Fig. apart. as shown in Fig. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. the full length of the coil. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. and closer for longer distances. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. Now for the receiving apparatus. coil.

and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. and hence the aerial line. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. are analogous to the flow of induction. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. 90°. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. 1). The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. above the ground. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft.6 stranded. A. in the air. after all. being at right angles. but simply illustrates the above to show that. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. using an electric motor and countershaft. For an illustration. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. . To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. but it could be run by foot power if desired. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. I run my lathe by power. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. being vertical. at any point to any metal which is grounded. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. These circles. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. may be easily made at very little expense. Run a wire from the other binding post. Figs. to the direction of the current. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. where A is the headstock. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. as it matches the color well. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. B the bed and C the tailstock. only. which will be described later. A large cone pulley would then be required. and for best results should extend up 50 ft.The aerial line. No. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. 1 to 4. The writer does not claim to be the originator. 90°.

and Fig. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. too. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. 4. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. on the under side of the bed. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. pitch and 1/8 in. Fig. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. Heat the babbitt well. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. 6 Headstock Details D. 4. 6. 5. If the bearing has been properly made. deep. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. and runs in babbitt bearings. Fig. just touching the shaft. 2 and 3. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. Fig. which pass through a piece of wood. 5. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. A. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. The bolts B (Fig. steel tubing about 1/8 in. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . The bearing is then ready to be poured. The headstock. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. and it is well to have the shaft hot. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. one of which is shown in Fig. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. To make these bearings. B. which are let into holes FIG. tapered wooden pin. Fig. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. After pouring. but not hot enough to burn it. thick.

Newark. and a 1/2-in. N. If not perfectly true. If one has a wooden walk. lock nut. of the walk . embedded in the wood. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. Oak Park. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. Ill. A. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. This prevents corrosion. Take up about 5 ft. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. the alarm is easy to fix up.J. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. they may be turned up after assembling.7 Details of Tailstock pipe.other machines. B. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. The tail stock (Fig. so I had to buy one. FIG.

American ash in 1-1/2 pt. Minn. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. To avoid touching it. Fig. 2). copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. --Contributed by R. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. to remove all traces of grease.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. save when a weight is on the trap. S. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. leaving a clear solution. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. of water. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. silver or other metal. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. (A. hang the articles on the wires. so that they will not touch. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. Finally. water. and the alarm is complete. to roughen the surface slightly. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. clean the articles thoroughly. Minneapolis. Connect up an electric bell. Do not touch the work with the hands again. add potassium cyanide again. before dipping them in the potash solution. Then make the solution . then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. Jackson.

it is only necessary to double all given quantities. Fig. of water. when the point of the key touches the tin. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. With an electric pressure of 3. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. pewter. 1 not only unlocks. Make a somewhat larger block (E. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. long. The wooden block C. light strokes. as shown in Fig. 10 in. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. 1 in. B should be of the same wood. This solution. which is held by catch B. 18 wire. will serve for the key. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. Fig. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. an old electric bell or buzzer. Having finished washing the precipitate. nickel and such metals. Before silver plating. 1. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. a circuit is completed. When all this is set up. make a key and keyhole. with water. Fig. 1). On brass. shaking. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. copper. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. about 25 ft. Can be made of a 2-in. as at F. which . 3) strikes the bent wire L. If accumulators are used. hole in its center.5 to 4 volts. 1). the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. square. use 2 volts for large articles. if one does not possess a buffing machine. piece of broomstick. with the pivot 2 in. and the larger part (F. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. Take quick. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. but opens the door. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. 3. Screw the two blocks together. such metals as iron. Then. which is advised. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. and 4 volts for very small ones. with water. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. from the lower end. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. lead. long. If more solution is required. German silver. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. silver can be plated direct. of clothesline rope and some No. Repeat six times. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. A 1/4 in. Where Bunsen cells are used. In rigging it to a sliding door. a hand scratch brush is good. A (Fig. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. The wooden catch. Fig. and then treated as copper. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. I. 3) directly over the hole. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. saw a piece of wood. zinc. must be about 1 in. --Model Engineer. also. thick by 3 in.up to 2 qt. To provide the keyhole. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center.

the illumination in front must be arranged. --Contributed by E. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. Klipstein. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. Next. Fig. he tosses it into the cave. spoons and jackknives. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. should be cut a hole. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). where immediately appears a small white china bowl. and hands its contents round to the audience. and plenty of candles. . but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. with the lights turned low. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. 2. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. he points with one finger to the box. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. no painting inside is required. between the parlor and the room back of it. half way from open end to closed end. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. in his shirt sleeves. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. 2.. and black art reigns supreme. East Orange. and finally lined inside with black cloth. The box must be altered first. Fig. although a little more trouble. New Jersey. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. cut in one side. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. with a switch as in Fig. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. top. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. the box should be painted black both inside and out. On either side of the box. One end is removed. 3. a few simple tools. 1. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. shows catch B. H. H. H. B. one-third of the length from the remaining end. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. In front of you. some black cloth. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. 1. 116 Prospect St. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. enlarged. He removes the bowl from the black box. Objects appear and disappear. The interior must be a dead black. such as forks. Heavy metal objects. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. 0. some black paint. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. or cave. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. heighten the illusion. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. Next. to throw the light toward the audience. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. To prepare such a magic cave. The magician stands in front of this. Fig. the requisites are a large soap box. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. Thus. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. so much the better. sides and end. Fig.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. which unlocks the door. and a slit. Receiving the bowl again. One thing changes to another and back again. is the cut through which the rope runs. surrounding a perfectly black space. floor. is an upright square of brightly burning lights.

the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. The exhibitor should be . and if portieres are impossible. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. and pours them from the bag into a dish. is on a table) so much the better. But illusions suggest themselves. only he. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. and several black drop curtains. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. had a big stage. of course. of course. if. The illusion. which can be made to dance either by strings. a screen must be used. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. into the eyes of him who looks. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. the room where the cave is should be dark.Finally. in which are oranges and apples. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. Consequently. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. his confederate behind inserts his hand. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. The audience room should have only low lights. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. you must have an assistant. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. one on each side of the box. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. which are let down through the slit in the top. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. as presented by Hermann. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. was identical with this. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain.

respectively. at L. or binding posts.. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. or b2. respectively. FIG. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. making contact with them.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. terminal c3 will show . when handle K is turned to one side. Fig. c3. 1. About the center piece H moves a disk. c2. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. c1. as shown in Fig. b2. is shown in the diagram. A represents a pine board 4 in. making contact with them as shown at y. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. c4. 2). 2. with three brass strips. vice versa. and c4 + electricity. 2. and a common screw. by 4 in. b1.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. Finally. terminal c3 will show +. b3. f2. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. d. if you turn handle K to the right. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. so arranged that. b3. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes .a boy who can talk. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). held down by another disk F (Fig. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. respectively. and c1 – electricity. held down on it by two terminals. A. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. e1 and e2. by means of two wood screws. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. and c2 to the zinc. held down on disk F by two other terminals. On the disk G are two brass strips. square. b2. 1. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. their one end just slips under the strips b1. Then.

. Joerin. from three batteries. -Contributed by A.. Tuttle. when on No. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). and C and C1 are binding posts. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. B is a onepoint switch. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . --Contributed by Eugene F. and when on No. Ohio. thus making the message audible in the receiver. Jr. when A is on No. jump spark coil. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. you have the current of one battery. when on No. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. 3. 5. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. When switch B is closed and A is on No. E.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. 4. from five batteries. 1. from four batteries. Newark. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. and then hold the receiver to your ear.

of Burlington. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. so one can see the time. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. over the bent portion of the rule. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. Redmond.. mark. P. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. A. mark. A. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. The device thus arranged. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. per second for each second. Wis. E. and supporting the small weight. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. When you do not have a graduate at hand. A. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. and placed on the windowsill of the car. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. La. as shown in the sketch. rule. traveled by the thread.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. New Orleans. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. per second. which may be a button or other small object. Thus. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. Handy Electric Alarm . Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. B. is the device of H.

fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. Lane. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. S. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. C. for a wetting is the inevitable result. Crafton. . B. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. which illuminates the face of the clock. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. Instead. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. --Contributed by Gordon T. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. When the alarm goes off.which has a piece of metal. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. Then if a mishap comes. Pa. and with the same result. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. wrapping the wire around the can several times. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. --C. soldered to the alarm winder. but may be closed at F any time desired.

small machinery parts. If there is no foundry Fig. but it is a mistake to try to do this.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. With the easily made devices about to be described. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. AA. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. binding posts. when it is being prepared. as shown in Fig. as shown. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. Macey. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. It is possible to make molds without a bench. L. whence it is soon tracked into the house. A. cannons. and duplicates of all these. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. 1. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. battery zincs. models and miniature objects. ornaments of various kinds. engines. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. C. New York City. 1 . but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. BE. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . and many other interesting and useful articles. bearings. --Contributed by A. which may. The first thing to make is a molding bench. Two cleats. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required.

and saw it in half longitudinally. 1. as shown. is made of wood. E. 1. F. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. J. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. makes a very good sieve. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. If the box is not very strong. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. high. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. the "cope. previous to sawing. say 12 in. G. A A. An old teaspoon. The dowels. by 8 in. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. is about the right mesh. A slight shake of the bag Fig. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. as shown. If desired the sieve may be homemade. is filled with coal dust. DD. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. which should be nailed in. will be required. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. and a sieve. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. The cloth bag. CC. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. by 6 in.How to Make a Mold [96] . The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. which can be either aluminum. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. H." or lower part. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. 2. and the lower pieces.near at hand. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. CC. a little larger than the outside of the flask. The rammer. D. try using sand from other sources. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. II . and the "drag. A wedge-shaped piece. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. and this. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. which can be made of a knitted stocking." or upper half. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. It is made of wood and is in two halves. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. Fig. is nailed to each end of the cope. is shown more clearly in Fig. 2 . but this operation will be described more fully later on.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. The flask. white metal. Fig.

everything will be ready for the operation of molding. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. The sand is then ready for molding. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. and scatter about 1/16 in. in order to remove the lumps. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. as shown at C. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. Place another cover board on top. and by grasping with both hands. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. It is then rammed again as before. where they can watch the molders at work. as described. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. In finishing the ramming. or "drag. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. and if water is added. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. as shown at E. turn the drag other side up. or "cope. as shown at D. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. and then more sand is added until Fig. as it is much easier to learn by observation." in position. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. the surface of the sand at . If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. After ramming. it has a sufficient amount of moisture." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. and thus judge for himself. as shown. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick.

These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. Place a brick or other flat. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. The "sprue. made out of steel rod. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. as shown at H. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. This is done with a spoon. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. as shown at H. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. after being poured.E should be covered with coal-dust. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. deep. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. thus holding the crucible securely. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. in order to prevent overheating. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. . the next operation is that of melting and pouring. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. as shown in the sketch. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. in diameter. Fig. to give the air a chance to escape." or pouring-hole. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. After drawing the pattern. it shows that the sand is too wet. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. III. and then pour. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. wide and about 1/4 in.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. is next cut. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. as shown at F. place the cope back on the drag. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. as shown at J. as shown at G. thus making a dirty casting.

babbitt. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. is very desirable.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. If a good furnace is available. but any reasonable number may be used. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. the following device will be found most convenient. although somewhat expensive. and. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. 15% lead. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. In my own case I used four batteries. Referring to the figure. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. used only for zinc. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. Morton. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. Minneapolis. may be used in either direction. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. white metal and other scrap available. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. and the casting is then ready for finishing. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. Although the effect in the illustration . battery zincs. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. or from any adjacent pair of cells. --Contributed by Harold S.

removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. 2. as shown at A. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. backward. outward. may be made of hardwood. Fig. A. shaft made. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. --Contributed by Draughtsman. Then walk down among the audience. The brass rings also appear distorted. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. as shown in the illustration. Make one of these pieces for each arm. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. Put a sharp needle point. which will be sufficient to hold it. 3/4 in. Chicago. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. B. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. By replacing the oars with paddles. B. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. but preferably of iron pipe filled with .An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. Then replace the table. To make it take a sheet-iron band. The bearings. If desired. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. connected by cords to the rudder.

The covers. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. It may seem strange that ice . In the same way. but when in motion. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. If babbitt is used. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. D. E. Snow. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. A. C. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. A block of ice. 2. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. as shown in Fig. or under pressure. when it will again return to its original state. 1. The hubs. spoiling its appearance. as shown in Fig. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. 1. W. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. 2 and 3. If galvanized iron is used. being simply finely divided ice. 3. and a weight. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece.melted babbitt. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. or the paint will come off. should be made of wood. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. 1. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. Fig. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps.

as per sketch. Crafton. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . --Contributed by Gordon T.. no matter how slow the motion may be. square.should flow like water. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. it will gradually change from the original shape A. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. B. in. as shown on page 65. The rate of flow is often very slow. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. brass. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. Pressing either push button. sometimes only one or two feet a day. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. by 5 in. but. by 1/4. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. and assume the shape shown at B. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. but by placing it between books. whenever there is any connection made at all. Pa. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. Lane. by 1/2 in. thus giving a high resistance contact. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. which resembles ice in this respect. or supporting it in some similar way. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. P. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. by 2 in.

G. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. J. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. and C. vertical lever. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. The parts are: A. --Contributed by A. I. as shown. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. Ward. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. the battery. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. pulleys. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. B. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. draft chain. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch.thumb screws. as shown. G. draft. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. Pa. furnace. B. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. In the wiring diagram. horizontal lever. F. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. Wilkinsburg. The success depends upon a slow current. K . Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. wooden supports. D. cord. E.000 ft. C. and five dry batteries. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. Indianapolis. weight. the induction coil. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. A is the circuit breaker. alarm clock. about the size used for automobiles. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. H.

on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. Kalamazoo. which will provide a fine place for the plants. as well as the bottom. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. will fit nicely in them. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. 3. Mich. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. Artistic Window Boxes The top. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . where house plants are kept in the home. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. The frame (Fig. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. material framed together as shown in Fig. such as used for a storm window. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. 2 are dressed to the right angle. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash.

These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. e.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. multiples of series of three. in any system of lamps. It must be remembered. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. and cost 27 cents FIG.. but maintain the voltage constant. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. N. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. in this connection. 1. so as to increase the current. a cork and a needle. However. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. can be connected up in series. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. 1 cp. Canada. after a rest. in diameter. as if drawn upon for its total output. Grant. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. which sells for 25 cents. as indicated by Fig. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch.. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. this must be done with very great caution. Push the needle into the cork. 1 each complete with base. one can regulate the batteries as required. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. and will give the . for some time very satisfactorily. where they are glad to have them taken away. A certain number of these. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. --Contributed by Wm. is something that will interest the average American boy. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. Halifax. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. Thus. and the instrument will then be complete. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. and a suitable source of power. by connecting them in series. S. The 1/2-cp. This is more economical than dry cells.. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. since a battery is the most popular source of power. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. i. However. W. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also.

2 shows the scheme. Thus. So. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. lamps. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. 18 B & S. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. and running the series in parallel.proper voltage. In conclusion. each. 1-cp.. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. although the first cost is greater. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. . and then lead No. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. Fig. FIG. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. according to the water pressure obtainable. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. or 22 lights. Chicago. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. and for Christmas trees. where the water pressure is the greatest. 3. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. Thus. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. 11 series. as in Fig. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. If wound for 10 volts. However. to secure light by this method. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. especially those of low internal resistance. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. by the proper combination of these. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. lamp. double insulated wire wherever needed. making. These will give 3 cp. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. if wound for 6 volts. and diffused light in a room. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. lamps. we simply turn on the water. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. which is the same as that of one battery.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. generates the power for the lights. for display of show cases. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. and insert in the nearest lamp socket.

After I connected up my induction coil. outside points of switch. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. as shown in the sketch. center points of switch. brushes of motor. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. CC. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. or a tempting bone. --Contributed by Leonard E. and the sides. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. Santa Clara. BB. B. the letters indicate as follows: FF. DD. simply change the switch. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. To reverse the motor. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. Parker. --Contributed by F. and C. switch. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. or from one pattern. bars of pole-changing switch. AA. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. thus reversing the machine. field of motor. Ind. A indicates the ground. Emig. are cut just alike. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. B. Cal. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. Plymouth. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. A. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. . The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. a bait of meat. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. we were not bothered with them.

The experiment works best . a piece of string.. Hutchinson. as it is the key to the lock.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. merely push the button E. thus locking the door. The button can be hidden. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. and a table or bench. Fry. 903 Vine St. -Contributed by Claude B. Melchior. W. a hammer. When the circuit is broken a weight. attached to the end of the armature B. which is in the door. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. If it is not. To unlock the door. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. San Jose. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. A. one cell being sufficient. or would remain locked. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. Cal. Minn.

Tie the ends of the string together. When the alarm rings in the early morning. attached at the other end.. 2. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. Brockville. 18 Gorham St. A. the current flows with the small arrows. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. P. the key turns. Porto Rico. which pulls the draft open. Culebra. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. Madison. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. C. Ontario. Crawford Curry.Contributed by F. releasing the weight. where it will remain suspended as shown. the stick falls away. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. 4). Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. forming a loop. W. in the ceiling and has a window weight. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. Canada. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. On another block of wood fasten two wires. -. run through a pulley. . 1). D. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. Wis. Schmidt. 3. I. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Geo. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. 3.

First. N. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. and break the corners off to make them round. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. Camden. get two pieces of plate glass. which fasten to the horn. Farley. or from a bed of flowers. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. thick. Connect two wires to the transmitter. The cut shows the arrangement. J. --Contributed by Wm. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. including the mouthpiece. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. made with his own hands.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. 6 in. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. thence to a switch. R. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. and the other to the battery. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. or tree. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. Jr. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. D. square and 1 in. Use a barrel to work on. J.. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. S. and . running one direct to the receiver. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. and then to the receiver.

1. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. and the under glass or tool convex. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. and label. wide around the convex glass or tool. wetting it to the consistency of cream. spaces. by the side of the lamp. Fig. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. the coarse grinding must be continued. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. and is ready for polishing. a round 4-in. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. or it will not polish evenly. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. Then warm and press again with the speculum. melt 1 lb. so the light . 2. Have ready six large dishes. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in.. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. Fasten. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. wet till soft like paint. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. L. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. or less.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. set the speculum against the wall. of water. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. using straight strokes 2 in. and a large lamp. as in Fig. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. in length. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. When dry. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. twice the focal length away. then take 2 lb. with pitch. In a dark room. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. then 8 minutes. Use a binger to spread it on with. and spread on the glass. Fig.. When polishing the speculum. When done the glass should be semitransparent.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. while walking around the barrel. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. 2. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. unless a longer focal length is wanted. with 1/4-in. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. A. also rotate the glass. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes.

100 gr. as in K. must be procured. 2. Then add solution B. Place the speculum.. Two glass or earthenware dishes. 840 gr.………………………………. long to the back of the speculum. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. Alcohol (Pure) ……………. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. deep.100 gr.. The knife should not be more than 6 in. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. If not. that was set aside. and pour the rest into the empty dish. Silver nitrate ……………………………. from the lamp. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. longer strokes. then ammonia until bath is clear. with distilled water.. in the bath and leave until the silver rises. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. face down. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. if a hill in the center. touched with rouge. When the focus is found. also how the rays R from a star . the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. 2. Place the speculum S. fill the dish with distilled water. With pitch..……………. When dry.. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. Fig.……………………………. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. The polishing and testing done. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole... Then add 1 oz. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. Solution D: Sugar loaf . Fig... then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. 4 oz. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. cement a strip of board 8 in. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. or hills. the speculum is ready to be silvered. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. Now add enough of the solution A.. add the ammonia solution drop by drop. 25 gr. Nitric acid . 39 gr. Fig. the speculum will show some dark rings. 4 oz. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. Solution B: Distilled water …………………………….

but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. deg. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. About 20. telescope can be made at home. . slightly wider than the lens mount. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. Mellish. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. with an outlay of only a few dollars. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. long and cost me just $15. two glass prisms. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. and proceed as for any picture.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. Thus an excellent 6-in. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. My telescope is 64 in. stop down well after focusing. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. Then I made the one described. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. The flatter they are the less they will distort. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold.. which proves to be easy of execution. is a satisfactory angle. Place over lens. Make the tube I of sheet iron. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. using strawboard and black paper.John E. cover with paper and cloth. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely.

1.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. push the button D. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. or powdered alum. Ill. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. add the plaster gradually to the water. Do not stir it. Boody. complete the arrangement. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. . developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. instead of the contrary. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. The paper is exposed. The rays of the clear. through the lens of the camera and on the board. then add a little sulphate of potash. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. A. 2. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. unobstructed light strike the mirror. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. and reflect through the negative. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. as shown in Fig. Fig. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. -Contributed by A. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. D. Zimmerman. but will not preserve its hardening. To unlock. says the Master Painter. B.

I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. To reverse.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. Fasten on the switch lever. 2. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. throw . but will remain suspended without any visible support. Fig. 2. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. so that it can rotate about these points. as shown in the sketch. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. 1). as in Fig. also provide them with a handle. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. 3. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. Then blow through the spool. as at A and B. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. use a string. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore.

Push one end of the tire into the hole. D. . A is the electricbell magnet. carbon sockets. and E E. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. Tex. L. San Antonio. the armature. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. -Contributed by Morris L. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. Thomas. Take out. carbons. although this is not necessary. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. rinse in alcohol. North Bend. In the sketch. C C. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. Tex. San Marcos. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. B. wash in running water. Neb. and rub dry with linen cloth. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. --Contributed by R. Levy. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. --Contributed by Geo. binding posts. Go McVicker. as shown in the sketch.

Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. 14 or No. 36 magnet wire. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. long or more. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. Brooklyn. --Contributed by Joseph B. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. Bell. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. By means of two or more layers of No. 16 magnet wire. wound evenly about this core. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on.

A 7/8-in. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. the entire core may be purchased readymade. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. which is desirable. which is an important factor of the coil. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. coil illustrates the general details of the work. in diameter. 1. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. In shaping the condenser. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. No. The following method of completing a 1-in. wide. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. with room also for a small condenser. and the results are often unsatisfactory. 4. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. The primary is made of fine annealed No. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. When cut and laid in one continuous length. long and 2-5/8 in. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. Beginning half an inch from one end.which would be better to buy ready-made. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. This makes a condenser which may be folded. hole is bored in the center of one end. as shown in Fig. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. in length. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. 2 yd. After the core wires are bundled. and finally the fourth strip of paper. one piece of the paper is laid down. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. diameter. long and 5 in. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. then the strip of tin-foil. The condenser is next wrapped . at a time. about 6 in. but if it is not convenient to do this work. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. or 8 in. a box like that shown in Fig. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. making two layers. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. as the maker prefers.

lines H. the letters indicate as follows: A. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. and the other sheet. wide. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. open switch C. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. B. copper lever with 1-in. round so that the inside . flange turned on one side. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. The alarm key will turn and drop down. bell. to the door. long and 12 in. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. V-shaped copper strip. 3. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. one from bell. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. ready for assembling. whole length. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. Fig. A. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. and one from battery. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. G. which allows wiring at the back. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. which is insulated from the first. go. F. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. long to key. shows how the connections are made. battery . by 12 in. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. forms the other pole or terminal. D. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. 4 in.) The wiring diagram. shelf for clock. E. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. spark. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. C. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. I. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down.. B. switch.securely with bands of paper or tape. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit.

If desired for use immediately. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. of blue stone. instead of close to it. This is for blowing. do not shortcircuit. London. from the bottom. The circuit should also have a high resistance. of zinc sulphate. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. but with the circuit. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. and then rivet the seam. says the Model Engineer. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. . A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. 2 in. That is what they are for. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. and the battery is ready for use.diameter is 7 in. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side.. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. Short-circuit for three hours. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. Use a glass or metal shade. Line the furnace. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. but add 5 or 6 oz.

If any or your audience presume to dispute. porcelain and paper. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. thus producing two different vibrations. imparting to them a violet tinge. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body.. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. Outside of the scientific side involved. as in the other movement. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. This type of battery will give about 0.9 of a volt. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. To operate the trick. long. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. At least it is amusing. Enlarge the hole slightly. and therein is the trick. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. the second finger along the side. herein I describe a much better trick. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. for some it will turn one way. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. or think they can do the same let them try it. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. below the bottom of the zinc. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. while for others it will not revolve at all. for others the opposite way. grip the stick firmly in one hand.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. Try it and see. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. oxygen to ozone. but the thing would not move at all. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. Ohio. g. and then. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. 1. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. square and about 9 in. affects . Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. 2. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. If too low. changes white phosphorus to yellow." which created much merriment.

a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. and one of them is photomicrography. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. but small flowers. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. To the front board is attached a box. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. and. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. insects. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. a means for holding it vertical. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. says the Photographic Times. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. but not essential. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. an old tripod screw. earth. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. chemicals. however. but this is less satisfactory. a short-focus lens. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. if possible.

or 31 ft. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. A line. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. 9 ft. 8 ft. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. 10 ft 523 33 lb.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. 7-1/2 in. Fig. The following table will give the size. 905 57 lb. 268 17 lb. in diameter. Mass. 381 24 lb. If the balloon is 10 ft. 179 11 lb.--Contributed by George C. or 3 ft. long and 3 ft. 5 ft. which is 15 ft. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. Madison. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. Divide one-quarter of the circle . balloon. and a line. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. 12 ft. Boston. 11 ft. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. AB. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. 1. wide from which to cut a pattern. 697 44 lb. while it is not so with the quill. 113 7 lb. Cap. in Cu. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. 7 ft. 5 in. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. Ft Lifting Power. CD. 6 ft. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. 7-1/2 in. 65 4 lb. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore.

Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. The amounts necessary for a 10- . until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. Procure 1 gal. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. 4. making a double seam as shown in Fig. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. cutting all four quarters at the same time. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. 3. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. This test will show if the bag is airtight. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. of the very best heavy body. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. Repeat this operation four times. on the curved line from B to C. 2. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. keeping the marked part on the outside. of beeswax and boil well together. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. The pattern is now cut. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. using a fine needle and No. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. and so on. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. 70 thread. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. The cloth segments are sewed together.

it is not fit to use. In the barrel. to the bag. . The outlet. Vegetable oils should never be used. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. if it is good it will dry off. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. until no more dirt is seen. The 3/4-in. C. About 15 lb. oil the spindle holes carefully. pipe. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. When the clock has dried. above the level of the water in barrel A. C. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. B.ft. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. should not enter into the water over 8 in. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. but if any grease remains on the hand. capacity and connect them. of iron. 5. B. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. or dusting with a dry brush. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. A. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. 150 gr. of iron borings and 125 lb. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. A. by fixing.Green Iron ammonium citrate . leaving the hand quite clean. A. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. Water 1 oz. 1 lb. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. ft. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. a clean white rag. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. After washing a part. of sulphuric acid. as shown in Fig. B.. . let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. which may sound rather absurd. with water 2 in. balloon are 125 lb. with the iron borings. or a fan. All FIG. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. ]. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. 5 . with 3/4in. of gas in one hour. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. this should be repeated frequently. of water will make 4 cu. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. 1 lb. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. Fill the other barrel. using a fine brush.

20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. The miniature 16 cp. A longer exposure will be necessary. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. The negative pole. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter.Water 1 oz. toning first if desired. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. Bathe the plates 5 minutes.. . says the Moving Picture World. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. to avoid blackened skin. Exposure. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. Dry the plates in the dark. fix in hypo. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. A cold. and a vigorous negative must be used. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. Port Melbourne. and keep in the dark until used. . but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. Printing is done in the sun. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. or carbon. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. The positive pole. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. dry atmosphere will give best results. 20 to 30 minutes. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. or zinc. Dry in the dark. keeping the fingers out of the solution. at the time of employment.000 ft. or battery. of any make. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. This aerial collector can be made in . A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp.

the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. forming a cup of the pipe. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. in diameter. If the waves strike across the needle. lead pipe. If the wave ceases. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. holes . In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. lay a needle. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. and as less current will flow the short way. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. as described below. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. and have the other connected with another aerial line. long. 5 in.various ways. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. a positive and a negative. when left exposed to the air. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. the resistance is less. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. As the telephone offers a high resistance. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. will soon become dry and useless. making a ground with one wire. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. both positive and negative. This will complete the receiving station. The storage cell. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell.

Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. of course. by soldering the joint. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. and the other to the negative. B. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. except for about 1 in. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid.as possible. says the Pathfinder. D. This. an oblong one and a triangular one. does not need to be watertight. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. This support or block. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. on each end. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. or tube C. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. or tube B. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. When mixing the acid and water. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. Two binding-posts should be attached. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. one to the positive. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. namely: a square hole. a round one. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. The other plate is connected to the zinc. This box can be square.

How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. and has plenty of good seating capacity. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. as shown in Fig. C. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. Only galvanized nails should be used. Chicago. deep and 4 ft. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. The third piece of brass. and match them together. C. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. is built 15 ft. A and B. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. 3. 1. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. were fitted by this one plug.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. leaving about 1/16 in. Ill. 1. 2. . about 20 in. This punt. back and under. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. thick cut two pieces alike. as shown in Fig. long. in place on the wood. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. wide. wide. as it is not readily overturned. all around the edge. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. 2. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. --Contributed by Edwin Walker.

Wash. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. A piece of 1/4-in. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . square (Fig 2). thick and 3-1/2 in. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. is cut 1 in. A. Tacoma. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. B. gas pipe.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. In Fig. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward.

--Contributed by Charles H. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. Wagner. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. without auxiliary phase. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . The winding of the armature.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. says the Model Engineer. which the writer has made. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. no special materials could be obtained. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. no more current than a 16-cp." has no connection with the outside circuit. In designing. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. and to consume. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. which can be developed in the usual manner. with the exception of insulated wire. H. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. if possible. it had to be borne in mind that. lamp. may be of interest to some of our readers. or "rotor.

They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. C. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. were then drilled and 1/4-in. as shown in Fig. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. 2. 5. in diameter were drilled in the corners. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. as shown in Fig. thick. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. and all sparking is avoided. bolts put in and tightened up. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. with the dotted line. 3. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. about 2-1/2 lb. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. 4. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. also varnished before they were put in. holes. B. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. or "stator. no steel being obtainable. Holes 5-32 in. A. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. After assembling a second time.the field-magnet. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. Unfortunately. being used. The stator is wound full with No. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. 1. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. and filled with rivets. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. They are not particularly accurate as it is. wrought iron. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. to be filed out after they are placed together. while the beginnings . which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. this little machine is not self-starting. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed.

which will make it appear as shown in Fig. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. The lantern slide is a glass plate. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. If too late for alcohol to be of use. if applied immediately.. film to film. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. E. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. 3-Contributed by C. having no commutator or brushes. it would be very simple to build. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. 2. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. and all wound in the same direction. as a means of illustrating songs. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. The rotor is wound with No. N. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. This type of motor has drawbacks. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. 1. In making slides by contact. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. J. and as each layer of wire was wound. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. as before stated. and as the motor runs at constant speed. One is by contact. Newark. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. No starting resistance is needed. Jr. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. and would not easily get out of order. and especially of colored ones. McKinney. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. The image should . and the other by reduction in the camera. a regulating resistance is not needed.

and then a plain glass. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. as shown in Fig. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size.appear in. if possible. a little extra work will be necessary. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. Fig. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. These can be purchased from any photo material store. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. except that the binding is different. It is best. Being unbreakable. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. the formulas being found in each package of plates. B. C. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. 5. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. they are much used by travelers. and development should be over in three or four minutes. D. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. also. Draw lines with a pencil. over the mat. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. to use a plain fixing bath. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . 1. A. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. as shown in Fig. 3. If the exposure has been correct. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. 2. Select a room with one window. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. 4. about a minute. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water.

The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. or other stout cloth. while the dot will be in front of the other. 1. known as rods and cones. If the star is in front of the left eye. from the ends. is to be used for the seat. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. 2. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. 16 in. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . wide and 50 in. long. These longer pieces can be made square. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. Corinth. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. from the center of this dot draw a star. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. in diameter and 40 in. long. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. long. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. 1. as shown at A. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. as shown at B. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. from the end piece of the chair. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. Hastings. Fig. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. as shown in Fig. Vt. A piece of canvas. Fig. in diameter and 20 in. holes bored in the end pieces. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight.

in thickness and 10 in.-Contributed by P. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. Cal. 1. A disk 1 in. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. as shown in Fig. J. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. as well as to operate other household machines. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. . as shown in Fig. made from an ordinary sash cord. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. Auburn. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. O'Gara. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. 2. A belt. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. per square inch. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. allowing the shaft to project through the holes.

will be the thickness of the object. screwing it through the nut. divided by the number of threads to the inch. long. with as fine a thread as possible. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. to the top of the bench. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. then removing the object. says the Scientific American. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. or inconvenient to measure. 3/4 in. and the construction is complete. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. Bore a 1/4-in. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. wide. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. direction. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. Cut out a piece from the block combination. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. it serves a very useful purpose. Put the bolt in the hole. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. thick and 2-1/2 in. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. A simple. The part of a rotation of the bolt. . carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. square for a support.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. fairly accurate. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. leaving it shaped like a bench.

This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. Bore a 3/4-in. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. piece of wood 12 ft. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. Santa Maria. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. which show up fine at night. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. long is used for the center pole. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. globe that has been thrown away as useless. Place a 3/4-in. The wheel should be open . long. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. Oal. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. beyond the end of the wood. material 12 ft. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. bolt in each hole.

wide and 1/8 in. H and J. C. at the top and 4 in. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. from the ends. wide and 1/8 in. A. which should be 1/4 in. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. thick is used for the armature. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. Fort Worth. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. The spool . O. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. made of the same material. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. Graham. long. The coil. of the ends with boards. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. long. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. C. and the lower part 61/2 in. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. A piece of brass 2 in. The boards may be nailed or bolted. long. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. at the bottom. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. long. L. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings.-Contributed by A. to be operated by the magnet coil. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. A cross bar. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. 1/2 in. is soldered. in diameter. and on its lower end a socket.Side and Top View or have spokes. thick. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. P. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. thick. Tex. from the top end. pieces used for the spokes. square and 3 or 4 in. B. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in.

You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. . At the bottom end of the frame. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. which may be had by using German silver wire. for insulating the brass ferrule. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection.--A. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. that holds the lower carbon. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25.is about 2-1/2 in. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. or a water rheostat heretofore described. Mass. one without either rubber or metal end. S. This tie can be used on grain sacks. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. long. and place it against a door or window casing. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. do it without any apparent effort. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. A. R. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. 2. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. When you slide the pencil along the casing. B. 2 the hat hanging on it. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. and directly centering the holes H and J.J. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. D and E. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. then with a firm. F. 1. --Contributed by Arthur D.000. by soldering. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core.000 for irrigation work. and in numerous other like instances. Bradlev. C.E. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. A soft piece of iron. Randolph. S. is drilled. The armature. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. This is a very neat trick if performed right.

may be made from a 3/8-in. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. in diameter. long. S. in diameter and 1/16 in. Fig. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. and then 1. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. Experiment with Heat [134] . The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. for adjustment. B. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. The coil ends are made from cardboard. The switch. in diameter.500 turns of No. C. A. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. with a 3/16-in. wide. hole in the center. for the primary. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. The core of the coil. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. for the secondary. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. 1. about 1 in. D. in diameter and 2 in. long and 1 in. leaving the projections as shown. 2. F. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. Fig. About 70 turns of No. mixed with water to form a paste. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. The vibrator B. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. The vibrator. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. about 3/16 in. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. is constructed in the usual manner. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. is connected to a flash lamp battery. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. from the core and directly opposite. 1. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. thick. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. about 1/8 in. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. S.

An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. which is only 3/8-in. long and when placed over the board. between the boards.Place a small piece of paper. thick on the inside. as shown in the sketch. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. The tin is 4 in. wide. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. which is cut with two holes. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. brass plate. 16 in. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. . The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. 1. and the same distance inside of the new board. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. board. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. 1. which seemed to be insufficient. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. lighted. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. as shown. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. was to be secured by only three brass screws. The hasp. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. 2 to fit the two holes. it laps down about 8 in. in an ordinary water glass. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. Fig. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. The three screws were then put in the hasp. The knob on the dial extends out too far. The lock. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. with which to operate the dial. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. and then well clinched.

clear glass as shown. not shiny. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. square and 8-1/2 in. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. and the back left dark. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . When making of wood. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. black color. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. but when the front part is illuminated.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. one in each division. which completely divides the box into two parts. the glass. When the rear part is illuminated. any article placed therein will be reflected in. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. or in the larger size mentioned. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. If the box is made large enough. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. high for use in window displays. square and 10-1/2 in. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers.

above the top of the tank. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. alternately. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty.. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. wide will be about the right size. and with the proper illumination one is changed. a tank 2 ft. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. . Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. When using as a window display. long and 1 ft. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. as it appears. When there is no electric current available. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. as shown in the sketch. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. into the other.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. as shown at A in the sketch.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

bit. long. Iron sulphate. The 13-in. from the ground. and a solution of iron sulphate added. wide. each. is the green vitriol. hole bored the full length through the center. Three windows are provided. then use a red-hot iron to finish. 5 ft. under sides together. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. however. dried and mixed with linseed oil. This hole must be continued . gauge for depth. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. lines gauged on each side of each. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. long. square. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. 2 ft. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. thick and 3 in. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. high. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. and a door in front. one for each side. or ferrous sulphate. with a length of 13 in. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. is built on the front. Columbus. square and 40 in. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. 6 in. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. 1 in. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. and 6 ft. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. and boring two holes with a 1-in. A small platform.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. O. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. bore from each end. This precipitate is then washed. using a 3/4-in. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. The pieces can then be taken out. but with a length of 12 in. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. hole. as shown. wide. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. radius. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. two pieces 1-1/8 in. If a planing mill is near. Shape the under sides first.

at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. apply two coats of wax. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. A better way. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. Directions will be found on the filler cans." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. square and drawing a diagonal on each. hole in each block. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. thick and 3 in. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. When this is dry. If the parts are to be riveted. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. three or four may be attached as shown.through the pieces forming the base. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. Electric globes--two. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. if shade is purchased. The sketch shows one method of attaching. For art-glass the metal panels are . When the filler has hardened. Saw the two blocks apart. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each.

and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. as brass. such as copper.Construction of Shade . METAL SHADE .The Completed Lamp cut out. Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal.

This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . as in ordinary devices. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. 2 the front view of this stand. Figure 1 shows the side. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. and Fig. The arms holding the glass. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. as shown in the sketch. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. one way and 1/2 in. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. the object and the background. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. the other.

wide and 11 in. thus forming a 1/4-in. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. channel in the circumference of the ring. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. If the light becomes dim. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. An ordinary pocket compass. Before mounting the ring on the base. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. in diameter. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. outside diameter. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. thick 5/8-in. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. as it is very poisonous. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. about 1-1/4 in. as shown in the cut. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. uncork and recork again. and swinging freely. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. Put the ring in place on the base. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. Cut another circular piece 11 in. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . pointing north and south. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. as shown in the sketch. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. wide and 6-5/16 in. in diameter for a base. and an inside diameter of 9 in. long. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard.

088 .289 .375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. above the half can. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. CC. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes .865 1. from the second to the third. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. Place on top the so- . to which a wire has been soldered for connections. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. The results given should be multiplied by 1. in diameter and 8 in. and mirrors. into these cylinders. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders.600 . Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. EE. are mounted on a base. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. AA. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. black oxide of copper.420 . are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. of the top. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye.715 . high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. and north of the Ohio river.500 . 1 oz.182 . B. Corresponding mirrors. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work.

slender bottle. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. which otherwise remains clear. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. then they will not rust fast. says Metal Worker. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. 31 gr. little crystals forming in the liquid. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. University Park. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. When renewing. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. Put the solution in a long. always remove the oil with a siphon. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. of pulverized campor.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. the wheel will revolve in one direction. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. alcohol. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. In Fig. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. Colo. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. 62 gr.

The cork is then floated on a solution of acid.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. will allow the magnet to point north and south. Attach to the wires. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. on the under side of the cork. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. A paper-fastener box. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. If zinc and carbon are used. Solder in the side of the box . the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. This is used in place of the spoon. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. Lloyd Enos. If two of them are floating on the same solution. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. about 1-1/4 in. floating on a solution. If zinc and copper are used. --Contributed by C. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core.

Rhamstine. A. A. D. of No. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. Wind evenly about 2 oz. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. Bore holes for binding-posts. The base. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. On one side bend the wire around the tube B.in.1-in.not shorter than 18 in.in. and then solder on the cover. Use a board 1/2. E. as shown in Fig. long. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. C. glass tubing . to it. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. piece of 1/4-in. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. wide and 6 in. B. D. 1. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. 3 in. F. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. away. of wire on each end extending from the coil. brass tubing. is made from a piece of No. G--No. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. Take a small piece of soft iron. A circular piece of cardboard. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. C. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. E. The bottom of the box. wide and 2-1/2 in. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. Put ends. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface.Contributed by J. or made with a little black paint. thick. long. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. one on each side of the board. 14 wire will do. 10 wire about 10 in. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. hole. can be made of oak. The spring should be about 1 in. and on the other around the glass tube. B. Thos. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . D. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. stained and varnished. long that has about 1/4-in. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. H. 1-1/4 in. . To this standard solder the supporting wire. If the hose is not a tight fit. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. C. The standard. 1/2. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in.

long.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. long. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. When the glass becomes soft. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. About 1-1/2 lb. Wis. N. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. long. D. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. is drawn nearer to the coil. . The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. The iron plunger. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. as shown in Fig. long are used for the legs. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. making a support as shown in Fig. canvas. of No. J. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. 1. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. long. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. of mercury will be sufficient. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. about 1 in. from the right hand. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. 5. Teasdale. Y. E. in diameter. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd.--Contributed by R. 3-in.--Contributed by Edward M. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. Smith. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. Milwaukee. 3 in. four hinges. Cuba.of the coil. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. of 8-oz. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. two pieces 2 ft. long. 2. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. 3. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer.

When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. 4. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. 3. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig.. holding in the left hand. Take 1/2 in. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. small aperture in the long tube. thus leaving a. Fig. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode.. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. This tube as described will be 8 in. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. The tube now must be filled completely.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. --Contributed by David A. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. Can. Measure 8 in. of vacuum at the top. 6. 5. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. 2. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. expelling all the air. Keys. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. long. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. Break off the piece of glass. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. Toronto. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . leaving 8 in.

from the end of same. and 1/4 in. 3 in. but yellow pine is the best. wide and 5 ft. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. wide and 12 in. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. This forms a slot. as in Fig. 9 in. wood screws.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. Fig. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. joint be accurately put together. 1 in. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. 4 in.6 -. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. in diameter. thick. and the single projection 3/4 in. thick. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. long. 4. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. 1 in. cut in the shape shown in Fig. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. thick. Four blocks 1/4 in. 2. wide and 5 ft. thick. wide and 3 in. 3. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. wide and 5 ft. 3 in. 1.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. as shown in Fig. long. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. A crosspiece 3/4-in. material 2 in. 5. The large pulley is about 14 in. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. 6. 7. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. long. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. These are bent and nailed. with each projection 3-in. as shown in Fig. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. thick. FIG. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. long.

attach runners and use it on the ice. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. by 1-in. . Manhattan. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. first removing the crank. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. --Contributed by C. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. R. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. Kan. says Photography. Water 1 oz. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. Welsh. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. above the runner level.

Leominster. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. also. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. --Contributed by Edward M. Treasdale. Newton. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. of water. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. --Contributed by Wallace C. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. 2. and very much cheaper. Mass. from an ordinary clamp skate. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. 1 oz. This is done with a camel's hair brush. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. as shown in Fig. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. Printing is carried rather far. The print is washed. 1. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. 3. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. as shown in Fig. . Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws.

1. Take two glass tubes. Place a 10-in. too. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. 1-1/2 ft. Fig. say. Then. and bend them as shown in the sketch. high for rabbits. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. wide and 4 in. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. as shown in the sketch. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. Fig. The swing door B. about 10 in. and 3 ft. 2. long. extending the width of the box.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. 1 ft. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. causing the door to swing back and up. The thread is broken off at the . with about 1/8-in. F. and to the bottom. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. fasten a 2-in. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. Church. which represents the back side of the door. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. wide. 1. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. A. hole. square piece. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. high. from one end. Va. --Contributed by H. Alexandria. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught.

C. but cut it 1/4 in. from the edge on each side of these openings. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. Crilly. Fig. trolley cars. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. 2. long. say 8 in. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. Chicago. D. making the appearance of the ordinary stage.by 5-in. Jr. to be used as a driving pulley. wide and 5 in. wide. shorter. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. Paste a piece of strong black paper. Take two pieces of pasteboard. black surfaced if possible. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. Fig. long. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. automobiles. camera and wish to use some 4. being 1/8 in. . over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. 1 in. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. 10 in. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5.proper place to make a small hole. shorter at each end. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in.by 7-in. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. high and 12 in. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. This opening. plates. says Camera Craft. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. B. horses and dogs. and go in the holder in the same way. in size. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. 1. and exactly 5 by 7 in. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. 3. as shown in Fig. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. Cut an opening in the other piece. wide. Out two rectangular holes.. in size. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. -Contributed by William M. inside of the opening. A and B.

." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in.in. wide will be required. into which the dog is harnessed. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. A cell of this kind can easily be made.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. if it has previously been magnetized. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. The needle will then point north and south. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. making a . The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. long and 6 in. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. in diameter. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it.

A is a block of l-in. short time. Pack the paste in. under the spool in the paraffin. pine. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. 1 lb. fodder. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. of water. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. leaving about 1/2-in. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. sal ammoniac. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. fuel and packing purposes. B is a base of 1 in. in diameter and 6 in. for a connection. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. only the joints. in which P is the pan. .watertight receptacle. File the rods to remove the copper plate. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. long which are copper plated. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. says Electrician and Mechanic. one that will hold about 1 qt. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. This makes the wire smooth. with narrow flanges. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. pull out the wire as needed. of the top. of the plate at one end. when the paraffin is melted. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. 1/4 lb. Do not paint any surface. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. 3/4 lb. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. plaster of paris. F is a spool. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. Place the pan on the stove. filter. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. beeswax melted together. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base.in. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. zinc oxide. Form a 1/2-in. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. and a notch between the base and the pan. of rosin and 2 oz.

and one friend tells me that they were . in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. let them try it. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. and therein is the trick. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. but the thing would not move at all. grip the stick firmly in one hand. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. by the Hindoos in India. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. 2. Enlarge the hole slightly. Ohio. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. as in the other movement. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. and then. and he finally. from vexation. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. for others the opposite way. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. Try it and see. square and about 9 in. or think they can do the same. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. long. Toledo. for some it will turn one way. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. At least it is amusing. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. g. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. thus producing two different vibrations. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. If any of your audience presume to dispute. Very few can make it turn both ways at will." which created much merriment. while for others it will not revolve at all..

It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. and. A square stick with notches on edge is best. m. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. Speeds between 700 and 1. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. The experiments were as follows: 1. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. rotation was obtained. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. If the pressure was upon an edge. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. 4. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. 6. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. To operate. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. by means of a center punch. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. 7. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. 2. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. and I think the results may be of interest.100 r. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. gave the best results. 3. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. 5. secondly. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. Thus a circular or . no rotation resulted. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. p. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. the rotation may be obtained. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe.

For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). at first. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. Washington. A wire is tied around the can. forming a handle for carrying. and the resultant "basket splash. and the height of the fall about 6 in. A. Lloyd. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. Sloan. Minn.D. if the pressure is from the left. as shown. it will be clockwise. the upper portion is. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. or greasy. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. so far as can be seen from the photographs. a piece of wire and a candle. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. Duluth. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. --Contributed by M. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. G.." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. Ph.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. C. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. unwetted by the liquid. . while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. D.. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. --Contributed by G. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. is driven violently away.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . with a 1/16-in. hole drilled in the center. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. thick and 1 in. Each wheel is 1/4 in. in diameter. flange and a 1/4-in. axle. 1. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. as shown in Fig. about 2-5/8 in. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. long. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. as shown.

The other binding-post is connected to the frame. The first piece. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. which must be 110 volt alternating current. each in its proper place. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. is made from a piece of clock spring. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. are shown in Fig. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized.50. Fuller. and the locomotive is ready for running. 3/4 in. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. The current. wide and 16 in. holes 1 in. wood. This will save buying a track. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. The parts. 2. Fig. San Antonio. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. The motor is now bolted. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. with cardboard 3 in. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . 6. Texas. 2. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. Fig. long.brass. as shown in Fig. bent as shown. bottom side up. These ends are fastened together. If the ends are to be soldered. 1 from 1/4-in. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. 5. 3. of No. 3. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. put together complete. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. is made from brass. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. 4. --Contributed by Maurice E. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. as shown in Fig. A trolley. lamp in series with the coil. or main part of the frame.

O. 3. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. then continue to tighten much more. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. as shown in Fig. the length of a paper clip. Fig 1. 2. Fig. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. and holes drilled in them. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. The quarter will not go all the way down. Cincinnati. as shown in Fig. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. and as this end . This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. 1. but do not heat the center. When cold treat the other end in the same way. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece.

When the trick is to be performed. has finished a cut for a tooth. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. or apparent security of the knot. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. In the sketch.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. When the cutter A. or should the lathe head be raised. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. A pair of centers are fitted. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. and adjusted . The frame is made from a 1/2 in. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. 2 and 1 respectively. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel.

In this manner gears 3 in. Bott. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather.) Place the paper design on the leather and. above the surface. trace the outline. (5. (4. (1. When connecting to batteries. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. coin purse. lady's belt bag.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. 2. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. gentleman's card case or bill book.) Make on paper the design wanted. long. such as brass or marble. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. note book. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. Fold over along these center lines. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. and a nut pick. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. The frame holding the mandrel. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within).) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. (2. if but two parts. draw center lines across the required space. (6. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. holding it in place with the left hand. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. tea cosey. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. 1. about 1-1/2 in. An ordinary machine will do. Brooklyn.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. tea cosey. --Contributed by Samuel C. book mark. (3. blotter back. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. Second row: -Two book marks. or one-half of the design. N. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. lady's card case. Y. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. watch fob ready for fastenings. Bunker. Fig. --Contributed by Howard S. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. dividing it into as many parts as desired. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. twisted around itself and soldered. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. swing lathe. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. if four parts are to be alike. at the same time striking light.to run true.

How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. some heavy rubber hose. Secure . and an ordinary bottle.

where it condenses. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. into which fit a small piece of tube. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. Florida. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. and push it through a cork. a distance of 900 miles. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. The electrodes are made . The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. D. If the needle is not horizontal. Thrust a pin. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. B. and bore a hole through the center. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. A. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. from Key West. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. C.. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm.C.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube.

long. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. All wiring is done with No. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. wide and 3 ft. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. 2 in. long. square and 8 ft long. and also to keep it steady in its flight. wide and 4 ft long. slacken speed and settle. as shown in Fig. wide and 3 ft. Four long beams 3/4 in. 1. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. 2 arm sticks 1 in. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. several strips 1/2 in. If 20-ft. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. 1. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. 16 piano wire. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. 2. lumber cannot be procured. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. thick. 1-1/2 in. wide and 4 ft. The operator can then land safely and . In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. D. thick. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. C. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. lengths and splice them. thick. wide and 4 ft. 1/2. free from knots. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. 1-1/4 in. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. 2. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. by 3/4 in. long. 3/4 in. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. thick. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. use 10-ft. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. wide and 20 ft. using a high resistance receiver. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. Powell. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. both laterally and longitudinally. or flying-machine. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. which is tacked to the front edge. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. Washington. long. long for the body of the operator. take the glider to the top of a hill. Connect as shown in the illustration. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. long. as shown in Fig.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other.in. 3. --Contributed by Edwin L. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. apart and extend 1 ft. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. To make a glide. 12 uprights 1/2 in. thick. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. 1. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. as shown in Fig. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving.

gently on his feet. but this must be found by experience. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. Glides are always made against the wind. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. Of course. Great care should be . Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour.

shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. Olson. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. --Contributed by L. a creature of Greek mythology. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . When heated a little. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. 2. half man and half horse. which causes the dip in the line. 1. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a.exercised in making landings. M. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. Bellingham. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. as shown in Fig. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from.

Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. square. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. a piece of brass or steel wire. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. making it 2-1/2 in. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. in diameter. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. 14 in. will complete the material list. of small rubber tubing. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. outside the box. The light from the . first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. While at the drug store get 3 ft. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. long and about 3/8 in. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. about the size of door screen wire. long. this will cost about 15 cents. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. about the size of stove pipe wire. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. at the other. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash.

door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. as shown in Fig. If done properly the card will flyaway. . It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. while others will fail time after time. This is very simple when you know how. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. M. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. 1. O. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. Hunting. as shown in Fig. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. as shown in the sketch. --Photo by M. 2. Dayton.

closing both hands quickly. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. as before. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. Cool in water and dry." or the Chinese students' favorite game. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. If a certain color is to be more prominent. as described. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. place the other two. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. This game is played by five persons. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. When the desired shape has been obtained. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. as shown. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. then put it on the hatpin head. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . hold the lump over the flame. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster.

Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. or more in width. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. these sectors. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. passing through neutralizing brushes. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. distribute electric charges . This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass.

C C. 1. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. The drive wheels. turned wood pieces. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. GG. in diameter. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. 4. 3/4 in. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. 1-1/2 in. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. after they are mounted. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. to which insulating handles . Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. 3. from about 1/4-in. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. and the outer end 11/2 in. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. RR. Fig. 2. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. The collectors are made. Fig. in diameter and 15 in. 1 in. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. in diameter. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. and of a uniform thickness. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. the side pieces being 24 in. material 7 in. Two solid glass rods. long. The fork part is 6 in. D. The plates are trued up. Two pieces of 1-in.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. are made from solid. or teeth. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. long. The plates. wide at one end. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. long and the shank 4 in. 3. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. The two pieces. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. These pins. in diameter. EE. brass tubing and the discharging rods. and this should be done before cutting the circle. wide. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. at the other. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. and pins inserted and soldered. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. and 4 in. in diameter. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. free from wrinkles. in diameter. are made from 7/8-in. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. long and the standards 3 in. in diameter.

A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water.. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. ball and the other one 3/4 in. in diameter. one having a 2-in. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. D. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk.are attached. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. 12 ft. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. Colorado City. wide and 22 ft. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. and the work was done by themselves. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. --Contributed by C. which are bent as shown. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. long. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. KK. Colo. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . Lloyd Enos. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall.

yet such a thing can be done. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. and bore a hole 1/2 in. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. string together. deep. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. using a 1-in.is a good one. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. The key will drop from the string. bit. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. as at A. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. pens . HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. They can be used to keep pins and needles. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork.

unless it would be the metal shears. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. above the work and striking it with the hammer. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. They are easily made. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. they make attractive little pieces to have about. 3. 8. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in.. Use . Raise the ends. Draw one-half the design free hand. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. 2. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. above the metal. then the other side. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. When the stamping is completed. 5. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. flat and round-nosed pliers. file. and the third one 1/4 in. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. etc. Inside this oblong. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in.. very rapid progress can be made. inside the second on all. 7. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. Proceed as follows: 1. The second oblong was 3/4 in. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. Having determined the size of the tray. This is to make a clean. or cigar ashes. two spikes. also trace the decorative design. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. inside the first on all. 4. etc. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. 9. 6. sharp division between background and design. stamp the background promiscuously. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one.and pencils. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. using a nail filed to chisel edge. extra metal on each of the four sides. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. about 3/4-in. 23 gauge. slim screw.

You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. 10. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. first fingers. and the effect will be most pleasing. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. 8. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . and fourth fingers. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. 9. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. 6. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. In the first numbering. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. 7. second fingers. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. third fingers.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. The eyes. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown.

hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. or the product of 8 times 9. Still. In the second numbering. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. etc. . and 70 plus 2 equals 72. viz. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. Let us multiply 12 by 12. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. above 20 times 20. 400. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. but being simple it saves time and trouble. or 60.. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. and the six lower fingers as six tens. Two times one are two. etc. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. above 15 times 15 it is 200. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. the product of 12 times 12. which would be 70. etc. first fingers. 12. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. which would be 16. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. or numbers above 10. 2 times 2 equals 4.. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. thumbs. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. 600. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. there are no fingers above. or the product of 6 times 6.. renumber your fingers. 11. if we wish.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. which tens are added. At a glance you see four tens or 40. as high as you want to go. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. or 80. Put your thumbs together. 25 times 25.

"18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. thirties. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. about a vertical axis. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. 21.. the inversion takes place against his will. forties.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. the revolution seems to reverse. etc. twenties. or from above or from below. 8. adding 400 instead of 100. the value which the upper fingers have. as one might suppose. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. when he removes his spectacles. For example. the lump sum to add. 7. in the case of a nearsighted person. the value of the upper fingers being 20. 2. For figures ending in 6. being 80). the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. It takes place also. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. And the lump sum to add. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. and. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. and so on. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. not rotation. at the will of the observer. or what. lastly. any two figures between 45 and 55. beginning the thumbs with 16. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. which is the half-way point between the two fives. first finger 17. thumbs. 75 and 85. 3. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. further. however. Proceed as in the second lumbering. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. . Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. The inversion and reversion did not take place. Take For example 18 times 18. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. whether the one described in second or third numbering. first fingers 22.

holding it firmly in a horizontal position. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. A flat slide valve was used.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. when he knows which direction is right. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. and putting a cork on the point. the other appearance asserts itself. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. as . in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. The ports were not easy to make. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. sometimes the point towards him. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. tee. Looking at it in semidarkness. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat.

Springfield. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. . Beating copper tends to harden it and. about 2 in. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. if continued too long without proper treatment. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. it is easily built. bottom side up. across and 1/2 in. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. apart. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. secure a piece of No. deep. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. and make in one end a hollow. Next take a block of wood. The steam chest is round. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. across the head. The tools are simple and can be made easily. If nothing better is at hand. inexpensive. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. -Contributed by W. Fasten the block solidly. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. While this engine does not give much power. pipe 10 in. The eccentric is constructed of washers. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. Kutscher. saw off a section of a broom handle. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. in diameter. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. H. such as is shown in the illustration.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out.. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. as in a vise. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. pipe. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. Ill.

This process is called annealing. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. as it softens the metal. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . Hay. C. especially when the object is near to the observer. Camden. To overcome this hardness. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. Vinegar. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil.will cause the metal to break. S. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. and. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. To produce color effects on copper. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. O. --Contributed by W. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. the other to the left.

Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. the one for the left eye being blue. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. while both eyes together see a white background. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. would serve the same purpose. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. however. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. the further from the card will the composite image appear. It is just as though they were not there. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. and without any picture. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. So with the stereograph. from the stereograph. in the proper choice of colors. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. The red portions of the picture are not seen. not two mounted side by side. The further apart the pictures are. orange. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. and lies to the right on the picture.stereoscope. In order to make them appear before the card. But they seem black. because of the rays coming from them. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. because. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. disappears fully. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. although they pass through the screen. that for the right. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. it. as for instance red and green. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. . In order that the picture shall be "plastic. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. diameter. they must be a very trifle apart. with the stereograph. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. only the orange rays may pass through. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. the left eye sees through a blue screen. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background.

The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. A No. wide and 1 in. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. 12 gauge wire. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. This should only be bored about half way through the block. etc. long and a hole drilled in each end. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. in diameter. The weight of the air in round . Place a NO. in the shape of a crank. or the middle of the bottle. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. Cal. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. San Francisco. wireless. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. thick. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. 1/4 in. A small round bottle about 1/2 in.

but before attempting to put in the mercury. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. high. The 4 in. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. a bottle 1 in. Only redistilled mercury should be used. long. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. But if a standard barometer is not available. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. Before fastening the scale. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. 34 ft. or a column of mercury (density 13. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. and a slow fall.numbers is 15 lb.. internal diameter and about 34 in. In general. long. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. if accurately constructed. square. long. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. the contrary. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. square. wide and 4 in. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. inside diameter and 2 in. . 30 in. pine 3 in. the instrument.6) 1 in. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. or. thick. high. wide and 40 in. a glass tube 1/8 in. high. will calibrate itself. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. if you choose. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow.

the size of the outside of the bottle. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. a cover from a baking powder can will do. 3. wide and 10 in. Number the pieces 1. 2. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. 5. thick. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. long. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. Procure a metal can cover. 6 and 7. and place them as shown in Fig. Mark out seven 1-in. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . 1.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. which is slipped quickly over the end.

7 over No. 6 to No. using checkers for men. To make such a tent. 1 into No. 5's place. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. Move 10-Move No. Move 2-Jump No. 6. N. 3. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. long and 2 ft.J. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. 3 into No. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. 2's place. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. procure unbleached tent duck. 6. L. 7 over No. 1 to No. Move 6-Move No. 2 . 1. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. 3 to the center. Move 8-Jump No. 3 over No.Position of the Men move only one at a time. shaped like Fig. Move 3-Move No. 6 into No. 5 over No. 3. 5's place. Woolson. 3. Make 22 sections. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. 1. 6 over No. Move 4-Jump No. l over No. Move 15-Move No. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. Move 5-Jump No. 2. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. 2 over No. which is the very best material for the purpose. 2 over No. Cape May Point.-Contributed by W. 2's place. This can be done on a checker board. as shown in Fig. 7's place. Move 12-Jump No. each 10 ft. 2. Move 9-Jump No. 5 over No. Move 13-Move No. Move 7-Jump No. 7. Move 14-Jump No. 6 in. in diameter. Move ll-Jump No. 5.

3 in. 5. leaving the rest for an opening. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. to a smooth board of soft wood.. Tress. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. 6-in. wide at the bottom. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. Use blocks. wide by 12 in. 9 by 12 in.in. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. 2 in. fill with canvas edging. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. made in two sections. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. from the top. These are ventilators. As shown in the sketch. After transferring the design to the brass. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. diameter. 2. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. Emsworth. about 9 in. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. 6. as in Fig. 5) stuck in the ground. Have the tent pole 3 in. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. long and 4 in. will do. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. Pa. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. Nail a thin sheet of brass. added. round galvanized iron. long. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. wide at the bottom. high. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. in diameter. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. In raising the tent. Fig. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. --Contributed by G.J. Fig. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. Punch holes in the brass in . The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in.

When the edges are brought together by bending. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. When all the holes are punched. but before punching the holes. The pattern is traced as before.the spaces around the outlined figures. It will not. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. . --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. apart. cut out the brass on the outside lines. bend into shape. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. around the outside of the pattern. excepting the 1/4-in. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. Corr. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. Chicago.

better still. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank.. E. pipe.however. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. partially filled with cream. These pipes are . The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. If a wheel is selected. or center on which the frame swings. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. --Contributed by H. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. A cast-iron ring. Badger. G. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. Mayger. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. between which is placed the fruit jar. Que. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. Stevens. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. allowing 2 ft. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. Dunham. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. Oregon. or. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. --Contributed by Geo. or less. A 6-in. pipe is used for the hub.

pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. bent to the desired circle. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. Four braces made from 1/2-in. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. pipe clamps. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. pipe. An extra wheel 18 in. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] .

The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. as shown in Fig. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. The performer. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. and the guide withdrawn.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. 1. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. and dropped on the table. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. 3. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. which was placed in an upright position. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. while doing this. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before.

first. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. St. -Contributed by C. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. The box can be made of selected oak or . D. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. Mo. Harkins. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. --Contributed by H. in a half circle. F. White. Denver. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. 1. it requires no expensive condensing lens. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. Colo. 2. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. in diameter on another piece of tin. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. Louis. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. and second. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. These leaves can be made up in regular book form.

3-1/2 in. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. wide and 6-1/2 in. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. as shown in Fig. wide and 5 in. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. 5-1/2 in. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. and 2 in. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. If a camera lens is used. wide by 5 in. long. fit into the runners. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. Two or three holes about 1 in. focal length. from each end. long and should be placed vertically. 1. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. AA. The door covering this hole in the back.mahogany. high and must . This will be 3/4 in. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. from each end of the outside of the box. high and 11 in. but not tight. represented by the dotted line in Fig. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. wide. and. An open space 4 in. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. long. 2. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown.

then the second knuckle will be March. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door..Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. West Toledo. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. calling this February. and so on. April. C. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. June and November. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. --Contributed by Chas. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. provided it is airtight. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. Ohio. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. the article may be propped up . Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. as it requires an airtight case. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. 1. calling that knuckle January. and extending the whole height of the lantern. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps." etc. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. Bradley. This process is rather a difficult one. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September.

giving it an occasional stir. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. running small motors and lighting small lamps. 1. The top of a table will do. one of lead and one of aluminum. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. .with small sticks. 2. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. In both Fig. --Contributed by J. Y. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. Crawford. Schenectady. H. and the lead 24 sq. In each place two electrodes. the lid or cover closed. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. taking care to have all the edges closed. Pour in a little turpentine. or suspended by a string. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. fruit jars are required. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. 1 and 2. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. and set aside for half a day. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. N. but waxed. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. in. in.

as well as others. which you warm with your hands. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. Cleveland. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. He. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. as you have held it all the time. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. he throws the other.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. After a few seconds' time. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. O. This trick is very simple. You have an understanding with some one in the company. you remove the glass. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug.. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others.

it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. put it under the glass. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. Crocker. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. Victor. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. on a table. Be sure that this is the right one. but by being careful at shores. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. Pull the ends quickly. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. but in making one. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. Colo. in diameter in the center. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. . Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. if any snags are encountered. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top.-Contributed by E. J. near a partition or curtain.take the handiest one. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot.

The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. of rope. wide and 12 ft. 1 mast. are as follows: 1 keelson. clear pine. and is removed after the ribs are in place. 11 yd. from each end to 1 in. 1 in. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. 1 in. by 16 ft. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. for the stern piece. selected pine.. for the bow. by 8 in. is 14 ft. 2 and braced with an iron band. for cockpit frame. 2 in. 8 yd. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. 4 outwales. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. 50 ft. by 2 in. one 6 in.. for center deck braces. long. apart. wide 12-oz. long. the smaller is placed 3 ft. 7 ft. 1 piece. 1 in. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. drilled and fastened with screws. 1/4 in. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. and fastened with screws. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. 1 in. by 15 ft. long. of 1-1/2-yd. by 10 ft. 14 rib bands. and. 3 and 4. by 2 in. 1/8 in. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . wide unbleached muslin.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. as illustrated in the engraving. ducking. 1 piece. 8 in. Both ends are mortised. wide and 12 ft. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. Fig. 3 in. of 1-yd. by 12 in. square by 16 ft. thick and 3/4 in. screws and cleats. Paint. and the other 12 in. wide. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. from the stern. at the ends. long. 2 gunwales. by 16 ft. 9 ft. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. The keelson. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. from the bow and the large one. 1. 3 in.

4 in. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. thick 1-1/2 in. 1 in. 6 in. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. A seam should be made along the center piece. 1 in. The block is fastened to the keelson. wide and 24 in. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. wood screws. Fig. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. . 6 and 7. Figs. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. They are 1 in. long. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. wide. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. 5. long. screws. thick. also. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. thick and 1/2 in. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. gunwales and keelson.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. wide. wide and 14 in. Before making the deck. A block of pine. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. long is well soaked in water. corner braces. in diameter through the block. This block. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. thick and 12 in. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. 9. and fastened to them with bolts. The trimming is wood. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. 7 and 8. thick. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. 3-1/2 ft. Fig. The 11-yd. 6. The deck is not so hard to do. apart. Braces. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. is cut to fit under the top boards. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. long. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. These are put in 6 in. A 6-in. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. a piece 1/4 in. wide and 3 ft. length of canvas is cut in the center. is a cube having sides 6 in. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. 1/4 in. doubled. from the bow. A piece of oak.

The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. wide. is 6 in. apart in the muslin. 11. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. in diameter and 10 ft. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. --Contributed by O. 10 with a movable handle. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. The mast has two side and one front stay. each 1 in. are used for the boom and gaff. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. long. wide at one end and 12 in. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. The keel. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. A strip 1 in. Tronnes. The sail is a triangle. . is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. 12.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. at the other. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. thick by 2 in. The house will accommodate 20 families. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. E. Ill. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. Fig. long. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. Wilmette.

on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. thick. long. E. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. --Contributed by O.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. 1. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. flat-headed screws. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. Bevel both sides of the pieces. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. long. with the ends and the other side rounding. Tronnes. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. wide. wide and 2 ft. one 11-1/2 in. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. five 1/2-in. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. flat headed screws. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. 2-1/2 in. Take this and fold it over . long and five 1/2-in. thick. square. 4. 2-1/2 in. flat on one side. Cut the maple. wide. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. long. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. thick. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. 3. wide and 30 in. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. and the other 18 in. Fig. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. Wilmette. 2. as shown in Fig. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in.into two 14-in. Ill. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. and 3 ft. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. 1 yd. 2 in. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. about 5/16 in. 5.

brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. Wind three layers of about No. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. St. E. The sides are 3-1/4 in. C. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. thick. A. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. long. If carefully and neatly made. wide and 3 ft. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. D. and make a turn in each end of the wires. wide and 6-3/4 in. The bag is then turned inside out. wide and 2-1/2 in. long. wide and 4-1/2 in. 3/8 in. F. long. and take care that the pieces are all square. long. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. The front. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. 5 from 1/16-in. as well as the edges around the opening. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. square. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. long. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. long. wide and 6-1/2 in. then centered. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. Bliss. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. but can be governed by circumstances. Cut another piece of board. forming an eye for a screw. C. wide and 2-3/4 in. A. the mechanical parts can be put together. and the four outside edges. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. 3 in. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. Figs. thick and 3 in.once. wide and 5 in. of each end unwound for connections. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. After the glue. pieces 2-5/8 in. 1. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. soaked with water and blown up. Mo. When the glue is set. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. leaving a small opening at one corner. 2 and 3. are rounded. Louis. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. thick. square. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. long. Glue a three cornered piece. Another piece. Make a double stitch all around the edge. about 3/8 in. About 1/2 in. long. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. 1-1/4 in. Fig. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. --Contributed by W. wide . The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. 6-1/2 in. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. is set. the top and bottom. this square box is well sandpapered. 3-1/4 in. B.

Fig. thick. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. so it will just clear the tin. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. When the current flows through the coil. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. Chapman. wide and 2-1/2 in. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. L. long. Another strip of tin. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. The base is a board 5 in. 1/4 in. The end of the polar axis B. W. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. and the farther apart they will be forced. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities.A. Austwick Hall. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle.S. I. 5-1/2 in. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. R. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. 4. Like poles repel each other. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. These wires should be about 1 in. Richmond Hill. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . hole is fastened to the pointer.R. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. in diameter. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. Place the tin. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. 4. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. wide and 9 in. The stronger the current. 5. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. C. 4 is not movable. A pointer 12 in. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. F. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle.and 2-5/8 in. bored in the back. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. long. and fasten in place. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. --Contributed by George Heimroth. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. long. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. Yorkshire. showing a greater defection of the pointer. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. and as the part Fig. Fig. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. from the spindle. the same size as the first. 1/16 in. that has the end turned with a shoulder. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. the part carrying the pointer moves away. The resistance is now adjusted to show . in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. G. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. from one end. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. board.

There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. say Venus at the date of observation. 30 min. thus: 9 hr. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. shows mean siderial. A. 10 min. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. 10 min. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. M.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. and vice . 1881. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. at 9 hr. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. The following formula will show how this may be found. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out.

and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. and then verify its correctness by measurement. Hall. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in.m. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. owing to the low internal resistance. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. .f. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. if one of these cannot be had. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. --Contributed by Robert W. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. New Haven. or. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. Conn.

the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. thick. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. cover up with the same. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. of alum and 4 oz. long. 3/8 in. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . especially for cooking fish. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. Wet paper will answer. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. and heap the glowing coals on top. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. 1. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. put the fish among the ashes. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. When the follower is screwed down. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. fresh grass. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. inside diameter and about 5 in. The boring bar. as shown in the accompanying picture. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. 1-3/4 in. Then. arsenic to every 20 lb. leaves or bark. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. Fig.

and threaded on both ends. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. thick. fastened with a pin. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. pipe. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . pipe. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. about 1/2 in. turned to the same diameter as the flanges.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. when they were turned in.

30 in. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod.valve stems. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. thick and 3 in. Fig. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. square iron. It . Clermont. 4. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. Fig. This plate also supports the rocker arms. as the one illustrated herewith. then it should be ground to a fit. 2. and which gave such satisfactory results. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. 5. wide. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. The rough frame. If the valve keeps dripping. but never one which required so little material. labor and time. Iowa. however. Fig. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. a jump spark would be much better. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. was then finished on an emery wheel. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. the float is too high. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. long. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. bent in the shape of a U. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. A 1-in. 3.

strong clear material only should be employed. in diameter and 15 in. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. from all over the neighborhood. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. in fact. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. set 3 ft. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. rope is not too heavy. The illustration largely explains itself. hole bored in the post. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. and a little junk. strengthened by a piece 4 in. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. with no trees or buildings in the way. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. Nieman. no matter what your age or size may be. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. for the "motive power" to grasp. Use a heavy washer at the head. 3/4 in. This makes an easy adjustment. and.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. in the ground with 8 ft. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. A 3/4 -in. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. timber. square and 5 ft. square and 2 ft. extending above. completes the merry-go-round. long. If it is to be used for adults. long." little and big. W. 12 ft. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. square. As there is no bracing. It looks like a toy. A malleable iron bolt." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. --Contributed by C. The crosspiece is 2 in. from the center. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. being held in position by spikes as shown. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. long. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. so it must be strong enough. The seats are regular swing boards. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. long is the pivot. butting against short stakes.

Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. light and strong. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. away. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. square. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced.the fingers. Both have large reels full of . This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. as shown in Fig. To wind the string upon the reel. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. long. 2. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. and 18 in. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. The backbone is flat. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. one for the backbone and one for the bow. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. 1/4 by 3/32 in. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. These ends are placed about 14 in. 1. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. then it is securely fastened. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing.2 emery. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. 4. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. A reel is next made. The bow is now bent. a wreck. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. Having placed the backbone in position. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. and sent to earth. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. if nothing better is at hand. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well.

If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. Moody. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. First. --Contributed' by Harry S. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. The handle end is held down with a staple. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . often several hundred yards of it. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. common packing thread. N. Brooklyn. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. If the second kite is close enough.-Contributed by S. Mass. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench.string. Y. or glass-covered string. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. Bunker. he pays out a large amount of string. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. C. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. Newburyport. the balance.

make the pad as shown in the illustration. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. then draw the string up tight. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. such as mill men use. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. --Contributed by Earl R. length of 2-in. Corinth. cutting the circular piece into quarters. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. lengths (Fig. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. must be attached to a 3-ft. If the table is round. square (Fig. each the size of half the table top. Vt. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. then a dust protector. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. Hastings.

Use a smooth. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. from E to F. Make the other half circular disk in the same way.. 17-1/2 in. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. G to H.-Contributed by H. 6-1/4 in.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. 16-1/4 in. 2-1/4 in. . Calif. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture.. Oakland. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. which spoils the leather effect. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. hard pencil. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. E.9-1/4 in. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad.. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. Moisten the . Wharton. trace the design carefully on the leather. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. and E to G. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. from C to D.

Trace the openings for the handles. and corresponding lines on the other side. wide. Cut it the same size as the bag. and lace through the holes. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. H-B.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. G-J. also lines A-G. To complete the bag. apart. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. with the rounded sides of the tools. Now cut narrow thongs. if not more than 1 in. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. is taken off at a time. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. and E-G. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. I made this motor . Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. place both together and with a leather punch. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. get something with which to make a lining. about 1/8 in.

The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. as shown in Fig. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. B. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. 24 gauge magnet wire. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. in length. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. long. 1. iron. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by J. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. of No. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. 2. Shannon. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. 2-1/4 in. 1. each being a half circle. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. D. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. . Calif. Pasadena. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. The one shown is 3-1/2 in.M. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax.

and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. The gores for a 6-ft. pasted in alternately. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. balloon should be about 8 ft. 1. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . from the bottom end. are the best kind to make. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. near the center. high. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. and the gores cut from these.

as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. somewhat larger in size. Fig. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. after which the paint will adhere permanently. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball.widest point. in diameter. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. The steam. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. E. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. As the boat is driven forward by this force. The boat soon attains considerable speed. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. After washing. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. In removing grease from wood. These are to hold the wick ball. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. 3. --Contributed by R. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. lap on the edges. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. leaving the solution on over night. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . so it will hang as shown in Fig. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. In starting the balloon on its flight. saturating it thoroughly. leaving a long wake behind. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. 2. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. using about 1/2-in. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. coming through the small pipe A. If the gores have been put together right. B. A. 4. 1. 5. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. Staunton. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface.

Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. long and each provided with a handle. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. 1. apart on these lines. Third. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. In using either of the two methods described. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. in bowling form. The blocks are about 6 in. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. long. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. wide by 6 in. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. Second. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. There are three ways of doing this: First. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. high and 8 in. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. as is shown in Fig. if you have several copies of the photograph. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way.

Y. being careful not to dent the metal. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. Rinse the plate in cold water. Albany. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. --Contributed by John A. thick. N. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. not pointed down at the road at an angle. Fig.Fig. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. Hellwig. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. 2.

either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. which is 4 in. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. S. wide and of any desired height. 1 Fig. wide and 8 in. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. B. A circular piece of wood. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. is fastened to a common camera tripod. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. These corner irons are also screwed to. in diameter. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. and not produce the right sound. In Fig. Richmond. with a set screw. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. 2 the front view. through which passes the set screw S. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. Paine. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. --Contributed by R. A. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. are screwed to the circular piece. Break off the frame. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. CC. and Fig.upon any particular object. thick. Corner irons. With this device. and. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. 6 in. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. Va. A. 5 in. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . long for the base.

I made a wheel 26 in. D. as only the can is visible. -1. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. Kidder. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. La Salle. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. in diameter of some 1-in. Ill. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. pine boards. This will make a very compact electric horn. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. Lake Preston. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. This horn. R. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. S. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. . The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. thus producing sound waves. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. Mount the bell vibrator on the base.

O. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. Feet may be added to the base if desired. 2. Kane. --Contributed by James R. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. The frame is made of a heavy card. 1. --Contributed by C. If there is a large collection of coins. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. B. If the collection consists of only a few coins. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. the same thickness as the coins. A. Fig. thick and 12 in. Purdy. Doylestown. square. 1. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. Ghent. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig.

a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. border all around. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. One Cloud. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. It will hold 4 oz. Noble. they become uninteresting. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. Smith. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. Milwaukee. plus a 3/8-in. thick. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. though not absolutely necessary. melted and applied with a brush. Canada. A rivet punch is desirable. The material required is a sheet of No. --Contributed by August T. Wis. several large nails. Neyer. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. --Contributed by R. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. If desired. a hammer or mallet.E. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry.J. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. for after the slides have been shown a few times. into which to place the screws . cut and grooved. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. A lead pencil. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. --Contributed by J. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. of developer. Cal. Toronto. and then glued together as indicated. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in.

apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. both outline and decoration. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. using 1/2-in. draw one part. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. never upon the metal directly. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. There are several ways of working up the design. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. and file it to a chisel edge. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. screws placed about 1 in. like the one shown. Remove the screws. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. Take the nail.

long. 2. square. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. for the lower rails. 1. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. square and 181/2 in. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. square and 11 in. for the top.wall. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. 3/4 in. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. long. two lengths. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. using a 1/2in. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. being ball bearing. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. . and two lengths. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. The pedal. 3. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. of 11-in. l-1/8 in. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. Provide four lengths for the legs. each 1 in. long. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. in the other. up from the lower end. Do not bend it over or flatten it. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. Rivet the band to the holder. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. About 1/2 yd. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. as shown in Fig.

New York City. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. Ala. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. having quite a length of threads. --Contributed by John Shahan. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. Attalla. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. Quackenbush.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. --Contributed by W. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . F. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut.

buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. wide and 8-1/4 in. Assemble as shown in the sketch. using class.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. --Contributed by C. the end of the other piece is folded over. something that is carbonated. D. from the end. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. long. Luther. The desired emblem. from one end. Mich. Purchase a 1/2-in. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . initial. long. and 3/8 in. college or lodge colors. wide and 4-1/4 in. stitched on both edges for appearance. Ironwood. long. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. in depth.. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. one about 1 in. each 1-1/4 in. making a lap of about 1 in. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. Two pieces of felt. and two holes in the other. and the other 2-3/4 in. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid.

or more in height. Indianapolis. This method allows a wide range of designs. Ind. 1/4 in. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. or a pasteboard box. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. in diameter and 2 in. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. 1. Punch two holes A. as shown in the sketch. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. about 2 in. as shown at B. Fig. in the cover and the bottom. A piece of lead. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. 2. from the center and opposite each other.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. if desired by the operator. Schatz. which can be procured from a plumber. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . --Contributed by John H. and the cork will be driven out. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can.

allowing the two ends to be free. 1. 3.Rolling Can Toy lead. Fig. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. are turned up as in Fig. metal. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. When the can is rolled away from you. The pieces of tin between the holes A. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. or marble will serve. putting in the design. it winds up the rubber band. Columbus. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. 5. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. and the ends of the bands looped over them. A piece of thick glass. as shown in Fig. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. on both top and bottom. O. . 4.

Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. long and bored a 1/2-in. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . The edges should be about 1/8 in. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. mark over the design. I secured a board 3/4 in. and. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. face up. If it is desired to "line" the inside. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. A pencil may be used the first time over. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. 3 in. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. from each end. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. thick. deep in its face. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. wide and 20 in. or more thick on each side. New York City. 1 in. Next place the leather on the glass. After this has been done. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. hole through it. thicker than the pinion.

square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. 1 piece for clamp. --Contributed by A. 1 back board. 3 by 3 by 6 in. 3 by 3 by 36. 1 by 12 by 77 in. New York. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. N. 1. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. 2 by 2 by 18 in. Fig. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. 1 screw block. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. Make the lower frame first. 1 top board. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . lag screws as shown. Rice. 3 by 3 by 20 in. 1 piece. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. and fit it in place for the side vise. countersinking the heads of the vise end. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. 2 end rails. 1 by 9 by 80 in. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. M. thick top board. 2 side rails. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. Syracuse. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. much of the hard labor will be saved. Now fit up the two clamps. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. Brooklyn. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. 2 by 12 by 77 in. Cut the 2-in. pieces for the vise slides. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. 2 crosspieces. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker.in the board into the bench top. in diameter. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. Y. 2. 1 piece for clamp. 4 guides. 1 top board.

. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. in diameter. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. 2 screwdrivers. Only the long run. 1 bench plane or jointer. 1 pair dividers. 1 2-ft. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. 1 cross cut saw. 1 set chisels. 24 in. 24 in. as well as the pattern maker..screws. 1 nail set. 1 jack plane or smoother. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. 1 claw hammer. 1 monkey wrench. 3 and 6 in. 1 pocket level. 1 countersink. The bench is now complete. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop.. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. 1 pair pliers. They can be purchased at a hardware store. 1 rip saw. rule. 1 wood scraper. 1 compass saw. The amateur workman. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. . If each tool is kept in a certain place. 1 set gimlets. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. 1 brace and set of bits. 1 marking gauge. it can be easily found when wanted.

Fig.1 6-in. The calf skin. Kane. try square. Doylestown. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. 3. Pa. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. 1 oilstone. becomes like A.1. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. will sink into the handle as shown at D. 2. ---Contributed by James M. after constant use. No. Fig. Fig. being softer. 1. the projecting point A. but will not make . will be easier to work. 1. 2 and 00 sandpaper. Fig.

. the same method of treatment is used. If calf skin is to be used. Two pieces will be required of this size. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. The form can be made of a stick of wood. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. which steam. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. cover it completely with water enamel and. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. lay the design on the face. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish.as rigid a case as the cow skin. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. when dry. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. Turn the leather. -Contributed by Julia A. but a V-shaped nut pick. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. New York City. White. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. will do just as well. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. If cow hide is preferred. First draw the design on paper. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. then prepare the leather. and the length 6-5/8 in. such as copper or brass. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. Having prepared the two sides. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. water or heat will not affect. After the outlines are traced. secure a piece of modeling calf.

--Contributed by Chester L. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. New York City. --Contributed by Chas. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. C. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. as shown in the sketch. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. Maine. Richmond. Herrman. Cal. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. Portland. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. Cobb. . Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. and an adjustable friction-held loop. A. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. --Contributed by W. Jaquythe. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel.

To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. was marked out as shown. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. Conn. B. --Contributed by Wm. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. . The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. an inverted stewpan. Mass. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. for instance. A thick piece of tin. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. This was very difficult. Roberts. --Contributed by Geo. Cambridge. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly.. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. Middletown. Wright.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached.

Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. so some bones were quickly calcined. There was no quicklime to be had. pulverized and applied. face down. --Contributed by Paul Keller. When dry. Herbert. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. but only an odor which soon vanished.. L. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. Ind. such as chair seats. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. A beautifully bound book. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. F. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. which has been tried out several times with success. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. Chicago. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. of boiling water. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. and quite new. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. --Contributed by C. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. and the grease will disappear. used as part of furniture. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. Bone. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. If the article is highly polished. . The next morning there was no trace of oil. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. If any traces of the grease are left. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. as shown. on a clear piece of glass. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. Illinois. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. well calcined and powdered.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. but not running over. apply powdered calcined magnesia. Indianapolis. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper.

How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. If properly adjusted. This coaster is simple and easy to make. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in.. deep and 5 in. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. Tarrytown. high and are bolted to a block of wood. Howe. The pieces marked S are single.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. soft steel with the opening 6 in. wide and 12 in. thick. says Scientific American. 2 in. 6 in. A.. the pieces . New York. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. --Contributed by Geo. set and thumbscrews. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. long.

so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. Their size depends on the plate used. albums and the like. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. If the letters are all cut the same height. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. for sending to friends. they will look remarkably uniform. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. to the underside of which is a block. no doubt. A sharp knife. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. says Camera Craft. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. The seat is a board. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. E. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin.

This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. using care to get it in the right position. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. The puzzle is to get . the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. pasting the prints on some thin card. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. mount them on short pieces of corks. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. after. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. So made. So arranged. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. photographing them down to the desired size. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. for example. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. and. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. In cutting out an 0.

of its top. snow or anything to hide it.J. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. G. He smells the bait. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. N. Bayley. says the American Thresherman. Old-Time Magic . Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand .-Contributed by I. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. Cape May Point. hung on pivots. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. with the longest end outside. long that will just fit are set in. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. so they will lie horizontal. squeezes along past the center of the tube. A hole 6 or 7 in. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made.

Idaho. Brooklyn. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. Press the hands together.faced up. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. Pocatello. Y. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. Szerlip. N. --Contributed by L. or rub the hands a little before doing so. Pawtucket. --Contributed by L. --Contributed by Charles Graham. then expose again. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . E. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. Parker. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. then spread the string. Rhode Island. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string.

long. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. 1 Fig. dark red.. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. The handle is next made.. near the point end. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. The blade should be about 27 in. 4 on the blade. in width. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. or green oil paint. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. narrower. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. and if carefully made. 2 Fig. or a complete suit of armor. 3 Fig. they will look very much like the genuine article. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. The pieces. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. in building up his work from the illustrations. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. whether he requires a single sword only. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. wide and 2 in. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. wipe the blade . thick. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. full size. When the whole is quite dry. says the English Mechanic. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. When the glue is thoroughly dry. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. 1.Genuine antique swords and armor. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. if any. using a straightedge and a pencil. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. end of the blade. Glue the other side of the blade.

except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. Both edges of the blade are sharp. The length of the handle.. 3. the other two are identical. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. the other is flat or half-round. in diameter. allowing for a good hold with both hands. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. the length of the blade 28 in. the illustration. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig.with light strokes up and down several times. about 1-1/2 in. 1. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. In making this scimitar. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. not for use only in cases of tableaux. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. shows only two sides. thick and 5 in. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. This sword is about 68 in. take two pieces of wood. 1. 1. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. Fig. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. and 3 in. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. the other is flat or halfround. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. square and of any length desired. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. In making. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. 4. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. 2. follow the directions as for Fig. of course. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. should be about 9 in. preferably of contrasting colors. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. 1/8 in. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. In the finished piece. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. in the widest part at the lower end.. 3. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. 2. 1. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. long. as it is . wind it around in a continuous line closely together. The pommel is a circular piece of wood.

Syracuse. however. as shown in the sketch. The thinness of the plank. and. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. about 3/8 in. On each edge of the board. as can the pitch bed or block. A cold . square. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. Mass. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. or an insecure fastening. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. Y. Both can be made easily. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. Franklin. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. piping and jackets by hard water. at the lower end. 2 in. as there was some at hand. each about 1 ft.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. Morse. A piece of mild steel. Doctors probed for the button without success. and if so. long. --Contributed by John Blake. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. N. in an attempt to remove it. It is made of a plank. --Contributed by Katharine D. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff.

and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened.. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design.. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. design down. When this has been done. To remedy this. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. 5 lb. Trim up the edges and file them . When the desired form has been obtained. tallow. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. a file to reduce the ends to shape. on the pitch. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. using a small metal saw. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. plaster of Paris. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. secure a piece of brass of about No. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. To put it in another way. 5 lb. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. 18 gauge. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow.

which divided by 1/6 gives 180. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. over the smaller vessel. Fill the 3-in. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. and still revolve. 1 ft. in diameter (Fig. living together in what seems like one receptacle. using powdered pumice with lye. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. or 550 ft. This in turn divided by 33. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. 3. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. Fig. in one second. . The smaller is placed within the larger.smooth. and hang a bird swing. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. Clean the metal thoroughly. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. per minute. Cutter. but not to stop it. 30 ft. one 18 in. to keep it from floating. 1) and the other 12 in. per second. --Contributed by Harold H. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. 1 ft. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer.000 ft. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. in diameter (Fig.000 lb. or fraction of a horsepower. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. in one minute or 550 lb. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. make an unusual show window attraction. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. lb. lb. 2). That is lifting 33. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. A. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. in the center. it may be well to know what horsepower means. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. space between the vessels with water. Before giving the description.

The effect is surprising. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. --Contributed. Diameter Fig. Somerville. --Contributed by J. Y. Mass. or on a pedestal. 2 Fig. Brooklyn. 1 Fig. Szerlip. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . by L.3 Fig.18 in. N. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. Campbell. Diameter 12 in. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. F.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water.

copper of No. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. using any of the common metal polishes. to keep the metal from tarnishing. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. Do not be content merely to bend them over. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. and then. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. after which it is ready for use. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. with the pliers. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. with other defects. and cut out the shape with the shears. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. as a rule. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. keeping the center high. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. is. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. which. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. away from the edge. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. the same as removing writing from a slate. unsatisfactory. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. then by drawing a straightedge over it. and the clay . A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. This compound is impervious to water. which may be of wood or tin. often render it useless after a few months service. Polish both of these pieces. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. Rivet the cup to the base. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. In riveting. Trim the sharp corners off slightly.

as shown in Fig. DeLoof. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. Northville. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. Mich. . It is made of a glass tube. -Contributed by Thos. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. A. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below.can be pressed back and leveled. 1. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. Dunlop. Houghton. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. the device will work for an indefinite time. 3/4 in. Grand Rapids. Mich. Scotland. long. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. Shettleston. --Contributed by A. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. in diameter and 5 in. 2. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. --Contributed by John T. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. The siphon is made of glass tubes. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air.

2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. This sword is 4 ft. London. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. long. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall.1 FIG. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. As the handle is to . in width and 2 in. stilettos and battle-axes. 1. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. put up as ornaments. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. long with the crossguard and blade of steel. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper.FIG. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic.

When dry. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint.represent copper. then glued on the blade as shown. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. In Fig. 3 is shown a claymore. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. The handle is of wood. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. small rope and round-headed nails. very broad. This sword is about 4 ft. Cut two strips of tinfoil. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. string. A German stiletto. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. When the whole is quite dry. studded with brass or steel nails. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. long with a dark handle of wood. long. 6. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. in length. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. This weapon is about 1 ft. which is about 2-1/2 ft. in length. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. The crossbar and blade are steel. one about 1/2 in. The sword shown in Fig. sharp edges on both sides. In Fig. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. 20 spike. is shown in Fig. In Fig. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. 4. This axe is made similar to the one . the same as used on the end of the handle. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. with both edges sharp. in width. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. Three large. The ball is made as described in Fig. 7. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. These must be cut from pieces of wood. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. Both handle and axe are of steel. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. The lower half of the handle is of wood. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. 8. narrower. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. with both edges of the blade sharp. This weapon is also about 1 ft. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. firmly glued on. glue and put it in place. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. with wire or string' bound handle. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. wood with a keyhole saw. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. paint it a dark brown or black. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. When the glue is thoroughly dry. A German poniard is shown in Fig. 5. the upper part iron or steel. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. the axe is of steel. This stiletto has a wood handle. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. 11 were used. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. sometimes called cuirass breakers. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. 9.

This will make a very good flexible belt. will pull where other belts slip. high. Davis. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. When wrapped all the way around. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. such as braided fishline. --Contributed by E. together as shown in Fig. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. . Old-Time Magic . 2. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. so the contents cannot be seen. W. 10.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. Chicago. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. the ends are tied and cut off.described in Fig.

Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. apparently. These wires are put in the jar. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. 2. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. N. an acid. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. As zinc is much lighter than iron. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. Before the performance. held in the right hand. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. in a few seconds' time. Calif. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. Oakland. There will be no change in color. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. S. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. --Contributed by A. four glass tumblers. Bridgeton. 1 and put together as in Fig. or using small wedges of wood. To make the flowers grow in an instant. filled with water.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. Macdonald. causing the flowers to grow. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine.J. The dotted lines in Fig. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. with the circle centrally located. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . some of the liquid. about one-third the way down from the top. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen.

Richmond. 2 for height. says a correspondent of Photo Era. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. When many slides are to be masked. and kept ready for use at any time. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. unless some special device is used. practical and costs nothing. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. If the size wanted is No. Cal. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. not only because of the fact just mentioned. Jaquythe. This outlines the desired opening. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. A. --Contributed by W. and equally worthy of individual treatment. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. which are numbered for convenience in working.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. 4 for width and No. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks.

possibly. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. using the carbon paper. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. and the extreme length 7 in. the paper is folded along the center line. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. not the water into the acid. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. too. The one shown is merely suggestive. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. 16 gauge. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. This done. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. Secure a sheet of No. When etched to the desired depth. With a stick. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. about half and half. or. but they can be easily revived. paint the design. a little less acid than water. Draw a design. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. the margin and the entire back of the metal. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. may be changed. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. The decoration. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. and do not inhale the fumes. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. or a pair of old tongs.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. is about right for the No. which is dangerous. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background.

thick. long and 1 ft. 2. 5. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. Nail a board.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. long. as shown in Fig. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. about 3 ft. wide and of the same length as the table. to the table. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. repeat as many times as is necessary. about 8 in. It may be either nailed or screwed down. it will touch post F. about 2-1/2 in. through it. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. Fig. 0 indicates the batteries. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. J is another wire attached in the same way. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. C and D. or more wide. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. and bore two holes. as at H. Fig. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. 3/8 in. as in Fig. 3. so that when it is pressed down. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. 2. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. Fig. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. about 1 in. A. 5. 4. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. 24 parts water. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. attached to a post at each end. Paint the table any color desired. and about 2-1/2 ft. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. Then get two posts. in diameter and 1/4 in. The connections are simple: I. 2. Fig. with the wires underneath. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. Fig. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. 1. high. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. . the bell will ring. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. Cut out a piece of tin. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. wide. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. as shown in the illustration. When the button S is pressed.

The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. the wood peg inserted in one of them. handle and all. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. This weapon is about 22 in. These rings can be carved out. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. The entire weapon.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. long serves as the dowel. The circle is marked out with a compass. is to appear as steel. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary.Imitation Arms and Armor . A wood peg about 2 in. long. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. says the English Mechanic. The imitation articles are made of wood. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. 1. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike.. such as . 2. thick. but they are somewhat difficult to make. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. After the glue is dry.

fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. as before mentioned. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. The entire handle should be made of one piece. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. The lower half of the handle is wood. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. leaves. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. as described in Fig. . or the amateur cannot use it well. with a sharp carving tool. also. 5. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. This weapon is about 22 in. the hammer and spike. used at the end of the fifteenth century. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. 8. The axe is shown in steel. The upper half of the handle is steel. as shown. If such a tool is not at hand. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. The handle is of steel imitation. All of these axes are about the same length. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. flowers. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The handle is of wood. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. studded with large brass or steel nails. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel.ornamental scrolls. 2. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. 3. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. The spikes are cut out of wood. 6. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. Its length is about 3 ft. covered with red velvet. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. etc. is shown in Fig. long. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it.

Fig. as shown in Fig. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. 4). Chicago. 2. calls for a home run. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. and so on for nine innings. 6. 1. a three-base hit. A foul ball is indicated by Fig.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. Each person plays until three outs have been made. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. as in Fig. 5. The knife falling on its side (Fig. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. 3. . A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. the knife resting on its back. 7) calls for one out. then the other plays. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn.

The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. Somerville. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. Campbell. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. hypo to 1 pt. 2. Old-Time Magic . as shown in Fig. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. F. 3.-Contributed by J.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. This he does. If it is spotted at all.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. 1. one of them burning . Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. as shown in Fig. Mass. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. with the rope laced in the cloth. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. It may be found that the negative is not colored. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. while the committee is tying him up. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. of the rope and holds it. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. of water for an hour or two. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table.

thick. Ky. He then walks over to the other candle. bolt. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. Lebanon. The magician walks over to the burning candle. of sugar. Louisville. Brown. Thome. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole.brightly. --Contributed by C. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. 4 oz. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. of water and 1 oz. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. Ky.. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. the other without a light. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. showing that there is nothing between them. Evans. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. thus causing it to light. 4 oz. of plumbago. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. shades the light for a few seconds. Drill Gauge screw. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. etc.Contributed by Andrew G. New York City. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. B. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. and. 3/4 in. invisible to them (the audience). He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. of turpentine. with which he is going to light the other candle. --Contributed by L. . A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole.

and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. To make the porous cell. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. or blotting paper. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . but can be made up into any required voltage in series. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. --Contributed by C. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. 5 in. long. but is not so good. H. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. Denniston. N. for the material. steady current. Its current strength is about one volt. In making up the solution. Do not add water to the acid.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. Pulteney. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. Y. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. into a tube of several thicknesses. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. which will give a strong. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. thick. about 5 in. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. diameter. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes.

steel. the other holding them apart. long with a bearing at each end. One hole was bored as well as possible. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. a positive adjustment was provided. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. The . It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. To insure this. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. Finally. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other.station. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. one drawing them together. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. After much experimentation with bearings. As to thickness. but somewhat lighter. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. steel. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. steel. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped.) may be obtained. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. while the other end is attached by two screws. carrying the hour circle at one end. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude.

from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. If the result is more than 24 hours. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question." Only a rough setting is necessary. are tightened. apart. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. The pointer is directed to Alpha. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. turn the pointer to the star. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. Declination is read directly.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. When properly set it will describe a great circle. The aperture should be 1/4 in. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps.. excepting those on the declination axis. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. Point it approximately to the north star. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. 45 min. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result." When this is done. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. in each direction from two points 180 deg. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. once carefully made. Each shaft. It is. To locate a known star on the map. Cassiopiae. To find a star in the heavens. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. Instead. All set screws. Set the declination circle to its reading. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. and if it is not again directed to the same point. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. All these adjustments. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. is provided with this adjustment. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. The pole is 1 deg. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. and 15 min. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar.. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. save the one in the pipe. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. subtract 24." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. need not be changed. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer.

is the real cannon ball. taking care not to add too much. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. New Orleans. Strosnider. Plain City. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. is folded several times. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. Ohio. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. of ether.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. In reality the first ball. 3 or 4 in. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day.. then add 1 2-3 dr. as shown in the sketch. benzole. The ball is found to be the genuine article. which is the one examined. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. The dance will begin. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. -Contributed by Ray E. If this will be too transparent. long. La. add a little more benzole. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. a great effect will be produced. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. cannon balls. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. the others . of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras.

take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. F. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. Cal. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. taps. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. etc. as shown in the illustration. Campbell. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. 1). Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. small brooches. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . San Francisco. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. --Contributed by J. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. 2. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. without taking up any great amount of space. Wis. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. Fig. In boxes having a sliding cover. Mass.. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. Return the card to the pack. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. Somerville. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. Milwaukee.

. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. Beller. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. Hartford. from the bottom of the box. This box has done good service.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. round pieces 2-1/4 in. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. Connecticut. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. slides and extra brushes. thus giving ample store room for colors. prints. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. as shown in the illustration.

then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. When the ends are turned under. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. 1). Mass. about threefourths full. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. with well packed horse manure. FIG. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. Darke. 2). as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. O. holes in the bottom of one. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. costing 5 cents. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. will answer the purpose. or placed against a wall. West Lynn. -Contributed by C. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. Fill the upper tub. tacking the gauze well at the corners. . the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still.

from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. oil or other fluid. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. If the following directions are carried out. M. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. --Contributed by L. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. if this is not available. and each bundle contains . A pair of these shields will always come in handy. If plugs are found in any of the holes. Eifel. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. cutting the cane between the holes. when they are raised from the pan. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. Chicago. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. they should be knocked out.

which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. put about 3 or 4 in. then across and down. No plugs . held there by inserting another plug. after having been pulled tight. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. as shown in Fig. it should be held by a plug. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. as it must be removed again. In addition to the cane. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. 1. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. a square pointed wedge. and.

5 in.3 in. The style or gnomon. lat. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. Their difference is . the height of which is taken from table No. Detroit. or the style. R.42 in. 3.15+. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. as the height of the line BC for lat. D. 3.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. as it always equals the latitude of the place. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . is the base (5 in. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. Fig. stretch the third one. 1. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. No weaving has been done up to this time. is the horizontal dial. Michigan.15 in. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. There are several different designs of sundials. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. 40°. using the same holes as for the first layer. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes.075 in. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. as for example. If you have a table of natural functions. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand.075 in. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. When cool. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. Fig. it is 4. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. in this case) times the . the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. If handled with a little care. called the gnomon. 5. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts.2+. All added to the lesser or 40°. and the one we shall describe in this article. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. the next smallest. 1. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. and for lat. --Contributed by M. 41 °-30'. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. we have 4. 1 lat. trim off the surplus rosin. W. 42° is 4. 5 in. Even with this lubrication. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. This will make three layers. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. and for 1° it would be . the height of the line BC. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. -Contributed by E. 4. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break.= 4. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. From table No. 41°-30'.2 in. During the weaving. Patrick. After completing the second layer. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. as shown in Fig. for 2°. as shown in Fig. It consists of a flat circular table. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. but the most common. 1.

may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in.18 28° 2. base.46 3.81 4. Its thickness.33 .55 4.39 . For latitudes not given. 2 for given latitudes. and perpendicular to the base or style. which will represent the base in length and thickness.38 .29 4-30 7-30 3. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks.37 5.40 34° 3.85 1.40 1. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2. Draw the line AD.12 52° 6.87 1. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial.30 1.11 3. .68 5-30 6-30 5.83 27° 2. 2.93 2.26 4. Table NO.49 30 .88 36° 3.82 5.46 .66 latitude.96 32° 3.03 3.64 4 8 3. and intersecting the semicircles.50 26° 2. an inch or two. Draw two semi-circles.55 46° 5.19 1.82 2. Fig.82 3. draw two parallel lines AB and CD.00 40° 4.49 3.66 48° 5.33 42° 4. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No.57 1. Height of stile in inches for a 5in.42 45 .tangent of the degree of latitude.93 6.44 44° 4. or if of stone. gives the 6 o'clock points. long.10 6. To layout the hour circle.14 5.66 1.63 56° 7. 2.16 40 .77 2.99 2.55 5.55 30° 2. if of metal.02 1.42 .28 . interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style.79 4. Chords in inches for a 10 in.89 50° 5.57 3.97 5 7 4. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 . The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed. using the points A and C as centers.37 54° 6.27 2.07 4. and for this size dial (10 in.23 6. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in.94 1. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points.06 2.56 .59 2.87 4.30 2.42 1. according to the size of the dial. or more. with a radius of 5 in.16 1.20 60° 8.41 38° 3.91 58° 8. circle Sundial. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown.32 6. 1. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight.76 1. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No.85 35 . A line EF drawn through the points A and C.

it will be faster.50 55 . Each weapon is cut from wood.60 4.01 1.82 3. 900 Chicago.77 3. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached. will enable one to set the dial. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker.06 2.21 2. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid.46 5. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15. 3.08 1. if west. An ordinary compass. 3 Corrections in minutes to change. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3. and on these dates the dial needs no correction. Sun time to local mean time. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York.54 60 . after allowing for the declination. June 15. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No. and the . Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality.52 Table No. each article can be labelled with the name.49 5. April 16. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole. 25.79 6.. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon.93 6. London. Mitchell.means that the dial is faster than the sun.49 3.14 1.add those marked + subtract those Marked . The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the .71 2.63 1.34 5.57 1.12 5.from Sundial lime.89 3. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen.19 2. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds.68 3.10 4. adding to each piece interest and value. says the English Mechanic.24 5.72 5.53 1. and for the difference between standard and local time. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west. Sioux City. 3.37 2. --Contributed by J. then the watch is slower. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face.50 .46 4.30 2. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time. Iowa.87 6. E.98 4. Sept. This correction can be added to the values in table No. As they are the genuine reproductions. The + means that the clock is faster. 2 and Dec.

swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. the length of which is about 5 ft. . The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. 3. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. When putting on the tinfoil. 1. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. Partisan. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century.. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry.

long with a round staff or handle. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. long with a round wooden handle. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. The spear is steel. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. 8. which are a part of the axe. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. sharp on the outer edges. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. A gisarm or glaive. long.which is square. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. This weapon is about 6 ft. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. used about the seventeenth century. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. The edges are sharp. The length of this bar is about 5 in. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. the holes being about 1/4 in. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. . The extreme length is 9 ft. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. 7. press it well into the carved depressions. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. in diameter. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. is shown in Fig. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. 5. about 4 in. 6 ft. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp.. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. It is about 6 ft. long. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on.

the most durable being bamboo. Ohio. as shown in Fig. 2 and 3. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. They can be made of various materials. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. In Figs. B. 4. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. H. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper.-Contributed by R. are less durable and will quickly show wear. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. This is important to secure neatness. Loudonville. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. 1. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. and if placed from 6 to 12 in.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. or in holes punched in a leather strap. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. the cross cords. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. are put in place. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. Workman. used for spacing and binding the whole together. apart. Substances such as straw. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. The twisted cross cords should . Cut all the cords the same length. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. 5.

for a length extending from a point 2 in. shaped as shown at C. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. 3 in. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. The first design shown is for using bamboo. New York. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. as shown at B. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. Four V-shaped notches were cut. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. Lockport. Harrer. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. A slit was cut in the bottom. New Orleans. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. -Contributed by Geo. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . This was turned over the top of the other can. M. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. in which was placed a piece of glass. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. La. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. bamboo or rolled paper. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. of the bottom.be of such material. To remedy this. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. below the top to within 1/4 in. wide. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier.

plank as long as the diameter of the platform. --Contributed by W. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. Shay. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. turned over but not fastened. Maywood. Y. N. wide. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. This should be done gradually. This plank. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. Cal. Sanford. and two along the side for attaching the staff. After this is finished. giving the appearance of hammered brass. Newburgh. --Contributed by Joseph H. about 1/16 in. Pasadena. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. Schaffner. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. H. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. Ill. --Contributed by Chas. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. It would be well to polish the brass at first. the brass is loosened from the block. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. is shown in the accompanying sketch.tape from sticking to the carpet. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. do not throw away the gloves. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy.

Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. -Contributed by W. bent as shown. K. Richmond. Oak Park. in diameter. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. Unlike most clocks. --E. Jaquythe. Ill. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. the pendulum swings .by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. Cal. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. Marshall. A.

because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. high. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. Now place the board to be joined. wide. . --Contributed by V. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. away. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. by 1-5/16 in. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. 7-1/2 in. are secured in the base bar. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. Secure a board. Metzech. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. high and 1/4 in. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. the center one being 2-3/4 in. on the board B. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. says the Scientific American. wide that is perfectly flat. only have the opposite side up. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. bar. is an electromagnet. 6 in. bearing on the latter. The construction is very simple. about 12 in. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. 3/4 in. Chicago. high. long and at each side of this. B. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. Fasten another board. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. A. thick. 5/16 in. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. In using this method. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this.. Two uprights. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. in diameter. to the first one with screws or glue. C. such as this one.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. about 6 in. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. high. and the other two 2-5/8 in. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses.

Phoenixville. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. or more. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. 1. Pa. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. from one end. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. 1. The trigger. long. plates should be made 8 in. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. whose dimensions are given in Fig. Fig. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. 1. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. as shown at A. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. by driving a pin through the wood. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. square. 2. wide and 5 in. Vanderslice. 3. 4. wide and 1 in. --Contributed by Elmer A.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. is fastened in the hole A. square inside. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. . The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. Fig. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft.

one-half the length of the side pieces. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. as shown in the illustration.A. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. if only two bands are put in the . Fostoria. 2 parts of whiting.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. which allows 1/4 in. Ohio. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. -Contributed by J. by weight. Simonis. square. rubbing varnish and turpentine. 5 parts of black filler. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed.

The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. Michigan. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. says the English Mechanic. deep. is set at an angle of 45 deg. keeps the strong light out when sketching. Grand Rapids. in the opposite end of the box. Mass. which may be either of ground or plain glass. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. A double convex lens. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. Shaw. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. long. DeLoof. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction.lower strings. and the picture can be drawn as described. London. It must be kept moist and well . The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. -Contributed by Abner B. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. 8 in. 1. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. II. A piece of metal. and it may be made as a model or full sized. place tracing paper on its surface. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. is necessary. wide and about 1 ft. preferably copper. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. Dartmouth. --Contributed by Thos. No. In constructing helmets. If a plain glass is used. as shown in Fig. G. In use. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. A mirror. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K.

1. brown. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. 2. a few clay-modeling tools. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. Scraps of thin. and continue until the clay is completely covered. joined closely together. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. the clay model oiled. and left over night to soak. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand.kneaded. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. The clay. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. 1. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. 3. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . 4 is the side outline of the helmet. All being ready. and over the crest on top. as in bas-relief. This being done. After the clay model is finished. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. and the deft use of the fingers. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. on which to place the clay. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. shown in Fig. with a keyhole saw. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. will be necessary. take. as shown in Fig. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. or some thin glue. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay.

trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. They are all covered with tinfoil. and so on. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. as shown: in the design. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. The whole helmet. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. the skullcap. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. 9. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. 5. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. should be modeled and made in one piece. The center of the ear guards are perforated. owing to the clay being oiled. When perfectly dry. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. a few lines running down. 7. In Fig. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space.as possible. When dry. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. Indiana. will make it look neat. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. the piecing could not be detected. 1. a crest on top. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. Indianapolis. The band is decorated with brass studs. When the helmet is off the model. and the ear guards in two pieces. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. --Contributed by Paul Keller. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. This contrivance should be made of wood. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. Before taking it off the model. or. one for each side. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. In Fig. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. with the exception of the vizor. then another coating of glue. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. which should be no difficult matter. as seen in the other part of the sketch. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. square in shape.

or. 4. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. which can be bought from a local druggist. one glass tube. 1. 3 in. should extend about 1/4 in. Fig. of fire clay. AA. Fig. one small switch. 4. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. Fig. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. as shown in Fig. and C. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. long. A round collar of galvanized iron.same size. wide and 15 in. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. of the top. 4. until it is within 1 in. Fig. Fig. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. when they are placed in opposite positions. E and F. 3. long. 4. also the switch B and the fuse block C. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. The plate. one fuse block. about 1/4 in. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. If a neat appearance is desired. is then packed down inside the collar. German-silver wire is better. 4. for connections. with slits cut for the wires. screws. of No. the fuse block. each 4-1/2 in. and two large 3in. Fig. about 1 lb. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. JJ. of mineral wool. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. Fig. Fig. This will allow the plate. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. 1. FF. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. as it stands a higher temperature. if the measurements are correct. is shown in Fig. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. Fig. thick. The mineral wool. above the collar. The two holes. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . one oblong piece of wood. 22 gauge resistance wire. AA. if this cannot be obtained. to receive screws for holding it to the base. high. the holes leading to the switch. AA. Fig. The reverse side of the base. Fig. 4 lb. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. This will make an open space between the plates. 2. 12 in. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. 1. long. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. 4. 1 in. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. in diameter and 9 in. The holes B and C are about 3 in. as shown in Fig. 1. as shown in Fig. GG. thick sheet asbestos. 2. are allowed to project about 1 in. Fig. 1. two ordinary binding posts. If asbestos is used. 4. and. 2. Fig. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. about 80 ft. 1.

Cover over about 1 in. Richmond. when heated. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. Fig. steam will form when the current is applied. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. using care not to get it too wet. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. Catherines. so that the circuit will not become broken. apart. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. Next. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. This point marks the proper length to cut it. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . above the rim. Cal. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. Jaquythe. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. It should not be set on end. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. it leaves a gate for the metal. II. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. St. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. A file can be used to remove any rough places. This completes the stove. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. H. when cool. Fig.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. causing a short circuit. A. will slip and come in contact with each other. Cut a 1/2-in. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. When the tile is in place. more wire should be added. If this is the case. If it is not thoroughly dry. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. As these connections cannot be soldered. 2. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. deep. --Contributed by W. It should not be left heated in this condition. and pressed into it. When this is done. allowing a space between each turn. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. Can. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. --Contributed by R. KK. as the turns of the wires. While the clay is damp. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. 4. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. The clay. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. Cnonyn. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. then.

constructed of 3/4-in. and the frame set near a window. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. --Contributed by Andrew G. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. says the Photographic Times. as shown." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. the air can enter from both top and bottom. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. Ky. Louisville. Then clip a little off the .Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. and the prints will dry rapidly. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. Thorne. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. is large enough. the pie will be damaged. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. square material in any size. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. but 12 by 24 in. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center.

long. causing a break in the current.Paper Funnel point. 1. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. Fig. 1/2 in. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. 3. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. Fig. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. slip on two cardboard washers. high. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. 2-1/2 in. 1. which gives the shaft a half turn. W. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. The connections are made as shown in Fig. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. 2. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. high. 1. thick. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. The board can be raised to place . The driving arm D. open out. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. Fig. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. The connecting rod E. in diameter. which are fastened to the base. A 1/8-in. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. 14 in. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. thick and 3 in. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. high. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. Herron. 1 and 3. 4 in. Figs. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. 1/2 in. wide and 3 in. 22 gauge magnet wire. Two supports. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. An offset is bent in the center. in diameter and about 4 in. wide and 7 in. wide. Le Mars. -Contributed by S. The upright B. allowing each end to project for connections. long. long. each 1/2 in. at GG. 1. each 1 in. for the crank. as shown. thereby saving time and washing. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. thick and 3 in. long. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. Iowa. As the shaft revolves.

Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. in height. Dorchester. making a framework suitable for a roost. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. Place the pot. --Contributed by William F. on a board. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. Mass. bottom side up. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. Stecher. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. 3 in. .the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. as shown in the sketch. One or more pots may be used. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. In designing the roost.

Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. grills and gratings for doors. paraffin and paint or varnish.. when combined. preferably. if it is other than straight lines. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. F. 1. windows. will produce the pattern desired. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. The bottom part of the sketch. and give it time to dry. 1. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. Wind the . F. Fig. The materials required are rope or. etc. shelves.. in diameter. odd corners. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. that it is heated. adopt the method described. ordinary glue. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. without any corresponding benefit. as shown in Fig.

These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. 2.Fig. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . cut and glue them together. N. M. -Contributed by Geo. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. six designs are shown. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. Lockport. Fig. Y. Harrer.

. which was used in front of a horse's head. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. 1. As the . Pour the water in until the filter is filled. etc. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. but no farther. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. says the English Mechanic.. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. when it will be observed that any organic matter. etc. This piece of horse armor. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. will be retained by the cotton. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. London. chips of iron rust. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. and the sides do not cover the jaws.. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work.

size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. the same as in Fig. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. This will make the model light and easy to move around. 6 and 7. This being done. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. with the exception of the thumb shield. and therefore it is not described. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. In Fig. 2. as shown in the sketch. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. except the thumb and fingers. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. but for . There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. This can be made in one piece. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. which is separate. 8. All being ready. 2. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. and will require less clay. and the clay model oiled. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. which can be made in any size. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. but the back is not necessary. The armor is now removed from the model. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. This triangularshaped support. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. as the surface will hold the clay. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. An arrangement is shown in Fig. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. then another coat of glue. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. 4. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. the rougher the better.

will be about right. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. long. two in each jaw. Y. in depth. If it does not hold a charge. --Contributed by John G. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. 9. La Rue. The two pieces of foil. the foils will not move. the top of the rod. wide and 1/2 in. two for the jaws and one a wedge. N. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. A piece of board. the two pieces of foil will draw together. 2. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. Redondo Beach. cut into the shape shown in Fig. 1/2 in. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. running down the plate. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. but 3-1/2 in. and the instrument is ready for use. Fasten a polished brass ball to. are glued to it. When locating the place for the screw eyes. . are better shown in Fig. each about 1/4 in. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. fastened to the rod. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. Buxton. --Contributed by Ralph L. Goshen. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. Calif.

silvered. as shown in the illustration. hole bored through it. M. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. Bryan. pine board. from the smaller end. about 15 in. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. long. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. is made of a 1/4-in. At a point 6 in. as indicated in the . Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. enameled or otherwise decorated. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. Texas. A. --Contributed by Mrs. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. as this will cut under the water without splashing. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. The can may be bronzed. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. Corsicana. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. When a fish is hooked. 2-1/2 in. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in.

Next prepare the metal holder. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. A good size is 5 in. Any kind of wood will do. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. then with a nail. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. When it has dried over night." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. using powdered pumice and lye. thick. or even pine. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. 3/8 or 1/4 in. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. using a piece of carbon paper. such as basswood or pine was used. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. and trace upon it the design and outline. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. 22 is plenty heavy enough. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. Having completed the drawing. take a piece of thin wood.Match Holder accompanying sketch. long over all. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. Polish the metal. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. If soft wood. punch the holes. Basswood or butternut. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. as shown. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. put a coat or two of wax and polish . will do as well as the more expensive woods. wide by 6 in.

This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. A. Two wire nails. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. is used for the base of this instrument. --Contributed by W. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. It is useful for photographers. Richmond. Instead of the usual two short ropes. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. long. are used for the cores of the magnets. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. Cal. . yet protects the skin from the chemicals. can be made on the same standards. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. of pure olive oil. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. If one has some insight in carving. each 1 in. the whole being finished in linseed oil. long. wide and 5 in. If carving is contemplated. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. 1/2 in. Jaquythe. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. 2 in. thick.

and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. similar to that used in electric bells. cut in the shape of the letter T. says the English Mechanic. except that for the legs. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. in the shape shown in the sketch. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. as shown in Fig. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. at A. . A rubber band. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. A piece of tin. 3. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. cloth or baize to represent the legs. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. leaving about 1/4 in. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. as shown by the dotted lines. All of the parts for the armor have been described. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. acts as a spring to keep the key open. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. 1. 25 gauge. then covered with red. the paper covering put on. H. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. About 1 in.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. when the key is pushed down. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. --Contributed by W. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. about No. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. London. Lynas.

Take the piece shown in Fig. Secure two strips of wood. By moving the position of the bolt from. apart. 2. flat headed carriage bolt. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. not too tight. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. In one end of the piece. at each end. and eight small holes. Silver paper will do very well. drill six 1/4-in. make the same series of eight small holes and. 1 in. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. 1 and drill a 1/4in. 3 in. Instead of using brass headed nails. says Camera Craft. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. completes the equipment. Fig. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. or ordinary plaster laths will do. So set up. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. can be made in a few minutes' time. A 1/4-in. The two pieces are bolted together. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. apart. in the other end. one to another . These can be purchased at a stationery store.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. for the sake of lightness. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. brass paper fasteners will be found useful.. Cut them to a length or 40 in. holes. hole in the center. about 1 in. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. long.

2. Then take B and lay it over A. as in portraiture and the like. A round fob is made in a similar way. Fig. Then draw all four ends up snugly. 4. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. in Fig. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. long. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. A is the first string and B is the second. 1. C over D and B. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. for instance. D over A and C. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. and lay it over the one to the right. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. lay Cover B and the one under D. of the ends remain unwoven. 2. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. the one marked A. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. taking the same start as for the square fob. doubled and run through the web of A. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. In this sketch. then B over C and the end stuck under A. and the one beneath C.of the larger holes in the strip. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. Start with one end. as shown in Fig. 2. but instead of reversing . This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes.

How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. the design of which is shown herewith. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. as at A in Fig. Monroeville. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. especially if silk strings are used. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. always lap one string. long. 5. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. is left out at the center before starting on one side. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. as B. Other designs can be made in the same manner. as in making the square fob. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. 1-1/2 in. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . 3. over the one to its right. is to be made of leather. --Contributed by John P. Ohio. The round fob is shown in Fig. Rupp.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. A loop.

Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. Northville. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. Houghton. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. door facing or door panel. Mich. it can be easily renewed. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. When the supply of wax is exhausted. A. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. such as a nut pick. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. Any smooth piece of steel. beeswax or paraffin. -Contributed by A. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. using the reverse side. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. filling them with wax. . thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. pressing it against the wood.

D. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. Thompson. although tin ones can be used with good success. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. . it is best to leave a plain white margin. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. Petersburg. New York. if blueprints are used. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. J. Y. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. E and F. and after wetting. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. long. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. leaving about 1/4 in. those on matte paper will work best. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. The tacks should be about 1 in. Enough plaster should. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. says Photographic Times. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. remaining above the surface of the board.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. Select the print you wish to mount. Fold together on lines C. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. N. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. but any kind that will not stick may be used. Ill. and about 12 in. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. thick. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. --Contributed by O. apart and driven in only part way. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. place it face down in the dish.

Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. etc. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. Lower into the test tube a wire. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. will be rendered perfectly white. roses. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. as shown in the right of the sketch. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. bell flowers. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. One of the .. without mixing the solutions. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. violets. filling the same about onehalf full. as shown at the left in the sketch.

should be soldered to the box. 2. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. South Dakota. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder.. about 1/8s in. Millstown. long and made of wood. but which will not wobble loose. The sound box. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. as shown. as shown in the sketch. and at the larger end. shading. long. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. thick. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. 1-7/8 in. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. in diameter and 1 in. Shabino. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. 1. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. turned a little tapering. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. to keep the core from coming off in turning. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. is about 2-1/2 in. L. When soldering these parts together. The diaphragm. The first point should be ground blunt. Fig. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. A rod that will fit the brass tube. 3. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. made of heavy tin. The tin horn can be easily made. --Contributed by L. or delicate tints of the egg. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. not too tightly.

Contributed by E. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. E. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. and. Jr. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. wondering what it was. Chicago. Ill. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. Victor. and weighted it with a heavy stone. says the Iowa Homestead. mice in the bottom. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. Gold. Colo. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. put a board on top.

Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. Ottawa. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. . N. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. --Contributed by Lyndwode. Y. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. Pereira. Can. Buffalo.

by means of a flatheaded tack. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. --Contributed by W. as it can be made quickly in any size. Mich. Richmond. De Loof. a piece of tin. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. Put a small nail 2 in. --Contributed by Thos. above the end of the dasher. longer than the length of the can. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. Jaquythe. This cart has no axle. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. Grand Rapids. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. Cal. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. as shown. cut round. A. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. and at one end of the stick fasten.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. through which several holes have been punched. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so .

The baseboard and top are separable. New Orleans.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. 1/4 in. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. Notches 1/8 in. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. 1 ft. --Contributed by James M. 2. wide and 3 ft. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. 2 in. 2. A wedge-shaped piece of . notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. La. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. 1. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Pa. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. apart. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig.1. I reversed a door gong. 2. thick. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. Fig. wide and 1/8 in. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. as shown. Doylestown. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. screwed it on the inside of a store box. board. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. of course. were below the level of the bullseye. long. cut in the center of the rounding edge. Kane. The candles. wide. deep and 3 in. wide and as long as the box. 1-1/2 in.

--Contributed by Nellie Conlon. A. 3. etc. when placed as in Fig. Needles. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. After the glue has dried. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. After completing the handle. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. the blade is put back into the groove . Wood.. stone or wood. will. wide into each side of the casing. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. Cover the block with rubber. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. dressing one surface of each piece. as shown in Fig. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. For the handle. take two pieces of hard wood. wide rubber bands or felt. Mass. This device is very convenient for invalids. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. When not in use. the shelf could not be put on the window. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. Worcester. it can be removed without marring the casing. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. West Union. The block can also be used as a paperweight.Book Back Holders metal. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. --Contributed by G. Ia. by cutting away the ends. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. scissors. the reason being that if both were solid. 1. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. to prevent its scratching the desk top. can be picked up without any trouble.

a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. A notch is cut in one side. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. as shown in Fig. Cleveland. Hutchins. Erie. --Contributed by Maud McKee. 1. Each one is made of a hardwood block. Ohio. Malden. 1 in. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. is shown in the accompanying sketch. square and 4 in. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles.and sharpened to a cutting edge. --Contributed by H. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. S. thus carrying the car up the incline. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. Pa. Mass. -Contributed by W. 2. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. A. long. . If desired. Jacobs. as shown in Fig.

Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. This will insure having all parts alike. will be needed. N. If one such as is shown is to be used. and an awl and hammer. 6 by 9-1/2 in. Prepare a design for the front. a board on which to work it. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. One sheet of metal.J.. . Cape May Point. The letters can be put on afterward. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions.

File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. paste the paper design right on the metal. 1 part. flat brush. placed on a table. as shown. a violin. but weird and distant. The music will not sound natural. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. . One coat will do. mandolin or guitar. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. 1/4 part. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium." In all appearance. So impressive are the results. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. Remove the metal. On the back. or. If any polishing is required. 2 parts white vitriol. that can be worked in your own parlor. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. The stick may be placed by the side of. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. to right angles. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. if desired. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. only the marginal line is to be pierced. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. says Master Painter. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. 3/4 part. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. applied by means of a brush. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. turpentine. in the waste metal. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. varnish. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. behind or through the center of a table leg. which is desirable.Fasten the metal to the board.

The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. long and measuring 26 in. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. thick by 1/2 in. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. without them. round-head machine screws. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. The longest piece. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. across the top. apart. are shaped as shown in Fig. wide. 3. says Work. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. square bar iron. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. . and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. is bent square so as to form two uprights. each 6 in. With proper tools this is easy. long. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. 2. it might be difficult. long and spread about 8 in. Two pairs of feet.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. London. each 28 in. and is easy to construct.

A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. as shown in Fig. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. D. the latter being tapped to . The glass. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. While the piece of lead D. The brads are then removed. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. cut a long piece of lead. or. A. better still. B. on it as shown. 5. C. The design is formed in the lead. 5. using rosin as a flux. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. in the grooves of the borders. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. After the joints are soldered. After the glass is cut. 4. Fig. Fig. 6. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. lead. Place the corner piece of glass. is held by the brads. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. special flux purchased for this purpose. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. 7. and the base border.

Jr. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. bolt. This . It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. Two styles of hand holds are shown. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. H. plank about 12 ft. bolt. in diameter and about 9 in. and round the corners of one end for a ring. Camden. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. thick and drill 3/4-in. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. then flatten its end on the under side. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. 8. square and of the length given in the drawing. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. one on each side and central with the hole. Bore a 5/8-in. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. A and B. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. Secure a post. then drill a 3/4-in. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. This ring can be made of 1-in. not less than 4 in. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. as shown in Fig. long. --Contributed by W. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in.. holes through their centers. wood screws in each washer. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. N. rounded at the top as shown. The center pin is 3/4-in. in diameter and 1/4 in. long. Make three washers 3-in. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. Fasten the plates to the block B. J. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. Bore a 3/4-in. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. and two wood blocks. long. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. plates. Dreier. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away.the base of the clip. rocker bolt.

by 3 ft. 4 in. 2-1/2 in. 3 in. square by 9-1/2 ft. straight-grained hickory.will make an excellent cover for a pot. 3/4 by 3 in. To substitute small. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. 16 screws. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. 1. by 6-1/2 ft. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. from one edge. hickory. chestnut or ash. long. of 1/4-in. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. long. 1/2 in. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. horse and rings. 7 in. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. New Orleans. 1 by 7 in. bolts and rope. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 1-1/4in. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. Draw a line on the four 7-in. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. 4 pieces. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. shanks. screws. 4 filler pieces. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. by 2 ft. boards along the side of each from end to end. bit. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. If trees are convenient. long. long. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. long. apart for a distance of 3 ft. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. because it will not stand the weather. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. maple. 4 pieces. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. long. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. La. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. square by 5 ft. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. 9 in. in diameter and 7 in. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. The four 7-in. long and 1 piece. and some one can swing an axe. 50 ft. the money outlay will be almost nothing. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. 2 by 4 in. 4 in. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. can make a first class gymnasium. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood.

bored. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. deep and remove all loose dirt. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. apart. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. each 3 ft. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. so the 1/2-in. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar.. at each end. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . from the end. piece of wood. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. boards coincide. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. Bore a 9/16-in. apart. 8 in. 2. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in..

If the tumbler is rotated. . By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. and then passes in a curve across the base. it is taken to the edge of the foot. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible.. apart. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. it follows the edge for about 1 in. And all he used was a black thread. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. was at its height. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. the effect is very striking. about 100 ft. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. in an endless belt. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. just visible against the dark evening sky." which skimmed along the distant horizon. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. passing through a screweye at either end. but most deceptive at dusk. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. and ascends the stem.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. He stretched the thread between two buildings. not even the tumbler. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. W. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. and materially heightened the illusion. not much to look at in daytime. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. which at once gathered. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. disappearing only to reappear again. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. When the interest of the crowd.

large spikes. long. long. 7 in. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. square and 6 ft. by 2 ft. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. To make the apparatus. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. by 3 ft. The cork will come out easily. Chisel out two notches 4 in. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. 2 by 4 in. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. long. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. by 7 ft. from either side of the center. 1. Fig. 2 by 3 in. La. 2 by 4 in. 8 in. square and 51/2 ft. long. so the point will be on top.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. and turned in a spiral D. 2 in. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. preferably cedar. 2 side braces. long. long. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. 4 knee braces. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. by 10 ft. 2 base pieces. deep. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. 2 by 4 in. Bevel the ends of . long. A wire about No. New Orleans. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. long and 1 doz. beginning at a point 9 in. 4 in. 6 in. 4 wood screws. 8 in. 8 in. wide and 1 in. long. 8 bolts. 2 cross braces. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. 4 in. 4 bolts.

shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. equipped with a strainer. leave it undressed. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. A. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. so the bolts in both will not meet.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. which face each other. jellies. A large sized ladle. Two endpieces must be made.the knee braces. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. screws. If using mill-cut lumber. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose.. Jaquythe. --Contributed by W. and countersinking the heads. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. save the bars. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. . additional long. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. These will allow the ladle to be turned. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. etc. except the bars. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. but even unpainted they are very durable. leaving the strainer always in position. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. Richmond. Cal. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. After the trenches are dug. as shown in the diagram. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. The wood so treated will last for years. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. using four of the 7-in bolts. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. of 7 ft. ( To be Continued.

is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. partly a barrier for jumps. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. milling machine. thus holding the pail as shown. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. which seems impossible. A. it is necessary to place a stick. In order to accomplish this experiment.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. or various cutting compounds of oil. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. of sufficient 1ength. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. Oil. drill press or planer. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. .

4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. by 3 ft. bolts. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height.. 2 by 4 in. 1 in. apart in a central position on the horse. 3 in. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. and free from knots. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. beginning 1-1/2 in. 7 in. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. by 3 ft. square by 5 ft. bolt. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. 4 in. in diameter--the larger the better. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. wood yard or from the woods. long. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in.. The round part of this log must be planed. long. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. but 5 ft. from each end. Hand holds must be provided next. 2 adjusting pieces. two 1/2-in. The material required is as follows: Two posts. Procure from a saw mill. 2 by 4 in. long. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. 2 by 4 in. piece of 2 by 4-in. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. bolts. 1 cross brace. apart. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. 4 in. bolts. is a good length. long. These are well nailed in place. ten 1/2-in. long. square by 5-1/2 ft. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. in the ground. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. 4-1/2 in. To construct. long.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. These are placed 18 in. long. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . to fasten the knee braces at the top. 4 in. by 3 ft. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. 4 knee braces. long. stud cut rounding on one edge. 2 bases. projections and splinters. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in.

pipe and fittings. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. it is caused by some obstruction. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. such as a dent. Cal. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. Also. water. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape.--Contributed by W. Jaquythe. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. etc. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. over and around. Richmond. snow. no one is responsible but himself. then bending to the shape desired. Such a hand sled can be made in a . Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration.horse top. A. it is caused by an overloaded shell. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. but nevertheless. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed.

Ontario. in width and 1/32 in. Vener. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. Mass. . 1. are all the tools necessary. when complete. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. thick. when straightened out. Noble. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. Toronto. will give the length. Boston. --Contributed by James E. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. The end elevation. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. at E and F. Paris. is much better than a wood sled. --Contributed by Arthur E. 2. France. then run a string over each part. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. 1/4 or 3/16 in. Joerin. W. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. These. which.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. --Contributed by J.

Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. 4. nor that which is partly oxidized.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. . A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. AA and BB. The method shown in Figs. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. 3. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. It is best to use soft water. and the latter will take on a bright luster. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. are nailed. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked.

How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. class ice-yacht. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. 2. Percy Ashley in Rudder. 4. . Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. 2. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. 3. Broad lines can be made. as shown in Fig. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. 1). 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. as shown in Fig. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. 8 and 9. The materials used are: backbone. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. or various rulings may be made. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. or unequal widths as in Fig.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

a larger size of pipe should be used. A good and substantial homemade lathe. but if it is made much longer. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. pins to keep them from turning. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. It can be made longer or shorter. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. long. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. about 30 in. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. The headstock is made of two tees. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. 1-Details of Lathe sort. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. a tee and a forging. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. The point should extend about 11/2 in. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. bent and drilled as shown. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron.Fig. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. pipe. out from the collar. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. 1. Both the lower . The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in.

Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. 2. Indiana. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. M. UpDeGraff. a straight line should be scratched Fig. else taper turning will result. Boissevain. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. or a key can be used as well. Man. 2. . Laporte. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. 3/4 or 1 in. Musgrove. as shown in Fig. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. --Contributed by W. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. It is about 1 in. W. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. but also their insulating properties. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. 1. Cal. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. and will answer for a great variety of work. a corresponding line made on this. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. Held. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. thick as desired. To do this. Fruitvale. 2. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by M. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. --Contributed by W.

The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. To obviate this. The handle is of pine about 18 in. --Contributed by E. Ark.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. J. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. long. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . Smith. In use. as shown. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. Ft. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. Cline. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven.

making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. After being entered. take . trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. White. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. which should be backed out of contact. the drill does not need the tool. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. La. if this method is followed: First. New Orleans. This prevents the drill from wobbling. --Contributed by Walter W. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. on starting the lathe. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. Colo. face off the end of the piece. and when once in true up to its size.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. centering is just one operation too many. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. Denver. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut.

all the better. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. as shown in D. vanishing wand. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. after being shown empty. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. shorter t h a n the wand. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. the cap is placed over the paper tube. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. It can be used in a great number of tricks. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. is put into the paper tube A. unknown to the spectators. The handkerchief rod. In doing this.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. The glass tube B. a long piece of glass tubing. shown at C. and this given to someone to hold. and can be varied to suit the performer. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. After the wand is removed. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. a bout 1/2 in. by applying caustic soda or . says the Sphinx.

1/4 in. cut to any shape desired. 2 Sides. square and 1-7/8 in. Cut a piece of hard wood. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. This dimension and those for the frets . 3/16. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. with the back side rounding. thick. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. 1. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. can be made by the home mechanic. As the cement softens. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. End. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. Glue strips of soft wood. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. Glue the neck to the box. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. 1 Neck. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. and if care is taken in selecting the material. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. With care and patience.potash around the edges of the letters. and glue it to the neck at F. long. across the front and back to strengthen them. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. 1 Bottom. by 14 by 17 in. 1 End. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. as shown by K. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. The sides. preferably hard maple. The brace at D is 1 in. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F.

Frary. E. 3/16 in. or backbone. Six holes. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. but it is not. A board 1 in. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand.Pa. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. O. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. long is used for a keel. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. 1) on which to stretch the paper. Carbondale.should be made accurately. wide and 11-1/2 ft. Stoddard. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. -Contributed by J. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. and beveled . in diameter. toward each end. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. H. --Contributed by Chas. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. When it is completed you will have a canoe. Norwalk. thick and about 1 ft.

and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. b. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. or other place. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. The ribs. Fig.. in thickness and should be cut. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. Fig. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. 2). long are required. 2). 13 in. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. two strips of wood (b. Fig. and so. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. in such cases. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. a. but twigs of some other trees. as shown in Fig. Fig. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. slender switches of osier willow. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. Fig. . wide by 26 in. buy some split cane or rattan. The cross-boards (B. In drying. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. as shown in Fig. will answer nearly as well. and are not fastened. with long stout screws. probably.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. two twigs may be used to make one rib. For the gunwales (a. b. Osiers probably make the best ribs. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. 3. such as is used for making chairbottoms. B. thick. 3). or similar material.) in notches. and notched at the end to receive them (B. C. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. some tight strips of ash. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. 4. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. as before described. 3. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. 1 and 2. Shape these as shown by A. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. Green wood is preferable. are next put in. when made of green elm. by means of a string or wire. C. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. Fig. but before doing this. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. and. long. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. thick. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. procure at a carriage factory. Fig. the loose strips of ash (b. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. These are better. 3). Any tough. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. such as hazel or birch. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. Fig. b. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. 4). 2. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. 3/8 in. apart. Fig. as they are apt to do. twigs 5 or 6 ft. 1. which are easily made of long.

Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. If not. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. When the paper is dry. Then take some of the split rattan and. preferably iron. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. and as soon as that has soaked in. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. apply a second coat of the same varnish. of very strong wrapping-paper. You may put in . It should be drawn tight along the edges. B. after wetting it. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. The paper is then trimmed. and held in place by means of small clamps. and very tough. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. but with less turpentine. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. and light oars. 5). It should be smooth on the surface. however. but neither stiff nor very thick. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. Fig. If the paper be 1 yd. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. When thoroughly dry. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. and steady in the water. tacking it to the bottom-board. wide. if it has been properly constructed of good material. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. Being made in long rolls.

5. and if driven as shown in the cut. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. Fig. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. to fit it easily. they will support very heavy weights. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. Drive the lower nail first. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. Fig. We procured a box and made a frame. 1. Fig. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. 2. and make a movable seat (A. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. 1 and the end in . fore and aft. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. 5). We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails.

Pa. being softer where the flame has been applied. Close the other end with the same operation. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. This way has its drawbacks. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. This is an easy . this makes the tube airtight. 5. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. 3. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. Pittsburg. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. 4. and the result is. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand.Fig. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. A good way to handle this work. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. and the glass. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long.

way to make a thermometer tube. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. Seventh. four. above the metal. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. 23 gauge. with a piece of carbon paper. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. metal shears. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. The candle holders may have two. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. also trace the decorative design. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. above the work and striking it with the hammer. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. Oswald. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. flat and round-nosed pliers. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. file. extra metal all around. -Contributed by A. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. fifth. three. Give the metal a circular motion. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. fourth. After the bulb is formed. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. second. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. or six arms. rivet punch. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . very rapid progress can be made. third. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. then reverse. Sixth. thin screw. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in.

and holder. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. drip cup. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. Metal polish of any kind will do. Small copper rivets are used. Having pierced the bracket.

they were like an ice boat with a sail. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. except they had wheels instead of runners. J. A saw. smooth it down and then remove as before. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. deep. if it has not absorbed too much ink. and in a week . So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. is a broomstick. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. thus it was utilized. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. of glycerine to about 200 deg. and it will be ready for future use. and other things as they were needed. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. when it will be ready for use. Soak 1 oz. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. alcohol 2 parts. Mother let me have a sheet. Twenty cents was all I spent. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. N. F. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. hammer. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. glycerine 4 parts. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. Fifty. all the rest I found. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. and add the gelatine. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. Shiloh. winding the ends where they came together with wire. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. The gaff. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. the stick at the bottom of the sail. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. I steer with the front wheel. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. sugar 1 part. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. and brace and bit were the tools used.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. using a steel pen. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. on a water bath. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. Heat 6-1/2 oz. The boom. and water 24 parts.

A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly. a projecting lens . Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up.Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing.

describe a 9-in. and a projecting lens 2 in. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. at a distance of 24 ft. 1. This ring is made up from two rings. about 2 ft. wide. well seasoned pine. above the center. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. or a lens of 12-in. and the lens slide. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. E. slide to about 6 ft. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. H. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. The board is centered both ways. 3. wide and 15 in. are . 8 in. The slide support. and 14 in.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. high. A table. Fig. provided the material is of metal. wire brads. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. and the work carefully done. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. focus enlarging a 3-in. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. at a point 1 in. G. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. A and B. as desired. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. If a small saw is used. but if such a box is not found. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw.. DD. 1/2 to 3/4 in. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. or glue. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. long. thick. and. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size.

St. placed on the water. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. of safe. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. apply two coats of shellac varnish. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. the strips II serving as guides. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. Paul. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. and when the right position is found for each. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. the water at once extinguishes the flame. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. but not long enough. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. P.constructed to slip easily on the table. The arrangement is quite safe as. light burning oil. Minn. A sheet . E. should the glass happen to upset. To reach the water. B. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. JJ. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. Small strips of tin.-Contributed by G. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick.

12 ft. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. from a tent company. I ordered a canvas bag. N. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. 9 in. 3. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. 3. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together.H. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. Y. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. Schenectady. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. form a piece of wire in the same shape.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. 1. then the corners on one end are doubled over. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. 4. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . by 12 ft. --Contributed by J. 2.. Fig. Crawford. If one of these clips is not at hand. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. to cover the mattresses. 3 in. Fig.

long. drill two 3/16 in. holes in the edge. An arc is cut in the paper. and insert two binding-posts. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. in the center coil. for amperes and the other post. through which the indicator works. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. long and 3/16 in. first mark the binding-post A. to keep it from unwinding. A Film Washing Trough [331] . 2. 2. Attach a piece of steel rod. apart. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. Warren. 3/4 in. 1/2 in. White. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. insulating them from the case with cardboard. --Contributed by Walter W. 3 to swing freely on the tack. open on the edges. Fasten the wire with gummed label. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. thick. so as to form two oblong boxes. 3/4 in. To calibrate the instrument. wide. C. V. 1. 1. A rubber band. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. to the coil of small wire for volts. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. D. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. as shown in Fig. Colo. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. Fig. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. Teasdale. Fig. 1/2 in. Pa. Do not use too strong a rubber. 2.each edge. Fold two strips of light cardboard. Denver. --Contributed by Edward M.

Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. Dayton. --Contributed by M. Cut a 1/4-in. Wood Burning [331] . apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. Place this can on one end of the trough. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. M. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. Hunting. with the large hole up. O. as shown. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides.

When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the .Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. then into this bottle place. a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. mouth downward. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top.

Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend.Y. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. Place the small bottle in as before. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. 1. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. many puzzling effects may be obtained. Ala. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. wide and 4 in. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. provided the bottle is wide. 2. Auburn. N. --Contributed by Fred W. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. as shown in the sketch. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. If the cork is adjusted properly. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . thick. but not very thick. 3/4 in. Upper Troy. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. Whitehouse. This will make a very pretty ornament. long. If the small bottle used is opaque. --Contributed by John Shahan. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will.

W. K. The wire L was put . thick. Fig. The bearing blocks were 3 in. Milter. pulley F. to the shaft. even in a light breeze. Fig. 1 in. iron rod. which was nailed to the face plate. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. The 21/2-in. as shown in Fig. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. thick and 3 in. pulley. 1. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. 1. A staple. by the method shown in Fig. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. Both bearings were made in this manner. Fig. sugar pine on account of its softness. was 1/4in. long. thick. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. which extended to the ground. 1. 1. or ordinary telephone transmitters. G. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. wide. Fig. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. which gave considerable power for its size. 4. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. On a 1000-ft. 3. 2. I. --Contributed by D. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. in diameter and 1 in. 2 ft. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. B. The shaft C. which was 6 in. Fig. 1. were constructed of 1-in. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. was keyed to shaft C. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. line.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. high without the upper half. Its smaller parts. such as blades and pulleys. If a transmitter is used.

H. long and 1/2 in. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. long. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. washers were placed under pulley F. 1. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. a 1/2-in. through the latter. strips. cut out another piece of tin (X. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. 6. Fig. 3 in. long and 3 in. This fan was made of 1/4-in. 0. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. long. hole was bored for it. providing one has a few old materials on hand. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. was tacked. 1) 4 in. and was cut the shape shown. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. square to the board P at the top of the tower. apart in the tower. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. To make the key. The power was put to various uses. 2. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. so that the 1/4-in. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. long and bend it as . The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. Fig. R. wide and 1 in. was 2 ft. in diameter. pine 18 by 12 in. To lessen the friction here. G. 25 ft. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. 1. with brass headed furniture tacks. Fig. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. This board was 12 in. long and bend it as shown at A. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. 5. 1. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. The bed plate D. There a 1/4-in. This completes the receiver or sounder. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. for instance. top down also. If you have no bell. Fig. 1. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. Fig. 6. Fig. The other lid. Two washers were placed on shaft C. when the windmill needed oiling. with all parts in place. in the center of the board P. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. Fig. as. The smaller one. across the thin edge of a board. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. hole for the shaft G was in the center. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown.

How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. 2. after the manner of bicycle wheels. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. When tired of this instrument. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. and. causing a buzzing sound. as shown at Water. as indicated. leaving the other wire as it is. The rear barrels are. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. Thus a center drive is made. -Contributed by John R. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels.shown. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. although it can be made with but two. Going back to Fig. like many another device boys make. By adjusting the coils. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. McConnell. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. Before tacking it to the board. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . using cleats to hold the board frame. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. at the front. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. Now. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. fitted with paddles as at M. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. 1.

Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. To propel it. There is no danger. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. 3. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. as shown in Fig. there will not be much friction. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. which will give any amount of pleasure. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. copper piping and brass tubing for base. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. feet on the pedals. or even a little houseboat. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. can be built. If the journals thus made are well oiled. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. 1. The speed is slow at first.

Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. D. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. B. and so creating a false circuit. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. Fig. 1.of pleasure for a little work. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. Fig. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. Shape small blocks of boxwood. Then melt out the rosin or lead. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. Fig. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. 1. If magnifying glass cannot be had. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. then the glass disc and then the other ring. Turn a small circle of wood. 2. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. A. Place one brass ring in cylinder. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. If it is desired to make the light very complete. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. C. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. 1. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. 2. Fig. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . or it may be put to other uses if desired. 2.

wire from light to switch. To get the cylinder into its carriage. --Contributed by Geo. switch. To operate this. thick. wide and 1/16 in. wire from bell to switch. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. Brinkerhoff. such as is used for cycle valves. dry batteries. Pa. near the bed. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . brass rod. I. To throw on light throw levers to the left. When alarm goes off. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. or 1/4in. In placing clock on shelf. bell. which stops bell ringing. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. F. The parts indicated are as follows: A. Swissvale. B. 5-1/4 by 10 in. H. wire from batteries to switch. G. set alarm key as shown in diagram. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. C. Chatland. J. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. if too small. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time.. while lying in bed. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. long. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. D.india rubber tubing. E. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. 4 in. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. Throw lever off from the right to center. X. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. Utah. T. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. brass strip. 4-1/2 in. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . S. 3/8 in. C. key of alarm clock. bracket. some glue will secure them. by having the switch on the baseboard. copper tubing. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. after two turns have been made on the key. shelf. long. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. Ogden. after setting alarm. --Contributed by C. and pulled tight. contact post. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell.

2. Fig. 1. --Contributed by Chas. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. from one end. letting it extend 3/4 in. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. Fig. S. beyond the end of the spindle. Having finished this. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. A flannel bag. long. gives the heater a more finished appearance. in diameter. A small lamp of about 5 cp. being careful not to get the sand in it. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. a bed warmer. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. All that is required is a tin covering. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. 2. Pull out the nail and stick. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. Lanesboro. about 3-1/2 in. will do the heating. 3. 1. wide. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. Fig. as in Fig. 4 in. This is to form the fuse hole. Chapman. 1/4 in. making it as true and smooth as possible. for instance. as at B. place stick and all in a pail of sand. as . Make a shoulder. which can be made of an old can. as at A. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. Make the spindle as in Fig. in diameter.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. as at A. Minn. about 6 in. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle.

The material must be 1-1/2 in. thick. wide and 6 ft. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. The illustration shows how this is done. A piece of oak. 3/8 in. long. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . spring and arrows. 6 in. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. A piece of tin. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. long. good straight-grained pine will do.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. 11/2 in. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. deep. this is to keep the edges from splitting. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. Joerin. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. ash. thick. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. wide and 3/8 in. 5/8 in. wide and 3 ft. 1. --Contributed by Arthur E. 1 in. will be sufficient to make the trigger. or hickory. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. but if this wood cannot be procured. thick. long.

7. it lifts the spring up. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. Fig. E. Such a temporary safe light may be . better still. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. wide at each end. Fig. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. as shown in Fig. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. which is 1/4 in. The stick for the bow. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. 8. 9. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. When the trigger is pulled. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. in diameter. thick. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. 6. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. Trownes. 4. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. and one for the trigger 12 in. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. from the end of the stock. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. 2. or through the necessity of. To throw the arrow. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. having the latter swing quite freely. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. A spring. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. Fig. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. Ill. place the arrow in the groove. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. 3. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by O. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. The trigger. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. from the opposite end. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. The bow is not fastened in the stock. To shoot the crossbow. Wilmette.

The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. says Photo Era.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. The cut should be about 5 ft. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. The hinged cover E. apart. Remove the bottom of the box. make the frame of the wigwam. and nail it in position as shown at A. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. it is the easiest camp to make. the bark lean-to is a . Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. respectively. is used as a door. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. since the flame of the candle is above A. making lighting and trimming convenient. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. Remove one end. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. By chopping the trunk almost through. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. This lamp is safe. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. from the ground. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. and replace as shown at B. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. from the ground. C. Moreover. or only as a camp on a short excursion. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp.

For a foot in the middle of the stick. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. spruce. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. For a permanent camp. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. deep and covered with blankets. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. selecting a site for a camp. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. and when the camp is pitched. wide. long and 2 or 3 ft. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. make the best kind of a camp bed. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. piled 2 or 3 ft. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. and split the tops with an ax. 3 ft. makes a good pair of tongs. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. are a convenient size for camp construction. Sheets of bark. and cedar. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. Where bark is used. thick. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. a 2-in. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. A piece of elm or hickory. Tongs are very useful in camp. will dry flat. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. In the early summer. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. long. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. wide and 6 ft. . The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. nails are necessary to hold it in place. 6 ft. long and 1-1/2 in. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut.

A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. . or even a rough lock for the camp larder.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. and affording accommodation for several persons. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. hinges.

The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. B. Doylestown. about 4 in. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. Pa. and provide a cover or door. I drove a small cork. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. A. B. the interior can. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. deep and 4 in. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. --Contributed by James M. wide. Kane. 1.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. to another .. changing the water both morning and night. Fig.

As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. The diagram. This makes . fused into one side. 4 and 5). The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. until. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. such as ether. 3. for instance. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. 2. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. Fig. for instance. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. to pass through an increasing resistance. if necessary. The current is thus compelled. C. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter.glass tube. E. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. limit. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. a liquid. which project inside and outside of the tube. 2.

bent at right angles as shown. clamp the template. by turning the lathe with the hand. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. or pattern. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. they will make a frame 3/4 in. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. between centers. which will make it uniform in size. but merely discolored. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. therefore. thick. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. brass or iron. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. in diameter. Fig. to allow for finishing. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. on a lathe. as shown in Fig. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. hole is . brass. tap. Before removing the field from the lathe. and for the outside of the frame. drill the four rivet holes. Michigan. as shown in the left-hand sketch. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. After the template is marked out. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. 2. two holes. thicker. cannot be used so often. when several pieces are placed together. in diameter. 3-3/8 in. Fig.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. 3. is composed of wrought sheet iron. These holes are for the bearing studs. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. or even 1/16 in. The bearing studs are now made. larger than the dimensions given. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. assemble and rivet them solidly. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. which may be of any thickness so that. A. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. 3-3/8 in. If the thickness is sufficient. thick. mark off a space. After cleaning them with the solution. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. set at 1/8 in. making it 1/16 in. screws. 4-1/2 in. When the frame is finished so far. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. Alpena. 1. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. Then the field can be finished to these marks. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. A 5/8in.

solder them to the supports. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . Fig. or otherwise finished. The shaft of the armature. is turned up from machine steel. and build up the solder well. into which a piece of 5/8-in. brass rod is inserted. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. soldered into place. 4. When the bearings are located. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. file them out to make the proper adjustment. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. and drilled to receive the armature shaft.

by 1-1/2 in. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. holes through them for rivets. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. sheet fiber. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. as shown in Fig. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. 5. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. Make the core 3/4 in. wide. and held with a setscrew. Armature-Ring Core. inside diameter. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. as shown in Fig. as shown m Fig. 3. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. as shown in Fig. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. After the pieces are cut out. 8. After they . The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. 6. wide. 1-1/8 in. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. threaded. thick. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. 3. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. thick and 1/4 in. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. as shown in Fig. brass rod. thick. 9. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. When this is accomplished. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. 1/8 in. deep and 7/16 in. Rivet them together. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. Procure 12 strips of mica. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. When annealed. as shown in Fig. washers. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. thick. then drill a 1/8-in. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. or segments. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. being formed for the ends. hole and tap it for a pin. and then they are soaked in warm water. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. The sides are also faced off and finished. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. thick are cut like the pattern. 6. The pins are made of brass. 7.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. to allow for finishing to size. 3/4 in. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. Find the centers of each segment at one end.. 3/4 in.

The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. 8 in. 5. The winding is started at A. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. and wind on four layers. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. shown at B. sheet fiber. yet it shows a series of . of the wire. All connections should be securely soldered. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. Fig. To connect the wires. are soldered together. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. wide and 1 in. by bending the end around one of the projections. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. The source of current is connected to the terminals. the two ends of the wire. Run one end of the field wire. of No. thick. The two ends are joined at B. sheet fiber. or side. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. This winding is for a series motor.have dried. long. 1. 6 in. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. 1. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. In starting to wind. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. until the 12 slots are filled. After one coil. after the motor is on the stand. they are glued to the core insulation. which will take 50 ft. and bring the end of the wire out at B. shown at A. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. being required. The field is wound with No. about 100 ft. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. Fig. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. When the glue is set. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. of the end to protrude. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass.

When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. or. still more simply. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. is fastened to the metallic body. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. which serves as the ground wire. and one. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. as in the case of a spiral. A 1/2-in. Nine wires run from the timer. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . one from each of the eight contacts.

board. of the dial. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. 45 deg. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. long. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. thus giving 16 different directions. It should be . two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. circle. 6 in. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. Covering these is a thin. Without this attachment. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. The pointer end of the needle is painted black.The Wind Vane. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button.

though a special knife. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. and securely nail on the top of the box. also a piece of new carpet. long to give the best results. Place the leather on some level. called a chip carving knife. Before tacking the fourth side. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. however. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. will be sufficient. according to who is going to use it. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. will be enough for the two sides. is most satisfactory. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. To make it. high. and about 6 in. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. Fill the box with any handy ballast. Y. . The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. thus making a universal joint. making it heavy or light.about 6 ft. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. N. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. Blackmer. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. Buffalo. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. To work these outlines." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. if not too high. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. 14 by 18 in. Cut 3-in. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. -Contributed by James L. will answer the purpose just as well. or. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather.

Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. An ordinary sewing-machine . Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. Paste the silk plush to the inner side. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing. A good leather paste will be required.

of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. Morse. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. a needle and some feathers. Y. rather than the smooth side. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. --Contributed by Katharine D. or a hip that has been wrenched. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. square and tying a piece of . With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. away from it. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. temporary lameness. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. If a fire breaks out. of common salt and 10 lb.will do if a good stout needle is used. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. of water. Syracuse. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. and fasten the feathers inside of it. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. B. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. as in cases of a sprained ankle. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. N. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. and tie them together securely at the bottom. can be thrown away when no longer needed.

J. --Contributed by John A. Paterson. and the receiver is ready for use. This not only keeps the rats out. setting traps. high.string to each corner. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. wound on the head end. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. long. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. but not sharp. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. --Contributed by J. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. Wis. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. The end is filed to an edge. is cut on the wood. The coil is 1 in. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. thus helping the rats to enter. . made up of four layers of No. Y. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. E. long. letting it go at arm's length. The body of the receiver. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. board all around the bottom on the inside. etc. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. One end is removed entirely. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. and a coil of wire. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. commonly called tintype tin. A. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. The strings should be about 15 in. cut to the length of the spool. laying poisoned meat and meal.. Albany. The diaphragm C. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. N. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. and tacked it to the boards. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. as shown. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. N. wide and 1/16 in. B. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. 1/8 in. the corners being wired. Hellwig. A small wooden or fiber end. which is the essential part of the instrument. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. There is a 1-in. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. Ashland. G. Gordon Dempsey. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. F. deep.

it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. wide. and bend each strip in shape. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. to .How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. begin with the smallest scrolls. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. The vase is to have three supports. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. better still. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. To clean small articles. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. A single line will be sufficient. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. a piece of small wire. gold. Take a piece of string or. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together.

How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. 3-1/4 in. from the lines EF on the piece. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. Work down the outside line of the design.which the supports are fastened with rivets. sharp pencil. as shown in the sketch. Press or model down the leather all around the design. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. using a duller point of the tool. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. through which to slip the fly AGH. Fold the leather on the line EF. 4-1/4 in. wide when stitching up the purse. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. and does not require coloring..000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. . stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in.. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. After taking off the pattern. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. Trace also the line around the purse. from E to F. thus raising it. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. from C to D. About 1 in. 6-3/8 in. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. 3-1/2 in.

procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. place it on one of the square pieces of wood.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. being cast in wooden molds. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. Make the lug 1/4 in. Now take another piece of wood. This also should be slightly beveled. thick. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. with a compass saw. and cut it out as shown in Fig. and cut out a wheel. 3. and. then nail it. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. by 12 ft. Fit this to the two . and a model for speed and power. and the projections B. leaving the lug a. with the largest side down. It is neat and efficient. When it is finished. deep. and tack the other piece slightly. b. First. with pins or small nails. square. as shown in Fig. and which will be very interesting. then place the square piece out of which Fig. 1. all the way around. the "open" side. It can be made without the use of a lathe. following the dotted lines. long. 2. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. Then nail the wheel down firmly. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. as well as useful. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. 1/2 in. deep. 1 was cut. with the open side down. Cut off six pieces 12 in.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. around the wheel.

in the center of it. hole 1/4 in. and boring a 3/8-in. 1. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. place it between two of the 12-in. bolts.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. After it is finished. Take the mold apart. as shown by the . Now take another of the 12-in. hole bored through its center. square pieces of wood. then bolt it together. 4. and cut it out as shown in Fig. hole entirely through at the same place. deep. as shown by the black dots in Fig. Now put mold No. holes through it. slightly beveled.pieces just finished. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. and clean all the shavings out of it. square pieces of wood. and lay it away to dry. one of which should have a 3/8-in. and bore six 1/4-in. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part.

1. 1. and drill them in the same manner. This is the same as Fig. in diameter must now be obtained. and run in babbitt metal again. instead of the right-handed piece. long. Now cut out one of the 12-in. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. lay it on a level place. Pour metal into mold No. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. as shown by the black dots in Fig. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. This is for a shaft. and connect to the boiler. This will cast a paddle-wheel. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. place the entire machine in a vise. see that the bolts are all tight. After it is fitted in. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. put the top of the brace through this hole. one in the projections. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. 6. and the other in the base. 6. Now take mold No. A piece of mild steel 5 in. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. until it is full.2. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. B. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. and the exhaust hole in projection b. over the defective part. and drill it entirely through. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. one in the lug. wide and 16 in. take an ordinary brace. d. 5. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. 4. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. and pour babbitt metal into it. and two 1/4-in. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. place it under the drill. and lay it away to dry.black dots in Fig. drill in it. Then bolt the castings together. fasten a 3/8-in. where the casting did not fill out. Put this together in mold No. only the one is left-handed. and pouring metal in to fill it up. Using the Brace . true it up with a square. and bore three 1/4-in. Commencing 1-1/2 in. screw down. b. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. long. holes at d. Let it stand for half an hour.1.2. and 3/8-in. so that it will turn easily. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. holes. This is mold No. as shown in illustration. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. the other right-handed. from the one end. Fig.

and the other 8 ft. Then take a knife or a chisel. long. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. one 6 ft. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. and if instructions have been carefully followed. and. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. turn the wheel to the shape desired. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. At each end of the 6ft. while it is running at full speed. with a boss and a set screw. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. and with three small screw holes around the edge.. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. will do good service. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. Plan of Ice Boat . and the pleasure many times repays the effort. piece and at right angles to it.

These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used. 8 a reef point knot. 3. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. piece and at right angles to it. in diameter in the center. long. Fig. tapering to 1-1/2 in. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. and about 8 in. To the under side of the 8-ft. so much the better will be your boat. This fits in the square hole. distant. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. Fig. as the runners were fastened. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. where they often did considerable damage. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . in the top before the skate is put on. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. bolt the 8-ft. should be of hardwood. plank nail 8-in. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. at the top. Make your runners as long as possible. On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. plank. which may come in handy in heavy winds. long. Run the seam on a machine. 1. in diameter. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. long and 2-1/2 in. in front of the rudder block. leaving 1 ft. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. boards to make the platform. at the end. The spar should be 9 ft. at the butt and 1 in. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. 1. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. in diameter at the base. The tiller. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. 2 by 3 in. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. Over the middle of the 6-ft. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. projecting as in Fig.

Adams. bent into a hook at each end. but one that will afford any amount of amusement. binding-posts fastening the springs S S. and place it behind a stove. B. wide. for after a week the rats all departed and the boys all regretted that their fun was at an end. The arrangement proved quite too effective. Comstock. Pa. Its parts are as follows: A. The . It is quite evident that when a rat put its two fore feet on the edge of the pan in order to eat the mush which it contained. to block B. Phoenix. and when we pushed the button up in the shop the rat would be thrown 2 or 3 ft. small piece of wood. P. so that they come in contact at C. Electric Rat Trap How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359] A fire alarm which is both inexpensive and simple in construction is shown in the illustration. --Contributed by John D. and the alarm bell will ring. two pieces of sheet brass about 1/4 in. Mechanicsburg. W is a piece of wax crayon just long enough to break the contact at C when inserted as shown in the illustration. When these parts have been put together in the manner described. --Contributed by J.another from the zinc plate through the intervening yard and into the shop. R. Ariz. allowing the springs to contact at C. S S. connect the device in circuit with an electric bell. in the air and let out a terrific squeak. block of wood nailed to A. P. To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359] This is a very simple device. that an electrical connection would be made through the body of the rat. A good sized induction coil was through connected with these wires and about six dry batteries were used to run the induction coil whenever a push button was manipulated. Simple Fire Alarm When the stove becomes too hot the wax will melt at the ends.

2. The seat arms may be any length desired. high. The center pole should be 10 ft. Take the glass. 1. says the American Boy. A passenger rides in each seat and the motorman takes his station at the middle. The stump makes the best support. Put the works back in the metal shell and solder it to the frying pan by the pieces turned out as in Fig. dial and works out of the shell and cut some pieces out of the metal so that when the pieces left are turned back it will have the appearance as in Fig. and drill a hole in the center so the shaft for the hands will easily pass through and extend out far enough to replace the two hands. Arbor Wheels [359] Emery wheel arbors should be fitted with flanges or washers having a slight concave to their face. Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360] An inexpensive and easy way to make an unique ornament of a clock The Clock with Hol