Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother


Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)







A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. until it is bound as shown in Fig. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . Toronto. away. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. Noble. wide and 2 ft.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. 1. grasp it and hold the same as a club. long will make six boomerangs. 1.Fig. as shown in Fig. The pieces are then dressed round. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. A piece of plank 12 in. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. 2. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. To throw a boomerang. It is held in this curve until dry. apart. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. 1. Fig. Ontario. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. E. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. 2. 2 -. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. distant. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. with the hollow side away from you. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. --Contributed by J. as shown in Fig. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work.

blocks . and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. 6 in. dry snow will not pack easily. the block will drop out. which makes the building simpler and easier. thick. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. high and 4 or 5 in. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. long. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. but about 12 in. and with a movable bottom. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. minus the top. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. A very light. and it may be necessary to use a little water. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. First. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. or rather no bottom at all. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. one inside of the circle and the other outside. The top will then have a uniform inward slant.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. A wall. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. If the snow is of the right consistency. it is not essential to the support of the walls. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. made of 6-in. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. forcing it down closely. however.

and the young architect can imitate them. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. is 6 or 8 in. Fig. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. 1. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. Ore. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. 3 -. wide. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. C. Fig. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. Union. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. or an old safe dial will do. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. 2. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. a. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. 3. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. long and 1 in. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. Fig. 1. 2. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. The piece of wood. above the ground. There is no outward thrust. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. Goodbrod. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. A nail. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . D. which is about 1 ft.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. It also keeps them out. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. --Contributed by Geo. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. which can be made of wood.

S. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. Syracuse. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. Merrill. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal.When taking hot dishes from the stove. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. the box locked . The bolts are replaced in the hinges. --Contributed by R. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. If ordinary butts are used. as the weight always draws them back to place. one pair of special hinges. New York. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. says the Sphinx. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen.

allowing each coat time to dry. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. about 1-32 of an inch. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. one for each corner. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. as shown in Fig. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. Fig.and the performer steps out in view. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. Place the piece in a vise. draw one-half of it. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. as shown in Fig. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. All . the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. on drawing paper. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. 2. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. If the measuring has been done properly. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. Ga. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. It remains to bend the flaps. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. With the metal shears. Augusta. smooth surface. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. To make a design similar to the one shown. When the sieve is shaken. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. -Contributed by L. Alberta Norrell. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. proceed as follows: First. as shown. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. If they do not. 3. 1. Make allowance for flaps on two sides.

separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. of No. If a touch of color is desired. A piece of porcelain tube. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. Colo. heats the strip of German-silver wire. used for insulation. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. and in the positions shown in the sketch. in passing through the lamp. After this has dried. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. 25 gauge German-silver wire. which is about 6 in. R. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. in diameter. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. as shown at AA. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. long. 25 German-silver wire. B. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. Galbreath. A resistance. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. Denver. causing it to expand. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. --Contributed by R. is fitted tightly in the third hole. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork.the edges should be left smooth. The current. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . if rolled under the shoe sole. should be in the line. C. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. When the current is turned off. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. H. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. about 6 in. The common cork. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. from the back end. To keep the metal from tarnishing. In boring through rubber corks.

Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. --Contributed by David Brown. Kansas City.bottom ring. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. 3. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. Fig. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. 1. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. . between them as shown in Fig. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. with thin strips of wood. Mo. 2. Purchase two long book straps. leaving a space of 4 in. as shown in Fig. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable.

36 in. 3. Fig. 1. and one weighing 25 lb. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. having a gong 2-1/2 in. These are shown in Fig. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. Y. When the aeroplane tips. Morse. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. which is the right weight for family use. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. The string is then tied. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. 2.An ordinary electric bell. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. in diameter. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. A. long. --Contributed by James M. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. as . and tack smoothly.. C. one weighing 15 lb. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. Syracuse. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. Doylestown. and a pocket battery. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. 4. Fig. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. 1. Fig. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. Kane. Two strips of brass. N. are mounted on the outside of the box.. to form a handle. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. The folds are made over the string. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. --Contributed by Katharine D. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. 1. just the right weight for a woman to use. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. Pa.

four washers and four square nuts. Y. Frame Made of a Rod . machine screws. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. 2. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. N. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. long. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. The saw. in diameter.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. Day. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. 3/32 or 1/4 in. --Contributed by Louis J. bent as shown in Fig. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. AA. 2. two 1/8 -in. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. if once used. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. and many fancy knick-knacks. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. Floral Park. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. 1. such as brackets. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes.

Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. of course. treat it with color. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. Rub off the highlights. as well as the depth of etching desired.may be made of either brass. of water in which dissolve. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. Drying will cause this to change to purple. In the design shown. Michigan. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. after breaking up. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. copper. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. 1 part nitric acid. Of the leathers. For etching. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. An Austrian Top [12] . The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. 1 part sulphuric acid. it has the correct strength. Scranton. If it colors the metal red. using a swab and an old stiff brush. Detroit. Apply two coats. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. A. of water. green and browns are the most popular. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. --Contributed by W. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. the most expensive. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. File these edges. therefore. allowing each time to dry.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. if copper or brass.. Silver is the most desirable but. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. though almost any color may be obtained. be covered the same as the back. use them in place of the outside nuts. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. as well as brass and copper. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. or silver. Watch Fob For coloring silver. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. The buckle is to be purchased.

Parts of the Top To spin the top. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. long. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. 5-1/4 in. Ypsilanti. . hole. A handle. pass one end through the 1/16-in. allowing only 1-1/4 in. starting at the bottom and winding upward. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. hole in this end for the top. Michigan. When the shank is covered. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. 3/4 in. long. The handle is a piece of pine. is formed on one end. A 1/16-in. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. Bore a 3/4-in. thick. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. set the top in the 3/4 -in. in diameter. Tholl.F. --Contributed by J.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. 1-1/4 in. wide and 3/4 in.

the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. The baking surface. . Mich. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. --A. Ga. Northville. tarts or similar pastry. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. A. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. Alberta Norrell. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. Houghton. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. --Contributed by Miss L. Augusta. having no sides. For black leathers. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith.

It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. two turns will remove the jar. the same as shown in the illustration. Centralia. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. When you desire to work by white light. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. Stringing Wires [13] A. Mo. then solder cover and socket together. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. glass fruit jar. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. says Studio Light. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt.

4 Braces. . 4 Vertical pieces. and not tip over. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. so it can be folded up. Janesville. Wis. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. square by 62 in. They are fastened. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. 1-1/4 in. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides.for loading and development. as shown in the cross-section sketch. 1-1/4 in. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. square by 12 in. 16 Horizontal bars. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in.

H. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. Rosenthal. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. -Contributed by Charles Stem. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. --Contributed by Dr. Phillipsburg. C. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. The front can be covered . from scrap material. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. After rounding the ends of the studs. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. The whole. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. O. after filling the pail with water. New York. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. and a loop made in the end. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. If the loop is tied at the proper place. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. Cincinnati.

In my own practice. principally mayonnaise dressing. Wehr. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. The . entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. if you try to tone them afterward. thoroughly fix. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. FIG. the mouth of which rests against a. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. By using the following method. If the gate is raised slightly. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. --Contributed by Gilbert A. and. Baltimore. Md. either for contact printing or enlargements. 1 FIG. Develop them into strong prints. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. the color will be an undesirable. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. you are. The results will be poor.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. sickly one. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. by all rules of the game.

this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain.. The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone.... etc.. transfer it to a tray of water.. Gray. where it will continue to bleach.. It will bleach slowly and evenly.. 5 by 15 in.. long to admit the angle support.. A good final washing completes the process... The blotting paper can . A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper. 20 gr. Place the dry print... Put one on each corner of the blotting paper.. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects. The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished. With a little practice. but... thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes. stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax. Cal. wide and 4 in.. Water ... three times.... Iodide of potassium . An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in. 16 oz. 1 and again as in Fig.. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig.... without previous wetting.... This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print... When the desired reduction has taken place. in this solution.. in size... L.. to make it 5 by 5 in. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder..... --Contributed by T.... Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete.. as it will appear clean much longer than the white. 2...... The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper. when it starts to bleach..... San Francisco.... Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper......" Cyanide of potassium ..bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison.. 2 oz. preferably the colored kind.

Oshkosh.J. 20 gauge. --Contributed by L. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. having a width of 2-1/4 in. Wilson Aldred Toronto. the head of which is 2 in. wide below the . Canada. Monahan. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. wide.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. and a length of 5 in. 3. Make a design similar to that shown. the shaft 1 in. Corners complete are shown in Fig. --Contributed by J. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. Wisconsin.

cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. then coloring. With files. Trace the design on the metal. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. . Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. After this has dried. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. then put on a second coat. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. For coloring olive green. freehand. 1. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. After the sawing. Do not put the hands in the solution. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. With the metal shears. 1 part sulphuric acid. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. 2. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. Apply with a small brush. 1 Fig. then trace the other half in the usual way. after folding along the center line. Make one-half of the design. 4. being held perpendicular to the work. Allow this to dry. The metal must be held firmly. as shown in Fig. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. deep. which gives the outline of the design Fig. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. but use a swab on a stick. Pierce a hole with a small drill. using a small metal saw. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. 3. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. using carbon paper. Fig. using turpentine. 1 part nitric acid.FIG.

--Contributed by Katharine D. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. . Carl Cramer. Morse. Cal. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. Burnett. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. Syracuse. Richmond. as shown. thick. attach brass handles. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. --Contributed by H. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. on a chopping board.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. it does the work rapidly. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. When this is cold. Conn. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. New York. Ii is an ordinary staple. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. then stain it a mahogany color. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. M. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. After the stain has dried. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. East Hartford. --Contributed by M. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device.

The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. 1/4 in. Richmond. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. also locate the drill holes. 53 steel pens. A. saucers or pans. as shown in Fig. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. thick and 4 in. or tin. square. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. not over 1/4 in. Jaquythe. indicating the depth of the slots. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. 4. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. H. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. in width at the shank. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. machine screws.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron.. --Contributed by W. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. as shown at A. brass. one shaft. holes. thick. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. about 3/16 in. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. Fig. WARNECKE Procure some brass. Florida. Kissimmee. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. L. Cal. . Atwell. and several 1/8-in. some pieces of brass. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. two enameled. --Contributed by Mrs. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. 1.

with the face of the disk. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. thick. machine screws and nuts. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. hole in the center. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. Bend as shown in Fig. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. can be procured. brass and bolted to the casing. Fig. If the shaft is square. 6. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. supply pipe. 3. A 3/4-in. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. wide. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. long by 3/4 in.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. as shown in Fig. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. 2. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. using two nuts on each screw. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt.. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . hole. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. lead should be run into the segments. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. each about 1 in. about 1/32 in. in diameter and 1/32 in. 2. into the hole. hole is drilled to run off the water. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. wide and bend as shown in Fig. 5. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. with 1/8-in. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. with a 3/8-in. 1. Fig. machine screws. as in Fig. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. There should be a space of 1/16 in. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. long and 5/16 in. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. and the ends filed round for the bearings. a square shaft used. Fig. 7. as shown. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. These are connected to a 3/8-in. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. 3. and pins inserted. thick. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. The shaft hole may also be filed square. If metal dishes.

Fasten with 3/4-in brads. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. When assembling. make these seams come between the two back legs. La Salle. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. from the top of the box. from the bottom end of the legs. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. deep and 1-1/4 in. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. long. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. The lower part. Smith. Ill. Cooke. deep over all. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. screws. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. to make the bottom. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. --Contributed by F. 8-1/2 in. V. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. Hamilton. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. With a string or tape measure. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. Now you will have the box in two pieces. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. we will call the basket. The four legs are each 3/4-in. using four to each leg. three of which are in the basket. --Contributed by S. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. Be sure to have the cover. Stain the wood before putting in the . Canada. square and 30-1/2 in.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. or more in diameter. Fasten with 3/4-in. high and 15 in.

a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. Boston. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . Fig. and gather it at that point. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. Cover them with the cretonne. If all the parts are well sandpapered. sewing on the back side. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket.lining. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. as shown in the sketch. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite.2 Fig. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. 1. When making the display. The folded part in the center is pasted together. Mass. Baltimore. Sew on to the covered cardboards. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. wide. The side. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. -Contributed by Stanley H. --also the lower edge when necessary. 2. Md. wide and four strips 10 in. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. Packard. you can.

Cross Timbers. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. Fig. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. with slight modifications. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. and. N. Crockett. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. It is cleanly. L. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. saving all the solid part. Mo. Y. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. When through using the pad. Orlando Taylor. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. --Contributed by B. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. --Contributed by H. Gloversville. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. It is not difficult to .The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. 3.

Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. Texas. are shown in the diagram. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. --Contributed by Edith E. After stirring. -Contributed by C. it should be new and sharp. across the face. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. or if desired. and secure it in place with glue or paste. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. Lane.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. If a file is used. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. and scrape out the rough parts. Both of these methods are wasteful. Bourne. After this is done. Lowell. El Paso. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . S. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. remove the contents. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. Mass.

I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. --Contributed by Geo. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. Canton. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. Wheeler. Oregon. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. Des Moines. Iowa. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. As these were single-faced disk records. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. Ill. A Postcard Rack [25]. Greenleaf. F. The process works well and needs no watching. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. --Contributed by Marion P. Those having houses . The illustration shows a rack for postcards. Turl. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. Ill. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. Oak Park. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. The insects came to the light. He captured several pounds in a few hours. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. circled over the funnel and disappeared. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. --Contributed by Loren Ward. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. After several hours' utensil.

material.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. 6 in. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. 6 in. thick. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. Rosenberg. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. the bottom being 3/8 in. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. Lay the floor next. boards are preferable. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. the best material to use being matched boards. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. Dobbins. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. but for cheapness 3/4 in. and both exactly alike. Mass. one on each side of what will be the . fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. will do as well. Worcester. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. --Contributed by Wm. and as they are simple in design. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. Both sides can be put together in this way.. not even with the boards themselves. by 2 ft.. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. plane and pocket knife. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. --Contributed by Thomas E. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. Only three pieces are required. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. Conn. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. and the second one for the developing bench. Glenbrook. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. The single boards can then be fixed.

all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. Fig. which is fixed on as shown . three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. etc. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. 11. is cut. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. 7. 10). 6 and 9. as shown in Figs. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. of the top of the door for the same reason. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. 3 and 4. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. hinged to it. by screwing to the floor. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs.. The roof boards may next be put on. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. and in the middle an opening. and the top as at C in the same drawing. brown wrapping paper. In hinging the door. 6. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. wide. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. The developing bench is 18 in. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. the closing side as at B.. 5. so that it will fit inside the sink. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. 9 by 11 in. At the top of the doorway. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig.. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. It is shown in detail in Fig. and should be zinc lined. and act as a trap for the light. 9). nailing them to each other at the ridge. and to the outside board of the sides. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig.doorway. 6. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. 2 in section. 8. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. so that the water will drain off into the sink. below which is fixed the sink.

Details of the Dark Rook .

hole bored in the center for a handle. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. 13. it is better than anything on the market. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. mixing flour and Fig. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. For beating up an egg in a glass. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. 2. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. The handle should be at least 12 in. these being shown in Fig. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. 1. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. after lining with brown paper. if desired. Fig. which makes it possible to have white light. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. Fig. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. preferably maple or ash. 18. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. 16. 14. --Contributed by W. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. 19. though this is hardly advisable. screwing them each way into the boards. Fig. as shown in Fig. are fastened in the corners inside. 20. but not the red glass and frame. Fig. four coats at first is not too many. Pennsylvania. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. Erie. 13. and a 3/8-in. The house will be much strengthened if strips. or the room may be made with a flat roof. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. as at I. as at M. or red light as at K. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. 6. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. Karl Hilbrich. as in Fig. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. as shown in the sections. 16. 17. In use. and a tank stand on it. 15. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. A circular piece about 2 in. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing.

To operate. which. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. when put together properly is a puzzle. Mitchell. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. Mo. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. L. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. G. -Contributed by E. as shown in the sketch. Kansas City. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. long. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. --Contributed by Wm. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. D. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . --Contributed by L. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax.copper should be. for a handle. Schweiger. New York. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. Smith. about 3/8 in. Ark. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. Yonkers. Eureka Springs.

to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. in order to thoroughly preserve it. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. to make it set level. Having completed the bare box. . 1. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. 3. the box will require a greater height in front. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. If the sill is inclined. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. 2. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. as is usually the case. Each cork is cut as in Fig. A number of 1/2-in.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. The design shown in Fig. as well as improve its appearance. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. which binds them together. especially for filling-in purposes. holes should be drilled in the bottom. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. need them. After the box is trimmed. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. as shown in Fig. the rustic work should be varnished. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. as shown in Fig. for the moment. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. The corks in use are shown in Fig. 3. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads.

too dangerous. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. drilled at right angles. F. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal.. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. it's easy. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. When the corn is gone cucumbers. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. can't use poison. share the same fate. cabbages. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. 4. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. etc. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. But I have solved the difficulty. life in the summer time is a vexation. . and observe results. 2. Each long projection represents a leg. being partly eaten into. 1. Traps do no good. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. 3. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections.

-. Iowa. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. long. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. and made up and kept in large bottles. strips. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. the coil does not heat sufficiently. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. . The solution can be used over and over again. About 9-1/2 ft. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. by trial. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. cut in 1/2-in. of No. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. cut some of it off and try again. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. If. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold.

The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. hot-water pot. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. as shown in the sketch. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. coffee pot. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. C. of oleic acid with 1 gal. N. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. of whiting and 1/2 oz. Texas. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. Dallas. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. forks. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. --Contributed by Katharine D.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. it falls to stop G. Knives. Syracuse. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. Doylestown. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. is a good size--in this compound. Pa. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. Y. Do not wash them. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. but with unsatisfactory results. --Contributed by James M. D. Stir and mix thoroughly. In cleaning silver. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. to cause the door to swing shut. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. Fig 2. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. Morse. . and a strip. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. Kane. of gasoline. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. 1) removed.

Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. La. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. Sprout. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. but unfixed. . negatives. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. New Orleans. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . Waverly. Pa. Ill. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. later fixed and washed as usual. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. --Contributed by Oliver S. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. of course.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. Harrisburg. using the paper dry. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. --Contributed by Theodore L. Fisher. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. which is.

1. Fig. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. a harmonograph is a good prescription. To obviate this difficulty. In this uncertainty lies the charm. metal. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. then . which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. The harmonograph. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint.

that is. A length of 7 ft. one-fourth. is attached as shown at H. and unless the shorter pendulum is. 1. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. exactly one-third. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit.. A weight. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. ceiling. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. etc. Holes up to 3 in. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. A small table or platform. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. is about right for a 10-ft. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. such as a shoe buttoner. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. Another weight of about 10 lb. A pedestal. The length of the short pendulum H. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. makes respectively 3. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. --Contributed by James T. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. to prevent any side motion. which can be regulated. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. for instance. as shown in the lower part of Fig. 1-3/4 by 2 in. Punch a hole. --Contributed by Wm. as long as the other. R. Gaffney. Rosemont. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. G. one-fifth. of about 30 or 40 lb. in diameter. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. Ingham. Chicago.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. provides a means of support for the stylus. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. with a nail set or punch. Arizona. 1. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. K. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. or the lines will overlap and blur. what is most important.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table.. J. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. in the center of the circle to be cut. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. A small weight. as shown in Fig.

The two key cards are made alike. 5. Morey. Cruger. Fig. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. 2. and proceed as before. of course. then 3 as in Fig. Cape May City. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. then put 2 at the top.J. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. N.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. 3. The capacity of the vise. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. -Contributed by W. one for the sender and one for the receiver. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig.H. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block.J. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. and 4 as in Fig. 4. 6. dividing them into quarters. Chicago. --Contributed by J. a correspondent of . The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. Fig. 1. distributing them over the whole card.

Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. deep. citrate of iron and ammonia. After securing the tint desired. 22 gauge German-silver wire. Alberta Norrell. Asbestos board is to be preferred. of 18-per-cent No. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. acetic acid and 4 oz. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. To assemble. --Contributed by L. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. of ferricyanide of potash. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. 6 gauge wires shown. Ga. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. wood-screws. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. says Popular Electricity. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. Cut through the center. the portion of the base under the coil. of water. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. of the uprights. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. sheet of well made asbestos paper. 1/2 oz. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. Augusta. from the top and bottom. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. respectively. If constructed of the former. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. 30 gr. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. 1/4 in. drill 15 holes. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. remove the prints. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. After preparing the base and uprights. Wind the successive turns of . long.

Labels of some kind are needed. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. Ampere. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. if one is not a smoker. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. 16 gauge copper wire. The case may be made of 1/2-in. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. cut and dressed 1/2 in. etc. as they are usually thrown away when empty. Ward. N. but these are not necessary. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers.. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. Y. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. rivets. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. which. screws. then fasten the upright in place. Small knobs may be added if desired. 14 gauge. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. --Contributed by Frederick E. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . square.

The parts are put together with dowel pins. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again.14 oz. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. Kenosha. Eureka Springs. or has become corroded. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. Larson. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. D. S. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. Ark. a piece of solder. The material can be of any wood. This is considerable annoyance. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. particularly so when the iron has once been used. A. it must be ground or filed to a point. especially if a large tub is used. and one made of poplar finished black. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. as shown in the sketch." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. . C. In soldering galvanized iron. Copper. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. Jaquythe. California. then to the joint to be soldered. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. --Contributed by W. sandpaper or steel wool. Richmond. lead. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. of water. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. tinner's acid. being careful about the heat. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. --Contributed by A. and labeled "Poison. galvanized iron. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. Heat it until hot (not red hot). brass. G. B. tin. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions.. Wis. --C. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. If the soldering copper is an old one. zinc. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. of glycerine to 16 oz. the pure muriatic acid should be used. and rub the point of the copper on it. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. E and F.

which gives two bound volumes each year. such as copper. and drill out the threads. This completes the die. This will leave a clear hole. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. round iron. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. The covers of the magazines are removed. -Contributed by H. 1. Hankin. W. thick and 1-1/4 in. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. 2. Fig. Fig. in diameter. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. Place the band. in diameter. Troy. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. Six issues make a well proportioned book. nut.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. N. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. The disk will come out pan shaped. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. wide. with good results. I bind my magazines at home evenings. C. Y. Brass rings can be plated when finished. B. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. 7/8 in. a ring may be made from any metal. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . however. The dimensions shown in Fig. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. Take a 3/4-in. brass and silver. Apart from this. D. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. The punch A. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines.

The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. 2. and then to string No. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. is nailed across the top. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. through the notch on the left side of the string No. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. After drawing the thread tightly. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. The sections are then prepared for sewing. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. Start with the front of the book. 1. The string No. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. is used for the sewing material. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. The covering can be of cloth. size 16 or larger.4. 1 in Fig. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. 1. as shown in Fig. Five cuts. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. 1/8 in. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. which is fastened the same as the first.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. deep. and place them against the strings in the frame. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. The covering should be cut out 1 in. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. then back through the notch on the right side. 1. of the ends extending on each side. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. and a third piece. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. using . C. If started with the January or the July issue. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. threaded double. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. on all edges except the back. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. 2. 5. . Coarse white thread. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. Place the cardboard covers on the book. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. allowing about 2 in. are made with a saw across the back of the sections.

glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. College View. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. on which to hook the blade. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. and mark around each one. Tinplate. Cal. --Contributed by Clyde E. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. round iron. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. Place the cover on the book in the right position. Nebr. at opposite sides to each other. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. Encanto. and. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. For the blade an old talking-machine . Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. Divine.

If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. thick. On the upper side. by 4-1/2 in. A. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. as shown. Miss. Then on the board put . and a long thread plug. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. Moorhead. with 10 teeth to the inch. -Contributed by Willard J. bore.. hydraulic pipe. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. in order to drill the holes in the ends. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. with a steel sleeve. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C).Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. Summitville. C. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in.. fuse hole at D. and 1/4 in. Make the blade 12 in. and file in the teeth. Hays. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. at the same end. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. and another piece (B) 6 in. long. as it is sometimes called. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. thick. F. or double extra heavy. by 1 in. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. and 1/4 in. B. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. E. Ohio.

Philadelphia. using about 8 in. of wire to each coil. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. H. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. --Contributed by Chas. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. about 5 ft. of rubber-covered wire. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . Put sides about 1-1/2 in. some sheet copper or brass for plates. If you are going to use a current of low tension.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. the jars need not be very large. 4 jars. A lid may be added if desired. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. high around this apparatus. Connect up as shown. and some No. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. Boyd. as from batteries.

Equip block X with screw eyes. two pieces 30 in. and for the rear runners: A. Put arm of switch on point No. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. See Fig. 3 and No. A 3/4-in. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X.. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. Construct the auto front (Fig. direct to wire across jars. thick. however. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. or source of current. 4. making them clear those in the front runner. For the brass trimmings use No. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. as they are not substantial enough. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. long by 22 in. Use no screws on the running surface.. as they "snatch" the ice.. two for each jar. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. Use no nails. by 5 in. with the cushion about 15 in. thick. 34 in. No. by 2 in. For the front runners these measurements are: A. To wire the apparatus. C. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. two pieces 34 in. above the ground. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. B and C. 2. long. by 5 in. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. 3 in. beginning at the rear. At the front 24 or 26 in. The top disk in jar No. long. 1 and so on for No. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. wide. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. 2. 2 and 3. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. Z. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. wide and 2 in. The sled completed should be 15 ft. gives full current and full speed. sheet brass 1 in. 2. on No. square by 14 ft. C. by 1-1/4 in. wide by 3/4 in. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. 2 is lower down than in No. by 1-1/4 in. then apply a coat of thin enamel. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. 1. 3. B. two pieces 14 in. A variation of 1/16 in. and bolt through. 4 in. The connection between point No. 27 B. apart. long. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. 2 in. 7 in. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. In proportioning them the points A. steel rod makes a good steering rod. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. oak boards... The stock required for them is oak. by 2 in. by 1 in. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. On the door of the auto front put the . 1 is connected to point No. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in.the way. 11 in. by 6 in. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. is used to reduce friction. & S. 15-1/2 in. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. First sandpaper all the wood. B. and plane it on all edges. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. 30 in. long. 5 on switch. are important. wide and 3/4 in. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. The current then will flow through the motor. 1 on switch.. Their size also depends on the voltage. 16-1/2 in. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. .. An iron washer. Fig. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. 4) of 3/4-in. and four pieces 14 in. The illustration shows how to shape it.

may be stowed within. a brake may be added to the sled. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. overshoes. which is somewhat moist. to the wheel. lunch. such as used on automobiles. such as burlap. brass plated. cutting it out of sheet brass. If desired. a number of boys may share in the ownership. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. If the expense is greater than one can afford. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. etc.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. or with these for $25. cheap material. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. to improve the appearance. by 30 in. If desired. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . Then put a leather covering over the burlap. long. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. by 1/2 in. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. fasten a cord through the loop. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. Then get some upholstery buttons. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. Fasten a horn. The best way is to get some strong. parcels. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot.

Lexington. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same.tree and bring. . the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. Ill. --Contributed by Stewart H. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. Leland.

Fig. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. will be over the line FG. CD. Fig. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. the cut will be central on the line. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. London. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. when flat against it. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. which. This guide should have a beveled edge. mild steel or iron. outside diameter and 1/16 in. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. a compass. though more difficult. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. so that the center of the blade. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. with twenty-four teeth. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. the same diameter as the wheel. 3. Draw a circle on paper. A small clearance space. by drawing diameters. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. 1. The straight-edge.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. 2. some files. FC. First take the case of a small gearwheel. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. say 1 in. The Model Engineer. The first tooth may now be cut. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . from F to G. thick. made from 1/16-in. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. With no other tools than a hacksaw. E. Fig. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. sheet metal. 4). must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file.

Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. as shown in Fig. Focus the camera in the usual manner. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. or several pieces bound tightly together. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. as shown in Fig. 1. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. Make a hole in the other. transmitter. B. 1. R. each in the center. and the other outlet wire. No shock will be perceptible. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. Then take one outlet wire. hold in one hand. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. If there is no faucet in the house. as shown in Fig. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. . This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts.Four Photos on One Plate of them. 2. A bright. electric lamp. B. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. either the pencils for arc lamps. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. some wire and some carbons. ground it with a large piece of zinc.

and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. leaving about 10 in. Ashland. But in this experiment. of course. B. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. For a base use a pine board 10 in. serves admirably. One like a loaf of bread. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. and about that size. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. and again wind the wire around it. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. D D are binding posts for electric wires. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. If desired. Pa. or more of the latter has been used. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. at each end for terminals. a transmitter which induces no current is used. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. one at the receiver can hear what is said. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. and will then burn the string C. by 12 in. Slattery. as shown. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. --Contributed by Geo. A is a wooden block. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. by 1 in. Wrenn. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. They have screw ends. Then set the whole core away to dry. Ohio. Several battery cells. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . are also needed. Dry batteries are most convenient. J. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. under the gable. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. as indicated by E E. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. Emsworth. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. 36 wire around it. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A.

as shown. At one side secure two receptacles. and switch. as shown. Jr. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. Turn on switch. while C is open. the terminal of the coil. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. 2. and the lamps. B B. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. connecting lamp receptacles. Fig. From the other set of binding-posts. C. E. in series with bindingpost. Ohio. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F.wire. D. Connect these three to switch. First make a support. These should have hollow ends. B B. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. in parallel. 1. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. and one single post switch. for the .. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. The oven is now ready to be connected. The apparatus is now ready for operation. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. The coil will commence to become warm. D. Place 16-cp. 12 or No. C. 14 wire. until the hand points to zero on the scale. Newark. Fig. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. run a No. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. F. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles.

This may be made of wood. Fig. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. drill through the entire case and valve. If for 3-way. is made of iron. as shown in the cut. E. Mine is wound with two layers of No. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. although copper or steel will do. long. Fig. remove the valve. At a point a little above the center. This is slipped on the pivot. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. to prevent it turning on the axle. drill in only to the opening already through. The pointer or hand. B. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. etc. long. To make one. although brass is better. a variable resistance. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. 1/4 in. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. is made of wire. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. It is 1 in. 14 wire. thick. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. A wooden box. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. but if for a 4way. wide and 1/8 in. Montreal. C. The box is 5-1/2 in. 4. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes.or 4-way valve or cock. After drilling. long and make a loop. 2. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. 5. 5. 1/2 in. 3. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. 36 magnet wire instead of No. drill a hole as shown at H. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. where A is the homemade ammeter. 14. 4 amperes. Dussault. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. from the lower end. deep. 4 in. 6. D. wide and 1-3/4 in. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. 7. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. D. Make the wire 4-1/2 in.E. 3 amperes. 1.. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. 10 turns to each layer. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . --Contributed by J. a standard ammeter. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. is then made and provided with a glass front. and D. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. wind with plenty of No. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. until the scale is full. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. high.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. The core. 1. Fig. Fig. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. inside measurements. a battery.

and the arc light. provided with a rubber stopper. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. in thickness . By connecting the motor. which is used for reducing the current. E. and the other connects with the water rheostat. in diameter. A. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. and a metal rod. making two holes about 1/4 in. B. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. F. D.performing electrical experiments. This stopper should be pierced. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. To start the light. One wire runs to the switch. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. as shown. high. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained.

If all adjustments are correct. Jones. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. Fig. 1. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. Fig. Carthage. Turn on the current and press the button. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. 2. 2. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. A piece of wood. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. 1. Having finished the interrupter. B. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. A. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. as shown in C. If the interrupter does not work at first. To insert the lead plate. 1. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. as shown in B. Having fixed the lead plate in position. --Contributed by Harold L. long. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. N. Y. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. Fig. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. where he is placed in an upright open . A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. As there shown. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. Fig.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A.

The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. within the limits of an ordinary room. to aid the illusion. Its edges should nowhere be visible. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. should be miniature electric lamps. with the exception of the glass. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. loosejointed effect. especially L. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. A. especially the joints and background near A. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. is constructed as shown in the drawings. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. The skeleton is made of papier maché. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. by 7-1/2 in. dressed in brilliant. The glass should be the clearest possible. If it is desired to place the box lower down. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. as the entire interior. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. L and M. from which the gong has been removed. should be colored a dull black. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. inside dimensions.coffin. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. giving a limp. and must be thoroughly cleansed. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. could expect from a skeleton. The model. They need to give a fairly strong light. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. which can be run by three dry cells. If everything is not black. and wave his arms up and down. The lights. by 7 in. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll.. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. All . other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. until it is dark there. the illusion will be spoiled. A white shroud is thrown over his body. light-colored garments. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. and can be bought at Japanese stores. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. high. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. figures and lights.

--Contributed by Geo. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. W. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. square block. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. Cal. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . as shown in the sketch. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. fat spark. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. San Jose. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on.that is necessary is a two-point switch. Fry. If a gradual transformation is desired. placed about a foot apart. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. after which it assumes its normal color. Two finishing nails were driven in. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green.

connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. In Fig. or a solution of sal soda. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. the remaining space will be filled with air. into the receiver G. as shown. with two tubes. and should be separated about 1/8 in. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. New York. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. 1. If a lighted match . B and C. hydrogen gas is generated. In Fig. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. One of these plates is connected to metal top. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. The plates are separated 6 in. soldered in the top. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. This is a wide-mouth bottle. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. F. by small pieces of wood. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. -Contributed by Dudley H. A (see sketch). Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. to make it airtight. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. Cohen.

1-5/16 in. The distance between the nipple. which forms the vaporizing coil. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. or by direct contact with another magnet. long. London. A. A. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. copper pipe. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. A. as is shown in the illustration. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. 2 shows the end view. which is plugged up at both ends. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. of No. should be only 5/16 of an inch. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. A. N. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . and the ends of the tube. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. is then coiled around the brass tube. says the Model Engineer. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. 36 insulated wire. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. C C. P. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. 1/2 in. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. A nipple. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. A 1/64-in. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. N. copper pipe. from the bottom. A piece of 1/8-in. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. Fig. long. then a suitable burner is necessary. in diameter and 6 in. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. is made by drilling a 1/8in. B. either by passing a current of electricity around it. One row is drilled to come directly on top. by means of the clips. If desired. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. 1. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. Fig. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in.

leaving the folded edge uncut. 1/4 in. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. with a fine saw. Take two strips of stout cloth. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. A disk of thin sheet-iron. this makes a much nicer book. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. but if the paper knife cannot be used. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. duck or linen. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. fold and cut it 1 in. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. at the front and back for fly leaves. longer and 1/4 in. smoothly. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. about 8 or 10 in. trim both ends and the front edge. 3. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. 2). such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). larger all around than the book. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. Turn the book over and paste the other side. cut to the size of the pages. Fig.lamp cord. Fig. 1. Fig. boards and all. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. should be cut to the diameter of the can. taking care not to bend the iron. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. Cut four pieces of cardboard. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in.

Bedford City. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. In the bottom. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. and a little can. as shown in the sketch. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. in diameter and 30 in. is fitted in it and soldered. H. This will cause some air to be enclosed. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. Toronto. Noble. as shown. Another can. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. . or rather the top now. E. pasting them down (Fig. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. A. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. but its diameter is a little smaller. is made the same depth as B. 18 in. 4). --Contributed by James E. Another tank. C. is soldered onto tank A. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. Va. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. A gas cock. without a head. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. deep. Parker. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. B. the joint will be gas tight. of tank A is cut a hole. --Contributed by Joseph N. is perforated with a number of holes. D. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. which will just slip inside the little can. is turned on it. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. Ont. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top.

which may be either spruce. D. should be 3/8 in. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. and the four diagonal struts. S. exactly 12 in. shows how the connections are to be made. by 1/2 in. -Contributed by H. tacks. C. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. long. A. Bott. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. fastened in the bottom. basswood or white pine. If the back armature. 1. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. N. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. to prevent splitting. 2. If the pushbutton A is closed. Fig. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. The wiring diagram. square by 42 in. and about 26 in. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. The diagonal struts. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. should be cut a little too long. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. making the width. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. are shown in detail at H and J.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. E. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. should be 1/4 in. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. Beverly. B. A A. The longitudinal corner spines. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. B. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. The armature. thus adjusting the . B. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. which moves to either right or left. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. and sewed double to give extra strength. when finished. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. long. as shown at C. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. Fig. with an electric-bell magnet. The small guards. J. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. D. The bridle knots.. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. H is a square knot.

lengths of F and G. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. that refuse to slide easily. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. can be made of a wooden . Closing either key will operate both sounders. Harbert. and. to prevent slipping. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. the batteries do not run down for a long time. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. and if a strong wind is blowing. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. for producing electricity direct from heat. D. shift toward F. Chicago. as shown. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. A bowline knot should be tied at J. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. with gratifying results. E. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. however. If the kite is used in a light wind. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. Stoddard. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. --Contributed by A. thus shortening G and lengthening F. Kan. --Contributed by Edw. Clay Center.

frame. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . D. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. F. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. with a pocket compass. A. 14 or No. C. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. by means of machine screws or. which conducts the current into the cannon. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. E. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. A. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. B. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. C. A. The wood screw. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore.. and also holds the pieces of wood. and the current may then be detected by means. C. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. placed on top. spark. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. Chicago. or parallel with the compass needle. 16 single-covered wire. with a number of nails. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. --Contributed by A. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. E. Fasten a piece of wood. Then. in position. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. to the cannon. When the cannon is loaded. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. A and B. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. Turn the spool in a north and south direction.

the current is shut off. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. to receive the screw in the center. where there is a staple. Big Rapids. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. Ohio. In Fig. press the button. 1. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. To reverse. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. --Contributed by Joseph B. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. . requiring a strong magnet. Keil. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. screw is bored in the block. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. Fig. Fig. A hole for a 1/2 in. H. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. 1. when in position at A'. A. Chicago. L. Mich. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. To lock the door. with the long arm at L'. B. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. in this position the door is locked. square and 3/8 in. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. within the reach of the magnet. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. Bend the strips BB (Fig. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. To unlock the door. --Contributed by Henry Peck. Connect as shown in the illustration. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. A and S. now at A' and S'. 1. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. Marion. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. but no weights or strings. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. A and S.

A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. gas-pipe. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. When ready for use.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. and C is a dumbbell. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. Rand. or for microscopic work. West Somerville. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. are enameled a jet black. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. pipe with 1-2-in. Thread the other end of the pipe. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. put in the handle. --Contributed by C. J. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. The standard and base. hole. if enameled white on the concave side. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. Mass. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. about 18 in. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. long. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. and if desired the handles may . and may be made at very slight expense. When the holes are finished and your lines set. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task.

Fig. E. --Contributed by C. 8 in. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. Make a cylindrical core of wood. Warren. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. North Easton. high by 1 ft. which shall project at least 2 in. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. long and 8 in. Fig. This peculiar property is also found in ice. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . D. as shown at A in the sketch. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. M. inside the pail. across. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings.. Mass. B. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. A. 1. with a covered with leather. across. 1.

In like manner make the cover of the kiln. of fine wire. layer of the clay mixture. to hold the clay mixture. as is shown in the sketch. pipe. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. and with especial caution the first time. C. It is placed inside the kiln. long. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. 15%. L. carefully centering it. If the cover of the pail has no rim.. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. bottom and sides. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. diameter. as dictated by fancy and expense. E. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. Fit all the parts together snugly. such . make two wood ends. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. C. wider than the kiln. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos.-G. pack this space-top. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. projecting from each end (Fig. Wind about 1/8 in. W. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. if you have the materials. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. After finishing the core. 25%. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. When lighted. full length of iron core. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. and varnish.. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. 60%. pipe 2-ft. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. 2 in. and on it set the paper wrapped core. in diameter. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°.. and cut it 3-1/2 in. thick. strip of sheet iron. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. thick. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. and graphite. about 1 in. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. which is the hottest part. but will be cheaper in operation. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. hotel china. After removing all the paper.mixture of clay. 1330°. 3) with false top and bottom. passing wire nails through and clinching them. and 3/4 in. and your kiln is ready for business. Set aside for a few days until well dried. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. and 3/8 in. long over the lid hole as a chimney. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. let this dry thoroughly. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. the point of the blue flame. but it will burn a great deal of gas. C. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. sand. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. This done. say 1/4 in. hard porcelain. in diameter. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. 2. 1). Fig. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. cutting the hole a little smaller. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. 1390°-1410°. the firing should be gradual. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. Cover with paper and shellac as before. 1). The 2 in. Whatever burner is used. or make one yourself. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. Line the pail. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. if there is to be any glazing done.

T. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. . D. 2. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. diameter. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. Chicago. Then. square them up and place in a vise. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. --Contributed by J. as shown in the sketch herewith. Then take the black cards. and plane off about 1/16 in. Take the red cards. Of course. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. as in Fig. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. and discharges into the tube. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. C. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. You can display either color called for. 2). all cards facing the same way. B. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. and so on. with a plane. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. the next black. 1. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. length of . A. red and black. overlaps and rests on the body. The funnel. around the coil.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. taking care to have the first card red.. about 1/16 in. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. Next restore all the cards to one pack. leaving long terminals. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. C. C. Washington. 2. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. square them up. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. 8 in. procure a new deck. as in Fig. R. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. bind tightly with black silk. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown.53 in. every alternate card being the same color. and divide it into two piles.

is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. All the horizontal pieces. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. 1 gill of fine white sand. so that when they are assembled. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. N. B. E. about 20 in. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. A. of the frame. The cement.. 1 gill of litharge. and this is inexpensive to build. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. angle iron for the frame. Drill all the horizontal pieces. The upright pieces. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. F. E. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. C.C. The bottom glass should be a good fit. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. through the holes already drilled. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. D.J. and then the frame is ready to assemble. 1. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. It should be placed in an exposed location. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. Long Branch. To find the fall of snow. the first thing to decide on is the size. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. A. to form a dovetail joint as shown. stove bolts. thus making all the holes coincide. Let . Fig. B. When the glass is put in the frame a space. as the difficulties increase with the size. the same ends will come together again. B. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. stove bolts.

It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. having a swinging connection at C. on the door by means of a metal plate. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. D. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. B. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. A. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. Fig. Fasten the lever. if desired. to the door knob. and. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. a centerpiece (A. Aquarium Finished If desired. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown.

B. for the top. Fig. screwed to the door frame. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. Do not fasten these boards now. to keep the frame from spreading. wide . and Fig. 1.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. another. but mark their position on the frame.. 6 in. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. --Contributed by Orton E. as at E. several lengths of scantling 3 in. and another. soldered to the end of the cylinder. Fig. 26 in. 3 shows one of the paddles. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. Two short boards 1 in. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. 1 . Buffalo. which is 15 in. long. wide by 1 in. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. according to the slant given C. E. from the outside top of the frame. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. Fig. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. Fig. C. F. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. 1. to form the main supports of the frame. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. another. hoping it may solve the same question for them. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. 2 is an end view. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. showing the paddle-wheel in position. They are shown in Fig. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. D. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. Cut two of them 4 ft. A small piece of spring brass. long. Fig. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. long. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. 2 at GG. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. with a water pressure of 70 lb. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. I referred this question to my husband. Cut two pieces 30 in. PAUL S. to form the slanting part. Fig. 1 is the motor with one side removed. To make the frame. Y. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. White. AA. N. 2 ft. approximately 1 ft. will open the door about 1/2 in. thus doing away with the spring. long.

holes. hole through the exact center of the wheel. 1. and a 1/4 -in. hole through its center. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. Fig. These are the paddles. (I. Take the side pieces.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in.along the edges under the zinc to form . take down the crosspieces. hole through their sides centrally. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. 4. and drill a 1/8-in. with the wheel and shaft in place. in diameter. 2) with a 5/8-in. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. iron. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. Drill 1/8-in. Fasten them in their proper position. that is. from one end by means of a key. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft.burlap will do -. long and filling it with babbitt metal. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. 2) and another 1 in. as shown in Fig. Fig. hole through them. 24 in. When it has cooled. iron 3 by 4 in. steel shaft 12 in. hole from the tops to the 1-in. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. hole to form the bearings. by 1-1/2 in. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. Fig. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. long to the wheel about 8 in. Now block the wheel. after which drill a 5/8 in. pipe. remove the cardboard. then drill a 3/16-in. and drill a 1-in. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. Next secure a 5/8-in. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. to a full 1/2 in. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. GG. 2) form a substantial base. Tack one side on. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. tapering from 3/16 in. thick. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. thick (HH. Make this hole conical.

This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. Drill a hole through the zinc. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. but now I put them in the machine. If sheet-iron is used. any window will do. Darken the rest of the window.a water-tight joint. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. The best plate to use is a very slow one. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. light and the plate. start the motor. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. drill press. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. but as it would have cost several times as much.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. shutting out all light from above and the sides. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. and the subject may move. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. sewing machine. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. as this makes long exposure necessary. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. says the Photographic Times. Raise the window shade half way. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. place the outlet over a drain. It is obvious that. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. If the bearings are now oiled. and leave them for an hour or so. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. as shown in the sketch at B. . it would be more durable. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. and as near to it as possible. Correct exposure depends. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. on the lens. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. or what is called a process plate. Focus the camera carefully. remove any white curtains there may be. ice-cream freezer. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. Do not stop down the lens. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. of course. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen.

Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. 2. hard rubber.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. D. until the core slowly rises. C. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. and a base. The core C. and without fog. the core is drawn down out of sight. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. The glass tube may be a test tube. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. or an empty developer tube. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. which is made of iron and cork. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. by twisting. The current required is very small. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. With a piece of black paper. a core. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. A. 2. as a slight current will answer. full of water. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. without detail in the face. or wood. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. as shown in Fig. On completing . B. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. an empty pill bottle may be used. with binding posts as shown. a glass tube. or can be taken from an old magnet. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No.

If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. whale oil. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. 1 pt. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. according to his control of the current. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. The colors appear different to different people. is Benham's color top. This is a mysterious looking instrument. finest graphite. and are changed by reversing the rotation.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. and make a pinhole in the center. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. and one not easy to explain. water and 3 oz. 1. white lead. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. 1 lb.

As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. B. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. In prize games. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. A. nearly every time. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. especially if the deck is a new one. -Contributed by D. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken.B. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. Chicago. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. deuce. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant.. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. In making hydrogen. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card.L. when the action ceases. or three spot. fan-like. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . As this device is easily upset. C. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. thus partly filling bottles A and C. before cutting.

S. Fig. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. in length and 3 in. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. . --Contributed by C. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. 12 in. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. (Fig. Detail of Phonograph Horn . 3). Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. 9 in.. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. Fig. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. 2. --Contributed by F. long and 3 in. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. 10 in.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation.. 1. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. Make a 10-sided stick. Jr. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. long. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. as shown in Fig. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. S. Detroit. Huron. Dak. Form a cone of heavy paper. Bently. J. in diameter. W. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. 4. that will fit loosely in the tube A.

The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. E. bend it at right angles throughout its length. making it three-ply thick. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. on one side and the top. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. push back the bolt. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. A piece of tin. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. and walk in. Cut out paper sections (Fig. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . Denver. Remove the form. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. with a pin driven in each end. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. allowing 1 in. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. long. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. --Contributed by Reader. will cause an increased movement of C. about the size of a leadpencil. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. Fig. but bends toward D. A second piece of silk thread. it is equally easy to block that trick. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. A. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. 6. C. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. Fortunately.

Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. Minn. while the lower switch. S S. The feet. West St. put together as shown in the sketch. B.strip. or left to right. will last for several years. Two wood-base switches. --Contributed by J. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. B. Paul. S. R. is connected each point to a battery. posts. long. are 7 ft. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. 4 ft. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. are made 2 by 4 in. The upper switch. long. as shown. A. Fremont Hilscher. and rest on a brick placed under each end. The reverse switch. Jr. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. The 2 by 4-in.. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. S. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. By this arrangement one. W..

If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. the other parts being used for the bearing B. The hose E connects to the boiler. is an old bicycle pump. thick. the size of the hole in the bearing B. pulley wheel. 3/8 in. 2 and 3. and a cylindrical . and in Fig. either an old sewing-machine wheel. The valve motion is shown in Figs. and has two wood blocks. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. The piston is made of a stove bolt. Fig. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. E. and the crank bearing C. cut in half.every house. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. In Fig. Fig. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. which will be described later. which is made of tin. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. 1. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. and valve crank S. H and K. 2. The steam chest D. FF. or anything available. with two washers. The base is made of wood. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base.

J. and the desired result is obtained. to receive the connecting rod H. --Contributed by Geo. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. 3. Wis. and a very amusing trick. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. 1. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. First. 4. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank.piece of hard wood. Fig. powder can. W. This engine was built by W. as shown in Fig. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. This is wound with soft string. G. Cal. G. of Cuba. Fig. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. or galvanized iron. Eustice. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. . and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. using the positive wire as a pen. C. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. Schuh and A. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. and saturated with thick oil. at that. The valve crank S. can be an old oil can. San Jose. Fry. as it is merely a trick of photography. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. is cut out of tin. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. The boiler.

considering the nature of the material employed in making it. and place a bell on the four ends. Cut half circles out of each stave. and pass ropes around . Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. as shown at AA. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. and Fig. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. to cross in the center. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. diameter. as shown. When turning. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. Fig. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. B. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. They may be of any size. Fig. C. Fig. 1 will be seen to rotate. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. B. 1 by covering up Figs. The smaller wheel. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel.

This in turn will act on the transmitter. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. as shown in the illustration. St. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. Mo.G. procure a wooden spool.M. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. but not on all. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. which accounts for the sound. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. produces a higher magnifying power). --Contributed by H.. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. To make this lensless microscope. from the transmitter. From a piece of thin . A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. A (a short spool. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. such as clothes lines. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. W. which allows the use of small sized ropes. Louis. long. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones.

held at arm's length. the object should be of a transparent nature. C. is made of iron. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. is made from an old electric-bell magnet.. The lever. as in all microscopes of any power. e. 2.) But an object 3/4-in. A. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. which costs little or nothing to make. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. place a small object on the transparent disk. 1. and at the center. in which hay has been soaking for several days. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. To use this microscope. (The area would appear 64 times as large. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. i. The pivot. D. darting across the field in every direction. The spring. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. B. otherwise the image will be blurred. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. H. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. D. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. An innocent-looking drop of water. Viewed through this microscope. fastened to a wooden base. bent as shown. E. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. and look through the hole D. if the distance is reduced to one-third. Fig. B. by means of brads. is fastened at each end by pins. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. and so on. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. can be made of brass and the armature. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. cut out a small disk. the diameter will appear three times as large. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle.. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. C. or 64 times. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. if the distance is reduced to one-half. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. 3. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. the diameter will appear twice as large. which are pieces of hard wood. .

16 in. connection of D to nail. F. should be about 22 in. D. Each side. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. C. The base of the key. wide and about 20 in. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. wood: F. wide. or taken from a small one-point switch. wide. FF. The door. thick. D. 1. wide. Fig. coils wound with No.SOUNDER-A. nail soldered on A. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. which are made to receive a pivot. long and 14-1/2 in. D. K. KEY-A. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. B. or a single piece. A switch. between the armature and the magnet. 26 wire: E. long by 16 in. wood. brass: B. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. AA. in length and 16 in. HH. Fig. binding posts: H spring The stop. . wide and set in between sides AA. brass. soft iron. C. The back. A. brass or iron soldered to nail. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. fastened near the end. similar to the one used in the sounder. 16 in. B. 2. and are connected to the contacts. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. is cut from a board about 36 in. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. wide. DD. E. brass: E. The binding posts. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. Cut the top. K. can be made panel as shown. long. wood: C.

from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. with 3/4-in. cut in them.. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. Ill. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. material. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. 2 and made from 1/4-in. AA. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. Make 12 cleats. Garfield. as shown. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. as shown in the sketch. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. In operation. When the electrical waves strike the needle. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. brads. E. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. 13-1/2 in. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. long.

when used with a motor. N. and. --Contributed by John Koehler. B. down into the water increases the surface in contact. filled with water. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. the magnet. A fairly stiff spring. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. will give a greater speed. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. A (see sketch). E. When the pipe is used. J. F. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. A. C. Brown. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. Pushing the wire. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. Y. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. --Contributed by R. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. pulls down the armature. Ridgewood. and thus decreases the resistance.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. Fairport. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. The cord is also fastened to a lever. through which a piece of wire is passed. A. in order to increase the surface. N.

even those who read this description. Gachville. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. --Contributed by Perry A. if desired. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. N. Borden. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder.for the secret contact. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. Of course. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. B. thus discharging the contents of the hopper.

apart. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. as shown in Fig. thick and 12-in. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. Jr. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. C. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. long and 5 in. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. wide. The three shelves are cut 25-in. E. J. Dobson. The top board is made 28-in. wide. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. from the bottom. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. long and full 12-in. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. 2. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. where the other end of wire is fastened. East Orange. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. wide. H. 1. in a semicircle 2 in. Mangold. for 10in. D. . With about 9 ft. --Contributed by H.. and on both sides of the middle shelf. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. records. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. for 6-in. Two drawers are fitted in this space. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. Washington. wide. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. Cal. Nails for stops are placed at DD. A.whenever the bell rings. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. C. N. --Contributed by Dr. as shown in Fig. records and 5-5/8 in. From a piece of brass a switch. deep and 3/4 in. wide. Connect switch to post B. Compton.

thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. 1. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. A. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. which in operation is bent. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. B. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. closed. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. Va. E. When the cord is passed over pulley C. Roanoke. as shown in Fig. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] .Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. to which is fastened a cord. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. as shown by the dotted lines.

apart. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. through one of these holes. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. which should be about 1/2 in. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. Fig. If the wheels fit too tightly. thick (A. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. deep and 1/2 in. E. D. In these grooves place wheels. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. in diameter. 1 in. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. 3. square and 7/8 in. Cut two grooves. In the sides (Fig. wide. is compressed by wheels. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. in diameter. Notice the break (S) in the track. but a larger one could be built in proportion. deep. in diameter. one in each end. wide. to turn on pins of stout wire. Bore two 1/4 in. Put the rubber tube. Fig. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. long. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. CC. Fig. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. 1 in. Figs. excepting the crank and tubing. 1. 5) when they are placed. E. These wheels should be 3/4 in. 3). thick. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. they will let the air through. it too loose. The crankpin should fit tightly. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. 4 shows the wheel-holder.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. Figs. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. B. in diameter. against which the rubber tubing. Do not fasten the sides too . When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. as shown in the illustration. Now put all these parts together. they will bind. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. holes (HH.

of material. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. Two feet of 1/4-in. 1. To use the pump. Fig. from that mark the next hole. Then turn the crank from left to right. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. a platform should be added. as shown in Fig. because he can . The animal does not fear to enter the box. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. from each end. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. Hubbard. as it gives steadiness to the motion. 1. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. iron. A in Fig. For ease in handling the pump. The three legs marked BBB. mark again. and are 30 in. 17-1/2 in. Idana. though a small iron wheel is better. 15 in. AA. Take the center of the bar. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. the other wheel has reached the bottom. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. the pump will give a steady stream. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. 1. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. 1. and 3-1/2 in. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. --Contributed by Dan H. Fig. beyond each of these two. If the motion of the wheels is regular. B. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. tubing. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. mark for hole and 3 in. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. AA. and mark for a hole. The screen which is shown in Fig. from the bottom and 2 in. long. costing 10 cents. from each end. Kan. is all the expense necessary. 2. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. Cut six pieces. Fig. 1. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. 2.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. stands 20 in. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. In the two cross bars 1 in. Fig. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. from each end.

potassium bichromate. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. The battery is now ready for use. 2). Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. rub the zinc well. When the bichromate has all dissolved. If it is wet. until it is within 3 in. 14 copper wire. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. 4 oz. but if one casts his own zinc. some of it should be poured out. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. however. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. sulphuric acid. giving it a bright. Philadelphia. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. acid 1 part). and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. stirring constantly. or small electric motors. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. of the top. silvery appearance. or. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. It is useful for running induction coils. When through using the battery. The truncated. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. To cause a flow of electricity. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. C. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. Meyer. long having two thumb screws. shuts him in. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. dropping.see through it: when he enters. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. and the solution (Fig. of water dissolve 4 oz. add slowly. The mercury will adhere. If the solution touches the zinc. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. 1) must be prepared. The battery is now complete. there is too much liquid in the jar. . Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. Place the carbon in the jar. --Contributed by H. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. If the battery has been used before. and touches the bait the lid is released and.

1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. pressing the pedal closes the door. After putting in the coal. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. with slight changes. while the coal door is being opened. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. the battery circuit. If. however. Madison.Fig. which opens the door. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. e. The price of the coil depends upon its size. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. i. the jump-spark coil . The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor.. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. Wis. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted.

Fig. 6. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. Change the coil described.7. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. 5. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. as shown in Fig. being a 1-in. apart. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. 6. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. W W. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. and closer for longer distances. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. in a partial vacuum. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. the full length of the coil. coil. in a straight line from top to bottom. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. Now for the receiving apparatus. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. 7. diameter. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. This will make an excellent receiver. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. . which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". as shown in Fig. 7. After winding. 7). while a 12-in. This coil. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. made of No. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. W W.described elsewhere in this book. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. which is made of light copper wire. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig.

The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. above the ground. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. 1). These circles. A large cone pulley would then be required.The aerial line. where A is the headstock. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. The writer does not claim to be the originator. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. being vertical. but simply illustrates the above to show that. to the direction of the current. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. . To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. as it matches the color well. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. For an illustration. A. in the air. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. and hence the aerial line. B the bed and C the tailstock. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. but it could be run by foot power if desired. 90°. only. at any point to any metal which is grounded. 90°. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. Figs.6 stranded. which will be described later. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. are analogous to the flow of induction. 1 to 4. being at right angles. may be easily made at very little expense. I run my lathe by power. using an electric motor and countershaft. after all. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. No. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. Run a wire from the other binding post. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one.

steel tubing about 1/8 in. If the bearing has been properly made. The bearing is then ready to be poured. deep. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. 4. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. and runs in babbitt bearings. but not hot enough to burn it. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. Fig. just touching the shaft. B. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. 5. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. on the under side of the bed. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. and Fig. which are let into holes FIG. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. 5. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. pitch and 1/8 in. Fig.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. A. 6 Headstock Details D. Fig. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. tapered wooden pin. one of which is shown in Fig. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. 6. 2 and 3. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. After pouring. The bolts B (Fig. too. Fig. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. To make these bearings. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. which pass through a piece of wood. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. 4. Heat the babbitt well. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. The headstock. and it is well to have the shaft hot. thick. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A.

The tail stock (Fig. lock nut. Take up about 5 ft. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. If one has a wooden walk.other machines. Newark. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. If not perfectly true. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. B. embedded in the wood. Ill.7 Details of Tailstock pipe.J. so I had to buy one. N. and a 1/2-in. of the walk . --Contributed by Donald Reeves. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. This prevents corrosion. A. the alarm is easy to fix up. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. they may be turned up after assembling. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. Oak Park. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. FIG. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock.

as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. water. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. of water. --Contributed by R. save when a weight is on the trap. Then make the solution . Fig. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. so that they will not touch. hang the articles on the wires. (A. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. Do not touch the work with the hands again. Finally. Minn. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. 2). leaving a clear solution. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. and the alarm is complete. clean the articles thoroughly. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. Connect up an electric bell. silver or other metal. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. To avoid touching it. Jackson. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. Minneapolis. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. before dipping them in the potash solution. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. to roughen the surface slightly. add potassium cyanide again. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. to remove all traces of grease. S. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz.

I. nickel and such metals. pewter. silver can be plated direct. This solution. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. thick by 3 in. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. which is held by catch B. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. In rigging it to a sliding door. will serve for the key. and the larger part (F. Take quick. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. A (Fig. Before silver plating. Can be made of a 2-in. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. Make a somewhat larger block (E. must be about 1 in. lead. 10 in. a circuit is completed. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. and 4 volts for very small ones. If accumulators are used.5 to 4 volts. zinc. 18 wire. which . 1). if one does not possess a buffing machine. which is advised. B should be of the same wood. of clothesline rope and some No. Where Bunsen cells are used. --Model Engineer. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. from the lower end. hole in its center. When all this is set up. with water. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. Fig. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. Screw the two blocks together. use 2 volts for large articles. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. copper. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. such metals as iron. make a key and keyhole. as shown in Fig. piece of broomstick. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. 3) directly over the hole. 1 in. saw a piece of wood. as at F. 3. With an electric pressure of 3. 1). 1. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. about 25 ft. of water. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. but opens the door. Fig. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. Having finished washing the precipitate. A 1/4 in. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. an old electric bell or buzzer. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. Repeat six times. German silver. light strokes. long. On brass. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other.up to 2 qt. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. with the pivot 2 in. To provide the keyhole. and then treated as copper. 3) strikes the bent wire L. Then. also. 1 not only unlocks. Fig. long. a hand scratch brush is good. If more solution is required. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. Fig. when the point of the key touches the tin. The wooden block C. square. The wooden catch. with water. shaking.

and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. --Contributed by E. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. Fig. heighten the illusion. should be cut a hole. enlarged. and hands its contents round to the audience. and a slit. The interior must be a dead black. to throw the light toward the audience. top. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. He removes the bowl from the black box. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. which unlocks the door. Fig. in his shirt sleeves. is the cut through which the rope runs. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. One thing changes to another and back again. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. H. Receiving the bowl again. Objects appear and disappear. B. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. the illumination in front must be arranged. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key.. he points with one finger to the box. shows catch B. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. Thus. a few simple tools. Next. no painting inside is required. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. New Jersey. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. 116 Prospect St. half way from open end to closed end. or cave. some black cloth. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. 2. On either side of the box. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. H. although a little more trouble. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. To prepare such a magic cave. floor. spoons and jackknives. 0. In front of you. Fig. Fig. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. 3. sides and end. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. between the parlor and the room back of it. he tosses it into the cave. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. The magician stands in front of this. Heavy metal objects. 2. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. the box should be painted black both inside and out. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. The box must be altered first. . East Orange. and finally lined inside with black cloth. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. surrounding a perfectly black space. 1. One end is removed. and plenty of candles. cut in one side. the requisites are a large soap box. so much the better. with the lights turned low. and black art reigns supreme. Next. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. such as forks. 1. one-third of the length from the remaining end. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. some black paint. H. with a switch as in Fig. Klipstein. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again.

But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. and several black drop curtains. which are let down through the slit in the top. is on a table) so much the better.Finally. The exhibitor should be . who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. which can be made to dance either by strings. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. of course. only he. you must have an assistant. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. the room where the cave is should be dark. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. and pours them from the bag into a dish. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. one on each side of the box. into the eyes of him who looks. had a big stage. and if portieres are impossible. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. as presented by Hermann. Consequently. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. The illusion. of course. But illusions suggest themselves. The audience room should have only low lights. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. if. his confederate behind inserts his hand. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. in which are oranges and apples. was identical with this. a screen must be used.

held down on disk F by two other terminals. 2. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . Then. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. terminal c3 will show +. held down on it by two terminals. 1.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. making contact with them as shown at y. and c1 – electricity. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. About the center piece H moves a disk. as shown in Fig. at L. and a common screw. A represents a pine board 4 in. Fig. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. b2. respectively. 2. d. or binding posts. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. square. by means of two wood screws. vice versa. b3. c3. by 4 in. FIG. 1. e1 and e2.a boy who can talk. A. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). when handle K is turned to one side. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. or b2.. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. On the disk G are two brass strips. held down by another disk F (Fig. f2. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. if you turn handle K to the right. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. and c4 + electricity. is shown in the diagram. c4. b3. b2. and c2 to the zinc. their one end just slips under the strips b1. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. 2). which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. respectively. Finally. respectively. c1. so arranged that. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. terminal c3 will show . with three brass strips. making contact with them. b1.

from three batteries. and when on No. E. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. 4. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. you have the current of one battery. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. Joerin. Tuttle. When switch B is closed and A is on No. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. and then hold the receiver to your ear. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . 1. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). from five batteries. . jump spark coil. 5. when on No. thus making the message audible in the receiver. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. from four batteries.. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. when A is on No. 3. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. Jr. when on No. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. -Contributed by A. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. B is a onepoint switch. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. and C and C1 are binding posts. --Contributed by Eugene the connections and providing a suitable antenna. Newark. Ohio.

and placed on the windowsill of the car. The device thus arranged. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. La. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. traveled by the thread.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. E. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. as shown in the sketch. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. Handy Electric Alarm . B. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. per second. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. New Orleans. rule.. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. A. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. so one can see the time. Thus. Redmond. which may be a button or other small object. over the bent portion of the rule. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. and supporting the small weight. Wis. is the device of H. P. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. mark. A. per second for each second. When you do not have a graduate at hand. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. mark. of Burlington. A.

fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. --C. Instead. Pa. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. . Lane. which illuminates the face of the clock. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. for a wetting is the inevitable result. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. Crafton. B. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. soldered to the alarm winder.which has a piece of metal. but may be closed at F any time desired. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. S. --Contributed by Gordon T. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. When the alarm goes off. wrapping the wire around the can several times. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. C. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. and with the same result. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. Then if a mishap comes. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn.

models and miniature objects. ornaments of various kinds. A. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. binding posts. If there is no foundry Fig. It is possible to make molds without a bench. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . --Contributed by A. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. L. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. small machinery parts. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. bearings. The first thing to make is a molding bench. as shown. which may.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. battery zincs. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. AA. Macey. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. 1. With the easily made devices about to be described. C. and duplicates of all these. and many other interesting and useful articles. 1 . as shown in Fig. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. New York City. BE. engines. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. when it is being prepared. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. Two cleats. whence it is soon tracked into the house. but it is a mistake to try to do this. cannons.

and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other.How to Make a Mold [96] . G. by 6 in. will be required. A slight shake of the bag Fig. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. a little larger than the outside of the flask.near at hand. is about the right mesh. Fig. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated." or lower part. E. which can be either aluminum. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. Fig. If the box is not very strong. J. which can be made of a knitted stocking. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. The cloth bag. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. as shown. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. It is made of wood and is in two halves. The flask. is nailed to each end of the cope. high. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. F. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. previous to sawing. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. which should be nailed in. makes a very good sieve. is shown more clearly in Fig. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. CC. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. 2 . will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. and the "drag. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. A A. say 12 in. The dowels. try using sand from other sources. CC. the "cope. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. II . but this operation will be described more fully later on. 2." or upper half. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. 1. is filled with coal dust. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. white metal. DD. H. The rammer.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. is made of wood. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. as shown. by 8 in. and this. An old teaspoon. and a sieve. 1. and the lower pieces. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. and saw it in half longitudinally. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. D. A wedge-shaped piece. If desired the sieve may be homemade. A good way to make the flask is to take a box.

pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry." in position. as it is much easier to learn by observation. as shown at D. The sand is then ready for molding. in order to remove the lumps. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. In finishing the ramming. and by grasping with both hands. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. as shown at E. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. After ramming. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. and then more sand is added until Fig. as shown. the surface of the sand at . it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. and scatter about 1/16 in. as shown at C. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. and if water is added. and thus judge for himself. Place another cover board on top. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. It is then rammed again as before. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. as described. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. or "cope. or "drag. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. turn the drag other side up. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. where they can watch the molders at work. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand.

Fig. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. thus making a dirty casting. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. made out of steel rod. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. as shown at J. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. ." or pouring-hole. after being poured. as shown at G. as shown at F. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. as shown at H. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. This is done with a spoon. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. place the cope back on the drag. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made.E should be covered with coal-dust. The "sprue. as shown at H. III. and then pour. to give the air a chance to escape. in diameter. thus holding the crucible securely. is next cut. Place a brick or other flat. deep. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. it shows that the sand is too wet. in order to prevent overheating. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. wide and about 1/4 in. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. After drawing the pattern. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. as shown in the sketch.

babbitt. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. used only for zinc. although somewhat expensive.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. Although the effect in the illustration . The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. Minneapolis. and the casting is then ready for finishing. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. may be used in either direction. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. --Contributed by Harold S. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. Morton. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. battery zincs. If a good furnace is available. Referring to the figure. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. the following device will be found most convenient. In my own case I used four batteries. and. white metal and other scrap available. is very desirable. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. but any reasonable number may be used. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. or from any adjacent pair of cells. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. 15% lead. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell.

3/4 in. Fig. as shown at A. 2. shaft made. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. A. outward. If desired. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. Chicago. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. Make one of these pieces for each arm. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. as shown in the illustration. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. backward. --Contributed by Draughtsman. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. The brass rings also appear distorted. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. Then walk down among the audience. B. By replacing the oars with paddles. may be made of hardwood. The bearings. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . To make it take a sheet-iron band. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. B. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. which will be sufficient to hold it. Put a sharp needle point. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. connected by cords to the rudder. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. Then replace the table.

2 and 3. 1. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. 1. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. or under pressure. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. A block of ice. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. D. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. when it will again return to its original state. W. The hubs. should be made of wood. The covers. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. A. but when in motion. as shown in Fig. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. If babbitt is used. Fig. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. 3. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. In the same way. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. C. and a weight. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. or the paint will come off. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. being simply finely divided ice. If galvanized iron is used. 2. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. Snow. spoiling its appearance. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. 1. as shown in Fig. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. E.melted babbitt. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. It may seem strange that ice .

Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. Pressing either push button. sometimes only one or two feet a day. but. which resembles ice in this respect. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. or supporting it in some similar way. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. Lane. Crafton. and assume the shape shown at B. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. by 2 in. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. thus giving a high resistance contact. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. square. as per sketch. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends.. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. but by placing it between books. by 5 in. The rate of flow is often very slow. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. in. by 1/2 in. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . using a closed circuit or gravity battery. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. as shown on page 65. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. by 1/4. --Contributed by Gordon T. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. no matter how slow the motion may be. it will gradually change from the original shape A. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. brass. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in.should flow like water. Pa. whenever there is any connection made at all. B. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. P.

vertical lever. the battery. pulleys. horizontal lever. --Contributed by A. as shown. alarm clock. The success depends upon a slow current. as shown. draft chain. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. draft. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. Pa. C.000 ft. E. J. furnace. G. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. the induction coil. K . about the size used for automobiles. H. I. F. D.thumb screws. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. wooden supports. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. Wilkinsburg. Indianapolis. and five dry batteries. A is the circuit breaker. B. Ward. In the wiring diagram. cord. weight. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. B. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. and C. G. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. The parts are: A. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out.

If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. such as used for a storm window. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. The frame (Fig. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. will fit nicely in them.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. where house plants are kept in the home. Mich. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. material framed together as shown in Fig. Kalamazoo. Artistic Window Boxes The top. as well as the bottom. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. 3. which will provide a fine place for the plants. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. 2 are dressed to the right angle.

W. and will give the . multiples of series of three. 1 each complete with base. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. so as to increase the current. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. Grant. e. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. Push the needle into the cork. and the instrument will then be complete. can be connected up in series. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. but maintain the voltage constant. The 1/2-cp. This is more economical than dry cells. --Contributed by Wm. Canada. i. It must be remembered. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. in any system of lamps. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. in this connection. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. one can regulate the batteries as required. and a suitable source of power. Halifax. 1. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. 1 cp. However. N. and cost 27 cents FIG. Thus. in diameter. where they are glad to have them taken away.. which sells for 25 cents. a cork and a needle. this must be done with very great caution. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. by connecting them in series. as indicated by Fig. after a rest. for some time very satisfactorily. S. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. However.. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. A certain number of these.. is something that will interest the average American boy. since a battery is the most popular source of power. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. as if drawn upon for its total output. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp.

especially those of low internal resistance. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. for display of show cases. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. 2 shows the scheme. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. These will give 3 cp. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. If wound for 10 volts. if wound for 6 volts. However. we simply turn on the water. 1-cp. So. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. 18 B & S. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. or 22 lights.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance.proper voltage. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. In conclusion. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. making. and for Christmas trees. double insulated wire wherever needed. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. and diffused light in a room. lamps. Thus. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. as in Fig. according to the water pressure obtainable. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. Fig. lamps. where the water pressure is the greatest. and running the series in parallel.. 3. by the proper combination of these. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. although the first cost is greater. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. lamp. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. Chicago. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. 11 series. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. Thus. and then lead No. FIG. to secure light by this method. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. which is the same as that of one battery. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. . generates the power for the lights. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. each.

or a tempting bone. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. bars of pole-changing switch. the letters indicate as follows: FF. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. A. and C. B. and the sides. Plymouth. . center points of switch. switch. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. Emig. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. AA. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. --Contributed by F. are cut just alike. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. --Contributed by Leonard E. Santa Clara. we were not bothered with them. After I connected up my induction coil. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. simply change the switch. brushes of motor. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. Parker. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. as shown in the sketch. BB. a bait of meat. To reverse the motor. or from one pattern. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. outside points of switch.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. field of motor. A indicates the ground. Ind. Cal. thus reversing the machine. CC. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. DD. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. B.

To unlock the door. If it is not. San Jose. a hammer. A. attached to the end of the armature B. 903 Vine St. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. The experiment works best . the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. and a table or bench. Minn. When the circuit is broken a weight. thus locking the door. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. a piece of string. which is in the door. as it is the key to the lock. merely push the button E. Cal.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. or would remain locked. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. Hutchinson.. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. The button can be hidden. one cell being sufficient. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. -Contributed by Claude B. W. Fry. Melchior.

the key turns. Porto Rico. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. Culebra. releasing the weight. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. Ontario. run through a pulley. Crawford Curry. the stick falls away. C. P. Brockville. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig.Contributed by F. Canada. attached at the other end. -. which pulls the draft open. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. 2. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. forming a loop. . Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. in the ceiling and has a window weight. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig.. On another block of wood fasten two wires. A. 3. 1). The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. as shown in Fig. where it will remain suspended as shown.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. 3. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. Schmidt. the current flows with the small arrows. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. Madison. When the alarm rings in the early morning. 18 Gorham St. 4). Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. W. Wis. --Contributed by Geo. Tie the ends of the string together. D. I.

Connect two wires to the transmitter. Jr. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. and . or from a bed of flowers. R. made with his own hands. N. which fasten to the horn. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. The cut shows the arrangement. square and 1 in. thence to a switch. Camden. D. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. running one direct to the receiver.. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. The apparatus is not difficult to construct.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. and then to the receiver. or tree. --Contributed by Wm. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. Use a barrel to work on. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. 6 in. J. and the other to the battery. thick. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. J. including the mouthpiece. S. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. First. Farley. and break the corners off to make them round. get two pieces of plate glass.

2.. wet till soft like paint. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. When polishing the speculum. also rotate the glass. Fig. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. so the light . and label. as in Fig. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. melt 1 lb. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. and a large lamp. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. Use a binger to spread it on with. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. in length. wide around the convex glass or tool. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. 1. or less. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. In a dark room. then 8 minutes. wetting it to the consistency of cream. 2. Fasten. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. or it will not polish evenly. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. When done the glass should be semitransparent. the coarse grinding must be continued. spaces. then take 2 lb. When dry. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. with pitch. Then warm and press again with the speculum. Have ready six large dishes. and is ready for polishing. and spread on the glass. while walking around the barrel. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. unless a longer focal length is wanted. of water. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. A. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. using straight strokes 2 in.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. by the side of the lamp.. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. with 1/4-in. Fig. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. twice the focal length away. and the under glass or tool convex. set the speculum against the wall. L. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. a round 4-in.

the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. must be procured. Place the speculum S. 2. the speculum is ready to be silvered.. Solution D: Sugar loaf . the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. 4 oz.………………………………. 100 gr. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. 25 gr. or hills. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. from the lamp. If not. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. Fig. Fig. 840 gr. The knife should not be more than 6 in. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark.100 gr. Two glass or earthenware dishes. With pitch. deep. 39 gr. Place the speculum. long to the back of the speculum. Then add 1 oz. add the ammonia solution drop by drop. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. 4 oz. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. Nitric acid . large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in...Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. Now add enough of the solution A. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia..……………………………. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid.……………. Then add solution B. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube.. fill the dish with distilled water. touched with rouge. 2.. that was set aside. longer strokes.. also how the rays R from a star . pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. When dry. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). shorter strokes should be used in polishing. Fig. the speculum will show some dark rings. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. and pour the rest into the empty dish.. cement a strip of board 8 in. as in K. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. with distilled water. When the focus is found.. face down. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz.. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. Silver nitrate ……………………………. then ammonia until bath is clear. Alcohol (Pure) ……………. in the bath and leave until the silver rises. if a hill in the center. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. The polishing and testing done. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water …………………………….

The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. with an outlay of only a few dollars. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. is a satisfactory angle. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. Place over lens. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. long and cost me just $15. which proves to be easy of execution. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. Mellish.John E. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. My telescope is 64 in. two glass prisms.. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. The flatter they are the less they will distort. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. slightly wider than the lens mount. stop down well after focusing. About 20. deg. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. and proceed as for any picture. Thus an excellent 6-in. telescope can be made at home. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. Make the tube I of sheet iron. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. using strawboard and black paper. Then I made the one described. cover with paper and cloth. .

The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. and reflect through the negative. push the button D. B. through the lens of the camera and on the board. but will not preserve its hardening. A. unobstructed light strike the mirror. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. . as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. Ill. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. instead of the contrary. add the plaster gradually to the water. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. or powdered alum. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. complete the arrangement. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. To unlock. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. Zimmerman. D. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. Do not stir it. 2. as shown in Fig. The paper is exposed. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. then add a little sulphate of potash. Boody. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. 1. says the Master Painter. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. The rays of the clear. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. Fig. -Contributed by A.

I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. as shown in the sketch. use a string. but will remain suspended without any visible support. To reverse. Then blow through the spool. as in Fig. Fig. 3. so that it can rotate about these points. also provide them with a handle. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. throw . If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. 2. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. 1). as at A and B. 2.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. Fasten on the switch lever. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass.

Take out. --Contributed by R. In the sketch. wash in running water. .Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. carbon sockets. Push one end of the tire into the hole. Thomas. -Contributed by Morris L. and rub dry with linen cloth. San Antonio. as shown in the sketch. and E E. Neb. A is the electricbell magnet. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. although this is not necessary. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. D. --Contributed by Geo. binding posts. L. Levy. rinse in alcohol. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. San Marcos. North Bend. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. B. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. carbons. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. Go McVicker. Tex. C C. Tex. the armature. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No.

Bell. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. 36 magnet wire. --Contributed by Joseph B. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. 14 or No. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. wound evenly about this core. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. 16 magnet wire. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. Brooklyn. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. long or more. By means of two or more layers of No. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip.

2 may be purchased at a small cost. then the strip of tin-foil. with room also for a small condenser. In shaping the condenser. wide. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. long and 5 in. and finally the fourth strip of paper. This makes a condenser which may be folded. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. a box like that shown in Fig. When cut and laid in one continuous length. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound.which would be better to buy ready-made. long and 2-5/8 in. After the core wires are bundled. making two layers. diameter. the entire core may be purchased readymade. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. which is an important factor of the coil. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. as shown in Fig. The primary is made of fine annealed No. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. coil illustrates the general details of the work. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. in length. about 6 in. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. at a time. Beginning half an inch from one end. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. 1. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. 4. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. one piece of the paper is laid down. No. as the maker prefers. The condenser is next wrapped . hole is bored in the center of one end. but if it is not convenient to do this work. A 7/8-in. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. or 8 in. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. 2 yd. The following method of completing a 1-in. and the results are often unsatisfactory. which is desirable. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. in diameter.

B. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. bell. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. F. and one from battery. The alarm key will turn and drop down.securely with bands of paper or tape. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. which is insulated from the first. A. one from bell. and the other sheet. V-shaped copper strip. I. 4 in. lines H. open switch C. B. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. round so that the inside . battery . Fig. to the door. by 12 in. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. D. switch. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. copper lever with 1-in. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell.) The wiring diagram. shows how the connections are made. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. long and 12 in. forms the other pole or terminal. long to key. spark. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. wide. the letters indicate as follows: A. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. go. C. flange turned on one side. whole length. 3. G. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. E. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. ready for assembling. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down.. shelf for clock. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. which allows wiring at the back.

The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. . of zinc sulphate. from the bottom. Line the furnace. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. and the battery is ready for use. 2 in. instead of close to it. but add 5 or 6 oz. Short-circuit for three hours. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. Use a glass or metal shade. The circuit should also have a high resistance. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. and then rivet the seam. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. says the Model Engineer. but with the circuit. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. If desired for use immediately.diameter is 7 in. This is for blowing. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing.. do not shortcircuit. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. That is what they are for. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. of blue stone. London.

In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. affects . and then. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. below the bottom of the zinc. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. for some it will turn one way.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. To operate the trick. g. Outside of the scientific side involved. herein I describe a much better trick. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. If any or your audience presume to dispute. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. long. At least it is amusing. This type of battery will give about 0. 1. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. changes white phosphorus to yellow. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. Try it and see. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood.9 of a volt. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. Ohio. If too low. imparting to them a violet tinge. while for others it will not revolve at all." which created much merriment. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. or think they can do the same let them try it. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. Enlarge the hole slightly. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. but the thing would not move at all.. square and about 9 in. the second finger along the side. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. for others the opposite way. oxygen to ozone. grip the stick firmly in one hand. thus producing two different vibrations. as in the other movement. 2. and therein is the trick. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. porcelain and paper.

It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. a short-focus lens. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. but not essential. insects. a means for holding it vertical. if possible. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. says the Photographic Times.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. and one of them is photomicrography. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. earth. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. chemicals. and. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. To the front board is attached a box.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. however. but this is less satisfactory. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. but small flowers. an old tripod screw. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in.

Get a piece of paper 15 ft. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. 697 44 lb. 8 ft. 10 ft 523 33 lb. 12 ft. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. 7-1/2 in. A line. Cap. or 3 ft. 381 24 lb. 113 7 lb. in Cu. CD. Fig. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. balloon. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. 6 ft. wide from which to cut a pattern. Divide one-quarter of the circle . or 31 ft. 905 57 lb. 9 ft. 1. Madison. 7 ft. Boston. long and 3 ft.--Contributed by George C. Mass. 5 ft. 5 in. in diameter. while it is not so with the quill. and a line. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. Ft Lifting Power. 65 4 lb. which is 15 ft. 268 17 lb. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. AB. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. 11 ft. 7-1/2 in. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. The following table will give the size. 179 11 lb. If the balloon is 10 ft.

The amounts necessary for a 10- . If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. The pattern is now cut.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. Procure 1 gal. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. 4. keeping the marked part on the outside. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. of the very best heavy body. This test will show if the bag is airtight. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. 2. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. 70 thread. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. Repeat this operation four times. cutting all four quarters at the same time. 3. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. and so on. The cloth segments are sewed together. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. of beeswax and boil well together. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. using a fine needle and No. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. making a double seam as shown in Fig. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. on the curved line from B to C. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating.

When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. A. B. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. About 15 lb. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. by fixing. pipe. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. of iron. of gas in one hour. with the iron borings. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. using a fine brush.. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. of iron borings and 125 lb. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. or dusting with a dry brush. if it is good it will dry off. balloon are 125 lb. which may sound rather absurd. . Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. B. 150 gr. A. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. as shown in Fig. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. a clean white rag. with 3/4in. 5. Fill the other barrel. this should be repeated frequently. C. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. 1 lb. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. to the bag. ft. it is not fit to use. C.Green Iron ammonium citrate . A. Vegetable oils should never be used. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. ]. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. capacity and connect them. Water 1 oz. or a fan. of sulphuric acid. After washing a part. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. should not enter into the water over 8 in.ft. When the clock has dried. leaving the hand quite clean. of water will make 4 cu. until no more dirt is seen. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. 5 . oil the spindle holes carefully. In the barrel. B. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. The outlet. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. All FIG. . The 3/4-in. but if any grease remains on the hand. 1 lb. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. above the level of the water in barrel A. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. with water 2 in. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B.

The miniature 16 cp. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. of the cell is connected to a ground wire.000 ft. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. dry atmosphere will give best results. keeping the fingers out of the solution. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. Port Melbourne. The positive pole. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. toning first if desired. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. or carbon. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell.Water 1 oz. or battery. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. A longer exposure will be necessary. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band.. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. Dry the plates in the dark. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. or zinc. and keep in the dark until used. Dry in the dark. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. of any make. at the time of employment. and a vigorous negative must be used. fix in hypo. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. to avoid blackened skin. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. says the Moving Picture World. . . 20 to 30 minutes. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. Exposure. A cold. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. The negative pole. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. This aerial collector can be made in . Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. Printing is done in the sun. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp.

a positive and a negative. the resistance is less. in diameter. forming a cup of the pipe. lay a needle. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. both positive and negative. will soon become dry and useless. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. holes . It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon.various ways. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. 5 in. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. If the waves strike across the needle. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. when left exposed to the air. as described below. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. long. The storage cell. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. and have the other connected with another aerial line. This will complete the receiving station. lead pipe. and as less current will flow the short way. As the telephone offers a high resistance. If the wave ceases. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. making a ground with one wire. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid.

an oblong one and a triangular one. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. does not need to be watertight. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. or tube C. namely: a square hole. by soldering the joint. and the other to the negative. says the Pathfinder. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. of course. This. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. one to the positive. The other plate is connected to the zinc. except for about 1 in. on each end. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. B. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. D. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to possible. When mixing the acid and water. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. Two binding-posts should be attached. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. or tube B. a round one. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. This support or block. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. This box can be square.

This punt. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. leaving about 1/16 in. . --Contributed by Edwin Walker. Ill. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. and match them together. deep and 4 ft. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. C. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. and has plenty of good seating capacity. long. The third piece of brass. back and under. 2. about 20 in. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. as it is not readily overturned. all around the edge. were fitted by this one plug. thick cut two pieces alike. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. Only galvanized nails should be used. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. as shown in Fig. 3. in place on the wood. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. 1. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. is built 15 ft. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. 2. C. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. 1.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. Chicago. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. wide. wide. A and B. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch.

is cut 1 in. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. In Fig. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. Wash. A. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. gas pipe. A piece of 1/4-in. thick and 3-1/2 in. Tacoma. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. square (Fig 2). Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. B.

which the writer has made. without auxiliary phase. Wagner.--Contributed by Charles H. may be of interest to some of our readers. it had to be borne in mind that.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. says the Model Engineer. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens." has no connection with the outside circuit. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. H. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. or "rotor. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. which can be developed in the usual manner. with the exception of insulated wire. no special materials could be obtained. if possible. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. lamp. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. no more current than a 16-cp. The winding of the armature. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. and to consume. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. In designing.

They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. and all sparking is avoided. to be filed out after they are placed together. 5. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. holes. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. also varnished before they were put in. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. A. in diameter were drilled in the corners. this little machine is not self-starting. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. being used. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. and filled with rivets. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. thick. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. C. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side.the field-magnet. 3. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. or "stator. 2. 4. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. were then drilled and 1/4-in. as shown in Fig. The stator is wound full with No. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. They are not particularly accurate as it is. while the beginnings . Holes 5-32 in. After assembling a second time. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. wrought iron. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. Unfortunately. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. about 2-1/2 lb. as shown in Fig. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. B. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. 1. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. with the dotted line. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. bolts put in and tightened up. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. no steel being obtainable.

When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. One is by contact. and the other by reduction in the camera. In making slides by contact. if applied immediately. film to film. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. Jr. and as each layer of wire was wound. The image should . All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. as before stated. as shown in Fig. 2. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. a regulating resistance is not needed. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. No starting resistance is needed.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. J. 3-Contributed by C. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire.. McKinney. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. E. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. 1. and would not easily get out of order. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. it would be very simple to build. If too late for alcohol to be of use. as a means of illustrating songs. The lantern slide is a glass plate. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. N. and all wound in the same direction. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. The rotor is wound with No. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. having no commutator or brushes. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. Newark. This type of motor has drawbacks. and as the motor runs at constant speed. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. and especially of colored ones. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides.

and development should be over in three or four minutes. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. if possible. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. Being unbreakable. 1. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. C. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. These can be purchased from any photo material store. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. B. to use a plain fixing bath. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. about a minute. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. 4. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. D. Select a room with one window. It is best. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. 5. also. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide.appear in. they are much used by travelers. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. 3. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. the formulas being found in each package of plates. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. A. If the exposure has been correct. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. Fig. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. over the mat. 2. a little extra work will be necessary. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. and then a plain glass. except that the binding is different. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. Draw lines with a pencil.

long. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. Vt. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. while the dot will be in front of the other. Corinth. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. holes bored in the end pieces. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. 16 in. as shown at B. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. from the end piece of the chair. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. A piece of canvas. or other stout cloth. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. 2. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. in diameter and 40 in. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. as shown in Fig. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. wide and 50 in. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. from the ends. These longer pieces can be made square. known as rods and cones. in diameter and 20 in. 1. If the star is in front of the left eye. from the center of this dot draw a star. is to be used for the seat. 1. long. Hastings. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. Fig. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. as shown at A. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. Fig. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. long. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in.

was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. . Auburn. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. J. 1. Cal. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. in thickness and 10 in. A belt. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. O'Gara. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. as well as to operate other household machines. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. A disk 1 in. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. 2.-Contributed by P. made from an ordinary sash cord. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. per square inch.

to the top of the bench. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. with as fine a thread as possible. it serves a very useful purpose. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. direction. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. and the construction is complete. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. leaving it shaped like a bench. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. Put the bolt in the hole. Bore a 1/4-in. A simple. wide. The part of a rotation of the bolt. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. square for a support. says the Scientific American. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. will be the thickness of the object. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. or inconvenient to measure. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. then removing the object. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. thick and 2-1/2 in. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. long. Cut out a piece from the block combination. . The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. fairly accurate. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. 3/4 in. screwing it through the nut. divided by the number of threads to the inch. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added.

Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. long. beyond the end of the wood. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. piece of wood 12 ft. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. Oal. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. globe that has been thrown away as useless. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. Place a 3/4-in. from the end that is to be used for the bottom.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. The wheel should be open . This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. Bore a 3/4-in. material 12 ft. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. long is used for the center pole. which show up fine at night. Santa Maria. bolt in each hole. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe.

Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. thick. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. H and J. long. The spool . long.-Contributed by A. A cross bar. B. L. pieces used for the spokes. and on its lower end a socket. C. wide and 1/8 in. from the top end. long. of the ends with boards. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. 1/2 in. at the bottom. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. which should be 1/4 in. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. thick. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. O. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. wide and 1/8 in. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in.Side and Top View or have spokes. square and 3 or 4 in. P. The coil. in diameter. from the ends. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. at the top and 4 in. A piece of brass 2 in. and the lower part 61/2 in. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. made of the same material. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. Tex. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. Graham. is soldered. A. Fort Worth. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. thick is used for the armature. C. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. long. to be operated by the magnet coil. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. The boards may be nailed or bolted. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. about 2-1/2 in. or a water rheostat heretofore described. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. S. This tie can be used on grain sacks. Bradlev. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. S. for insulating the brass ferrule. . The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post.--A. 1. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. then with a firm.J. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. Mass. R. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. one without either rubber or metal end. which is also connected to the brass ferrule.000 for irrigation work. --Contributed by Arthur D. 2 the hat hanging on it. 2. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. and directly centering the holes H and J. which may be had by using German silver wire.E. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. is drilled. At the bottom end of the frame. The armature. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. that holds the lower carbon. and place it against a door or window casing. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. C. B. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. Randolph. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. and in numerous other like instances. A soft piece of iron. do it without any apparent effort. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. When you slide the pencil along the casing. This is a very neat trick if performed right. D and E. by soldering. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. F. A. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. long.

The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. wide. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. A. The coil ends are made from cardboard. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in.500 turns of No. 2. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. C. may be made from a 3/8-in. Fig. S. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. The core of the coil. 1. about 3/16 in. B. in diameter and 1/16 in. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. D. for adjustment. hole in the center. 1. in diameter and 2 in. The vibrator B. The vibrator. long. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. from the core and directly opposite. and then 1. is connected to a flash lamp battery. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. about 1/8 in. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. Fig. in diameter. mixed with water to form a paste. is constructed in the usual manner. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. long and 1 in. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. Experiment with Heat [134] . The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. with a 3/16-in. About 70 turns of No. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. S. The switch. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. thick. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. in diameter. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. F. The other primary wire is connected to a switch.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. about 1 in. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. for the secondary. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. for the primary. leaving the projections as shown.

The hasp. The three screws were then put in the hasp. 2 to fit the two holes. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. 16 in. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. which is only 3/8-in. as shown. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. and the same distance inside of the new board. . with which to operate the dial. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. The knob on the dial extends out too far. 1. it laps down about 8 in. was to be secured by only three brass screws. The lock. wide. lighted. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. brass plate. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. The tin is 4 in. long and when placed over the board. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. as shown in the sketch. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. board. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. which is cut with two holes. between the boards.Place a small piece of paper. thick on the inside. Fig. which seemed to be insufficient. and then well clinched. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. in an ordinary water glass. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. 1.

or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. but when the front part is illuminated. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. black color. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. not shiny. the glass. or in the larger size mentioned. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . which completely divides the box into two parts.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. any article placed therein will be reflected in. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. clear glass as shown. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. When making of wood. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. If the box is made large enough. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. When the rear part is illuminated. and the back left dark. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. high for use in window displays. square and 8-1/2 in. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. square and 10-1/2 in. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. one in each division. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished.

Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. When there is no electric current available. as shown in the sketch. into the other. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. .Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. as it appears. When using as a window display. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. and with the proper illumination one is changed. as shown at A in the sketch. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. alternately. above the top of the tank. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. wide will be about the right size. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. long and 1 ft. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. a tank 2 ft. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in.. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

gauge for depth. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. long. and 6 ft. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. If a planing mill is near. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. 2 ft. The 13-in. thick and 3 in. one for each side. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. with a length of 13 in. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. wide. A small platform. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. bore from each end. Iron sulphate. and a solution of iron sulphate added. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. and boring two holes with a 1-in. 1 in. from the ground. dried and mixed with linseed oil. however. using a 3/4-in. bit. Three windows are provided. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. or ferrous sulphate. The pieces can then be taken out. Columbus. radius. high. but with a length of 12 in. lines gauged on each side of each. under sides together. is built on the front. 5 ft. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. and a door in front. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. O. is the green vitriol. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. Shape the under sides first. This hole must be continued . long. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. square and 40 in. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. each. This precipitate is then washed. 6 in. wide. as shown. square. hole. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. two pieces 1-1/8 in. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. then use a red-hot iron to finish. hole bored the full length through the center. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap.

When this is dry.through the pieces forming the base. Directions will be found on the filler cans. For art-glass the metal panels are . The sketch shows one method of attaching. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. apply two coats of wax. Electric globes--two. square and drawing a diagonal on each. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. if shade is purchased. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. three or four may be attached as shown. When the filler has hardened. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. Saw the two blocks apart. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. A better way. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. If the parts are to be riveted. thick and 3 in. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. hole in each block.

as brass. such as copper. METAL SHADE . the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade.Construction of Shade .The Completed Lamp cut out. and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal.

A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. as shown in the sketch. the other. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. as in ordinary devices. one way and 1/2 in. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. the object and the background. The arms holding the glass. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. Figure 1 shows the side. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. 2 the front view of this stand. and Fig. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal.

and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. wide and 6-5/16 in. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. about 1-1/4 in. pointing north and south. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. long. channel in the circumference of the ring. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. Cut another circular piece 11 in. as it is very poisonous. Put the ring in place on the base. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. Before mounting the ring on the base. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. and an inside diameter of 9 in. An ordinary pocket compass. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. in diameter for a base. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. and swinging freely. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. thick 5/8-in. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. uncork and recork again.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. as shown in the sketch. If the light becomes dim. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. wide and 11 in. as shown in the cut. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. in diameter. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. outside diameter. thus forming a 1/4-in. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily.

AA. are mounted on a base. from the second to the third.420 . 1 oz. of the top. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. Corresponding mirrors. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. Place on top the so- . into these cylinders. B.715 . The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg.600 .088 . CC. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. EE. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes .865 1. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. above the half can. in diameter and 8 in.289 . from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second.500 . Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. to which a wire has been soldered for connections. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. and mirrors. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg.182 . high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. and north of the Ohio river. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. The results given should be multiplied by 1. black oxide of copper.

during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. little crystals forming in the liquid. slender bottle. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. alcohol. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. the wheel will revolve in one direction. When renewing. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. Colo. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. of pulverized campor. then they will not rust fast. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. In Fig. which otherwise remains clear. 62 gr. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. University Park. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. always remove the oil with a siphon. Put the solution in a long. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. 31 gr. says Metal Worker. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz.

in diameter will serve very well for the box A. about 1-1/4 in. This is used in place of the spoon. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. A paper-fastener box. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. Attach to the wires. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. will allow the magnet to point north and south. If zinc and copper are used. floating on a solution. If zinc and carbon are used. --Contributed by C. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. on the under side of the cork. If two of them are floating on the same solution. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. Solder in the side of the box . A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. Lloyd Enos.

Contributed by J. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. The base. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire.not shorter than 18 in. C. Bore holes for binding-posts. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 as shown in Fig. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. E. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. The standard. long. B. thick. . wide and 2-1/2 in. 1-1/4 in. 10 wire about 10 in. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. long. hole. C. B.1-in. A. Use a board 1/2. C. The spring should be about 1 in. G--No. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. Wind evenly about 2 oz. piece of 1/4-in. To this standard solder the supporting wire. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. Rhamstine. brass tubing. to it. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. of No. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. wide and 6 in. Put ends. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. Thos. The bottom of the box.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. D. 3 in. A. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. H. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. and on the other around the glass tube. F. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. 1. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. of wire on each end extending from the coil. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. Take a small piece of soft iron. long that has about 1/4-in. glass tubing . can be made of oak. and then solder on the cover. is made from a piece of No. E. one on each side of the board. away. or made with a little black paint. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. A circular piece of cardboard. D. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. D. 1/2. If the hose is not a tight fit. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. 14 wire will stained and varnished.

about 1 in. 3. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. Smith. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. 3 in. from the right hand. of No. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. Milwaukee. D. in diameter. Cuba. four hinges. 1. Wis.--Contributed by R. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. When the glass becomes soft. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. long. long. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. J. Y. E. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. making a support as shown in Fig. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. 3-in. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. of 8-oz. About 1-1/2 lb. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. is drawn nearer to the coil. long are used for the legs. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. N. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. 5. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. 2. .of the coil. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. of mercury will be sufficient. long.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. The iron plunger. long. two pieces 2 ft. long. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. as shown in Fig.--Contributed by Edward M. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. canvas. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. Teasdale. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter.

Keys. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. 5. leaving 8 in. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. small aperture in the long tube. Measure 8 in. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. This tube as described will be 8 in. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. holding in the left hand. Break off the piece of glass. Can. 3. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. 4. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. 2. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. of vacuum at the top. expelling all the air. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. long. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. --Contributed by David A. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. thus leaving a. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. Fig. 6. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. The tube now must be filled completely.. Toronto. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. Take 1/2 in..

long. 9 in. with each projection 3-in. thick. wide and 5 ft. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. wood screws. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. and 1/4 in. 4 in. FIG. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. wide and 3 in.6 -. in diameter. joint be accurately put together. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. wide and 12 in. This forms a slot. 1. These are bent and nailed. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. 4. material 2 in. 3. cut in the shape shown in Fig. wide and 5 ft. thick. long. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. 5. as in Fig. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. A crosspiece 3/4-in. 1 in.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. 3 in. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. but yellow pine is the best. thick. 1 in. thick. as shown in Fig.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. 2. 6. long. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. 3 in. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. 7. Fig. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. long. wide and 5 ft. Four blocks 1/4 in. as shown in Fig. thick. from the end of same. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. and the single projection 3/4 in. The large pulley is about 14 in. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the .

The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. R. Kan. above the runner level. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. --Contributed by C. attach runners and use it on the ice. by 1-in. . The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. first removing the crank. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. Welsh. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. Manhattan. says Photography. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. Water 1 oz.

Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. 3. as shown in Fig. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. 1. and very much cheaper. --Contributed by Wallace C.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. as shown in Fig. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. Treasdale. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. also. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. The print is washed. from an ordinary clamp skate. 2. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. Newton. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. Mass. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. 1 oz. --Contributed by Edward M. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. Printing is carried rather far. . Leominster. of water. This is done with a camel's hair brush. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax.

A. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. wide and 4 in. 1-1/2 ft. Take two glass tubes. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. high. extending the width of the box. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. Va. and to the bottom. Church. Then. 1. --Contributed by H. high for rabbits. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. and 3 ft. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. about 10 in. and bend them as shown in the sketch. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. causing the door to swing back and up. 1 ft. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. Alexandria. square piece. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. Fig. wide. from one end. long. too. Place a 10-in. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. 2. fasten a 2-in. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. say. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. Fig. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. hole. The thread is broken off at the . which represents the back side of the door. as shown in the sketch. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. with about 1/8-in. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. The swing door B. 1. F. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught.

over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. high and 12 in. -Contributed by William M. says Camera Craft. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. Cut an opening in the other piece. plates. Fig. . Fig. long. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. Crilly. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. 3. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. and exactly 5 by 7 in. 10 in. trolley cars. Paste a piece of strong black paper. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. B. as shown in Fig. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. and go in the holder in the same way. A and B. wide.proper place to make a small hole. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. Out two rectangular holes. horses and dogs. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. in 5-in. 2. camera and wish to use some 4. shorter. wide. to be used as a driving pulley. from the edge on each side of these openings. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. in size. being 1/8 in. 1 in. Chicago. long. Take two pieces of pasteboard. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. say 8 in. This opening. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. wide and 5 in. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. but cut it 1/4 in. C. automobiles. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. D. 1. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. shorter at each end. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. black surfaced if possible. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. inside of the opening. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. Jr.. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate.

A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. making a . A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. wide will be required. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. if it has previously been magnetized. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. into which the dog is harnessed.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering in diameter. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. A cell of this kind can easily be made. long and 6 in. The needle will then point north and south. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in..

Carbons used in arc lamps will do. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. pine. zinc oxide. 3/4 lb. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. of the plate at one and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. Do not paint any surface. filter. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. with narrow flanges. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. when the paraffin is melted. leaving about 1/2-in. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. one that will hold about 1 qt. under the spool in the paraffin. in which P is the pan. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. says Electrician and Mechanic. of rosin and 2 oz. sal ammoniac. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. of water.watertight receptacle. This makes the wire smooth. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. File the rods to remove the copper plate. for a connection. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. of the top. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. in diameter and 6 in. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. . 1 lb. beeswax melted together. plaster of paris. long which are copper plated. F is a spool. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. 1/4 lb. only the joints. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. Place the pan on the stove. short time. fodder. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. B is a base of 1 in. Pack the paste in. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. Form a 1/2-in. pull out the wire as needed. fuel and packing purposes. and a notch between the base and the pan. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. A is a block of l-in.

long. and then. while for others it will not revolve at all. 2. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. Try it and see. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. g. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. for some it will turn one way. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. At least it is amusing. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. let them try it. but the thing would not move at all. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. grip the stick firmly in one hand. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. square and about 9 in. for others the opposite way. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body.. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. Ohio. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. from vexation. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. or think they can do the same. and one friend tells me that they were . To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. and therein is the trick. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. If any of your audience presume to dispute. Toledo. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. as in the other movement. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. by the Hindoos in India. thus producing two different vibrations." which created much merriment. and he finally. Enlarge the hole slightly.

while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. m. gave the best results. A square stick with notches on edge is best. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. no rotation resulted. secondly.100 r. The experiments were as follows: 1. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. and I think the results may be of interest. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. 2. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. 3. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. If the pressure was upon an edge. To operate. the rotation may be obtained. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. by means of a center punch. p. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. 7. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. rotation was obtained. 4. Thus a circular or . one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. 6. Speeds between 700 and 1. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. 5. and.

G.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. so far as can be seen from the photographs. A. D. and the resultant "basket splash. --Contributed by G. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. unwetted by the liquid. a piece of wire and a candle. or greasy. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. if the pressure is from the left. . forming a handle for carrying. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. Sloan. Ph. Lloyd. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. it will be clockwise. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. A wire is tied around the can." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. as shown. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. --Contributed by M. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. and the height of the fall about 6 in. Minn. at first. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall.D. Duluth. the upper portion is. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use.. C. is driven violently away. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. Washington..

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. as shown. hole drilled in the center. about 2-5/8 in. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. with a 1/16-in. thick and 1 in. Each wheel is 1/4 in. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . 1. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. flange and a 1/4-in. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. long. as shown in Fig. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. in diameter. axle.

The first piece. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. 3. 4. 2. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. is made from brass. These ends are fastened together. This will save buying a track. as shown in Fig. Fuller.50. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. bottom side up. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. which must be 110 volt alternating current. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. A trolley. The current. holes 1 in. Fig. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . 2. each in its proper place. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. is made from a piece of clock spring. and the locomotive is ready for running. 3.brass. The parts. or main part of the frame. Texas. as shown in Fig. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. Fig. bent as shown. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. are shown in Fig. put together complete. long. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. 3/4 in. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. wide and 16 in. 5. of No. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. wood. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. 6. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. --Contributed by Maurice E. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. with cardboard 3 in. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. If the ends are to be soldered. San Antonio. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. lamp in series with the coil. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. 1 from 1/4-in. The motor is now bolted.

slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. but do not heat the center. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. When cold treat the other end in the same way. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. then continue to tighten much more. The quarter will not go all the way down. O. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. 2. as shown in Fig. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. Cincinnati. Fig 1. 3. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. the length of a paper clip. as shown in Fig. Fig. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. and as this end . This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. 1. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. and holes drilled in them. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece.

A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. 2 and 1 respectively. or apparent security of the knot. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. and adjusted . The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. When the trick is to be performed. In the sketch. When the cutter A. has finished a cut for a tooth. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. A pair of centers are fitted. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. or should the lathe head be raised. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed.

The frame holding the mandrel. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. Second row: -Two book marks. about 1-1/2 in. N. (3. long. watch fob ready for fastenings. holding it in place with the left hand. note book. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. twisted around itself and soldered. --Contributed by Samuel C. dividing it into as many parts as desired. (4. Bott. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. Fold over along these center lines. tea cosey. (2. --Contributed by Howard S.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. book mark. When connecting to batteries. if but two parts. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. blotter back.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. (6. if four parts are to be alike. An ordinary machine will do. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks).) Place the paper design on the leather and. draw center lines across the required space.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. Bunker. run true. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. such as brass or marble. coin purse. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). and a nut pick. (1. at the same time striking light. Fig. gentleman's card case or bill book. 2. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. above the surface. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. swing lathe. (5. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. lady's belt bag. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . Y. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. or one-half of the design. lady's card case.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material.) Make on paper the design wanted. trace the outline. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. In this manner gears 3 in. tea cosey. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. 1. in diameter can be made on a 6-in.

How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. some heavy rubber hose. Secure . and an ordinary bottle.

Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. into which fit a small piece of tube. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. If the needle is not horizontal. a distance of 900 miles. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. Thrust a pin.C.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times.. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. from Key West. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. The electrodes are made . Florida. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. and bore a hole through the center. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. B. and push it through a cork. A. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. D. C. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. where it condenses. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls.

The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. take the glider to the top of a hill. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. long. wide and 4 ft. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. thick. 1-1/4 in. as shown in Fig. wide and 4 ft long.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. C. both laterally and longitudinally. Powell. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. 1. apart and extend 1 ft. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. 2 in. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. 3/4 in. 2. as shown in Fig. wide and 3 ft. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. by 3/4 in. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. Connect as shown in the illustration. To make a glide. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. wide and 20 ft. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. several strips 1/2 in. 2. square and 8 ft long. free from knots. using a high resistance receiver. wide and 3 ft. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. --Contributed by Edwin L. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. 1/2. lumber cannot be procured. 1-1/2 in. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. Four long beams 3/4 in. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. as shown in propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. 3. or flying-machine. long. wide and 4 ft. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. thick. If 20-ft. long for the body of the operator. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. 12 uprights 1/2 in. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. long. use 10-ft. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. Washington. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. which is tacked to the front edge. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. 16 piano wire. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. thick. slacken speed and settle. long. thick. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. lengths and splice them. long. 1. 1. 2 arm sticks 1 in. thick. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. The operator can then land safely and . Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. D. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. All wiring is done with No. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. and also to keep it steady in its flight.

Of course. Glides are always made against the wind. Great care should be . gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour.gently on his feet. but this must be found by experience. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. and the balancing is done by moving the legs.

which causes the dip in the line. 1. --Contributed by L. half man and half horse. 2. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. Olson. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. as shown in Fig. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] .exercised in making landings. When heated a little. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. M. a creature of Greek mythology. Bellingham.

making it 2-1/2 in. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. about the size of stove pipe wire. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. of small rubber tubing. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. square. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. will complete the material list. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. The light from the . pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. While at the drug store get 3 ft. about the size of door screen wire. in diameter. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. outside the box. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. a piece of brass or steel wire. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. long and about 3/8 in. at the other. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. 14 in. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. this will cost about 15 cents. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. long.

--Photo by M. while others will fail time after time. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. This is very simple when you know how. 2.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. Hunting. M. If done properly the card will flyaway. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. 1. Dayton. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. as shown in the sketch. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. . O.

as before. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. This game is played by five persons. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve." or the Chinese students' favorite game. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. hold the lump over the flame. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. When the desired shape has been obtained. as shown. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. as described. place the other two. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. Cool in water and dry. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. then put it on the hatpin head. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. If a certain color is to be more prominent. closing both hands quickly.

Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. these sectors. passing through neutralizing brushes. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. distribute electric charges . or more in width.

are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. 3. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. as shown in Fig. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. at the other. D. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. material 7 in. 2. in diameter. EE. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. from about 1/4-in. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. and this should be done before cutting the circle. 1-1/2 in. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. after they are mounted. wide at one end. to which insulating handles . The hole is to be made 3/4 in. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. turned wood pieces. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. 4. 3. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. The two pieces. RR. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. and of a uniform thickness. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. in diameter. wide. C C. in diameter. The plates are trued up.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. The plates. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. and 4 in. in diameter. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. in diameter. or teeth. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. in diameter and 15 in. 1. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. long and the standards 3 in. are made from 7/8-in. 3/4 in. are made from solid. Two pieces of 1-in. and the outer end 11/2 in. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. The drive wheels. These pins. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. long. long. GG. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. The fork part is 6 in. free from wrinkles. in diameter. The collectors are made. 1 in. brass tubing and the discharging rods. Fig. Fig. long and the shank 4 in. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. the side pieces being 24 in. Two solid glass rods. and pins inserted and soldered. as shown in Fig. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. Two plates are necessary to make this machine.

--Contributed by C. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. D. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes.are attached. one having a 2-in. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. 12 ft. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. wide and 22 ft. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. which are bent as shown. Lloyd Enos. ball and the other one 3/4 in. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. long. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. Colo. KK. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. in diameter. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . Colorado City.. and the work was done by themselves.

string together. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. as at A. They can be used to keep pins and needles. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the a good one. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. deep. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. and bore a hole 1/2 in. bit. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. using a 1-in. yet such a thing can be done. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. The key will drop from the string. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. pens . You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch.

Use . file. 2. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. Draw one-half the design free hand. unless it would be the metal shears. The second oblong was 3/4 in. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. and the third one 1/4 in. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. Having determined the size of the tray. stamp the background promiscuously.. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch.. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. 4. two spikes. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. very rapid progress can be made. 7. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. inside the second on all. 9. then the other side. Raise the ends. also trace the decorative design. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. or cigar ashes. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. When the stamping is completed. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. 23 gauge. etc. 5. 8. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. Proceed as follows: 1. etc. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. This is to make a clean. flat and round-nosed pliers. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. sharp division between background and design. above the work and striking it with the hammer. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. 6. slim screw. They are easily made. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. 3. Inside this oblong.and pencils. using a nail filed to chisel edge. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. about 3/4-in. inside the first on all. extra metal on each of the four sides. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. above the metal. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. they make attractive little pieces to have about. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides.

10. third fingers. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. and fourth fingers. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. The eyes. and the effect will be most pleasing. 8. first fingers. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. 6. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. In the first numbering. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. 7. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . 9. second fingers. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9.

but being simple it saves time and trouble. there are no fingers above. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. Let us multiply 12 by 12. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. if we wish. At a glance you see four tens or 40. or 60. first fingers. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. or numbers above 10. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. renumber your fingers. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. as high as you want to go.. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. or the product of 8 times 9. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. which would be 16. 25 times 25.. Still. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. above 15 times 15 it is 200. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. In the second numbering. etc. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. thumbs. the product of 12 times 12. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. 600. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. above 20 times 20. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. 12. Put your thumbs together. 400. 11.. . or the product of 6 times 6. or 80. which would be 70. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. etc. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. 2 times 2 equals 4. which tens are added. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. and the six lower fingers as six tens. Two times one are two.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. viz. etc.

or from above or from below. the value of the upper fingers being 20. 3. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. thumbs. lastly. the lump sum to add. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. Proceed as in the second lumbering. . the upper fingers representing a value of 20. being 80). at the will of the observer. 21. further. which is the half-way point between the two fives. adding 400 instead of 100. or what. Take For example 18 times 18.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. not rotation. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. thirties. however. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. forties. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. as one might suppose. 8. and so on.. etc. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. the revolution seems to reverse. The inversion and reversion did not take place. 7. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. and. And the lump sum to add. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. any two figures between 45 and 55. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. For example. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. the value which the upper fingers have. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. whether the one described in second or third numbering. when he removes his spectacles. For figures ending in 6. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. first fingers 22. twenties. in the case of a nearsighted person. about a vertical axis. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. 2. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. beginning the thumbs with 16. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. the inversion takes place against his will. It takes place also. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. first finger 17. 75 and 85. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324.

From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. and putting a cork on the point. A flat slide valve was used. the other appearance asserts itself. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. sometimes the point towards him. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. tee. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. The ports were not easy to make. Looking at it in semidarkness. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. as . The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. when he knows which direction is right.

such as is shown in the illustration. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. and make in one end a hollow. Next take a block of wood. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. secure a piece of No. While this engine does not give much power. it is easily built. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends.. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. The tools are simple and can be made easily. saw off a section of a broom handle. pipe. deep. Fasten the block solidly. Ill. Kutscher. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. as in a vise. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. inexpensive. if continued too long without proper treatment. bottom side up. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. in diameter. The steam chest is round. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. across the head. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. H. . about 2 in. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. Springfield.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. The eccentric is constructed of washers. apart. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. across and 1/2 in. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. -Contributed by W. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. If nothing better is at hand. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. Beating copper tends to harden it and. pipe 10 in.

Vinegar. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. the other to the left. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. and. This process is called annealing. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. Camden.will cause the metal to break. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. C. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. --Contributed by W. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. O. To produce color effects on copper. To overcome this hardness. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. especially when the object is near to the observer. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. S. Hay. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. as it softens the metal. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object.

If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. because of the rays coming from them. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. only the orange rays may pass through. It is just as though they were not there. they must be a very trifle apart. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. disappears fully. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. . each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. it. In order to make them appear before the card. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. although they pass through the screen. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. diameter.stereoscope." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. The further apart the pictures are. So with the stereograph. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. orange. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. the further from the card will the composite image appear. not two mounted side by side. with the stereograph. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. and without any picture. from the stereograph. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. But they seem black. as for instance red and green. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. that for the right. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. in the proper choice of colors. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. while both eyes together see a white background. and lies to the right on the picture. The red portions of the picture are not seen. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. however. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. the one for the left eye being blue. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. would serve the same purpose. the left eye sees through a blue screen. because. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself.

long and a hole drilled in each end. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. thick. San Francisco. Cal. A No. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. in diameter. wireless. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. This should only be bored about half way through the block. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. 1/4 in. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. 12 gauge wire. or the middle of the bottle. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. The weight of the air in round .Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. etc. in the shape of a crank. wide and 1 in. Place a NO.

long. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. internal diameter and about 34 in. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. wide and 4 in. the contrary. 30 in. long. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. square. or a column of mercury (density 13. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. thick. But if a standard barometer is not available. The 4 in. Only redistilled mercury should be used. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. will calibrate itself.numbers is 15 lb. the instrument. a bottle 1 in. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. high. high. inside diameter and 2 in. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. a glass tube 1/8 in. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. or. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. Before fastening the scale. In general. . which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. pine 3 in.. long. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. 34 ft.6) 1 in. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. and a slow fall. but before attempting to put in the mercury. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. high. if you choose. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. wide and 40 in. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. if accurately constructed. square.

Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . 2. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. 1. thick. which is slipped quickly over the end. 3. and place them as shown in Fig. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. 5. wide and 10 in. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. Procure a metal can cover. the size of the outside of the bottle. a cover from a baking powder can will do. 6 and 7. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. Number the pieces 1. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. Mark out seven 1-in. long.

says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. 1 to No. 5 over No. 3. procure unbleached tent duck. 1. 2's place. 6 over No. To make such a tent. 7's place. 3. 6 to No. 6 in. 7 over No. 2. 5. 2's place. 3 into No. Move 2-Jump No. Move 12-Jump No. Move 10-Move No. This can be done on a checker board. L. Move 9-Jump No. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. Move ll-Jump No. Make 22 sections. 1 into No.Position of the Men move only one at a time. in diameter. Move 5-Jump No. 5's place. shaped like Fig. Move 15-Move No. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. N. 7. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. 2. Move 3-Move No.-Contributed by W. Move 8-Jump No. which is the very best material for the purpose. 2 over No. 3. as shown in Fig. 5 over No. 6. 6. Cape May Point. Woolson. 1. Move 14-Jump No. 2 . 3 over No. Move 6-Move No. 6 into No. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. Move 4-Jump No. l over No. using checkers for men. long and 2 ft. 3 to the center. 7 over No. 5's place. Move 13-Move No. each 10 ft. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. 2 over No.J. Move 7-Jump No.

leaving the rest for an opening. As shown in the sketch. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. Fig.J. as in Fig. added. 5. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. to a smooth board of soft wood. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in.. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. 6. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. 2. made in two Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. Pa. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. 9 by 12 in. Tress. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. These are ventilators. fill with canvas edging. 2 in. 6-in. Nail a thin sheet of brass. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. long and 4 in. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. After transferring the design to the brass. will do. 5) stuck in the ground. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. --Contributed by G. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. long. in diameter. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. Have the tent pole 3 in. diameter. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. Use blocks. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. Punch holes in the brass in . making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. wide by 12 in. wide at the bottom. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. In raising the tent. round galvanized iron. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. high. wide at the bottom. about 9 in. 3 in. Fig. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. Emsworth. from the top. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. wide at the bottom and hem the edges.

around the outside of the pattern. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. The pattern is traced as before. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. Chicago. When all the holes are punched. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. It will not. Corr. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. apart. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E.the spaces around the outlined figures. but before punching the holes. . fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. bend into shape. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. excepting the 1/4-in. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. When the edges are brought together by bending. cut out the brass on the outside lines. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped.

If a wheel is selected. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. or less. or center on which the frame swings. better still. --Contributed by H. A cast-iron ring. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. or. pipe is used for the hub. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. A 6-in. Que. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. partially filled with cream. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making.however. Oregon.. allowing 2 ft. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. These pipes are . The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. Mayger. between which is placed the fruit jar. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. pipe. --Contributed by Geo. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. Badger. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. Stevens. Dunham. E. G.

wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. pipe clamps. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. Four braces made from 1/2-in. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. pipe. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. bent to the desired circle. An extra wheel 18 in.

as shown in Fig. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. and dropped on the table. 1. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. 3. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. and the guide withdrawn. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. while doing this. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. The performer. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. which was placed in an upright position. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened.

Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. White. Louis. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. Harkins. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. in a half circle. St. it requires no expensive condensing lens. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. F. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. 1. --Contributed by H.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. in diameter on another piece of tin. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. 2. D. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. Denver. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. Colo. -Contributed by C. The box can be made of selected oak or . thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. first. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. and second. Mo. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background.

2. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. 1. If a camera lens is used. focal length. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. The door covering this hole in the back. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. This will be 3/4 in. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. long. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. high and must . 3-1/2 in. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. from each end of the outside of the box. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. An open space 4 in. long. 5-1/2 in. and. fit into the runners. long and should be placed vertically. wide. Two or three holes about 1 in. but not tight.mahogany. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. and 2 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. from each end. high and 11 in. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. wide by 5 in. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. represented by the dotted line in Fig. wide and 5 in. AA. as shown in Fig. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in.

A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. provided it is airtight. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. West Toledo. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. Bradley. calling this February. April. calling that knuckle January. Ohio. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. and extending the whole height of the lantern. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. C. then the second knuckle will be March. as it requires an airtight case. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct.. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box." etc. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. This process is rather a difficult one. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. --Contributed by Chas. and so on.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. the article may be propped up . Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. 1. June and November. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days.

giving it an occasional stir. in. . but waxed. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. and set aside for half a day. The top of a table will do. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. N.with small sticks. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. and the lead 24 sq. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. Crawford. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. one of lead and one of aluminum. In both Fig. In each place two electrodes. Schenectady. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. fruit jars are required. or suspended by a string. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. taking care to have all the edges closed. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. 2. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. 1 and 2. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. running small motors and lighting small lamps. the lid or cover closed. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. Pour in a little turpentine. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. in. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. 1. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. --Contributed by J. H. Y.

on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. After a few seconds' time. Cleveland. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. O. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. as well as others. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. You have an understanding with some one in the company. you remove the glass. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. He. he throws the other. This trick is very simple. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons.. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. which you warm with your hands. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. as you have held it all the time.

How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. Crocker. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. J. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. in diameter in the center. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. but in making one. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. . Colo. put it under the glass. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. if any snags are encountered.take the handiest one. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. near a partition or curtain. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. Victor. on a table. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely.-Contributed by E. Pull the ends quickly. but by being careful at shores. Be sure that this is the right one. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint.

ducking. 14 rib bands. 1 piece. Paint. long. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. as illustrated in the engraving. and. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. screws and cleats. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. drilled and fastened with screws. 50 ft. 3 and 4. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. clear pine. Both ends are mortised. long. 1 mast. is 14 ft. 3 in. wide. of 1-1/2-yd. one 6 in. of rope. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge.. selected pine. long. 1/8 in. for center deck braces. are as follows: 1 keelson. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. The keelson. 1 in. long. 3 in. wide 12-oz. 1. by 2 in. 1 in. by 8 in. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. 1 piece. 2 and braced with an iron band. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. by 16 ft. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . of 1-yd. 8 in. by 10 ft. and fastened with screws. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. the smaller is placed 3 ft. 8 yd. wide and 12 ft. apart. from the stern. Fig. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. wide unbleached muslin. by 12 in. 7 ft. thick and 3/4 in. wide and 12 ft. 1/4 in. at the ends. 11 yd. 2 gunwales. from each end to 1 in. by 2 in. 1 in. and the other 12 in.. by 16 ft.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. 9 ft. 4 outwales. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. square by 16 ft. for the bow. 1 in. and is removed after the ribs are in place. from the bow and the large one. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. by 15 ft. for cockpit frame. for the stern piece. 2 in.

When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. This block. 5. from the bow. Before making the deck. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. The 11-yd. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. 7 and 8. apart. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. wide and 3 ft. 9. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. thick. . is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. wide and 14 in. Fig. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. thick. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. 1 in. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. wide. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. 6. A piece of oak. A 6-in. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. and fastened to them with bolts. a piece 1/4 in. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. wood screws. thick and 12 in. 6 in. The trimming is wood. These are put in 6 in. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. long. They are 1 in. The block is fastened to the keelson. long is well soaked in water. Figs. wide. A block of pine. 1 in. Fig. long. is a cube having sides 6 in. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. doubled. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. wide and 24 in. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. is cut to fit under the top boards. length of canvas is cut in the center. corner braces. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. 4 in. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. screws. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. also. 1/4 in. Braces. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. gunwales and keelson. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. thick 1-1/2 in. 3-1/2 ft. 6 and 7. The deck is not so hard to do. in diameter through the block. thick and 1/2 in. long. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. A seam should be made along the center piece. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape.

10 with a movable handle. The keel. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. long. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. at the other. The sail is a triangle. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. each 1 in. E. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. apart in the muslin. . A strip 1 in. long. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. Tronnes. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. Ill. wide at one end and 12 in. Fig. is 6 in. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. wide. 12. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. --Contributed by O. thick by 2 in. are used for the boom and gaff. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. 11. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. in diameter and 10 ft. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. Wilmette. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. The house will accommodate 20 families. The mast has two side and one front stay. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft.

thick. long. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. 1. Cut the maple.into two 14-in. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. Take this and fold it over . 2-1/2 in. Wilmette. 2-1/2 in. Tronnes. wide. five 1/2-in. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. with the ends and the other side rounding. E. long. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. 2 in. 2. and 3 ft. square. about 5/16 in. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. Ill. flat headed screws. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. and the other 18 in.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. 1 yd. flat-headed screws. Fig. one 11-1/2 in. --Contributed by O. long and five 1/2-in. 5. 4. 3. long. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. wide and 2 ft. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. thick. thick. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. Bevel both sides of the pieces. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. wide and 30 in. wide. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. as shown in Fig. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. flat on one side.

but can be governed by circumstances. thick. long. 1. wide and 4-1/2 in. 1-1/4 in. square. soaked with water and blown up. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. long. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. After the glue. forming an eye for a screw. wide and 2-3/4 in. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. Fig. Make a double stitch all around the edge. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. Figs. long. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. long. are rounded. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. C. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. then centered. The sides are 3-1/4 in. Mo. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. Another piece. Wind three layers of about No. B. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. 2 and 3. thick and 3 in. this square box is well sandpapered. about 3/8 in. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. square. F. E. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. C. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. A. as well as the edges around the opening. Glue a three cornered piece. thick. wide and 6-3/4 in. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. leaving a small opening at one corner. A. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. The bag is then turned inside out. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. pieces 2-5/8 in. wide .once. of each end unwound for connections. About 1/2 in. Cut another piece of board. When the glue is set. 5 from 1/16-in. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. long. --Contributed by W. the mechanical parts can be put together. D. St. Louis. and make a turn in each end of the wires. is set. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. wide and 6-1/2 in. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. wide and 3 ft. and take care that the pieces are all square. wide and 5 in. and the four outside edges. 3 in. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. 3-1/4 in. long. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. If carefully and neatly made. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. 3/8 in. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. long. The front. wide and 2-1/2 in. the top and bottom. Bliss. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. 6-1/2 in. long. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying.

The stronger the current. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. R. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. 1/16 in. A pointer 12 in. The resistance is now adjusted to show . and fasten in place. F. The base is a board 5 in. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. G. long. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. I. Austwick Hall. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. Richmond Hill. The end of the polar axis B. from one end. and the farther apart they will be forced.R. W.S. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. 1/4 in. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. Chapman. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. Fig. the same size as the first. bored in the back. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. Fig. C. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. When the current flows through the coil. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. 4. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . showing a greater defection of the pointer. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. L. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. the part carrying the pointer moves away. long. Place the tin. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. 5-1/2 in. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. 5. that has the end turned with a shoulder. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. board. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J.A. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. These wires should be about 1 in. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. wide and 2-1/2 in. in diameter. long. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. from the spindle. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. thick. hole is fastened to the pointer. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in.and 2-5/8 in. --Contributed by George Heimroth. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. wide and 9 in. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. 4 is not movable. Like poles repel each other. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. Yorkshire. 4. and as the part Fig. so it will just clear the tin. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. Another strip of tin. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale.

The following formula will show how this may be found. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. 10 min. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. 1881. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. at 9 hr. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. and vice . mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. 10 min. thus: 9 hr. shows mean siderial. M. 30 min. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. A. say Venus at the date of observation. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line.

The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. and then verify its correctness by measurement. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. Hall. . owing to the low internal resistance. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. New Haven. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. or.m. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. Conn. --Contributed by Robert W.f. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. if one of these cannot be had.

Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. arsenic to every 20 lb. Then. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. inside diameter and about 5 in. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. especially for cooking fish. 3/8 in. cover up with the same. as shown in the accompanying picture. put the fish among the ashes.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. long. of alum and 4 oz. thick. fresh grass. The boring bar. and heap the glowing coals on top. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. 1-3/4 in. When the follower is screwed down. Wet paper will answer. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. leaves or bark. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. Fig. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. 1. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes.

A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. thick. pipe. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. about 1/2 in. and threaded on both ends. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. when they were turned in. pipe. fastened with a pin.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel.

The rough frame. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. then it should be ground to a fit. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. wide. Fig. however. 4. but never one which required so little material. 5.valve stems. as the one illustrated herewith. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. This plate also supports the rocker arms. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. Fig. It . bent in the shape of a U. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. a jump spark would be much better. labor and time. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. A 1-in. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. 2. 30 in. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. long. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. square iron. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. Iowa. was then finished on an emery wheel. the float is too high. and which gave such satisfactory results. If the valve keeps dripping. Fig. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. thick and 3 in. Clermont. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. 3.

W. This makes an easy adjustment. in fact." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. from the center. The crosspiece is 2 in. and. strong clear material only should be employed. square and 5 ft. in diameter and 15 in. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. strengthened by a piece 4 in. butting against short stakes. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. in the ground with 8 ft. hole bored in the post. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. long. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. from all over the neighborhood. The seats are regular swing boards. long. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. completes the merry-go-round. It looks like a toy. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. The illustration largely explains itself. being held in position by spikes as shown. square and 2 ft. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. A malleable iron bolt." little and big. and a little junk. If it is to be used for adults. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. Use a heavy washer at the head. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. 3/4 in. long is the pivot. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. for the "motive power" to grasp. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. timber. long. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. square. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. rope is not too heavy. As there is no bracing. Nieman. so it must be strong enough. extending above. 12 ft. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. set 3 ft. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. with no trees or buildings in the way. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. A 3/4 -in. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. no matter what your age or size may be. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. --Contributed by C.

a wreck. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. 1. and sent to earth. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. if nothing better is at hand. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. To wind the string upon the reel. square. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. one for the backbone and one for the bow. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. A reel is next made. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. The backbone is flat. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. Having placed the backbone in position. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. 1/4 by 3/32 in. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. then it is securely fastened. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. 2. long. 4. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. light and strong. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. and 18 in.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. as shown in Fig. The bow is now bent.the fingers. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. Both have large reels full of . away. These ends are placed about 14 in.2 emery. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste.

the balance. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . or glass-covered string. If the second kite is close enough. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. First. Newburyport. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. he pays out a large amount of string. N. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. C. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. Brooklyn.string. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration.-Contributed by S. --Contributed' by Harry S. Moody. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. Mass. Y. The handle end is held down with a staple. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. often several hundred yards of it. common packing thread. Bunker.

make the pad as shown in the illustration. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. If the table is round. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. must be attached to a 3-ft. lengths (Fig. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. cutting the circular piece into quarters. --Contributed by Earl R. Corinth. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. then a dust protector. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. square (Fig. such as mill men use. then draw the string up tight. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. each the size of half the table top. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. length of 2-in. Vt. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. Hastings.

and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. G to H. and E to G. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. Moisten the . non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working.-Contributed by H..9-1/4 in. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. Wharton. hard pencil. which spoils the leather effect. . Make the other half circular disk in the same way. Oakland. 2-1/4 in. 16-1/4 in. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. trace the design carefully on the leather. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. E. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. from C to D. Calif.. Use a smooth.. 17-1/2 in. 6-1/4 in. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. from E to F.

wide. Now cut narrow thongs. H-B. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. if not more than 1 in. also lines A-G. apart. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. and E-G. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. and corresponding lines on the other side. G-J. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. about 1/8 in. get something with which to make a lining. and lace through the holes. To complete the bag. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. Trace the openings for the handles. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. I made this motor . Cut it the same size as the bag. place both together and with a leather punch. with the rounded sides of the tools. is taken off at a time.

The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. of No. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. 2. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B.M. --Contributed by J. . each being a half circle. Calif. 2-1/4 in. D. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. in length. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. iron. long. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. B. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. 24 gauge magnet wire. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. Shannon. Pasadena. 1. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. 1. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. as shown in Fig. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel.

high. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. balloon should be about 8 ft. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. are the best kind to make. from the bottom end. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . and the gores cut from these. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. The gores for a 6-ft. near the center. 1.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. pasted in alternately. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight.

as shown in Fig. 5. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. B. In starting the balloon on its flight. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. after which the paint will adhere permanently. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. coming through the small pipe A. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. leaving a long wake behind. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . The boat soon attains considerable speed. As the boat is driven forward by this force. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. as shown in Fig. The steam. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. 3. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. Staunton. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. 2. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. 1. In removing grease from wood. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. After washing. These are to hold the wick ball. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. A. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. lap on the edges. 4. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. in diameter. saturating it thoroughly. using about 1/2-in. --Contributed by R.widest point. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. so it will hang as shown in Fig. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. leaving the solution on over night. If the gores have been put together right. somewhat larger in size. Fig. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. E.

There are three ways of doing this: First. 1. in bowling form. long. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. Second. The blocks are about 6 in. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. In using either of the two methods described. if you have several copies of the photograph. high and 8 in. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. long and each provided with a handle. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. as is shown in Fig. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. apart on these lines. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. wide by 6 in. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. Third.

the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. --Contributed by John A. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. 2. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. not pointed down at the road at an angle.Fig. Albany. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. thick. Rinse the plate in cold water. Fig. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. Hellwig. being careful not to dent the metal. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. Y. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. N. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in.

clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. These corner irons are also screwed to. and Fig. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. in diameter. with a set screw. which is 4 in. With this device. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. thick. In Fig. A. --Contributed by R. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. 6 in. A. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. Va. Corner irons. Richmond. is fastened to a common camera tripod. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. CC. through which passes the set screw S. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. wide and of any desired height. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. Break off the frame. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. Paine. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. B. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. and. 2 the front view. and not produce the right sound. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. are screwed to the circular piece. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. 5 in. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. long for the base. wide and 8 in. A circular piece of wood. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store.upon any particular object. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. S. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. 1 Fig.

. S. La Salle. Kidder. as only the can is visible. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. I made a wheel 26 in. thus producing sound waves. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. R. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. in diameter of some 1-in. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. pine boards. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. Ill. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. This horn. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. -1. Lake Preston. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. This will make a very compact electric horn. D. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine.

If the collection consists of only a few coins. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. 1. 1. If there is a large collection of coins. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. --Contributed by James R. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. --Contributed by C. the same thickness as the coins. Fig. A. B. Doylestown. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. Ghent. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. Feet may be added to the base if desired. O. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . thick and 12 in. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. Purdy. square. The frame is made of a heavy card. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. 2. Kane.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet.

thick. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. they become uninteresting. and then glued together as indicated. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. cut and grooved. It will hold 4 oz. --Contributed by R. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. Wis. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. Milwaukee. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. though not absolutely necessary. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. into which to place the screws . Smith. One Cloud. Canada. --Contributed by J. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. Neyer. --Contributed by August T. Noble. several large nails. of developer. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight.E. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. A rivet punch is desirable. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. plus a 3/8-in. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. melted and applied with a brush. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. Cal. If desired. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. The material required is a sheet of No. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. for after the slides have been shown a few times. Toronto. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. a hammer or mallet. border all around. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. A lead pencil.J. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing.

never upon the metal directly. There are several ways of working up the design. draw one part. like the one shown. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. screws placed about 1 in. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. Remove the screws. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. using 1/2-in. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. both outline and decoration. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . Punch rivet holes in holder and band. and file it to a chisel edge.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. Take the nail. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece.

Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. square and 11 in. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. Rivet the band to the holder. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor.wall. long. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. as shown in Fig. long. of 11-in. . How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. Do not bend it over or flatten it. l-1/8 in. two lengths. square. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. and two lengths. up from the lower end. square and 181/2 in. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. long. for the top. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. The pedal. About 1/2 yd. Provide four lengths for the legs. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. 3/4 in. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. in the other. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. using a 1/2in. for the lower rails. being ball bearing. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. 3. 2. 1. each 1 in. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in.

Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. --Contributed by John Shahan. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] .The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. Quackenbush. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. Attalla. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. --Contributed by W. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. Ala. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. F. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. New York City. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. having quite a length of threads.

Two pieces of felt. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. using class. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. Assemble as shown in the sketch. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. long. from one end. --Contributed by C. The desired emblem. in depth. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. and two holes in the other. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. from the end. stitched on both edges for appearance. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . Purchase a 1/2-in. and the other 2-3/4 in. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. and 3/8 in. the end of the other piece is folded over. Mich. long. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. long. D. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. Luther.. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. one about 1 in. wide and 8-1/4 in. wide and 4-1/4 in. something that is carbonated. initial. making a lap of about 1 in.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. Ironwood. college or lodge colors. each 1-1/4 in.

as shown in the sketch. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. as shown at B. or more in height. 1. about 2 in. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. Schatz. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. which can be procured from a plumber. Punch two holes A. from the center and opposite each other. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. 1/4 in. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. Fig. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . in diameter and 2 in. --Contributed by John H. if desired by the operator. and the cork will be driven out. in the cover and the bottom. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. Indianapolis. This method allows a wide range of designs. 2. or a pasteboard box. A piece of lead. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. Ind. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can.

Rolling Can Toy lead. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. it winds up the rubber band. 4. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. 5. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. . The pieces of tin between the holes A. metal. When the can is rolled away from you. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. allowing the two ends to be free. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. are turned up as in Fig. O. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. A piece of thick glass. and the ends of the bands looped over them. or marble will serve. putting in the design. Columbus. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. Fig. on both top and bottom. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. 1. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. 3.

Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. I secured a board 3/4 in. mark over the design. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. wide and 20 in. If it is desired to "line" the inside. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. New York City. thick. 1 in. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. face up.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. deep in its face. or more thick on each side. long and bored a 1/2-in. Next place the leather on the glass. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. After this has been done. thicker than the pinion. The edges should be about 1/8 in. 3 in. A pencil may be used the first time over. from each end. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. hole through it. and. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced.

--Contributed by A. Cut the 2-in. 2 crosspieces. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. 4 guides. 1 by 12 by 77 in. 3 by 3 by 20 in. countersinking the heads of the vise end. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. 3 by 3 by 36. 1 top board. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. 3 by 3 by 6 in. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. Now fit up the two clamps. 1 screw block. 2 by 12 by 77 in. 1 back board. Make the lower frame first. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. 1. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. 2 end rails. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. 1 top board. N. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. and fit it in place for the side vise. 2 by 2 by 18 in. 2 side rails. Syracuse. 1 piece for clamp. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. Y. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. Rice. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. 2. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. lag screws as shown. pieces for the vise slides. 1 piece. 1 piece for clamp. much of the hard labor will be saved. the board into the bench top. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. in diameter. 1 by 9 by 80 in. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. thick top board. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. Brooklyn. Fig. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. New York.

in diameter. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. 1 2-ft. . it can be easily found when wanted. If each tool is kept in a certain place. rule. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. 1 compass saw. 1 pair pliers. 1 jack plane or smoother. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. 1 pocket level. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. 1 marking gauge. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. as well as the pattern maker. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. 1 countersink. 1 brace and set of bits.. 24 in. They can be purchased at a hardware store. 1 claw hammer. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. The bench is now complete. 1 monkey wrench.. 1 wood scraper. 1 pair dividers. 1 nail set.screws. 1 rip saw. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools.. 1 bench plane or jointer. 3 and 6 in. Only the long run. 24 in. 1 set gimlets. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. The amateur workman. 2 screwdrivers. 1 cross cut saw. 1 set chisels.

being softer. Fig. becomes like A. Fig. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. The calf skin. the projecting point A. No. will sink into the handle as shown at D. 1. Fig. 1 oilstone. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. 3. Pa. 2 and 00 sandpaper. 1. but will not make . Kane. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. Doylestown. Fig. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. will be easier to work. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. after constant use. try square. 2.1.1 6-in. ---Contributed by James M.

if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. and the length 6-5/8 in. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. Having prepared the two sides. lay the design on the face. which steam. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 rigid a case as the cow skin. will do just as well. then prepare the leather. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. secure a piece of modeling calf. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. If cow hide is preferred. After the outlines are traced. If calf skin is to be used. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. cover it completely with water enamel and. . Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. such as copper or brass. White. when dry. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. New York City. The form can be made of a stick of wood. Two pieces will be required of this size. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. water or heat will not affect. -Contributed by Julia A. the same method of treatment is used. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. but a V-shaped nut pick. First draw the design on paper. Turn the leather.

Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. Jaquythe. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. A. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. Richmond. --Contributed by Chester L. --Contributed by Chas. Portland. --Contributed by W. New York City. . Cobb. Maine. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. as shown in the sketch. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. Cal. C. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. and an adjustable friction-held loop. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. Herrman. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line.

B. Middletown. Mass. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. for instance. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. This was very difficult. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. an inverted stewpan. Conn. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. --Contributed by Geo. . in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. was marked out as shown. Roberts. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. Cambridge. --Contributed by Wm. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. Wright. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. A thick piece of tin. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner..

L. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. well calcined and powdered. Indianapolis. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. If the article is highly polished. . But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. --Contributed by C. but only an odor which soon vanished. used as part of furniture. on a clear piece of glass. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. and the grease will disappear. Herbert. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. --Contributed by Paul Keller. and quite new. The next morning there was no trace of oil. of boiling water. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. so some bones were quickly calcined. but not running over. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. There was no quicklime to be had. Ind. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. apply powdered calcined magnesia. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. which has been tried out several times with success. Bone. A beautifully bound book. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. F. such as chair seats. as shown. pulverized and applied. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. When dry. If any traces of the grease are left.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. face down.. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. Chicago. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. Illinois. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper.

. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. set and thumbscrews. The pieces marked S are single. --Contributed by Geo. A. wide and 12 in. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. 2 in.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. thick. New York. 6 in. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. Howe. the pieces . If properly adjusted.. high and are bolted to a block of wood. says Scientific American. deep and 5 in. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. Tarrytown. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. This coaster is simple and easy to make. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. long. soft steel with the opening 6 in.

with a short bolt through each pair as shown. If the letters are all cut the same height. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. The seat is a board. A sharp knife. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. they will look remarkably uniform. for sending to friends. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. Their size depends on the plate used. to the underside of which is a block. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. albums and the like. no doubt. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. says Camera Craft. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. E. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats.

mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. So made. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. using care to get it in the right position. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. and. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. for example. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. The puzzle is to get . In cutting out an 0. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. pasting the prints on some thin card. So arranged. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. mount them on short pieces of corks. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. photographing them down to the desired size.

the tube righting itself at once for another catch. says the American Thresherman. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . G. squeezes along past the center of the tube. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. N. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. snow or anything to hide it. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. with the longest end outside. so they will lie horizontal.-Contributed by I. He smells the bait.J. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. Old-Time Magic . The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. Cape May Point. long that will just fit are set in. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. hung on pivots. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. of its top. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. A hole 6 or 7 in. Bayley.

or rub the hands a little before doing so. --Contributed by L. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. Y. Pawtucket. N. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. Rhode Island. Parker. Press the hands together. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. --Contributed by Charles Graham. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. Szerlip. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. --Contributed by L. Pocatello. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. Idaho. then expose again. then spread the string. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. Brooklyn. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. E.faced up. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before.

4 on the blade. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. says the English Mechanic. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. dark red. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. Glue the other side of the blade. near the point end. wide and 2 in. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. using a straightedge and a pencil. if any. they will look very much like the genuine article. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. The blade should be about 27 in. end of the blade. in width. 1 Fig. When the whole is quite dry. or a complete suit of armor.. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. The handle is next made.Genuine antique swords and armor. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. wipe the blade . 3 Fig. thick. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. 1. narrower. in building up his work from the illustrations. or green oil paint. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. The pieces. and if carefully made.. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. full size. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. When the glue is thoroughly dry. 2 Fig. whether he requires a single sword only. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. long. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old.

The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. square and of any length desired. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. long. the other is flat or halfround. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. 1. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. allowing for a good hold with both hands. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory.. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood.. This sword is about 68 in. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. the other two are identical. the length of the blade 28 in. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. take two pieces of wood. 1. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. follow the directions as for Fig. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. In making. 2. Both edges of the blade are sharp. about 1-1/2 in. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. 2. as it is . Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. 4. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig.with light strokes up and down several times. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. 1. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. the other is flat or half-round. 1/8 in. in diameter. in the widest part at the lower end. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. preferably of contrasting colors. should be about 9 in. shows only two sides. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. 3. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. In the finished piece. Fig. the illustration. 1. not for use only in cases of tableaux. 3. and 3 in. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. The length of the handle. of course. thick and 5 in. In making this scimitar. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig.

however. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. Syracuse. A cold . Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. square. Morse. Both can be made easily. It is made of a plank. A piece of mild steel. and. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. as can the pitch bed or block. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. --Contributed by John Blake. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. On each edge of the board. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. about 3/8 in. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. The thinness of the plank. in an attempt to remove from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. at the lower end. --Contributed by Katharine D. 2 in. Y. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. Mass. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. as shown in the sketch. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. long. piping and jackets by hard water. or an insecure fastening. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. and if so. each about 1 ft. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. Franklin. Doctors probed for the button without success. as there was some at hand. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. N. are fastened two pieces of strap iron.

chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length.. on the pitch. To remedy this. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. 18 gauge. To put it in another way. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised.. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. tallow. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. 5 lb. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. 5 lb. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. plaster of Paris. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. Trim up the edges and file them . design down. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. When this has been done. using a small metal saw. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. a file to reduce the ends to shape. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. When the desired form has been obtained. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. secure a piece of brass of about No.

000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. A. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. 1) and the other 12 in. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. Fill the 3-in. in one minute or 550 lb. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. it may be well to know what horsepower means. but not to stop it. Cutter. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. in the center.000 lb. in diameter (Fig. 30 ft. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. space between the vessels with water. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. 1 ft. to keep it from floating. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. 1 ft. or 550 ft. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. over the smaller vessel. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. per minute. or fraction of a horsepower. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. lb. make an unusual show window attraction. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. one 18 in. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. per second. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. living together in what seems like one receptacle. lb. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. in diameter (Fig. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. The smaller is placed within the larger. That is lifting 33.000 ft. and hang a bird swing. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. 3. 2). It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. in one second. Fig. using powdered pumice with lye. .000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. Before giving the description. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. --Contributed by Harold H. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. Clean the metal thoroughly. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. This in turn divided by 33. and still revolve.smooth.

Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. Somerville.18 in. Campbell. Y. by L. Diameter Fig.3 Fig. 2 Fig. --Contributed. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. Mass. or on a pedestal. The effect is surprising. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete .4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. --Contributed by J. Szerlip. 1 Fig. Brooklyn. F. N. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. Diameter 12 in.

Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. often render it useless after a few months service. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. after which it is ready for use. to keep the metal from tarnishing.copper of No. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. which may be of wood or tin. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. as a rule. away from the edge. and then. and the clay . Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. with the pliers. Rivet the cup to the base. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. using any of the common metal polishes. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. Polish both of these pieces. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. unsatisfactory. Do not be content merely to bend them over. is. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. with other defects. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. then by drawing a straightedge over it. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. This compound is impervious to water. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. which. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. the same as removing writing from a slate. In riveting. keeping the center high. and cut out the shape with the shears. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown.

The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. Northville. Grand Rapids.can be pressed back and leveled. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. long. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by John T. -Contributed by Thos. Mich. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. in diameter and 5 in. as shown in Fig. 3/4 in. the device will work for an indefinite time. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. Houghton. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. Dunlop. Shettleston. Scotland. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. 2. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. DeLoof. The siphon is made of glass tubes. . 1. --Contributed by A. A. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. Mich. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. It is made of a glass tube.

The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. in width and 2 in. stilettos and battle-axes. put up as ornaments. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. London. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. long. 1. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper.1 FIG. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. As the handle is to .FIG. This sword is 4 ft. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. long with the crossguard and blade of steel.

The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. in width. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. with wire or string' bound handle. with both edges of the blade sharp. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. 8. studded with brass or steel nails. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. which is about 2-1/2 ft. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. the axe is of steel. This weapon is about 1 ft. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. When the glue is thoroughly dry. The ball is made as described in Fig. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. 6. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. the upper part iron or steel. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. The crossbar and blade are steel. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. In Fig. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. This axe is made similar to the one . with both edges sharp. Three large. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. 4. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. paint it a dark brown or black. 3 is shown a claymore. very broad. When dry. in length. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. 7. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. firmly glued on. These must be cut from pieces of wood. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. one about 1/2 in. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. 11 were used. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. 20 spike. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag.represent copper. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. sometimes called cuirass breakers. long with a dark handle of wood. The handle is of wood. When the whole is quite dry. glue and put it in place. in length. 9. narrower. 5. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. the same as used on the end of the handle. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. A German stiletto. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. This weapon is also about 1 ft. string. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. The sword shown in Fig. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. Both handle and axe are of steel. long. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. wood with a keyhole saw. This sword is about 4 ft. A German poniard is shown in Fig. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. sharp edges on both sides. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. Cut two strips of tinfoil. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. then glued on the blade as shown. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. is shown in Fig. The lower half of the handle is of wood. small rope and round-headed nails. This stiletto has a wood handle. In Fig. In Fig.

10. --Contributed by E. Davis. and as the tension members are all protected from wear.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. This will make a very good flexible belt.described in Fig. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. will pull where other belts slip. together as shown in Fig. W. high. Old-Time Magic . 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. . so the contents cannot be seen. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. such as braided fishline. the ends are tied and cut off. Chicago. 2. When wrapped all the way around.

in a few seconds' time.J. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. filled with water. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. apparently. S. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. some of the liquid. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. N. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. causing the flowers to grow. 1 and put together as in Fig. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. or using small wedges of wood. Before the performance. To make the flowers grow in an instant. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. Calif. The dotted lines in Fig. Bridgeton. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. There will be no change in color. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. 2. about one-third the way down from the top. four glass tumblers. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. These wires are put in the jar. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. Macdonald. held in the right hand. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. an acid. Oakland. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. with the circle centrally located. As zinc is much lighter than iron. --Contributed by A. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat.

2 for height. When many slides are to be masked. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. says a correspondent of Photo Era. 4 for width and No. which are numbered for convenience in working. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. This outlines the desired opening. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. and equally worthy of individual treatment. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. If the size wanted is No.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. practical and costs nothing. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. --Contributed by W. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. Cal. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. A. unless some special device is used. not only because of the fact just mentioned. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. and kept ready for use at any time. Richmond. Jaquythe.

the margin and the entire back of the metal. the paper is folded along the center line. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. paint the design. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. about half and half. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. Secure a sheet of No. using the carbon paper. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. and the extreme length 7 in. The decoration. or. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. 16 gauge. possibly. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. but they can be easily revived. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. too. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. The one shown is merely suggestive. is about right for the No. may be changed. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. When etched to the desired depth. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. With a stick. This done. which is dangerous. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. not the water into the acid. a little less acid than water. Draw a design. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. or a pair of old tongs. and do not inhale the fumes. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then .

and to keep the metal from tarnishing. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. Paint the table any color desired. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. wide and of the same length as the table. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. 1. 4. repeat as many times as is necessary. 3. as at H. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. A. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. Fig. so that when it is pressed down. it will touch post F. or more wide. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. about 8 in. 3/8 in. Then get two posts. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. the bell will ring. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. about 3 ft. to the table. 2. C and D. about 1 in. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. as in Fig. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. 5. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. It may be either nailed or screwed down. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. Fig. in diameter and 1/4 in. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. as shown in Fig. 2. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. . J is another wire attached in the same way. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. long and 1 ft. attached to a post at each end. 24 parts water. When the button S is pressed. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. through it. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. Fig. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. Cut out a piece of tin. long. about 2-1/2 in. wide. The connections are simple: I. 2. Nail a board. and bore two holes. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. Fig.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. high. 5. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. as shown in the illustration. with the wires underneath. and about 2-1/2 ft. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. 0 indicates the batteries. Fig. thick.

. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. the wood peg inserted in one of them. 1. long. The imitation articles are made of wood. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The entire weapon. such as . is to appear as steel. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. long serves as the dowel. These rings can be carved out. thick. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. handle and all. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. After the glue is dry. A wood peg about 2 in. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. The circle is marked out with a compass.Imitation Arms and Armor . The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. says the English Mechanic. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. 2. This weapon is about 22 in. but they are somewhat difficult to make. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in.

the hammer and spike. The axe is shown in steel. as described in Fig. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. flowers. All of these axes are about the same length. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. 8. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. The handle is of wood. covered with red velvet. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. The lower half of the handle is wood. This weapon is about 22 in. as before mentioned. The entire handle should be made of one piece. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. The spikes are cut out of wood. leaves. The handle is of steel imitation. as shown. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. 3. long. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. used at the end of the fifteenth century. also. If such a tool is not at hand. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. etc. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. 5. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. studded with large brass or steel nails. . Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. Its length is about 3 ft. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. The upper half of the handle is steel. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. the base having a brad to stick into the ball.ornamental scrolls. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. 6. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. or the amateur cannot use it well. is shown in Fig. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. 2. with a sharp carving tool. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel.

then the other plays. as in Fig. . The knife falling on its side (Fig. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. a three-base hit. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. 7) calls for one out. 5. 1. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. 4). A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. 6. 3. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. Fig. the knife resting on its back. Each person plays until three outs have been made. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. 2. Chicago. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. calls for a home run. and so on for nine innings.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors.

How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. as shown in Fig. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. of water for an hour or two. Somerville. with the rope laced in the cloth. while the committee is tying him up. It may be found that the negative is not colored.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. If it is spotted at all. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. This he does. 1. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. Old-Time Magic .-Contributed by J. Campbell. as shown in Fig. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. F. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. of the rope and holds it. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. hypo to 1 pt. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. 3. Mass. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. one of them burning . 2.

Evans. Ky.Contributed by Andrew G. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger.. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. thus causing it to light. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. of sugar. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. --Contributed by L. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. of water and 1 oz. Brown. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. of turpentine. 4 oz. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. thick. . When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. 4 oz. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. Lebanon. with which he is going to light the other candle. the other without a light. invisible to them (the audience). of plumbago. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. New York City. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. Louisville. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. etc. and.brightly. He then walks over to the other candle. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. shades the light for a few seconds. Ky. Drill Gauge screw. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. showing that there is nothing between them. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. --Contributed by C. bolt. Thome. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. The magician walks over to the burning candle. 3/4 in. B.

roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. thick. diameter. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. Denniston. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. 5 in. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. into a tube of several thicknesses. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. or blotting paper. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. for the material. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. N. --Contributed by C. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. To make the porous cell. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. steady current. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. long. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. Y. Do not add water to the acid. Its current strength is about one volt. H. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. Pulteney. In making up the solution. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. but is not so good. about 5 in.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. which will give a strong.

The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. long with a bearing at each end. steel. One hole was bored as well as possible. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. After much experimentation with bearings. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. a positive adjustment was provided. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. the other holding them apart. carrying the hour circle at one end. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. To insure this. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts.) may be obtained. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. while the other end is attached by two screws. steel. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. The . one drawing them together. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. but somewhat lighter. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. steel. As to thickness. Finally. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude.station.

45 min. Instead. Point it approximately to the north star. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. To find a star in the heavens. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. save the one in the pipe. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye.. subtract 24. The pole is 1 deg. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. All set screws." When this is done. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness." Only a rough setting is necessary.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. All these adjustments. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. The pointer is directed to Alpha. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. and if it is not again directed to the same point. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. Each shaft. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. Cassiopiae. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. in each direction from two points 180 deg. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. If the result is more than 24 hours. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. turn the pointer to the star. apart. When properly set it will describe a great circle. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. Declination is read directly. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . need not be changed. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. It is. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. is provided with this adjustment. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. excepting those on the declination axis. To locate a known star on the map. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. once carefully made." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. are tightened. The aperture should be 1/4 in. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal.. and 15 min. Set the declination circle to its reading.

is folded several times. then add 1 2-3 dr. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. as shown in the substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. long. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. add a little more benzole. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras.. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. of ether. -Contributed by Ray E. Strosnider. which is the one examined. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. The dance will begin. Ohio. cannon balls. 3 or 4 in. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. a great effect will be produced. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. New Orleans. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. benzole. is the real cannon ball. La. If this will be too transparent. In reality the first ball. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. Plain City. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. taking care not to add too much. the others . The ball is found to be the genuine article. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water.

This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. as shown in the illustration. Fig. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. F. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. San Francisco. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. Somerville. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. Wis. Mass. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. etc. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. small brooches.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. Milwaukee. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. taps. Return the card to the pack.. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. Cal. In boxes having a sliding cover. 1). Campbell. --Contributed by J. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. 2. without taking up any great amount of space.

from the bottom of the box. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. round pieces 2-1/4 in. . Beller. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. thus giving ample store room for colors. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. prints. Hartford. slides and extra brushes. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. as shown in the illustration. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. This box has done good service.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. Connecticut.

and pour water on it until it is well soaked. with well packed horse manure. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. 1). costing 5 cents. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. Fill the upper tub. Mass. will answer the purpose. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. -Contributed by C. tacking the gauze well at the corners. or placed against a wall. . When the ends are turned under. West Lynn. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. about threefourths full. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. O. Darke.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. 2). When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. FIG. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. holes in the bottom of one. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water.

if this is not available. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. when they are raised from the pan. --Contributed by L. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. If plugs are found in any of the holes. oil or other fluid. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. Chicago. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. M. they should be knocked out. Eifel. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. and each bundle contains . cutting the cane between the holes. If the following directions are carried out. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel.

1. put about 3 or 4 in. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. No plugs . then across and down. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. after having been pulled tight. it should be held by a plug. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. and. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. held there by inserting another plug. as shown in Fig. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. as it must be removed again. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. a square pointed wedge. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. Whenever the end of one strand is reached.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. In addition to the cane. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind.

42° is 4. Detroit. the height of the line BC. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. Patrick. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time.2+. D. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. Michigan. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. but the most common. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. Fig. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. as the height of the line BC for lat. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. is the base (5 in. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . It consists of a flat circular table. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. using the same holes as for the first layer. 5. or the style.3 in. 1 lat. There are several different designs of sundials. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. W. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. After completing the second layer. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. as it always equals the latitude of the place. as shown in Fig. 5 in. 41°-30'. trim off the surplus rosin. If handled with a little care.075 in. it is 4. we have 4. for 2°.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. Even with this lubrication. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. R.2 in. and the one we shall describe in this article. as for example. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. From table No. stretch the third one. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. 1. When cool. 4. No weaving has been done up to this time. the height of which is taken from table No. 1. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. 3. 40°. in this case) times the . and for 1° it would be . 41 °-30'. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. --Contributed by M.15+.42 in. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. This will make three layers. If you have a table of natural functions. and for lat. 1. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. Fig. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs.5 in.075 in. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used.= 4. During the weaving. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. All added to the lesser or 40°. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. Their difference is . lat.15 in. the next smallest. 3. The style or gnomon. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. is the horizontal dial. -Contributed by E. as shown in Fig. called the gnomon.

85 35 .33 42° 4.88 36° 3. Fig. according to the size of the dial.02 1.19 1. 2. Draw two semi-circles. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial.82 5. using the points A and C as centers.33 .66 latitude. and for this size dial (10 in.97 5 7 4.30 1.57 3.tangent of the degree of latitude. or more. circle Sundial.82 2. 2 for given latitudes.89 50° 5.81 4.63 56° 7. with a radius of 5 in.64 4 8 3.42 45 .87 4.55 5.10 6.55 46° 5. Table NO.27 2.57 1.40 1. gives the 6 o'clock points.42 .42 1. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No.30 2. Draw the line AD.12 52° 6.37 5.28 . The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks.94 1.50 26° 2. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 . 1. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed.56 .83 27° 2.07 4.38 .40 34° 3. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown.87 1. Chords in inches for a 10 in.91 58° 8.29 4-30 7-30 3.77 2. and intersecting the semicircles.96 32° 3. draw two parallel lines AB and CD. or if of stone. long. and perpendicular to the base or style. which will represent the base in length and thickness. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight. .82 3.76 1.66 1. if of metal.44 44° 4. For latitudes not given.32 6.14 5.49 30 .99 2. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No.18 28° 2.59 2.26 4.93 2.11 3.00 40° 4.79 4.41 38° 3. 2.37 54° 6.93 6. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points.39 .03 3. Height of stile in inches for a 5in.16 40 . interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in.55 4.66 48° 5. base.06 2.46 .20 60° 8.55 30° 2.85 1.49 3. To layout the hour circle.68 5-30 6-30 5. an inch or two.16 1.23 6. Its thickness.46 3. A line EF drawn through the points A and C. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2.

52 Table No.60 4.57 1.98 4. each article can be labelled with the name. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York.. London. June 15. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen. will enable one to set the dial. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon.10 4.01 1. 3. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time.63 1. E. April 16. --Contributed by J.89 3.53 1. then the watch is slower. This correction can be added to the values in table No. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid.from Sundial lime. after allowing for the declination. and on these dates the dial needs no correction.08 1. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker.add those marked + subtract those Marked . The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the . An ordinary compass. Sun time to local mean time.71 2. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No.82 3. 25. 3 Corrections in minutes to change. 900 Chicago.49 3.93 6.19 2. says the English Mechanic.77 3.79 6.37 2. The + means that the clock is faster.72 5. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15. and the . changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year. adding to each piece interest and value. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3.34 5. Sioux City.24 5.46 4.14 1. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco. 3. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality. it will be faster. 2 and Dec.30 2. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.means that the dial is faster than the sun.87 6. Mitchell.21 2. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face. if west.46 5. and for the difference between standard and local time. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position.49 5. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time. As they are the genuine reproductions.54 60 . Iowa.50 .06 2.12 5.68 3.50 55 . Each weapon is cut from wood. Sept.

the length of which is about 5 ft. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. When putting on the tinfoil. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. 1. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. Partisan. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. 3. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in.. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. .swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil.

A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. long. 7. The length of this bar is about 5 in. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. which are a part of the axe. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. The spear is steel. in diameter. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. The extreme length is 9 ft.which is square. the holes being about 1/4 in. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. about 4 in. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. long. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. 8. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. long with a round staff or handle. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. This weapon is about 6 ft. is shown in Fig. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. 6 ft. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. long with a round wooden handle. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. A gisarm or glaive. 5. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood.. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. press it well into the carved depressions. It is about 6 ft. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. The edges are sharp. used about the seventeenth century. sharp on the outer edges. .

1. In Figs. Workman. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. The twisted cross cords should . One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. are put in place. Cut all the cords the same length. apart. 5. the most durable being bamboo. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. Substances such as straw. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. H. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. This is important to secure neatness.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. B. are less durable and will quickly show wear. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. 2 and 3. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. They can be made of various materials. 4. as shown in Fig. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired.-Contributed by R. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. used for spacing and binding the whole together. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. the cross cords. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. Loudonville. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. Ohio. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. or in holes punched in a leather strap.

3 in. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. of the bottom. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. M. The first design shown is for using bamboo. Four V-shaped notches were cut. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. New Orleans. wide. as shown at B. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. La. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. A slit was cut in the bottom. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. below the top to within 1/4 in. for a length extending from a point 2 in. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. shaped as shown at C. -Contributed by Geo. Lockport. Harrer. bamboo or rolled paper. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. This was turned over the top of the other can. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. To remedy this. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. New York. near the top of the can and their points turned of such material. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. in which was placed a piece of glass. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness.

How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. is shown in the accompanying sketch. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. This plank. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . the brass is loosened from the block. do not throw away the gloves. After this is finished. Shay. --Contributed by Chas. H. Newburgh. and two along the side for attaching the staff. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. Y. Maywood. giving the appearance of hammered brass. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. It would be well to polish the brass at first. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. --Contributed by W. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. wide. turned over but not fastened. Cal. Sanford. N. Pasadena. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. Ill. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. This should be done gradually. about 1/16 in. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. Schaffner.tape from sticking to the carpet. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. --Contributed by Joseph H. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design.

Ill. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. in diameter. Oak Park. a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. K. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. Cal. Marshall. --E. A. the pendulum swings . This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. Unlike most clocks. bent as shown. -Contributed by W. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. Richmond.

first-class joints can be made without much trouble. 3/4 in. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. the center one being 2-3/4 in. high. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. In using this method. A. on the board B. long and at each side of this. 7-1/2 in. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. wide that is perfectly flat. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. bar. by 1-5/16 in. Fasten another board. Metzech. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. high and 1/4 in.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. 6 in. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. Two uprights. about 6 in. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. 5/16 in. Chicago. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. C. wide. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in.. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. Secure a board. high. away. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. is an electromagnet. in diameter. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. are secured in the base bar. B. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. says the Scientific American. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. bearing on the latter. only have the opposite side up. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. . thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. thick. such as this one. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. The construction is very simple. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. Now place the board to be joined. about 12 in. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. high. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. --Contributed by V. to the first one with screws or glue. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. and the other two 2-5/8 in.

Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. by driving a pin through the wood. square inside. as shown at A. 4. wide and 5 in. 1. The trigger. wide and 1 in. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. Fig. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. Fig. --Contributed by Elmer A. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. Pa. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. whose dimensions are given in Fig. or more. long. square. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. . is fastened in the hole A. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. 3. plates should be made 8 in. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. Phoenixville. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. Vanderslice. from one end. 1. 2. 1. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray.

Ohio. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. square. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. by weight. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. -Contributed by J. which allows 1/4 in. one-half the length of the side pieces. as shown in the illustration.A. Simonis. 2 parts of whiting. Fostoria. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. 5 parts of black filler. if only two bands are put in the . This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. rubbing varnish and turpentine. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed.

DeLoof. says the English Mechanic. Shaw. as shown in Fig. No. A piece of metal. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. is set at an angle of 45 deg. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. A mirror. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. which may be either of ground or plain glass. keeps the strong light out when sketching. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. and the picture can be drawn as described. In constructing helmets. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. --Contributed by Thos. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. London. -Contributed by Abner B. in the opposite end of the box. Michigan. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. Grand Rapids. deep. Mass. 8 in. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. II. It must be kept moist and well . Dartmouth. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. is necessary. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. wide and about 1 ft. G. There is no limit to the size of the helmet.lower strings. place tracing paper on its surface. In use. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. If a plain glass is used. and it may be made as a model or full sized. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. 1. long. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. A double convex lens. preferably copper.

and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. 1. as in bas-relief. a few clay-modeling tools. joined closely together. and over the crest on top. with a keyhole saw. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. shown in Fig. and continue until the clay is completely covered. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. After the clay model is finished. All being ready. take. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. The clay. This being done.kneaded. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. 1. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. as shown in Fig. on which to place the clay. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. brown. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. or some thin glue. and the deft use of the fingers. will be necessary. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. 2. the clay model oiled. Scraps of thin. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. 3. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. and left over night to soak. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well.

one for each side. The band is decorated with brass studs. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. In Fig. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. as shown: in the design. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. then another coating of glue. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. as seen in the other part of the sketch. which should be no difficult matter. should be modeled and made in one piece. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. Indiana. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. The center of the ear guards are perforated. or. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. square in shape. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. will make it look neat. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. owing to the clay being oiled. 7. Before taking it off the model. the skullcap. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . and the ear guards in two possible. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. with the exception of the vizor. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. the piecing could not be detected. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. 5. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. and so on. The whole helmet. They are all covered with tinfoil. In Fig. Indianapolis. a few lines running down. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. When perfectly dry. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. This contrivance should be made of wood. When the helmet is off the model. 1. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. When dry. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. 9. --Contributed by Paul Keller. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. a crest on top.

that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. 1 in. Fig. two ordinary binding posts. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. and. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. Fig. JJ. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. GG. one glass tube. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. Fig. 1. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. Fig. Fig. This will make an open space between the plates. or. until it is within 1 in. screws. Fig. 4. of the top. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. of fire clay. of No. about 80 ft. Fig. for connections. each 4-1/2 in. thick sheet asbestos. about 1 lb. If a neat appearance is desired. This will allow the plate. one fuse block. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. long. as it stands a higher temperature. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. 4. If asbestos is used. also the switch B and the fuse block C. one small switch. of mineral wool. AA. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. 1. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. high. 4. Fig. 22 gauge resistance wire. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. 4. as shown in Fig. to receive screws for holding it to the base. if the measurements are correct. which can be bought from a local druggist. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. one oblong piece of wood. 1. The two holes. The mineral wool. Fig. and two large 3in. German-silver wire is better. about 1/4 in. The holes B and C are about 3 in. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. Fig. 2. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. and C. long. 2. A round collar of galvanized iron. as shown in Fig. 3. above the collar. 1. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. The reverse side of the base. 3 in. when they are placed in opposite positions. should extend about 1/4 in. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. is shown in Fig. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar.same size. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. 2. 4. are allowed to project about 1 in. 12 in. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. if this cannot be obtained. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. FF. long. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . 4. the fuse block. the holes leading to the switch. thick. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. 1. in diameter and 9 in. E and F. 1. 4 lb. with slits cut for the wires. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. Fig. as shown in Fig. Fig. 4. is then packed down inside the collar. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. AA. AA. The plate. wide and 15 in. Fig.

A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. While the clay is damp. Jaquythe. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. so that the circuit will not become broken. Can. and pressed into it. --Contributed by R. The top plate is put in place and screwed down.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. If this is the case. A. 4. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. When this is done. as the turns of the wires. when cool. II. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. Cnonyn. Catherines. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. will slip and come in contact with each other. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. H. Cal. allowing a space between each turn. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. --Contributed by W. Next. Fig. 2. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . deep. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. above the rim. steam will form when the current is applied. St. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. KK. when heated. This completes the stove. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. Cover over about 1 in. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. It should not be left heated in this condition. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. A file can be used to remove any rough places. causing a short circuit. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. It should not be set on end. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. using care not to get it too wet. Richmond. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. If it is not thoroughly dry. more wire should be added. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. As these connections cannot be soldered. apart. then. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. Cut a 1/2-in. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. When the tile is in place. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. The clay. it leaves a gate for the metal. Fig. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. This point marks the proper length to cut it.

Ky. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. is large enough. the pie will be damaged. square material in any size.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. Then clip a little off the . Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. and the prints will dry rapidly." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. constructed of 3/4-in. Thorne. --Contributed by Andrew G. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. Louisville. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. and the frame set near a window. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. as shown. says the Photographic Times. but 12 by 24 in. the air can enter from both top and bottom.

high.Paper Funnel point. in diameter. 22 gauge magnet wire. 1. 14 in. in diameter and about 4 in. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. wide and 7 in. An offset is bent in the center. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. causing a break in the current. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. 1 and 3. each 1/2 in. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. Fig. The connections are made as shown in Fig. 2. thick. open out. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. 1/2 in. which gives the shaft a half turn. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. 1. 2-1/2 in. which are fastened to the base. As the shaft revolves. wide and 3 in. allowing each end to project for connections. Fig. Figs. 1. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. The upright B. The driving arm D. A 1/8-in. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. 1/2 in. thereby saving time and washing. Herron. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. long. thick and 3 in. W. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. at GG. 3. 4 in. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. The board can be raised to place . It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. for the crank. long. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. -Contributed by S. each 1 in. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. Iowa. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. high. Fig. high. 1. The connecting rod E. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. wide. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. long. as shown. thick and 3 in. Le Mars. Two supports. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. long. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. slip on two cardboard washers. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt.

on a board. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. Dorchester. Stecher.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. One or more pots may be used. In designing the roost. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. . making a framework suitable for a roost. --Contributed by William F. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. in height. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. Mass. as shown in the sketch. 3 in. bottom side up. Place the pot.

The bottom part of the sketch. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. that it is heated. when combined. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. paraffin and paint or varnish. and give it time to dry. Wind the . windows. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. grills and gratings for doors. in diameter. etc. will produce the pattern desired. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. 1.. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. 1. if it is other than straight lines. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. as shown in Fig. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. adopt the method described. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in.. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. ordinary glue. shelves. F. F. The materials required are rope or. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. without any corresponding benefit. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. preferably. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. Fig.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. odd corners.

A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . Harrer. cut and glue them together. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. M. Fig. Y. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. -Contributed by Geo. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig.Fig. N. six designs are shown. Lockport. 2.

makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. will be retained by the cotton. 1. etc. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. etc. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. says the English Mechanic.. This piece of horse armor. As the . Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. London.. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. when it will be observed that any organic matter. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. but no farther.. which was used in front of a horse's head. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. chips of iron rust. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. and the sides do not cover the jaws.

This triangularshaped support. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. All being ready. and the clay model oiled. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. In Fig. then another coat of glue. except the thumb and fingers. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. This being done. the rougher the better. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. 8. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. This will make the model light and easy to move around. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. and therefore it is not described. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. 6 and 7. but for . A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. the same as in Fig. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. as shown in the sketch. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. 2. 2. with the exception of the thumb shield. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. as the surface will hold the clay. but the back is not necessary. The armor is now removed from the model. This can be made in one piece. and will require less clay. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. which can be made in any size. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. An arrangement is shown in Fig. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. 4. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. which is separate.

will be about right. wide and 1/2 in. 2. . are glued to it. 9. fastened to the rod. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. and the instrument is ready for use. the two pieces of foil will draw together. N. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. but 3-1/2 in. The two pieces of foil. the foils will not move. each about 1/4 in. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. --Contributed by Ralph L. in depth. running down the plate. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. long. --Contributed by John G. Goshen. the top of the rod. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. If it does not hold a charge. Buxton. two in each jaw. two for the jaws and one a wedge. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. Fasten a polished brass ball to. Calif. 1/2 in. La Rue.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. cut into the shape shown in Fig. Y. When locating the place for the screw eyes. A piece of board. Redondo Beach. are better shown in Fig.

Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. At a point 6 in. The can may be bronzed. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. 2-1/2 in. as shown in the illustration. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. silvered. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. long. as this will cut under the water without splashing. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. M. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. A. Texas. When a fish is hooked. hole bored through it. about 15 in. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. from the smaller end. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. enameled or otherwise decorated. is made of a 1/4-in. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. as indicated in the . Bryan. --Contributed by Mrs. Corsicana. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. pine board. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made.

A good size is 5 in." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. Having completed the drawing. long over all. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. put a coat or two of wax and polish . through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. 3/8 or 1/4 in. take a piece of thin wood. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. If soft wood. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. When it has dried over night. using powdered pumice and lye. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. and trace upon it the design and outline. as shown. or even pine. Polish the metal. punch the holes. Any kind of wood will do. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. Next prepare the metal holder. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. will do as well as the more expensive woods. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. 22 is plenty heavy enough.Match Holder accompanying sketch. then with a nail. wide by 6 in. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. thick. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. Basswood or butternut. using a piece of carbon paper. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. such as basswood or pine was used. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No.

Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. A. each 1 in. are used for the cores of the magnets. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. is used for the base of this instrument. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. long. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. 2 in. of pure olive oil. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. Two wire nails. It is useful for photographers. . Richmond. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. wide and 5 in. thick. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. If one has some insight in carving. Instead of the usual two short ropes. Cal. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. 1/2 in. If carving is contemplated. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. Jaquythe. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. long. --Contributed by W. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. the whole being finished in linseed oil. can be made on the same standards. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state.

cut in the shape of the letter T. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. in the shape shown in the sketch. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. All of the parts for the armor have been described. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. . at A. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. Lynas. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. A piece of tin. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. A rubber band. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. About 1 in.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. 25 gauge. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. as shown by the dotted lines. acts as a spring to keep the key open. says the English Mechanic. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. when the key is pushed down. the paper covering put on. 1. leaving about 1/4 in. 3. as shown in Fig. cloth or baize to represent the legs. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. similar to that used in electric bells. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. --Contributed by W. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. except that for the legs. London. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. H. about No. then covered with red.

and eight small holes.. flat headed carriage bolt. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. Silver paper will do very well. 1 in. In one end of the piece. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. So set up. in the other end. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. or ordinary plaster laths will do. says Camera Craft. By moving the position of the bolt from. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. make the same series of eight small holes and. apart. hole in the center. long. at each end. about 1 in. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. The two pieces are bolted together. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. Fig. not too tight. apart. can be made in a few minutes' time. Secure two strips of wood. A 1/4-in. Instead of using brass headed nails. for the sake of lightness. completes the equipment. 3 in. Cut them to a length or 40 in. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. drill six 1/4-in. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. one to another . 1 and drill a 1/4in. 2. These can be purchased at a stationery store. Take the piece shown in Fig. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. holes.

4. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. as shown in Fig. long. D over A and C. as in portraiture and the like. lay Cover B and the one under D. 2. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. Fig. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. and the one beneath C. then B over C and the end stuck under A. in Fig. of the ends remain unwoven. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about.of the larger holes in the strip. but instead of reversing . Then draw all four ends up snugly. taking the same start as for the square fob. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. and lay it over the one to the right. for instance. A round fob is made in a similar way. In this sketch. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. C over D and B. 2. Then take B and lay it over A. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. Start with one end. the one marked A. 1. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. doubled and run through the web of A. 2. A is the first string and B is the second.

Rupp. is to be made of leather. --Contributed by John P. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. Ohio. 5. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. always lap one string. especially if silk strings are used. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. The round fob is shown in Fig. 3. as in making the square fob. A loop. the design of which is shown herewith. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. is left out at the center before starting on one side. Other designs can be made in the same manner. long. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. as B. Monroeville. over the one to its right. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. as at A in Fig. 1-1/2 in. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch.

and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. door facing or door panel. . it can be easily renewed. filling them with wax. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. -Contributed by A. Northville. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. such as a nut pick. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. When the supply of wax is exhausted. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. A. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. Mich. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. Houghton. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. pressing it against the wood. beeswax or paraffin.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. using the reverse side. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. Any smooth piece of steel. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood.

J. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. Y. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. thick. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. leaving about 1/4 in. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. The tacks should be about 1 in. but any kind that will not stick may be used. long. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. says Photographic Times. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. if blueprints are used. Enough plaster should. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. apart and driven in only part way. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. and after wetting. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. N. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. D. E and F. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. it is best to leave a plain white margin. Petersburg. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. Thompson. those on matte paper will work best. remaining above the surface of the board. place it face down in the dish. Fold together on lines C. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. although tin ones can be used with good success. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. . --Contributed by O. Select the print you wish to mount. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. and about 12 in. New York. Ill. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable.

filling the same about onehalf full. as shown in the right of the sketch. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. will be rendered perfectly white. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. as shown at the left in the sketch. One of the . The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. Lower into the test tube a wire.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. bell flowers. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. violets. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. etc.. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. roses. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. without mixing the solutions.

and at the larger end. 1. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . The sound box. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. 1-7/8 in. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. When soldering these parts together. in diameter and 1 in. turned a little tapering. L. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. as shown in the sketch. South Dakota. shading. made of heavy tin. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. --Contributed by L. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in.. is about 2-1/2 in. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. thick. or delicate tints of the egg. A rod that will fit the brass tube. not too tightly.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. as shown. but which will not wobble loose. long and made of wood. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. to keep the core from coming off in turning. 3. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. Fig. The diaphragm. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. The tin horn can be easily made. should be soldered to the box. about 1/8s in. long. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. 2. Shabino. The first point should be ground blunt. Millstown. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle.

and weighted it with a heavy stone. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. Colo. put a board on top. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. E. and. Victor. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle.Contributed by E. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. says the Iowa Homestead. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. mice in the bottom. Jr. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. Chicago. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. Ill. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. Gold. wondering what it was. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] .

Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. Can. Pereira. Ottawa. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. N. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. Y. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. . and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. Buffalo. --Contributed by Lyndwode. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien.

Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. This cart has no axle. Grand Rapids. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. and at one end of the stick fasten. De Loof. Jaquythe. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. A. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . as it can be made quickly in any size. Richmond. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. --Contributed by Thos. cut round. through which several holes have been punched. by means of a flatheaded tack.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. Cal. longer than the length of the can. Put a small nail 2 in. a piece of tin. Mich. above the end of the dasher. --Contributed by W. as shown.

Doylestown. 2.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. long. wide and 1/8 in. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. The baseboard and top are separable. New Orleans. screwed it on the inside of a store box. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 2. cut in the center of the rounding edge. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. 1/4 in. 2. as shown. Fig. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. wide and 3 ft.1. The candles. deep and 3 in. La. wide. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. apart. 1. --Contributed by James M. wide and as long as the box. Kane. of course. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. Notches 1/8 in. board. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. 1 ft. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. 2 in. were below the level of the bullseye. I reversed a door gong. thick. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. Pa. A wedge-shaped piece of . The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. 1-1/2 in. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig.

Worcester. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. to prevent its scratching the desk top. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. --Contributed by G. the blade is put back into the groove . I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. the shelf could not be put on the window. Mass. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. stone or wood. This device is very convenient for invalids. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. Ia. 3. 1. will. as shown in Fig. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. dressing one surface of each piece. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. wide into each side of the casing. West Union. Wood. take two pieces of hard wood. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. When not in use. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. Needles. wide rubber bands or felt. the reason being that if both were solid. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade.Book Back Holders metal. scissors. A. can be picked up without any trouble. it can be removed without marring the casing. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. Cover the block with rubber. For the handle. etc. After the glue has dried. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. when placed as in Fig. The block can also be used as a paperweight. by cutting away the ends. After completing the handle..

a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. Ohio. is shown in the accompanying sketch. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. Cleveland. A notch is cut in one side. as shown in Fig. Malden. . thus carrying the car up the incline. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. -Contributed by W. Pa. 2. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench.and sharpened to a cutting edge. 1. --Contributed by Maud McKee. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. Jacobs. S. --Contributed by H. long. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. square and 4 in. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. Each one is made of a hardwood block. Mass. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. 1 in. Erie. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. If desired. Hutchins. as shown in Fig. A. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down.

and an awl and hammer. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. Prepare a design for the front.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. N. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. Cape May Point. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. will be needed.J. If one such as is shown is to be used. The letters can be put on afterward. One sheet of metal.. 6 by 9-1/2 in. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. This will insure having all parts alike. . a board on which to work it.

a violin. or. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. behind or through the center of a table leg. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. If any polishing is required. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. which is desirable. One coat will do. 1 part. 1/4 part. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. paste the paper design right on the metal. flat brush. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. but weird and distant. varnish. to right angles. says Master Painter. turpentine. that can be worked in your own parlor. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. if desired. The stick may be placed by the side of. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. So impressive are the results. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced.Fasten the metal to the board. On the back. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. Remove the metal. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. 3/4 part." In all appearance. 2 parts white vitriol. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. as shown. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. applied by means of a brush. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. mandolin or guitar. placed on a table. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. only the marginal line is to be pierced. The music will not sound natural. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. in the waste metal. .

The longest piece. With proper tools this is easy. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. across the top. apart. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. 3. each 6 in. it might be difficult. round-head machine screws. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. London. and is easy to construct. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. 2. square bar iron. wide. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. says Work. long and spread about 8 in. without them. . and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. Two pairs of feet. long and measuring 26 in. each 28 in. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. thick by 1/2 in. long. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. is bent square so as to form two uprights.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. are shaped as shown in Fig.

After the joints are soldered. 7. After the glass is cut. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. A. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. or. While the piece of lead D. The glass. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. 4. 5. on it as shown. using rosin as a flux. and the base border. 6. is held by the brads. D. special flux purchased for this purpose. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. the latter being tapped to . C. The brads are then removed. B. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. the piece E can be fitted and soldered.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. lead. in the grooves of the borders. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. The design is formed in the lead. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. better still. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. Fig. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. as shown in Fig. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. Place the corner piece of glass. Fig. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. 5. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. cut a long piece of lead. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop.

in diameter and about 9 in. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. Fasten the plates to the block B. J. --Contributed by W. Dreier. This . bolt. holes through their centers. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. in diameter and 1/4 in. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. H. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. bolt. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. This ring can be made of 1-in. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. plates. The center pin is 3/4-in. rocker bolt. then drill a 3/4-in. long. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. and round the corners of one end for a ring. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. thick and drill 3/4-in. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. long. Camden. one on each side and central with the hole. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. rounded at the top as shown. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. Two styles of hand holds are shown. Bore a 3/4-in. wood screws in each washer.. 8. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. square and of the length given in the drawing. as shown in Fig. Bore a 5/8-in. not less than 4 in. plank about 12 ft. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in.the base of the clip. A and B. long. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. and two wood blocks. N. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. Make three washers 3-in. Secure a post. Jr. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. then flatten its end on the under side. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours.

4 in. and some one can swing an axe. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. New Orleans. If trees are convenient. long. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. 7 in. square by 9-1/2 ft. 1. 16 screws. maple. apart for a distance of 3 ft. 1/2 in. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. by 2 ft. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in.will make an excellent cover for a pot. square by 5 ft. of 1/4-in. bit. straight-grained hickory. 3 in. from one edge. in diameter and 7 in. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. 1 by 7 in. boards along the side of each from end to end. 50 ft. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. by 6-1/2 ft. 4 filler pieces. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. long. long. 2 by 4 in. can make a first class gymnasium. 4 pieces. screws. 1-1/4in. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. The four 7-in. 4 in. To substitute small. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. by 3 ft. bolts and rope. shanks. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. horse and rings. 4 pieces. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. La. long. chestnut or ash. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. hickory. long. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. Draw a line on the four 7-in. 2-1/2 in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. long. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. long and 1 piece. 9 in. the money outlay will be almost nothing. 3/4 by 3 in. because it will not stand the weather.

The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. apart. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. from the end. Bore a 9/16-in. at each end. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats.. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. deep and remove all loose dirt. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. piece of wood. so the 1/2-in. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. apart. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in.bored. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. 2. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed.. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. each 3 ft. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. 8 in. boards coincide. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft.

then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. in an endless belt. . and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. it follows the edge for about 1 in. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. W. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. but most deceptive at dusk. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII.. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. and materially heightened the illusion. and ascends the stem. not much to look at in daytime. it is taken to the edge of the foot. He stretched the thread between two buildings. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. which at once gathered. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus." which skimmed along the distant horizon. passing through a screweye at either end. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. not even the tumbler. just visible against the dark evening sky. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. disappearing only to reappear again. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. apart. was at its height. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. the effect is very striking. and then passes in a curve across the base. If the tumbler is rotated.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. about 100 ft. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. When the interest of the crowd. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. And all he used was a black thread.

from either side of the center. 6 in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. long. square and 51/2 ft. beginning at a point 9 in. preferably cedar. long. 2 in. 4 knee braces. long. large spikes. long. 8 in. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. wide and 1 in. long and 1 doz. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. by 2 ft. by 10 ft. square and 6 ft. 2 side braces. To make the apparatus. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. 2 cross braces. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. La. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. 4 in. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. so the point will be on top. deep. A wire about No. 8 bolts. 7 in. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. The cork will come out easily. 2 by 4 in. Chisel out two notches 4 in. long. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. and turned in a spiral D. Fig. 8 in. 2 base pieces. 4 wood screws. by 7 ft. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. Bevel the ends of . 2 by 3 in. 4 bolts. New Orleans. 1. 2 by 4 in. long. 8 in. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. 4 in. 2 by 4 in. long. by 3 ft. long.

( To be Continued. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. so the bolts in both will not meet. --Contributed by W. using four of the 7-in bolts. leaving the strainer always in position. additional long. Richmond. The wood so treated will last for years. Jaquythe. These will allow the ladle to be turned. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. but even unpainted they are very durable. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. which face each other. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. except the bars. as shown in the diagram. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. screws.. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. Cal. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft.the knee braces. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. After the trenches are dug. etc. jellies. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. leave it undressed. A large sized ladle. A. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. Two endpieces must be made. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. save the bars. . and countersinking the heads. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. If using mill-cut lumber.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. of 7 ft. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. equipped with a strainer. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled.

In order to accomplish this experiment. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. A. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. which seems impossible. it is necessary to place a stick. or various cutting compounds of oil. milling machine. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. thus holding the pail as shown. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. drill press or planer. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. partly a barrier for jumps. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. of sufficient 1ength. . An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. Oil. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog.

but 5 ft. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. bolt. 1 in. long. 2 by 4 in.. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. 2 by 4 in. 4-1/2 in. ten 1/2-in. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. piece of 2 by 4-in. and free from knots. long. wood yard or from the woods. The round part of this log must be planed. long. long. in diameter--the larger the better. long. projections and splinters. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. in the ground. 2 by 4 in. These are placed 18 in. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. by 3 ft. 4 in. by 3 ft. 4 knee braces. Procure from a saw mill. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. two 1/2-in. is a good length. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. beginning 1-1/2 in. 2 bases. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. from each end. 4 in. stud cut rounding on one edge. long. To construct.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. 4 in. long. 1 cross brace. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. square by 5 ft. apart in a central position on the horse. The material required is as follows: Two posts. bolts. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. 3 in. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. to fasten the knee braces at the top. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. square by 5-1/2 ft. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. These are well nailed in place. 2 adjusting pieces. Hand holds must be provided next. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. long. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars.. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. 7 in. bolts. apart. bolts. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. by 3 ft.

but nevertheless. pipe and fittings. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. it is caused by some obstruction. then bending to the shape desired.--Contributed by W. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. A. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. Richmond. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. top. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. it is caused by an overloaded shell. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. water. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. snow. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. etc. Also. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. no one is responsible but himself. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. over and around. Such a hand sled can be made in a . such as a dent. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. Jaquythe. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in.

. when straightened out. in width and 1/32 in. These. Ontario. is much better than a wood sled. --Contributed by Arthur E. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. Toronto. 2. thick. The end elevation. which. will give the length. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. when complete. Joerin. W. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. 1/4 or 3/16 in. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. --Contributed by J. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. are all the tools necessary. Boston. Noble. Vener. Paris.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. 1. Mass. --Contributed by James E. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. at E and F. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. France. then run a string over each part.

Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. 3. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. . The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. It is best to use soft water. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. AA and BB. 4. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. and the latter will take on a bright luster. are nailed. The method shown in Figs. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. nor that which is partly oxidized. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe.

3. or various rulings may be made. 4. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. 2. 8 and 9. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. as shown in Fig.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. or unequal widths as in Fig. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. 2. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. . Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. Broad lines can be made. Percy Ashley in Rudder. 1). class ice-yacht. The materials used are: backbone. as shown in Fig. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. Both the lower . The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. It can be made longer or shorter. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. a larger size of pipe should be used. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. a tee and a forging. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. out from the collar. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. but if it is made much longer. long. A good and substantial homemade lathe. bent and drilled as shown. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe.Fig. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. 1-Details of Lathe sort. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. pins to keep them from turning. The headstock is made of two tees. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. The point should extend about 11/2 in. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. pipe. about 30 in. 1. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in.

Musgrove. as shown in Fig. 1. Cal. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. and will answer for a great variety of work. To do this. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. M. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. else taper turning will result. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. 3/4 or 1 in. a straight line should be scratched Fig. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. Held. UpDeGraff. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. but also their insulating properties. 2. Boissevain. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. Laporte. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. --Contributed by W. thick as desired. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. or a key can be used as well. as shown in Fig. 2. Indiana. 2. --Contributed by M. W. . Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. Fruitvale. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. a corresponding line made on this. Man. --Contributed by W. It is about 1 in. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches.

Cline. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. The handle is of pine about 18 in. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. J. long. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. Ark. Ft. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] .Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. In use. Smith. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. --Contributed by E. To obviate this. as shown. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle.

La.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. New Orleans. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. --Contributed by Walter W. Denver. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. on starting the lathe. After being entered. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. face off the end of the piece. if this method is followed: First. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. White. centering is just one operation too many. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. the drill does not need the tool. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. This prevents the drill from wobbling. take . The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. Colo. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. and when once in true up to its size. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. which should be backed out of contact. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill.

If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. and this given to someone to hold. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. shown at C. In doing this. unknown to the spectators. After the wand is removed. after being shown empty. a bout 1/2 in. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. The glass tube B. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. all the better. the cap is placed over the paper tube. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. is put into the paper tube A. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. It can be used in a great number of tricks. The handkerchief rod. a long piece of glass tubing. vanishing wand. as shown in D. and can be varied to suit the performer. says the Sphinx. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. by applying caustic soda or . shorter t h a n the wand. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief.

3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. thick. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. cut to any shape desired. across the front and back to strengthen them. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. 1 Bottom. The brace at D is 1 in. End. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. 1 End. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. 1/4 in. with the back side rounding. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. Glue strips of soft wood. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. This dimension and those for the frets . can be made by the home mechanic. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. As the cement softens.potash around the edges of the letters. and if care is taken in selecting the material. 1 Neck. With care and patience. by 14 by 17 in. preferably hard maple. and glue it to the neck at F. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. Cut a piece of hard wood. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. long. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. as shown by K. 2 Sides. The sides. 1. Glue the neck to the box. 3/16. square and 1-7/8 in. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples.

This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. Six holes. but it is not. --Contributed by Chas. Stoddard. H. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. Norwalk.Pa. Carbondale. toward each end. When it is completed you will have a canoe. wide and 11-1/2 ft. or backbone.should be made accurately. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. 1) on which to stretch the paper. thick and about 1 ft. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. -Contributed by J. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. in diameter. E. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. A board 1 in. O. long is used for a keel. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. and beveled . 3/16 in. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. Frary. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat.

For the ribs near the middle of the boat. as before described. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. b. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. 1 and 2. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. 13 in. but twigs of some other trees. in such cases. In drying. slender switches of osier willow. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. 3). Green wood is preferable. Shape these as shown by A. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. 2. are next put in. 3/8 in. when made of green elm. Fig. 2). Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. wide by 26 in. Fig. but before doing this. The cross-boards (B. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. by means of a string or wire. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. will answer nearly as well. Fig. 3. some tight strips of ash. Fig. and so. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. such as hazel or birch. Fig. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. B. The ribs. and notched at the end to receive them (B. with long stout screws. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. or other place. Any tough. Fig. or similar material.) in notches. C. Fig. buy some split cane or rattan. as shown in Fig. procure at a carriage factory. thick. apart. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. as they are apt to do. Fig. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. which are easily made of long. probably. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. C. 4. such as is used for making chairbottoms. b. These are better.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. and are not fastened. 1. the loose strips of ash (b. in thickness and should be cut. 3. long. For the gunwales (a. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. Osiers probably make the best ribs. thick. long are required. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. Fig. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. 4). twigs 5 or 6 ft. and. 2). two strips of wood (b. as shown in Fig. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. b. . and the smaller ends to the gunwales. a. two twigs may be used to make one rib.. 3). because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out.

It should be smooth on the surface. and light oars. Being made in long rolls. however. B. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. of very strong wrapping-paper. and very tough. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. It should be drawn tight along the edges. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. and held in place by means of small clamps. The paper is then trimmed. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. preferably iron. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. When the paper is dry. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. Then take some of the split rattan and. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. but with less turpentine. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. If the paper be 1 yd. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. after wetting it. apply a second coat of the same varnish. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. if it has been properly constructed of good material. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. tacking it to the bottom-board. If not. 5). and steady in the water. You may put in . but neither stiff nor very thick. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. When thoroughly dry. Fig. wide. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. and as soon as that has soaked in. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales.

and make a movable seat (A. We procured a box and made a frame. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. Fig. they will support very heavy weights. Fig. 5). and if driven as shown in the cut. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. 5. 1 and the end in . allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. fore and aft. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. Drive the lower nail first. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. 1. to fit it easily. 2. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. Fig. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked.

and melt it down and close the end at the same time. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. 3. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. 4. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. this makes the tube airtight. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. This way has its drawbacks. and the result is. A good way to handle this work. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. This is an easy . as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. Pa. and the glass. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. Pittsburg. 5.Fig. being softer where the flame has been applied. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. Close the other end with the same operation. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand.

and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . fifth. rivet punch. file. also trace the decorative design. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. third. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. four. Give the metal a circular motion. second. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. above the work and striking it with the hammer. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. then reverse. metal shears. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. with a piece of carbon paper. After the bulb is formed. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in.way to make a thermometer tube. above the metal. Sixth. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. Oswald. three. extra metal all around. thin screw. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. fourth. or six arms. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. -Contributed by A. Seventh. very rapid progress can be made. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. flat and round-nosed pliers. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. 23 gauge. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. The candle holders may have two.

these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. drip cup. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . Having pierced the bracket. and holder. Metal polish of any kind will do. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. Small copper rivets are used.

the stick at the bottom of the sail. and add the gelatine. they were like an ice boat with a sail. The boom. Twenty cents was all I spent. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. all the rest I found. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. of glycerine to about 200 deg. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. and in a week . is a broomstick. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. Shiloh. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. N. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. J. alcohol 2 parts. deep. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. winding the ends where they came together with wire. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. I steer with the front wheel. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. hammer. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. and other things as they were needed. smooth it down and then remove as before. except they had wheels instead of runners. and water 24 parts. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. if it has not absorbed too much ink. on a water bath. Fifty. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. A saw. when it will be ready for use. Soak 1 oz. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. Mother let me have a sheet. and it will be ready for future use. and brace and bit were the tools used. glycerine 4 parts. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. thus it was utilized. Heat 6-1/2 oz. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. using a steel pen. sugar 1 part. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. F. The gaff. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable.

Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up. a projecting lens . A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly.Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing.

wide and 15 in. The board is centered both ways. or a lens of 12-in. This ring is made up from two rings. A table. or glue. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. 3. wire brads. long. 8 in. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. 1/2 to 3/4 in. provided the material is of metal. well seasoned pine. are . 1. high. describe a 9-in. and the work carefully done. The slide support. and 14 in. but if such a box is not found. and a projecting lens 2 in. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. H. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. slide to about 6 ft. focus enlarging a 3-in. If a small saw is used. at a point 1 in. above the center.. E. thick. at a distance of 24 ft. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. wide. and the lens slide. and. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. A and B. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. as desired. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. G. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. Fig. about 2 ft. DD.

All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. should the glass happen to upset. apply two coats of shellac varnish.-Contributed by G. Small strips of tin. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. placed on the water. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. E.constructed to slip easily on the table. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. the water at once extinguishes the flame. To reach the water. JJ. B. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. Minn. the strips II serving as guides. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. light burning oil. St. A sheet . of safe. and when the right position is found for each. Paul. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. P. The arrangement is quite safe as. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. but not long enough.

2. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. Fig. Fig. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. 9 in.. I ordered a canvas bag. Y. form a piece of wire in the same shape. 3 in. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. N. 4. 3. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. Schenectady. Crawford. --Contributed by J. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. 3. from a tent company. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. to cover the mattresses. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. then the corners on one end are doubled over.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. 12 ft.H. 1. If one of these clips is not at hand. by 12 ft. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat.

3 to swing freely on the tack. first mark the binding-post A. as shown in Fig. Fig. To calibrate the instrument. 3/4 in. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner.each edge. Fasten the wire with gummed label. long and 3/16 in. 2. --Contributed by Edward M. open on the edges. Warren. Denver. drill two 3/16 in. C. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. Fig. 1. 1/2 in. thick. through which the indicator works. --Contributed by Walter W. 1. Do not use too strong a rubber. Colo. and insert two binding-posts. D. Fold two strips of light cardboard. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. so as to form two oblong boxes. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. to keep it from unwinding. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. in the center coil. to the coil of small wire for volts. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. 2. for amperes and the other post. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. A Film Washing Trough [331] . insulating them from the case with cardboard. wide. apart. long. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. Pa. White. holes in the edge. V. 2. An arc is cut in the paper. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. A rubber band. Attach a piece of steel rod. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. Teasdale. 3/4 in. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. 1/2 in.

apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. Place this can on one end of the trough. as shown. Dayton. M. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. Cut a 1/4-in. Wood Burning [331] . Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. with the large hole up. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. --Contributed by M. Hunting. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. O. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet.

mouth downward.Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. then into this bottle place. a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids.

The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. Ala. --Contributed by Fred W. Place the small bottle in as before. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. Whitehouse. Auburn. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. many puzzling effects may be obtained. 3/4 in. 2. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. This will make a very pretty ornament. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. as shown in the sketch. long.Y. provided the bottle is wide.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. wide and 4 in. --Contributed by John Shahan. Upper Troy. If the cork is adjusted properly. N. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . If the small bottle used is opaque. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. thick. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. but not very thick. 1. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom.

pulley. Fig. 2. I. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. which was 6 in. The shaft C. Fig. line. high without the upper half. The wire L was put . thick. B. such as blades and pulleys. Both bearings were made in this manner. W. The 21/2-in. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. was keyed to shaft C. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. Milter. in diameter and 1 in. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. Fig. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. 3. pulley F. 1 in. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. On a 1000-ft.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. Fig. 1. A staple. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. iron rod. --Contributed by D. to the shaft. Fig. G. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. which gave considerable power for its size. was 1/4in. K. 4. Its smaller parts. which extended to the ground. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. 1. which was nailed to the face plate. thick and 3 in. or ordinary telephone transmitters. 2 ft. 1. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. by the method shown in Fig. even in a light breeze. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. 1. sugar pine on account of its softness. were constructed of 1-in. long. thick. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. The bearing blocks were 3 in. wide. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. as shown in Fig. If a transmitter is used. 1.

Cut a piece of tin 2 in. 1. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. when the windmill needed oiling. apart in the tower. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. was tacked. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. in diameter. G. 2. The other lid. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. 1. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. long. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. 3 in. with brass headed furniture tacks. in the center of the board P. Fig. wide and 1 in. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. 6. This completes the receiver or sounder. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. square to the board P at the top of the tower. 1. pine 18 by 12 in. There a 1/4-in. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. 1) 4 in. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. hole for the shaft G was in the center. long and bend it as shown at A. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. Fig. washers were placed under pulley F. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. long and 3 in. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. Fig. This board was 12 in. The bed plate D. To lessen the friction here. 6. providing one has a few old materials on hand. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. across the thin edge of a board. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. If you have no bell. so that the 1/4-in. 1. 5. hole was bored for it. H. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. as. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. was 2 ft. Two washers were placed on shaft C. cut out another piece of tin (X. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. The power was put to various uses. To make the key. Fig. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. and was cut the shape shown. This fan was made of 1/4-in. long and bend it as . The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. a 1/2-in. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. for instance. The smaller one. strips. 0. Fig. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. through the latter. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. Fig. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. top down also. long and 1/2 in. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. with all parts in place. R. long. 25 ft. Fig.

through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. after the manner of bicycle wheels. -Contributed by John R. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle.shown. leaving the other wire as it is. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. Before tacking it to the board. as shown at Water. causing a buzzing sound. When tired of this instrument. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. By adjusting the coils. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. at the front. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. fitted with paddles as at M. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. Thus a center drive is made. Now. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. 1. McConnell. like many another device boys make. 2. The rear barrels are. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. although it can be made with but two. using cleats to hold the board frame. as indicated. and. Going back to Fig.

The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. there will not be much friction. To propel it. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. If the journals thus made are well oiled. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. which will give any amount of pleasure. 1. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. 3. can be built. copper piping and brass tubing for base. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. or even a little houseboat. as shown in Fig. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . The speed is slow at first. feet on the pedals. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. There is no danger.

Place one brass ring in cylinder.of pleasure for a little work. If it is desired to make the light very complete. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. Then melt out the rosin or lead. 2. D. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. 2. Turn a small circle of wood. 2. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. Fig. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. 1. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. B. Shape small blocks of boxwood. If magnifying glass cannot be had. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. 1. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. A. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. 1. Fig. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. then the glass disc and then the other ring. or it may be put to other uses if desired. and so creating a false circuit. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. C. Fig. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. Fig.

electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. bell. To throw on light throw levers to the left. switch. J. bracket. brass rod. Swissvale. C. by having the switch on the baseboard. some glue will secure them. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. T. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . B. brass strip. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. long. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. long. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. Ogden. contact post. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. shelf. wire from batteries to switch. Pa. dry batteries. In placing clock on shelf. G. wide and 1/16 in. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. after two turns have been made on the key. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. thick. such as is used for cycle valves. while lying in bed. which stops bell ringing. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. E. D. Utah. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. When alarm goes off.india rubber tubing. after setting alarm. --Contributed by Geo. The parts indicated are as follows: A. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. wire from light to switch. S. 4-1/2 in. key of alarm clock. near the bed. copper tubing. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. Brinkerhoff. Chatland. 5-1/4 by 10 in. 3/8 in. 4 in. I. F. To operate this. and pulled tight. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. Throw lever off from the right to center. C. X. or 1/4in. To get the cylinder into its carriage. H. --Contributed by C. wire from bell to switch. if too small.. set alarm key as shown in diagram.

Having finished this. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. which can be made of an old can.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. in diameter. will do the heating. long. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. as at A. a bed warmer. Lanesboro. about 6 in. This is to form the fuse hole. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. Pull out the nail and stick. from one end. as . wide. Minn. Fig. S. beyond the end of the spindle. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. 2. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. making it as true and smooth as possible. Make a shoulder. --Contributed by Chas. about 3-1/2 in. A small lamp of about 5 cp. 1. 3. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. for instance. Fig. Fig. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. 1. Chapman. 2. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. being careful not to get the sand in it. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. letting it extend 3/4 in. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. as at B. All that is required is a tin covering. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. gives the heater a more finished appearance. place stick and all in a pail of sand. 1/4 in. A flannel bag. Make the spindle as in Fig. as at A. in diameter. as in Fig. 4 in.

The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. good straight-grained pine will do. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . will be sufficient to make the trigger. 11/2 in. long. A piece of oak. or hickory. 3/8 in. Joerin. ash. 5/8 in. but if this wood cannot be procured. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. long. 1. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. wide and 3/8 in. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. thick. spring and arrows. long. wide and 3 ft. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. thick.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. deep. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. 6 in. The illustration shows how this is done. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. --Contributed by Arthur E. thick. The material must be 1-1/2 in. 1 in. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. wide and 6 ft. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. A piece of tin. this is to keep the edges from splitting.

a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. 7. it lifts the spring up. To throw the arrow. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. or through the necessity of. from the opposite end. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. The trigger. Fig. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. as shown in Fig. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. --Contributed by O. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. To shoot the crossbow. 9. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. 6. wide at each end. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. thick. The stick for the bow. and one for the trigger 12 in. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. from the end of the stock. Such a temporary safe light may be . hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. 4. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. The bow is not fastened in the stock. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. Trownes. in diameter. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. 3. place the arrow in the groove. A spring. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. E. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. having the latter swing quite freely. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. Wilmette. Fig. better still. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. Fig. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. 2. Ill. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. which is 1/4 in. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. When the trigger is pulled.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. 8. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in.

The cut should be about 5 ft. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. is used as a door. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. says Photo Era. Remove the bottom of the box. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. and replace as shown at B. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. C. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. This lamp is safe. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. apart. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. or only as a camp on a short excursion. from the ground. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. By chopping the trunk almost through. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. Moreover. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. since the flame of the candle is above A. make the frame of the wigwam.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. from the ground. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. The hinged cover E. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. it is the easiest camp to make. Remove one end. making lighting and trimming convenient. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. respectively. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. and nail it in position as shown at A. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. the bark lean-to is a . for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent.

For a permanent camp. 3 ft. long and 2 or 3 ft. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. Tongs are very useful in camp. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. long and 1-1/2 in. For a foot in the middle of the stick. A piece of elm or hickory. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. Sheets of bark. In the early summer. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. and split the tops with an ax. and cedar. . A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. makes a good pair of tongs. deep and covered with blankets. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. wide and 6 ft. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. Where bark is used. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. 6 ft. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. make the best kind of a camp bed. will dry flat. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. are a convenient size for camp construction. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. spruce. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. thick. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. long. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. nails are necessary to hold it in place. and when the camp is pitched. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. wide. a 2-in. selecting a site for a camp. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. piled 2 or 3 ft.

A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. . and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. and affording accommodation for several persons. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. or even a rough lock for the camp larder.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. hinges.

connected by means of a very small lead pipe. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. the interior can. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. wide. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. Doylestown. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. Pa. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. I drove a small cork. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. Fig. Kane. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. --Contributed by James M. A. B. B. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. about 4 in.. changing the water both morning and night. 1. and provide a cover or door. to another . deep and 4 in.

This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. 4 and 5). such as ether. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. 2. which project inside and outside of the tube. a liquid. E. limit. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. tube. 3. until. for instance. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. Fig. 2. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. fused into one side. if necessary. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. This makes . open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. for instance. The current is thus compelled. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. to pass through an increasing resistance. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. The diagram.

These holes are for the bearing studs. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. on a lathe. bent at right angles as shown. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. mark off a space. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. hole is . Then the field can be finished to these marks. 3. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. clamp the template. drill the four rivet holes. but merely discolored. set at 1/8 in. they will make a frame 3/4 in. thick. A 5/8in. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. thick. brass. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. After the template is marked out. 4-1/2 in. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. when several pieces are placed together. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. is composed of wrought sheet iron. larger than the dimensions given. If the thickness is sufficient. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. tap. thicker. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. 3-3/8 in. two holes. After cleaning them with the solution. therefore. Fig. or pattern. in diameter. in diameter. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. The bearing studs are now made. Alpena. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. and for the outside of the frame. to allow for finishing. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. between centers. which will make it uniform in size. making it 1/16 in. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. 3-3/8 in. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. which may be of any thickness so that. screws. as shown in the left-hand sketch. Fig. by turning the lathe with the hand. brass or iron. 2. Before removing the field from the lathe. When the frame is finished so far. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. as shown in Fig. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. Michigan. or even 1/16 in. 1. cannot be used so often. assemble and rivet them solidly.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. A. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size.

The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. 4. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. Fig. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . The shaft of the armature. When the bearings are located. or otherwise finished. and build up the solder well. solder them to the supports. into which a piece of 5/8-in. soldered into place.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. file them out to make the proper adjustment. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. is turned up from machine steel. brass rod is inserted. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. and drilled to receive the armature shaft.

After they . as shown in Fig. 5. 7. 3. thick.. The sides are also faced off and finished. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. inside diameter. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. 6. thick. then drill a 1/8-in. threaded. hole and tap it for a pin. 3. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. The pins are made of brass. wide. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. washers. wide. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. 3/4 in. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. and held with a setscrew. 6. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. Procure 12 strips of mica. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. Rivet them together. being formed for the ends. to allow for finishing to size. or segments. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. thick are cut like the pattern. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. brass rod. by 1-1/2 in. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. holes through them for rivets. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. 8. Find the centers of each segment at one end. After the pieces are cut out. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. sheet fiber. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. Make the core 3/4 in. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. When this is accomplished. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. deep and 7/16 in. 9. as shown m Fig. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. Armature-Ring Core. thick. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. and then they are soaked in warm water. thick and 1/4 in. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. 1-1/8 in. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. When annealed. 3/4 in. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. 1/8 in. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. as shown in Fig. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. as shown in Fig. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins.

6 in. they are glued to the core insulation. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. of No. 5. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. When the glue is set. 8 in. until the 12 slots are filled. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. shown at A. In starting to wind. shown at B. after the motor is on the stand. the two ends of the wire. 1. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. This winding is for a series motor. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. yet it shows a series of . which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. sheet fiber. The field is wound with No. thick. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. being required. The two ends are joined at B. which will take 50 ft. After one coil. The winding is started at A.have dried. 1. and wind on four layers. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. or side. are soldered together. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. of the wire. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. and bring the end of the wire out at B. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. wide and 1 in. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. sheet fiber. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. by bending the end around one of the projections. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. All connections should be securely soldered. about 100 ft. Run one end of the field wire. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. Fig. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. To connect the wires. Fig. long. The source of current is connected to the terminals. of the end to protrude.

When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. and one. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. or. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of .The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. A 1/2-in. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. is fastened to the metallic body. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. as in the case of a spiral. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. which serves as the ground wire. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. still more simply. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. Nine wires run from the timer. one from each of the eight contacts.

Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. It should be . perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. board. thus giving 16 different directions. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. Covering these is a thin. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. long. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. The pointer end of the needle is painted black.The Wind Vane. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. circle. Without this attachment. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. of the dial. 6 in. 45 deg.

Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. 14 by 18 in. Cut 3-in. making it heavy or light. thus making a universal joint. Place the leather on some level. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. -Contributed by James L. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. called a chip carving knife. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. Blackmer. will answer the purpose just as well. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. though a special knife. Y. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. and about 6 in. also a piece of new carpet. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in.about 6 ft. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. and securely nail on the top of the box. or. To work these outlines. . To make it. high. is most satisfactory. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. Buffalo. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. however. Before tacking the fourth side. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. long to give the best results. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. N. will be sufficient. if not too high. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. will be enough for the two sides. Fill the box with any handy ballast. according to who is going to use it.

A good leather paste will be required. An ordinary sewing-machine .Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. Paste the silk plush to the inner side. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing.

square and tying a piece of . can be thrown away when no longer needed. and tie them together securely at the bottom. B. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. or a hip that has been wrenched. --Contributed by Katharine D. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. If a fire breaks out. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. Y. as in cases of a sprained ankle. a needle and some feathers. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. N. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. of common salt and 10 lb. Syracuse. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. rather than the smooth side. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use.will do if a good stout needle is used. and fasten the feathers inside of it. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. away from it. Morse. temporary lameness. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. of water.

and tacked it to the boards. Paterson. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. etc. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. A small wooden or fiber end. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. as shown. B. This not only keeps the rats out. A. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. which is the essential part of the instrument. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. N. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. board all around the bottom on the inside. and the receiver is ready for use. N. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown.. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. Wis. wide and 1/16 in. deep. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. The end is filed to an edge. Hellwig. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in.string to each corner. long.J. One end is removed entirely. There is a 1-in. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. is cut on the wood. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. . and a coil of wire. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. 1/8 in. Ashland. letting it go at arm's length. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. E. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. The coil is 1 in. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. setting traps. F. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. long. --Contributed by John A. commonly called tintype tin. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. laying poisoned meat and meal. The strings should be about 15 in. Gordon Dempsey. G. but not sharp. The diaphragm C. the corners being wired. Albany. wound on the head end. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. --Contributed by J. cut to the length of the spool. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. high. thus helping the rats to enter. Y. made up of four layers of No. The body of the receiver.

To clean small articles. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. A single line will be sufficient. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. a piece of small wire. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. wide. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. Take a piece of string or. The vase is to have three supports. and bend each strip in shape. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. better still.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. begin with the smallest scrolls. gold. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. to . The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh.

Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. 3-1/4 in. Fold the leather on the line EF. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern.. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. 4-1/4 in. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. through which to slip the fly AGH. . using a duller point of the tool. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. thus raising it. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. 3-1/2 in. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint.. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. from E to F.which the supports are fastened with rivets. from the lines EF on the piece. Trace also the line around the purse. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. Work down the outside line of the design. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. and does not require coloring. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. sharp pencil. from C to D. About 1 in. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. as shown in the sketch. 6-3/8 in. wide when stitching up the purse. After taking off the pattern. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. Press or model down the leather all around the design. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber.

or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. This also should be slightly beveled. 1/2 in. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. and the projections B. and which will be very interesting. long. leaving the lug a. the "open" side. deep. and cut out a wheel. with pins or small nails. Fit this to the two . and a model for speed and power. b. with a compass saw. 1 was cut. with the open side down. following the dotted lines. being cast in wooden molds. and tack the other piece slightly. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. and. 2. then place the square piece out of which Fig. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. thick. all the way around. as shown in Fig. place it on one of the square pieces of wood.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. then nail it. square. and cut it out as shown in Fig. Now take another piece of wood. Then nail the wheel down firmly. When it is finished. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. with the largest side down. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. It can be made without the use of a lathe. First. 3. deep. by 12 ft. It is neat and efficient. Make the lug 1/4 in. Cut off six pieces 12 in. as well as useful. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. 1. around the wheel. cut out one piece as shown in Fig.

After it is finished. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. bolts. place it between two of the 12-in. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. hole entirely through at the same place. and lay it away to dry. 1. slightly beveled.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. deep. and cut it out as shown in Fig. as shown by the . Take the mold apart. in the center of it. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. and clean all the shavings out of it. then bolt it together. 4. square pieces of wood. and bore six 1/4-in.pieces just finished. square pieces of wood. Now take another of the 12-in. and boring a 3/8-in. holes through it. Now put mold No. hole 1/4 in. as shown by the black dots in Fig. one of which should have a 3/8-in. hole bored through its center.

1. drill in it. This is for a shaft. long. Commencing 1-1/2 in. and 3/8-in. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. 4. and the other in the base. screw down. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. and pouring metal in to fill it up. and pour babbitt metal into it. d. true it up with a square. b. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. and two 1/4-in. This will cast a paddle-wheel. and drill them in the same manner. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. Then bolt the castings together. lay it on a level place. one in the projections. holes at d. After it is fitted in. Now cut out one of the 12-in.2. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. This is mold No. Now take mold No. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two dots in Fig.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. 6. one in the lug. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. over the defective part. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. in diameter must now be obtained. Let it stand for half an hour.1. 5. and the exhaust hole in projection b. where the casting did not fill out. and run in babbitt metal again. and connect to the boiler. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. take an ordinary brace. put the top of the brace through this hole. as shown in illustration. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. fasten a 3/8-in. 1. Pour metal into mold No. instead of the right-handed piece. the other right-handed. B. place the entire machine in a vise. This is the same as Fig. and lay it away to dry. A piece of mild steel 5 in. long. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. Fig. until it is full. place it under the drill. only the one is left-handed.2. so that it will turn easily. as shown by the black dots in Fig. from the one end. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. holes. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. and drill it entirely through. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. Put this together in mold No. 6. and bore three 1/4-in. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. see that the bolts are all tight. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. wide and 16 in. Using the Brace .

turn the wheel to the shape desired. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. will do good service. and the other 8 ft. Then take a knife or a chisel.. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. piece and at right angles to it. Plan of Ice Boat . Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. and if instructions have been carefully followed. and with three small screw holes around the edge. while it is running at full speed. one 6 ft. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. At each end of the 6ft. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. with a boss and a set screw. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. and. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. long. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate.

Over the middle of the 6-ft. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. should be of hardwood. at the butt and 1 in. Make your runners as long as possible. long and 2-1/2 in. boards to make the platform. The tiller. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. plank. Fig. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. in the top before the skate is put on. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. 8 a reef point knot. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. in front of the rudder block. 2 by 3 in. Run the seam on a machine. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. 1. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. bolt the 8-ft. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. leaving 1 ft. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. at the top. long. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. and about 8 in. piece and at right angles to it. which may come in handy in heavy winds. The spar should be 9 ft. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. This fits in the square hole. so much the better will be your boat. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. plank nail 8-in. On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. projecting as in Fig.These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used. distant. where they often did considerable damage. long. in diameter in the center. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. To the under side of the 8-ft. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. as the runners were fastened. 3. in diameter at the base. at the end. tapering to 1-1/2 in. 1. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. in diameter. Fig.

that an electrical connection would be made through the body of the rat. P. binding-posts fastening the springs S S. and place it behind a stove. so that they come in contact at C. When these parts have been put together in the manner described. The . It is quite evident that when a rat put its two fore feet on the edge of the pan in order to eat the mush which it contained. allowing the springs to contact at C. block of wood nailed to A. --Contributed by J. Pa. wide. Ariz. Adams. R. and the alarm bell will ring.another from the zinc plate through the intervening yard and into the shop. S S. to block B. Phoenix. A good sized induction coil was through connected with these wires and about six dry batteries were used to run the induction coil whenever a push button was manipulated. for after a week the rats all departed and the boys all regretted that their fun was at an end. Simple Fire Alarm When the stove becomes too hot the wax will melt at the ends. bent into a hook at each end. Electric Rat Trap How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359] A fire alarm which is both inexpensive and simple in construction is shown in the illustration. --Contributed by John D. Comstock. Mechanicsburg. Its parts are as follows: A. in the air and let out a terrific squeak. W is a piece of wax crayon just long enough to break the contact at C when inserted as shown in the illustration. and when we pushed the button up in the shop the rat would be thrown 2 or 3 ft. B. two pieces of sheet brass about 1/4 in. The arrangement proved quite too effective. To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359] This is a very simple device. but one that will afford any amount of amusement. small piece of wood. connect the device in circuit with an electric bell. P.

An old wheel is mounted at the top of the pole. The stump makes the best support. A passenger rides in each seat and the motorman takes his station at the middle. and drill a hole in the center so the shaft for the hands will easily pass through and extend out far enough to replace the two hands. dial and works out of the shell and cut some pieces out of the metal so that when the pieces left are turned back it will have the appearance as in Fig. says the American Boy. and the pole works in the wheel as an axle. Then get a 10-cent frying pan. Gild the pan all over. including the . and make it into a clock to hang on the wall. The seat arms may be any length desired. Take the glass. Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360] An inexpensive and easy way to make an unique ornament of a clock The Clock with Holder for kitchen use is to take an old alarm clock or a new one if post rests in an auger hole bored in an old stump or in a post set in the ground. The wheel is anchored out by several guy Home-Made Merry-Go-Round wires. Arbor Wheels [359] Emery wheel arbors should be fitted with flanges or washers having a slight concave to their face. in diameter. high. 6 in. 2. The center pole should be 10 ft. Put the works back in the metal shell and solder it to the frying pan by the pieces turned out as in Fig. 1.

of c. Let this dissolve and incorporate well with the water before using. run clear. Coil the other end of the string around the finger covering the part from the ring to and over the finger joint. potassium cyanide. which will hold 1 qt. then take the article out and with a tooth brush and some pumice. and print black figures in the small circles. When the solution is made up and entirely dissolved the outfit is ready for plating. of silver chloride and 1-1/2 oz. of liquid and fill it with rain or distilled water and then add 3/4 oz. If small bubbles come to the surface you will know that you have too much of the anode or the piece of silver hanging in the solution and you Plating Jar and Battery must draw out enough of the piece until you can see no more bubbles. a silver button. --Contributed by Carl P. take a small copper wire and touch one end to the anode pipe and the other end to the pipe holding the article to be plated. Take an ordinary wet battery and fasten two copper wires to the terminals and fasten the other ends of the wires to two pieces of heavy copper wire or 1/4-in. or the places touched by your fingers will cause the silver plate to peel off when finished. The article must have a fine polish before plating if it is desired to have a finely polished surface after the plate is put on. In this way the ring can be easily . When these two parts touch there will be a small spark. not metal. place in hot water.handle. Leave the piece to be plated in the solution for about one-half hour. In order to see if your battery is working. pewter. Iowa How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360] Take an ordinary glass fruit jar or any other receptacle in glass. brass pipe. When well scoured. Uncoil the string by taking the end placed through the ring and at the same time keep the ring close up to the string. When thoroughly dry. Herd. Do not touch the article after you once start to clean it. Procure a small piece of silver. When cleaning any article there should be a copper wire attached to it. tin or any soft metal cannot be silver plated unless the article is first copper plated. Davenport. When well cleaned place in the plating bath and carefully watch the results. This description applies only to silver plating. Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361] When a ring cannot be removed easily from the finger. clean the yellowish scum off. Always take the zincs out of the solution when not in use and the batteries will last longer. take a string or thread and draw one end through between the ring and the flesh. chain or anything made entirely of silver and fasten a small copper wire to it and hang on the brass pipe with connections to the carbon of the battery. rinse in clear water and dry in sawdust. cold water over the article and if it appears greasy. ring.p. The parts can be divided into minutes with small lines the same as shown in the drawing. Articles of lead. The wires must be well soldered to the brass pipe to make a good connection. Calendar figures can be pasted on small circles and these pasted on the frying pan. take a cotton flannel rag and some polishing powder and polish the article. Make new hands that are long enough to reach the figures from sheet brass or tin and paint them black. Clean the article to be plated well with pumice and a brush saturated in water.

a thin smooth wood board and mark out various shaped pieces as shown in the accompanying cut. drive an iron or wood shaft through the center making a tight fit. similar to two cones placed base to base. you can make a bromide enlargement from the negative you have selected and mount the print on a smooth board that is not too thick. if you Picture Marked for Cutting have a jig saw. --Contributed by Erich Lehmann. or the cone will not roll. This wood-mounted picture can be sawed out making all shapes of blocks. --Contributed by J. can be made by anyone having a wood-turning lathe. A solid. or. Matietta. The boards for the track are made with a sloping edge on which the cone is to roll.Wrapping the Finger slipped over the knuckle and off from the finger. and it should be such that the . New York City. Rolling Uphill Illusion [361] This interesting as well as entertaining illusion. is accurately turned in a lathe. A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361] Take any photographic print and mount it on heavy cardboard. Penn. The spindle can be turned out of the solid at the same time as the cone. This slope will depend on the diameter of the cone. K. the lines can be cut through with a sharp pointed knife. If the picture is mounted on cardboard. which forms a perfect jig-saw puzzle. The slope should not be too flat. after turning the cone. the sides sloping to an angle of 45 deg. which can be any size from 3 to 12 in. or. Miller. If you have a jig saw.

In certain processes. Annealing may be done by heating the steel to a cherry red.J. When the cone and tracks are viewed from the broadside the deception will be more perfect. as indicated. Machining or filing such steel is exceedingly slow and difficult. besides the destruction of tools. and like tools which require only forging and filing. If well done. then removing the steel from the fire and allowing it to cool in the air until black and then quenching in water. the metal will be comparatively soft and in a condition to machine easily and rapidly. and burying it in a box of slaked lime. In addition to softening the steel. Cape May Point. and will not be discovered until the construction of the model is seen from all sides. N. keep the steel red hot in the fire several hours. G. If possible. Y.The Illusion one end will be higher than the other by a little less than half the diameter of the cone. Where it is impossible to wait so long as the foregoing method takes. Middletown. In lieu of lime. --Contributed by Donald A. . where it is allowed to remain until all the heat is gone. as a matter of fact this steel is intended for chisels. This will insure a true job and diminishes the danger of spring in the final hardening. A notch should be cut in the tracks. Annealing Chisel Steel [362] Persons who have occasion to use tool or carbon steel now and then and do not have access to an assorted stock of this material find that the kind most readily obtained at the hardware store is the unannealed steel known as chisel steel. The lower end of the tracks are closed until the high edge of the cone rests upon the inside edges of the tracks and the high end spread sufficiently to take the full width of the cone and to allow the shaft to fall into the notches. loam. bury in ashes. but fine enough to closely surround the steel and exclude the air so that the steel cools very slowly. If this steel is annealed. the longer the better. not any more. N. a good substitute can be made from two funnels. Should it be difficult to make the cone from wood. like that of file manufacturing. Should a particularly accurate job be called for. the steel blanks are kept hot for 48 hours or more. sand. the steel should be annealed again after the roughing cuts have been taken and before machining to the final size. This method consists of heating the work as slowly and thoroughly as the time will permit. for the shaft to drop into at the end of the course. annealing benefits the metal by relieving strains in the piece. then a cold water anneal may be used with less time. Bayley. or any substance not inflammable. --Contributed by I. Thus it will be seen that the diameter of the cone determines the length of the slope of the tracks. drills. Hampson. it can be worked as easily as the more expensive annealed steel.

Daytona. brass or aluminum. or a number of them can be fastened on any upright surface to display either horizontal or vertical cards. Williamson. zinc. Fla. keeping each variety of cards separate. The Pattern for Cutting the Metal completed holder is shown in Fig. the dotted line showing where the bends are made.How to Make a Post Card Holder [363] This holder is designed to lay flat on the counter or to stack one on top of the other. The dimensions for the right size are given in Fig. The holders can be made from sheet tin. . --Contributed by John F. 1. 2 as fastened to a wall.

honeysuckles or any flower having a strong and sweet odor. do not use strong oil.Unused Paint [363] Do not allow paint that is left over from a job to stand uncovered. For each drop of oil add 2 oz. If stronger perfume is desired add only 1 oz. Fill the large bottle or jar with flowers. Secure a small piece of very fine sponge and wash it clean to thoroughly remove all grit and sand. The can should be. such as roses. . The outfit necessary is a large bottle or glass jar with a smaller bottle to fit snugly into the open mouth of the large one. as shown in the illustration. Saturate the sponge with pure olive oil. Perfume-Making Outfit [363] The real perfume from the flowers is not always contained in the liquid purchased for perfume. The most expensive perfume can be made at home for less than 10 cents an ounce. Remove the sponge and squeeze out the oil. carnations. and place it inside of the smaller bottle. Place the small bottle containing the sponge upside down in the large one. tightly sealed and the paint will be found suitable for use for several days. The bottle is now placed in the sun and kept there for a day and then the flowers are removed and fresh ones put in. alcohol to each drop of oil. A small piece of heavy cardboard can be made to produce the same results on a box camera as a first-class duplicator applied to a hand camera. Change the flowers each day as long as they bloom. pansies. Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363] The projecting tube of the lens on a hand camera can be easily fitted with a duplicator while the box camera with its lens set on the inside and nothing but a hole in the box does not have such advantages. of grain alcohol.

Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364] Anyone who has polished a flat iron or steel surface with emery cloth knows how soon the cloth gums and fills up. for the reason that a little oil remains on the metal. The cloth in this condition will do little or no cutting. La. Kerosene is the best to use on oil stones. 2. Pins can be stuck in the end of the camera on each side of the lens opening at the right place to stop the cardboard for the exposure. but not always easily obtained. Brown. 1 with a pin about 1 in. -Contributed by Maurice Baudier. These particles of metal when stuck to the stone are the cause of spoiling it. A slight pressure of the finger on the point A. it seems to act as a lubricant to keep particles of metal from collecting on the cloth and scratching or digging in the surface of the metal. the first having a perfect circle on the outside edge The Two Illusions appears to be flattened at the points A. In the second figure the circle appears to have an oval form with the distance from C to C greater than from D to D. as well as nicking the tools that are being sharpened. This oil readily floats away all particles of the feather edge that are liable to become loosened and forced into the stone. Fig. will push the cardboard over and expose one-half of the plate and the same pressure at B. With this device one can duplicate the picture of a person on the same negative. A compass applied to the circles in either figures will show that they are perfectly round. Chippewa Falls. 3. --Contributed by Norman S. also. above the lens opening. B. will reverse the operation and expose the other one-half. The oil floats away a large part of the gumming substance and leaves the emery cloth sharp and clean to do the best work. A simple remedy for this trouble is to use kerosene on the surface. and the arcs of the circle. New Orleans. Keep the . Wis.Duplicator Attached to a Camera The cardboard is cut triangular and attached to the front end of the camera as shown in Fig. Optical Illusions [364] The accompanying sketch shows two optical illusions. A surface polished where oil or kerosene is used does not rust so easily as one polished dry. being better than heavier oil. A rubber band placed around the lower end of the cardboard and camera holds the former at any position it is placed. appear to be more rounding. A very light lard oil is equally good for this purpose. Fig.

If there is no camphor at hand add a few drops of vinegar occasionally. 1/8 in. the box should measure that size in its internal dimensions. This pin hole. in the lantern slide plate. on the sides. After cleaning well and fitting it. 3-1/4 by 4 in. drill bore nearly through the plate in the center. which take the place of the lens and shutter used in more expensive outfits. Now take a No. and for this a cigar box answers every purpose. 4. How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364] For a good. The shutter consists of a little swinging piece of brass completely covering the recess . 1. N. which will fasten it to the front of the camera. A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. If it is desired to use the 3-1/2 by 3-1/2 in. or less in diameter. Their purpose is to hold the plate. This construction is illustrated in Fig. Y. 1/8 by 1/4 in. Claudy I say for fifty cents. about 1/16-in. by which is meant a few odds and ends of screws. but be careful that the point of the drill does not come through. which may be any size desired up to 4 in. 4. as it is called. which is advised. Leave the lid hinged as it is when it comes. steady light there is nothing better than a lamp. --Contributed by Donald A. square. 10 needle. This will produce the recess shown in the first section in Fig. Examine Fig. and fasten them with glue. Commercially.surface of the stone well oiled at all times to make the cutting free. or. Clean all the paper from the outside and inside Construction of Camera Box of the box--which may be readily done with a piece of glass for a scraper and a damp cloth--and paint the interior of the box a dead black. until it goes through. Take a piece of brass. 1/4 in. you can really make this camera for nothing. Now bore in the center of one end a small hole. We now come to the construction of the most essential part of the camera--the pin hole and the shutter. insert the eye end in a piece of wood and very carefully and gently twirl it in the center of the brass where it is the thinnest. Bore a hole in each corner. Middletown. from the other end of the box. If you possess a few tools and the rudiments of a shop. which are lettered EE. The camera box is the first consideration. Hampson. is what produces the image on the sensitive plate. This will greatly improve the light and make the flame clearer and brighter. in a manner which I shall presently describe. plates come 3-1/2 by 3-1/2 in. plates. but like most everything it must have attention. It is better to use one of the long boxes which contain a hundred cigars and which have square ends. by means of a saw and a plate.. thick and 1-1/2 in. and see the location of these strips. square. Finally insert on the inside of the box. but really this is an outside estimate. square. brass and nails. either with carriage makers' black or black ink. to take a small screw. With 1/4-in. This box should be cut down. place a small lump of camphor in the oil vessel. two small strips of wood. until the ends are 4 in. H.

See that the little shutter covers the hole. In the latter I have depicted it as swung from a pivot in the brass. See Fig. Close the lid and secure it with a couple of rubber bands. take it into an absolutely dark room Constructing a Finder for Camera and insert a plate (which you can buy at any supply store for photographers) in the end where the slides of wood are. either construction will be effective. in which F is the front of the camera. in the center. it is necessary to provide a finder for this camera in order to know what picture you are taking. 3 as hung from a screw in the wood of the front board. through the wire frame and see that the top of the little pole appears in the center of the frame. 4. This is also illustrated in the second cross section in Fig. 5. everything that you see beyond will be Pin Hole and Shutter Construction taken on the plate. the size of the plate you are using. erect a little pole of wire half the height of the plate. and mount it upright (see Fig. and in Fig. . Lastly. B the brass plate and C the shutter. as will be made plain by looking at the dotted lines in Fig. Make a little frame of wire. At the other end. which represents the outer limits of your vision when confined within the little frame.and pin hole. 3. Explanation of Action o£ Pin Hole When you want to use this camera. If now you look along the top of this little pole. and provided with a little knob at its lower end. and between them and the back of the box. 5) on top of the camera as close to the end where the pin hole is as you can.

Make a slit in the case of the clock opposite the pawl. Millions of rays are given off by every point in every object which is lighted by either direct or reflected light. represented here by RRRR. This exposure is made by lifting the little brass shutter until the hole is uncovered. an infinite multitude of them. and rest it securely on some solid surface. The exposure will be. It is now ready to be carried to some one who knows how to do developing and printing. from light reflected from these points. forming an inverted image of the object. but an actual fact. To explain the action of the pin hole I would direct attention to Fig. which is protected from all other light by being in a dark box. To make the dial. This camera is not a theoretical possibility. and that it does not move and is not jarred--otherwise the picture will be blurred. as a demonstration of pin-hole photography. only inverted. Using this for a unit divide up the whole dial. Put the alarm hand at a little before twelve and wind the alarm. and fasten a spring to one end of the pawl and a small wire to the other end. when it becomes a negative. AA the plate and the letters RR. upon it will be imprinted a photographic image which can be made visible by the application of certain chemicals. Similar rays radiate from every point of the object. and make a mark where the minute hand stops. about six to eight seconds.Now take the camera to where you wish to take a photograph. any screen which interrupts these selected rays of light will show upon it a picture of the object. D the pinhole. If that screen happens to be a photographically sensitive plate. Here F represents the front of the camera. It is important that the camera be held rigid during the exposure. radiate in all directions. and as light travels only in straight lines. rays from a lighted candle. This being so. Certain of these rays strike the pin hole in the front of the camera. Remove the plate in the dark room and pack it carefully in a pasteboard box and several wrappings of paper to protect it absolutely from the light. Fasten the spring on the outside in any convenient way and pass the wire through the slit to an eccentric or other oscillating body. keeping it up the required time. pull the wire back and forth one hundred times. long. I have made and used one successfully. 2. paste a piece of paper over the old dial. To all practical purposes only one of these rays from each point in an object can pass through a minute opening like a pin hole. and then letting it drop back into place. Use for an Old Clock [367] Remove the hair spring of the clock. These rays pass through the pin hole. in bright sunlight and supposing that your camera is 10 in. reach the plate AA. in this case a candle in a candlestick. When the alarm is Revolution Recorder . from which may be printed positives. These rays of course. The hour hand has an inner circle of its own.

can be renewed by simply boring a small hole through the composition on top of each carbon and pouring some strong salt water or sal ammoniac solution into the holes. or 7. Ind. Fasten this to the top of the board using screws or nails. This kink is sent us by a reader who says that the process will make the battery nearly as good as new if it is not too far gone beforehand. Ranger. in length and bend the ends up about 1/2 in.unwound the hour hand starts on a new trip. but not loosely between the ends of the other piece marked C-C. Fasten this so that one end of it will swing freely.200. Under this strip of metal fasten a copper wire which can be connected to a binding-post on the board if desired. Indianapolis. Take a piece about 2-1/2 or 3 in. which can be obtained almost anywhere. if not too far gone. In the lower end of the lever make a small hole to fasten a string through. Also fasten to this screw a copper wire leading to the binding-post. For the contact points use brass or any sheet metal Simple Burglar Alarm which will be satisfactory. -Contributed by Richard H. Take another piece of metal about 4-1/2 in.400 revolutions or jerks on the wire were made. while the minute hand recorded one-twelfth of this number. How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368] Take a piece of any wood about 6 by 8 in. in length and make a lever of it in the shape shown in the diagram. slip a rubber band over the upper part of the bristles. Saving a Brush [367] If a round brush spreads too much. This may be finished in any way desired. Near the end fasten a spiral spring. Fasten the end of this to the screw marked X. for the base. S. This string may be fastened across a door or window and any movement of it . in a vertical position as shown. The clock I used was put on an amateur windmill and when the hour hand went around once 86. Renewing Dry Batteries [367] Dry batteries.

Brooklyn. If the string is burned it will also act as a fire alarm. The one shown in Fig. it will leave some sharp edges after cutting the cork. 1) with a rip saw. Two or three grooves are cut cross-wise in sizes desired. which will make the cork smaller. the wheel will be at the right if the engine is right-hand. and then stuck them in a barrel of water for three days to make the wood pliable for bending. I split the handles to within 1 ft. I set about to make the crutches from two broom handles. 10 gauge wire. --Contributed by L. Szerlip. No matter how sharp a knife may be. The cork is put into the groove and both pieces are pressed together. A grip for each stick was made as long as the hand is wide and a hole bored through the center the size of a No. Right Handed Engine [368] Standing at the cylinder end and looking toward the flywheel of an engine. Home-Made Crutch [369] While a fractured bone was healing in the limb of my boy he needed a pair of crutches and not being able to secure the right length. If the string is cut or broken the spring will pull the lever to the contact point on the left and thus complete the circuit. 3) is a quick and effective way. These grips were placed between the two halves of each stick at the right distance for the length of the boy's arm and a wire run through both split . A cork rolled on the floor (Fig. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. The illustration shows three very effective methods of reducing the size of corks. How to Fit Corks [368] Occasionally odd-sized bottles are received in stores which require corks cut to fit them. which will cause leakage. of the end (Fig. wood fastened together at one end with a common hinge. 2) is simple and almost as good as pressing in the grooves. Rolling the cork between two flat Three Methods for Reducing Size of Corks surfaces (Fig. Y. N. A slower and equally as good way is to soak the cork in hot water for a short time.will pull it to the contact point on the right.

The illustration shows a better method. How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369] Secure from your tinsmith a piece of sheet metal 7 in. When removed they will leave no Hanger for Ties disfiguring holes. 2. wide and 12 in.-Contributed by C. W. -Contributed by Geo. Nashville. long. so they may be screwed beneath and close up to the projecting top. Home-Made Necktie Holder [369] The gas bracket is considered a good place to hang neckties. Cut the metal as shown in Fig. so it will slide freely on their length. New York City. Cut a piece from the waste material 1/2 in. P. to hold the trousers firmly. but not too close to cause it to break. 2. Fig. a curtain rod attached to one end of a bureau. and nailed to the upper ends of each half of the broom handle. Drill a hole through the top end of B and attach a wire formed into a hook for use in hanging on a nail. even if it does crowd them together. Another piece was cut as shown at A. wide and 2-1/4 in. square-hooked screws should be used. Fig. 3. Grehore. 1 and make a close bend at the point A. The bottom end of the trousers is inserted between the jaws C and the small ferrule pushed . Neiman.A Broom Handle Crutch pieces and the handle then riveted as shown in Fig. Tenn. 2. Two long-shanked. Bend the edges C in for 1/8 in. long and bend it around the two pieces B. The piece will then appear as shown in Fig.

etc. boxes. First. parts of artistic fences for gardens. it is essential that a light room be available. Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370] Many an industrious lad has made money manufacturing the common forms of wood brackets. shelves. Michigan. supporting arms for signs... stands. Levinson. The accompanying sketches present some of the articles possible to manufacture. or a portion of the cellar where there . --Contributed by A. gates. stands for lamps. Saginaw. Metal brackets. are among the articles of modern times that come under the head of things possible to construct of iron in the back room or attic shop. etc. but the day of the scroll saw and the cigar-box wood bracket and picture frame has given way to the more advanced and more profitable work of metal construction.Cut from Sheet Metal down to clamp them on the cloth.

the bracket is. such as shown at Fig. the same process is applied on the circular piece of iron or the horn of an anvil. This is shown in Fig. thick are preferable. Then the bending is effected as at F. making the effect as shown in Fig. The sign supporting bracket shown is merely a suggestion. there has been quite a call for short sign brackets. This piece of iron can be purchased at any junk store. other devices will be needed. by sinking the bar. A piece about 20 in. and this is all required for cold bending. A hook or eye is needed to sustain the ring in the sign. shaft boxes. A convenient form for shaping strip metal into pieces required for brackets. 8. one-half its depth into the wood as shown. After a little practice. From the junk pile of junk shop one may get a like bar for a few cents. Metal strips about 1/2 in. These caps may be found in junk dealers' heaps. about the bar E. 7. so that it will rest firmly on a base of wood or stone. A small metal turning or drilling lathe can be purchased for a few dollars and operated by hand for the boring. out from the building. The young man who undertakes to construct any sort of bracket. the caps can be constructed from sheet metal by bending to the form of the bar. The bar can be bought at an iron dealers for about 40 cents. With a round point or gouging chisel work out the groove to the size of the bar. The bend is worked on the corner as at B. If a rounded bend is desired. The bend in the metal begins at D and is made according to the requirements. Sometimes the bracket is improved in design by adding a few curves to the end pieces of the brace. at C. These sign-supporting brackets do not extend more than 3 ft. forming a seat. This may be wrought out as in Fig. it is necessary to shape a complete loop or circle at the end of the piece. G. or a workshop may be built in the yard. supports. Or if caps are not available. The use of a bar of iron or steel is as shown. and is made by bending the strip at the proper angle on form A. Other designs may be wrought out in endless variety. allowing side portions or lips for boring. say about 2 ft. H. In some of the work required. of the order exhibited in Fig. a vise and a few other tools. The letter A indicates a square section of iron. In order to retain the bar securely in position in the groove. fences. First there ought to be a base block. gates. getting the shoulder even. Often the strips can be secured at low cost from junk dealers. or the base of a section of railroad iron. or a common hand drill can be used. where various pieces are always strewn about. 2. the most profitable to handle. A boy can take orders for these signs in almost any city or large town with a little canvassing. or the brackets may be painted or stained any desired shade. cold. square. so termed. and general trimmings is illustrated at Fig. 3. frames or the like. so that the caps can be set screwed to the wood. long and 4 in. in diameter is about the right size. 6. of hard wood. it is possible to describe almost any kind of a circle with the tools. The strip metal is secured at the hardware store or the iron works. after which the brace is adjusted by means of rivets. The plain bracket is shown in Fig. Occasionally where sharp bends or abrupt corners are needed. arches. by repeated blows with the hammer. wide and 1/8 light. including bell hammer. Although the worker may produce various forms of strip-metal work. Since the introduction of the laws requiring that signs of certain size and projection be removed from public thoroughfares in cities. there should be two caps fitted over it and set-screwed to the wooden base. in diameter and several feet in length. Figure 1 shows how to make the square bend. If you go into a forge for hot bending. Thus we get a tool which can be used on the bench for the purpose of effecting series of bends in strips of metal. having been cast off from 2-in. The bar is usually about 2 in. After these brackets are made they are coated with asphaltum or Japan. 5. though an anvil would do. It is hardly necessary to go into details . Buy a moderate sized anvil. the metal is heated previous to bending. will find that he will get many orders for lamp-supporting contrivances. as a rule. 4. A rivet hole boring tool will be needed.

and the portions are simply riveted at the different junctures. The best way is to bore straight through both pieces and insert the rivet. Both iron and copper rivets are used as at I. 9. a cross sectional view. Good prices are obtained for the guards for open fireplaces made in many varieties in these days. The posts are made . Copper rivets are soft and easily handled. but are costly as compared with iron rivets. in Fig. 10 we show a design for one of them. The return of the open fireplace in modern houses has created a demand for these guards and in Fig.for making these stands. In some cases the rivet is headed up in the bore and again washers are used and the heading effected on the washer. as every part is bent as described in connection with the bending forms.

This piece of iron is represented at B. metal is very strong. which are bent over the shaft tightly and grip the board base with set or lag screws as shown. vise. long. Figure 11 is a sketch of a form of fire grate bar or front that is constructed with a series of circles of strip metal. The wooden base should be about 2 in. thick and large enough to make a good support for the iron shaft. while the ends or butts at the base are opened out to make the feet. The iron is held in position by means of the straps of metal C. diameter and 2 to 3 ft. 12. and find a ready market for the same as soon as they are made. The piece of strip iron is . iron. a file or two. a cheap anvil.sufficiently stiff by uniting two sides with rivets. The best way is to go to the hardware store or iron dealer's and buy a quantity of 1/4-in. Not long ago it was sufficient for the ingenious youth to turn out juvenile windmills. The 1/8-in. a cold chisel. a 9-lb. Rings are shaped on forms and are then riveted to the base cross-piece as illustrated. The modern lad wants more than this. about 1/8 to 3/16 in. thick. toy houses and various little knickknacks for amusement. Crosses are made to describe to central design and the plan is worked out quite readily with the different shapes.. C. The process of bending the rings in this way is as shown. The ends at top are looped as shown. 1/2-in. and a round piece of shaft iron.. procure the usual type of metal worker's hammer. Fig. In fact 1/16-in. metal would do in many cases where the parts are worked out small in size. and 3/4-in. with few tools and devices. Then after getting the supply of strip metal in stock. about 3 in. He desires to turn some of his product into cash. Therefore we present some of the patterns of fire grates which boys have made and can make again from scrap iron. The making of metal fire grate fronts has proven to be a very interesting and profitable occupation for boys in recent times.

the strip at the terminus of the ring is cut off. to the common level of the opposite point. The design work is often worked out ahead and followed. Then with the hammer the iron is gradually worked cold about the mandrel as at E until the perfect form is acquired. A coke fire can be made in a hole in the ground. With thin metal the holes can be punched with an iron punch and hammer on an anvil where there is a hole to receive the point of the punch after the punch penetrates the metal. Then procure a tin blowpipe and blow the flame against the metal at the point to be bent. 14. Let the metal cool off on the ground after heating. 13 is shown the method of clipping off the completed ring. In order to get a steady base the wooden part may be bolted to a bench. These points are filed down to the necessary taper after the union is effected. and by delivering several blows with the hammer upon the same. Thus the series of rings are united and then the side pieces are similarly riveted. Some become so proficient that they can develop a design as they proceed. Fig. The final operation in shaping the ring is by driving the protruding cut. Some of the best designs of grates are bronzed. A metal drill and brace can be purchased very cheaply for this work. The next operation involves the process of uniting the rings in the plan to shape the design. The cold chisel is held upright. The shaft or mandrel is marked G. After the form is finished. lip down. Some are silvered. Figure 15 is another design of grate in which the process of shaping the rings is like that in the first design. The finishing work involves smoothing rough places with a file and painting. The series of rings are united by a rivet between each at the joining point. Fig. 16 is another design . Asphaltum makes a good black finish. After drilling the holes. The different designs are finished as desired by customers. the point is caused to chip through the metal and release the ring. The points at the top are then worked out and joined on. thus giving us the finished ring with the lips closed on the mandrel as at J. The cold chisel is indicated at I and the position where the hand grasps the strip is at H. There are some half circles in this pattern and these are framed by shaping the same about the mandrel with the hammer. These rings can be turned out in this way very speedily. For the heavier forms of metal a drill is necessary. and can be bent readily against the anvil and the circular form. This metal will become red hot very soon. In order to get the shoulders close and the circle complete it is necessary to heat the metal. Figure 11 is a design of grate front used for various purposes in connection with grate fires. the parts are erected and the rivets inserted and headed up as each addition is made. In Fig.grasped at D.

and secured there. Bending cold with a wooden form is done as in Fig. wide and 7 in. constructed by uniting the shaped metal pieces. 17 shows a chipping off device useful in connection with this work. square and boring through with an inch bit. Figure 19 shows the hour-glass wood bending form. high. The middle adjustment is wire screen work which may be bought at a hardware store and set into the position shown. How to Make a Water Wheel [374] Considerable power can be developed with an overshot water wheel erected as in Fig. 18. The view is a sectional one. In fact an almost endless variety of designs can be wrought out after the start is once made. hard blow causes the cutting edge to penetrate far enough to sever the piece. The hammer head is caused to strike the metal just over the cutting edge of the chipper. so as . Then the hole is shaped hour-glass like. The quick. This wheel is made with blocks of wood cut out in sections as indicated by the lines. made by selecting a piece of hard wood block. The wooden form is marked P and is about 8 in. The strip of metal is grasped at W and can be bent to various forms by exerting pressure. the strip of metal is bent to the form. 20 is another type of fireplace front. The block is placed in a vise and the strip for bending is inserted as at T. The chipper is placed in the jaws of the vise as at K. There is a pin R set into the base board of the oval form and the strip of metal for bending is grasped at S and the other end is inserted back of the pin R. By applying pressure. The strip of metal in process of cutting is marked M.which can be wrought out. about 6 in. Fig. Metal chippers can be bought at any tool store. 1. A good way to figure the price on the grate is to add up the costs of the parts and charge about 12 cents per hour for the work. Fig. forming a one-sided oval shape.

are simply boxes. or if the wheel bearing is of such a nature that it revolves on its own journal. This power can be used for running two or three sewing machines. by 2-1/2 in. Often all the boards and blocks required can be had for helping a carpenter clear away the rubbish around a new building. If there are sprocket gears and cranks on either side. Fasten these sprockets on the outside of the wheels as shown in Fig. where the water dippers are struck by the volume and from 2 to 4 hp. with the original bearings. then put in the cross-pieces. 2. A boy who lives on a farm can find many fine places to run such a line. Seats. fret-saws. N. in position as shown. D D. The water is carried in a sluice affair. in diameter to produce results and about 10 in. fans. fastening the ends to the base-boards and making the roof line as at B. A belt. if they are some distance apart. T. This rope runs to a wooden frame in the manner illustrated. but it is the best amusement to run a . Make the floor of the car of pieces of boards placed on the axles and nailed. wide. G G. This is driven by an underflow of current. E E. which can be used in so many ways. How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374] An imitation street car line may sound like a big undertaking. This type of wheel can be made on lines similar to the other. the journal can be fastened to the end of the wood piece. It is best in cases like this to use the original parts. Each of the wheels should be provided with a sprocket. communicates the power to the wheel V and from here the power is carried to any desired point. but if you cannot find such. Another form of water wheel is shown in Fig. to the fall. and the like. The drive of the car is effected by using the driving sprockets. G G. screwed or bolted. and a rope for driving. For the car for the street car line try to find a set of wheels having axles. in fact. and by means of a jackknife turn. The wheel is supported in a bearing on the piece S. and one in town can have a line between the house and the barn. Bore the wheel center out and put on the grooved wood wheel. but. place uprights. The wheel can be Overshot and Undershot Wheels about 24 in. wheels in good repair are not expensive. will be produced with this size of wheel if there is sufficient flow of water. Get some tin cans and attach them around the wheel as shown. only that the paddles are of wood and extend outward as shown. or shave down the ends to receive the hub bearings of the wheels. can be found at a junk shop at very low prices. O. They can be set on over the bearing end and secured with a set screw. Considerable speed can be made on smooth roads. P. The parts are thereby secured to the car and the chain placed on. it is one of the easiest things a boy can construct. Wheels and parts of old bicycles. Fasten the wheel hubs securely over the ends of the wood with pins or little bolts. four boys may propel the car at one time. or the original key can be employed. does not take much time and the expense is not form the circle properly. 1. as shown at A. R. make shafts of hard wood. Key the cranks for turning to the upper sprocket's shaft and all is ready. any chain sprocket of a bicycle may be used. about 3 in. C C C C. fitted to the crosspieces. To erect the frame.

The sprocket connection with the chain is shown in Fig. and the crank. Clean Before Painting [375] Apply a coat of raw starch water to a dirty wall before painting. The track plan is illustrated in Fig. wide and about the Construction of Car same height. Varnish for Electric Terminals [375] A good varnish for electric terminals is made of sealing wax dissolved in gasoline. or any tool handle. JJ. when dry. A spiral spring holds up the brake until pressure is applied by foot power. this. wide. as boys and girls can be given rides for a penny each. passing through a bore in the car floor. it can be made remunerative. and. so as to afford means for turning the Section of the Track crank by hand power. can be about 6 in. Get some boards and place them end for end on other pieces set as ties. To prevent brittleness add a little linseed oil. I I. This consists of the sprocket gear on the propelling shaft. Wire nails are the best to use in putting the tracks together. when the brake contacts with the wooden track and checks the car. to the edges of which nail strips about 3/4 in. and fitted with a leather covered pad as at H. Great fun can be had with the road. substituted. The ties. may be brushed or wiped off. 3. can be almost any box boards. furthermore. 2. The pedals may be removed and a chisel handle. . The main boards or line on wooden tracks with a brake consisting of a piece of wooden shaft.

" Now we do not know who this advertised boy was. "'Why. one who could have got the approximate height of the tree without waiting for the sun to shine at a particular angle or to shine at all for that matter.' " 'You didn't climb that tall tree?' his mother asked anxiously. "A Clever Boy. he planted his stick in the ground. Then he went out and took a look at the tree and made a rough estimate of the tree's height in his mind. the base. his eye's distance away from the trunk. I've been trying it all summer. --Railway and . I drove a stick into the ground. and judging the same distance along the ground from the tree trunk. but twice a day the shadows are just as long as the things themselves. but we knew quite as clever a boy. stick for perpendicular.' " 'Yes'm. both of the same length. and the "line of sight" the hypotenuse or long line of the triangle. He could measure the base line along the ground and knew it must equal the vertical height. If he found the top of stick and tree did not agree he tried a new position and kept at it until he could just see the tree top over the end of the upright stick. and that's 33 ft. Then he lay down on his back with his feet against the standing stick and looked at the top of the tree over the stick.' "'How?' " 'Foot rule and yardstick. " 'N o'm. 2 went about the same problem was this: He got a stick and planted it in the ground and then cut it off just at the level of his eyes. The way boy No.' "'But the length of the shadow changes. It was an ingenious application of the well known properties of a right-angled triangle. I found the length of the shadow and measured that. how do you know?' was the general question.''' The above paragraph appeared in one of the daily papers which come to our office. The item was headed. Then all he had to do was to measure along the ground to where his eye had been when lying down and that gave him the height of the tree. and he could do this without reference to the sun. " 'Measured it. When he got into the position which enabled him to just see the tree top over the top of the stick he again had a right-angled triangle with tree as perpendicular.Measuring the Height of a Tree [376] Method of Applying the Triangle Measure "Near the end of the season our boy announced the height of our tall maple tree to be 33 ft. and when its shadow was just as long as the stick I knew that the shadow of the tree would be just as long as the tree. and the line of sight the hypotenuse. 'The point about this method is that the boy and stick made a right-angled triangle with boy for base.

either at the top or bottom in the edge of the door. deep. which is particularly interesting on account of the variation of results with apparently the same conditions. about 1/4 in. allowing a small portion to project and rub on the facing. Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377] The accompanying engraving shows what is possible to do with a penknife. Connect one piece to the positive wire and the other to the negative. White Putty to Black [376] White putty on a black window frame can be made to harmonize by rubbing the fresh putty with a piece of cotton dipped in lampblack. blue. the strength of the solution. Immerse two pieces of brass in a strong solution of common salt and water. the solution will become colored. and inserting an ordinary cork. depending on the strength of the current. and the composition of the brass.Locomotive Engineer. green or brown. Lay a Match on the Picture A small chain composed of several links was cut from the wood that forms the match. orange. and if the process is continued a colored pigment will be precipitated. 2 in. taking care that the brass pieces do not touch each other. Using Sandpaper [376] Sandpaper may be kept from slipping under the hand by chalking the back. The precipitate varies considerably in color and may b