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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial


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  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother


Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)







A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. --Contributed by J. To throw a boomerang. until it is bound as shown in Fig. apart. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. as shown in Fig. 1. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. 1. long will make six boomerangs. Noble. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. 2 -. as shown in Fig. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. A piece of plank 12 in. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. Practice first at some object about 25 ft.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in.Fig. away. It is held in this curve until dry. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . Ontario. Fig. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. E. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. The pieces are then dressed round. grasp it and hold the same as a club. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. wide and 2 ft. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. Toronto. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. with the hollow side away from you. 2. 2. 1. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. distant.

Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. and it may be necessary to use a little water. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. First. and with a movable bottom. one inside of the circle and the other outside. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. If the snow is of the right consistency. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. A very light. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. long. or rather no bottom at all. the block will drop out. blocks . which makes the building simpler and easier. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. high and 4 or 5 in. forcing it down closely. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. dry snow will not pack easily. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. made of 6-in. 6 in. but about 12 in. thick. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. minus the top. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. A wall. it is not essential to the support of the walls. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. however.

These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. 3. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. is 6 or 8 in. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. Fig. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. D. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. long and 1 in. which can be made of wood. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. C. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. 2. 3 -. a. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. 2. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. Union. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. There is no outward thrust. 1. Goodbrod. Ore. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. which is about 1 ft. It also keeps them out. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. Fig. The piece of wood. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. --Contributed by Geo. 1. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. or an old safe dial will do. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. wide. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. A nail. Fig. above the ground. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. and the young architect can imitate them.

I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board.When taking hot dishes from the stove. as the weight always draws them back to place. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. If ordinary butts are used. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. Merrill. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. New York. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. S. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. the box locked . Syracuse. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. says the Sphinx. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. one pair of special hinges. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. --Contributed by R.

it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. smooth surface. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. about 1-32 of an inch. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle.and the performer steps out in view. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. as shown in Fig. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. It remains to bend the flaps. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. Fig. To make a design similar to the one shown. Augusta. With the metal shears. 2. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. Place the piece in a vise. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. as shown in Fig. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. allowing each coat time to dry. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. as shown. Alberta Norrell. draw one-half of it. on drawing paper. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. If the measuring has been done properly. -Contributed by L. proceed as follows: First. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. When the sieve is shaken. If they do not. 3. 1. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. All . Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. Ga. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. one for each corner. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes.

Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. 25 German-silver wire. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. in diameter. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. Galbreath. To keep the metal from tarnishing. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. Denver. of No. from the back end. used for insulation. which is about 6 in. If a touch of color is desired. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. The common cork. if rolled under the shoe sole. about 6 in.the edges should be left smooth. When the current is turned off. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. causing it to expand. H. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. After this has dried. R. and in the positions shown in the sketch. A piece of porcelain tube. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. heats the strip of German-silver wire. B. C. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. Colo. In boring through rubber corks. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. A resistance. as shown at AA. The current. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. is fitted tightly in the third hole. 25 gauge German-silver wire. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. in passing through the lamp. should be in the line. long. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. --Contributed by R.

and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. between them as shown in Fig. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. leaving a space of 4 in. --Contributed by David Brown. as shown in Fig.bottom ring. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. Kansas City. Purchase two long book straps. Mo. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. . Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. with thin strips of wood. Fig. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. 3. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. 1. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. 2. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown.

Kane. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. one weighing 15 lb. When the aeroplane tips. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. having a gong 2-1/2 in. long.An ordinary electric bell. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. Fig. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. Doylestown. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. Fig. in diameter. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. as . --Contributed by Katharine D. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. are mounted on the outside of the box. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. which is the right weight for family use. The folds are made over the string. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. and one weighing 25 lb. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. just the right weight for a woman to use. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. The string is then tied. 4. Two strips of brass. 1. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. Y. to form a handle. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. --Contributed by James M. These are shown in Fig. 2. 1. and a pocket battery. and tack smoothly.. A. 1. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. Syracuse. 36 in. N. Morse. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. Pa.. C. 3. Fig.

four washers and four square nuts. 1. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. bent as shown in Fig. 3/32 or 1/4 in. Frame Made of a Rod . A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. two 1/8 -in. The saw. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. 2. Floral Park. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. and many fancy knick-knacks.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. N. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. 2. machine screws. --Contributed by Louis J. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. long. Day. if once used. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. such as brackets. AA. in diameter. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. Y. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets.

Silver is the most desirable but. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. of water in which dissolve. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. 1 part sulphuric acid. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. be covered the same as the back. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. as well as brass and copper. allowing each time to dry. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. An Austrian Top [12] . File these edges. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. as well as the depth of etching desired. Drying will cause this to change to purple. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. Scranton. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. A. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. In the design shown. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. If it colors the metal red. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. the most expensive. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. Rub off the highlights. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. Apply two coats.may be made of either brass. The buckle is to be purchased. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. use them in place of the outside nuts. though almost any color may be obtained. if copper or brass. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. it has the correct strength. of water. using a swab and an old stiff brush. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid.. Of the leathers. or silver. 1 part nitric acid. copper. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. For etching. green and browns are the most popular. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. treat it with color.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. after breaking up. Michigan. Detroit. therefore. --Contributed by W. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. of course. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. Watch Fob For coloring silver.

Michigan. 5-1/4 in. is formed on one end. starting at the bottom and winding upward. 3/4 in. 1-1/4 in. long. Bore a 3/4-in.F. A handle. Ypsilanti. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. set the top in the 3/4 -in. The handle is a piece of pine.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. Parts of the Top To spin the top. pass one end through the 1/16-in. hole. thick. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. A 1/16-in. long. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. in diameter. . The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. hole in this end for the top. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. allowing only 1-1/4 in. --Contributed by J. When the shank is covered. Tholl. wide and 3/4 in.

. Alberta Norrell. Northville. For black leathers.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. Ga. Mich. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. tarts or similar pastry. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. Augusta. The baking surface. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. A. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. Houghton. --A. --Contributed by Miss L. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. having no sides.

A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. the same as shown in the illustration. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. glass fruit jar. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. says Studio Light. then solder cover and socket together. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . Centralia. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. When you desire to work by white light.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. Stringing Wires [13] A. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. Mo. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. two turns will remove the jar.

16 Horizontal bars. 4 Vertical pieces. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. square by 62 in.for loading and development. square by 12 in. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. Janesville. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. 1-1/4 in. 1-1/4 in. as shown in the cross-section sketch. They are fastened. so it can be folded up. Wis. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. 4 Braces. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. . Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. and not tip over.

the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. from scrap material. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. The whole. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. after filling the pail with water. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. Phillipsburg. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. C. H. If the loop is tied at the proper place. Rosenthal. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. New York. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. -Contributed by Charles Stem. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. and a loop made in the end. After rounding the ends of the studs.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. The front can be covered . --Contributed by Dr. O. Cincinnati. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size.

If the gate is raised slightly. 1 FIG. Develop them into strong prints. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. Baltimore. either for contact printing or enlargements. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. the color will be an undesirable. By using the following method. The results will be poor. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. the mouth of which rests against a. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. sickly one. by all rules of the game. The . Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. In my own practice. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. FIG. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. you are. if you try to tone them afterward.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. thoroughly fix. and. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. Wehr. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. principally mayonnaise dressing. Md. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. --Contributed by Gilbert A.

.. When the desired reduction has taken place. A good final washing completes the process. Cal. without previous wetting. The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone... wide and 4 in........" Cyanide of potassium ... in this solution. 2 oz. An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in.. long to admit the angle support.. With a little practice... San Francisco.... 1 and again as in Fig. L. This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print.. Iodide of potassium . 16 oz. The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished. as it will appear clean much longer than the white.. where it will continue to bleach.. 20 gr.bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison. preferably the colored kind... 5 by 15 in.. this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain. stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax. transfer it to a tray of water. Put one on each corner of the blotting paper.... being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects..... three times. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes. 2.. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper. to make it 5 by 5 in... thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses.. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table....... Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete............. Water . Place the dry print. in size. etc.. but.... They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig. It will bleach slowly and evenly. The blotting paper can . Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper... when it starts to bleach. --Contributed by T.. The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper. Gray..

Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. wide.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. having a width of 2-1/4 in. Wilson Aldred Toronto. Wisconsin. Oshkosh. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. Canada. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. --Contributed by J. 20 gauge. and a length of 5 in. Monahan. --Contributed by L. the shaft 1 in. the head of which is 2 in. Corners complete are shown in Fig. 3. wide below the . Make a design similar to that shown.J.

using a small metal saw. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. 4. Do not put the hands in the solution. using carbon paper. 3. With files.FIG. Make one-half of the design. For coloring olive green. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. which gives the outline of the design Fig. Apply with a small brush. then coloring. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. but use a swab on a stick. then put on a second coat. With the metal shears. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. freehand. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. . After this has dried. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. Allow this to dry. The metal must be held firmly. 1 part nitric acid. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. after folding along the center line. 1 Fig. deep. then trace the other half in the usual way. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. 1 part sulphuric acid. using turpentine. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. Pierce a hole with a small drill. as shown in Fig. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. being held perpendicular to the work. Trace the design on the metal. 1. After the sawing. 2. Fig.

After the stain has dried. East Hartford.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. Cal. M. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. --Contributed by M. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. it does the work rapidly. then stain it a mahogany color. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. Conn. thick. . Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. Morse. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. Carl Cramer. Richmond. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. --Contributed by H. Burnett. New York. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. attach brass handles. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. When this is cold. --Contributed by Katharine D. Ii is an ordinary staple. Syracuse. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. on a chopping board. as shown.

H. about 3/16 in. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. WARNECKE Procure some brass. A. holes. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. as shown in Fig. saucers or pans. 1/4 in. machine screws. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. Florida. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. Fig. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. indicating the depth of the slots. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. square. Atwell. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. Kissimmee. in width at the shank. L. or tin. thick and 4 in. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. and several 1/8-in. --Contributed by Mrs. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. Cal. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. 4. thick. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. one shaft. --Contributed by W. 53 steel pens. two enameled. Richmond. 1. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. Jaquythe. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. not over 1/4 in. some pieces of brass. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. brass. as shown at A. also locate the drill holes. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in.. .

The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. and the ends filed round for the bearings. 5. 6. with a 3/8-in. as shown in Fig. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. with 1/8-in. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. each about 1 in. as shown. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . about 1/32 in. Fig. Fig. If metal dishes. If the shaft is square. supply pipe.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. long by 3/4 in. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. can be procured.. hole in the center. The shaft hole may also be filed square. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. 2. wide and bend as shown in Fig. Fig. as in Fig. machine screws and nuts. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. using two nuts on each screw. 3. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. hole is drilled to run off the water. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. a square shaft used. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. machine screws. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. lead should be run into the segments. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. These are connected to a 3/8-in. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. and pins inserted. 2. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. hole. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. into the hole. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. thick. wide. A 3/4-in. in diameter and 1/32 in. thick. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. 7. Bend as shown in Fig. brass and bolted to the casing. 3. long and 5/16 in. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. There should be a space of 1/16 in. with the face of the disk. 1.

Stain the wood before putting in the . wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. or more in diameter. Hamilton. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. make these seams come between the two back legs. three of which are in the basket. Fasten with 3/4-in. V. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. screws. When assembling. The four legs are each 3/4-in. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. 8-1/2 in. The lower part. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. Canada. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. --Contributed by F. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. deep over all. from the bottom end of the legs. to make the bottom. long. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. Cooke. Now you will have the box in two pieces. La Salle. deep and 1-1/4 in. --Contributed by S. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. high and 15 in. Be sure to have the cover. using four to each leg. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. we will call the basket. With a string or tape measure. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. Ill. Smith. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. from the top of the box. square and 30-1/2 in. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife.

wide and four strips 10 in. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . Fig. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. --also the lower edge when necessary. Packard. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown.lining. If all the parts are well sandpapered. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. Sew on to the covered cardboards. Mass. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. Md. 1. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. When making the display. Baltimore. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. 2. as shown in the sketch. wide. -Contributed by Stanley H. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. Boston.2 Fig. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. The folded part in the center is pasted together. and gather it at that point. sewing on the back side. The side. you can. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. Cover them with the cretonne.

Crockett. It is not difficult to . Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. --Contributed by H. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. Orlando Taylor. saving all the solid part. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. 3. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. and. Mo. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. Gloversville. Cross Timbers.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. Fig. Y. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. with slight modifications. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. --Contributed by B. N. When through using the pad. L. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. It is cleanly.

Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. El Paso. across the face. remove the contents. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. Lane. or if desired. Mass. --Contributed by Edith E.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. Both of these methods are wasteful. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. Bourne. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. and secure it in place with glue or paste. and scrape out the rough parts. it should be new and sharp. After stirring. If a file is used. Lowell. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. S. are shown in the diagram. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. Texas. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. After this is done. -Contributed by C. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in.

Canton. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. As these were single-faced disk records. Ill. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. Iowa. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. --Contributed by Loren Ward. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. Oak Park. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. The insects came to the light. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. He captured several pounds in a few hours. Ill. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper.cooking utensil. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. Des Moines. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. Those having houses . A Postcard Rack [25]. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. F. After several hours' drying. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. circled over the funnel and disappeared. Oregon. The process works well and needs no watching. Wheeler. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. Greenleaf. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. --Contributed by Marion P. --Contributed by Geo. Turl. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new.

6 in. material.. and the second one for the developing bench. plane and pocket knife. the bottom being 3/8 in. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. not even with the boards themselves. 6 in. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. Worcester. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. --Contributed by Wm. Conn. by 2 ft. Lay the floor next.. Rosenberg. Glenbrook. Mass. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. will do as well. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. --Contributed by Thomas E. the best material to use being matched boards. Only three pieces are required. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. boards are preferable. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. and both exactly alike. Both sides can be put together in this way. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. but for cheapness 3/4 in. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. thick. and as they are simple in design. one on each side of what will be the . table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. The single boards can then be fixed. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. Dobbins. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft.

of the top of the door for the same reason. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. the closing side as at B. and act as a trap for the light. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. The developing bench is 18 in. hinged to it. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. 8. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. and to the outside board of the sides. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. It is shown in detail in Fig.. 11.. 7. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. 6. 9). by screwing to the floor. etc. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light.. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. 6. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. so that the water will drain off into the sink. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig.doorway. below which is fixed the sink. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. is cut. 10). fix a narrow piece between the side boards. nailing them to each other at the ridge. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. as shown in Figs. In hinging the door. wide. 6 and 9. 3 and 4. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. brown wrapping paper. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. so that it will fit inside the sink. and should be zinc lined. and the top as at C in the same drawing. which is fixed on as shown . 9 by 11 in. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. 5. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. 2 in section. and in the middle an opening. Fig. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. At the top of the doorway. The roof boards may next be put on.

Details of the Dark Rook .

The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . if desired. 18. 13. Karl Hilbrich. A circular piece about 2 in. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. 6. 16. 2. these being shown in Fig. after lining with brown paper. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. and a 3/8-in. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. 16. In use. mixing flour and water. The handle should be at least 12 in. screwing them each way into the boards. preferably maple or ash. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. as at I. though this is hardly advisable. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. hole bored in the center for a handle. Fig. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. 19. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. 17. 13. four coats at first is not too many. or red light as at K. 1. as shown in Fig. and a tank stand on it. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. The house will be much strengthened if strips. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. it is better than anything on the market. Erie. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. or the room may be made with a flat roof. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. --Contributed by W. which makes it possible to have white light. Fig.in Fig. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. 15. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. as at M. Fig. Fig. 20. as in Fig. Pennsylvania. as shown in the sections. but not the red glass and frame. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. are fastened in the corners inside. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. For beating up an egg in a glass. 14.

A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. Mo. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. long. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. Schweiger. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. L. Smith. for a handle. -Contributed by E. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. which. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. Mitchell. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. Kansas City. G. about 3/8 in. when put together properly is a puzzle. New York. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility.copper should be. as shown in the sketch. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. Eureka Springs. --Contributed by L. To operate. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. Yonkers. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. Ark. --Contributed by Wm. D. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] .

which binds them together. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. the box will require a greater height in front. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. 3. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. After the box is trimmed. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. . Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. The design shown in Fig. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. holes should be drilled in the bottom. 1. as is usually the case. need them. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. A number of 1/2-in. 2. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. as shown in Fig. for the moment. 3. to make it set level. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. Each cork is cut as in Fig. as shown in Fig. in order to thoroughly preserve it. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. as well as improve its appearance. especially for filling-in purposes. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. the rustic work should be varnished. Having completed the bare box. If the sill is inclined. The corks in use are shown in Fig.

1. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. share the same fate. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. F. cabbages. it's easy. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. too dangerous. etc. But I have solved the difficulty. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. 4. life in the summer time is a vexation. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. as shown in Fig. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. Each long projection represents a leg. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. and observe results. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. drilled at right angles.. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. Traps do no good. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. can't use poison. being partly eaten into. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. 3.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. . which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. 2. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. When the corn is gone cucumbers.

strips.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. The solution can be used over and over again. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. About 9-1/2 ft. of No. cut some of it off and try again. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. . Iowa. -. If. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. long. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. the coil does not heat sufficiently. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. cut in 1/2-in. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. and made up and kept in large bottles. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. by trial.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod.

Do not wash them. Syracuse. Texas. as shown in the sketch. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. Knives. to cause the door to swing shut. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. . The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. Kane. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. In cleaning silver. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. Dallas. forks. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. of oleic acid with 1 gal. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. Fig 2. hot-water pot. 1) removed. is a good size--in this compound. Morse. Pa. Doylestown. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. of whiting and 1/2 oz. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. D. --Contributed by James M. Stir and mix thoroughly. and a strip. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. C. but with unsatisfactory results. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. coffee pot. it falls to stop G. of gasoline. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. --Contributed by Katharine D. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. Y. N.

but unfixed. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. later fixed and washed as usual. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. Harrisburg. using the paper dry. Fisher. of course. Sprout. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. Waverly. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. La. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. negatives. Pa. New Orleans. . --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . --Contributed by Oliver S.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. --Contributed by Theodore L. Ill. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. which is. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch.

The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. To obviate this difficulty. a harmonograph is a good prescription. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. The harmonograph. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. then . one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. metal. 1. In this uncertainty lies the charm. Fig. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram.

for instance. is attached as shown at H. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . A pedestal. The length of the short pendulum H. makes respectively 3.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. Gaffney. A length of 7 ft. as long as the other. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. in diameter. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. such as a shoe buttoner. exactly one-third. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. J. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. in the center of the circle to be cut. 1. 1-3/4 by 2 in. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. which can be regulated. Arizona. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. is about right for a 10-ft. --Contributed by James T. A small weight. one-fifth. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. G. that is. etc. Rosemont. and unless the shorter pendulum is. to prevent any side motion.. with a nail set or punch. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. --Contributed by Wm. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. what is most important. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. provides a means of support for the stylus. or the lines will overlap and blur. 1. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. Another weight of about 10 lb. R. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. Ingham. as shown in Fig. Punch a hole.. ceiling. one-fourth. Holes up to 3 in. K. A small table or platform. as shown in the lower part of Fig. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. Chicago. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. of about 30 or 40 lb. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. A weight. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge.

-Contributed by W.J. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. --Contributed by J.J. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. a correspondent of . 2. distributing them over the whole card. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. 1. one for the sender and one for the receiver. Cape May City. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. The two key cards are made alike. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. Chicago. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. and proceed as before. 4. Fig. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. The capacity of the vise. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. N. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. dividing them into quarters. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. then put 2 at the top. 6. and 4 as in Fig. of course. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. Cruger. then 3 as in Fig. Fig.H. 5. Morey. 3.

The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. Asbestos board is to be preferred. After securing the tint desired. Ga. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. Wind the successive turns of . Alberta Norrell. of the uprights. long. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. wood-screws. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. 1/4 in. respectively. If constructed of the former. citrate of iron and ammonia. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. of 18-per-cent No. 30 gr. remove the prints. Augusta. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. deep. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. of ferricyanide of potash. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. --Contributed by L. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. 22 gauge German-silver wire. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. acetic acid and 4 oz. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. To assemble. After preparing the base and uprights. 1/2 oz. drill 15 holes. sheet of well made asbestos paper. from the top and bottom. Cut through the center. 6 gauge wires shown. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. of water. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. the portion of the base under the coil. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. says Popular Electricity.

etc. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. cut and dressed 1/2 in. N. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . as they are usually thrown away when empty. square. The case may be made of 1/2-in. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. screws. then fasten the upright in place. Ward. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. which. Small knobs may be added if desired. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. rivets. --Contributed by Frederick E. but these are not necessary. 16 gauge copper wire. 14 gauge. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. These may be procured from electrical supply houses.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. Ampere. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. Labels of some kind are needed. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage.. if one is not a smoker. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. Y.

After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. The parts are put together with dowel pins. Copper. Ark. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. --Contributed by A. as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by W. California. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. Richmond. then to the joint to be soldered. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. particularly so when the iron has once been used. and labeled "Poison. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. A. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. and rub the point of the copper on it. Jaquythe. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. If the soldering copper is an old one." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. being careful about the heat. The material can be of any wood. Heat it until hot (not red hot). . The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. S. brass. zinc. Eureka Springs. Wis. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. --C. or has become corroded. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. In soldering galvanized iron. G. E and F. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. sandpaper or steel wool. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. of glycerine to 16 oz. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. Kenosha. it must be ground or filed to a point. and one made of poplar finished black.14 oz. especially if a large tub is used. of water. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. galvanized iron. Larson. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. This is considerable annoyance. tin. the pure muriatic acid should be used. tinner's acid.. a piece of solder. B. C. lead. D.

The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. Apart from this. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . The punch A. Place the band. N. This completes the die. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. 2. C. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. which gives two bound volumes each year. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. such as copper. B. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. 7/8 in. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. brass and silver. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. This will leave a clear hole. round iron. in diameter. a ring may be made from any metal. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. I bind my magazines at home evenings. Fig. nut. Troy. and drill out the threads. wide. Hankin. Fig. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. The covers of the magazines are removed. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. with good results. however. thick and 1-1/4 in. The dimensions shown in Fig. -Contributed by H. Six issues make a well proportioned book. in diameter. Y. 1. W. D. Take a 3/4-in. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. The disk will come out pan shaped.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. Brass rings can be plated when finished.

pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. The sections are then prepared for sewing. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. is used for the sewing material. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. through the notch on the left side of the string No. deep. The string No. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. and a third piece. 1. of the ends extending on each side. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. C. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. using . Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. Start with the front of the book. allowing about 2 in. 1 in Fig. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. 2. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. 5. and place them against the strings in the frame. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise.4. is nailed across the top. on all edges except the back. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. then back through the notch on the right side. size 16 or larger. 1/8 in. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. Place the cardboard covers on the book. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. and then to string No. Coarse white thread. The covering can be of cloth. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. which is fastened the same as the first. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. Five cuts. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. The covering should be cut out 1 in. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. 1. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. If started with the January or the July issue. . Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. 2. as shown in Fig. After drawing the thread tightly. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. threaded double. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. 1.

For the blade an old talking-machine . zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. Divine. Encanto. --Contributed by Clyde E. and. Nebr. Cal. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. on which to hook the blade. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. and mark around each one. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. round iron. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. at opposite sides to each other. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. College View. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. Place the cover on the book in the right position. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. Tinplate.

and file in the teeth. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. and another piece (B) 6 in. and 1/4 in. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. long. Moorhead. Summitville.. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. or double extra heavy. C. thick. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. Make the blade 12 in. E. bore. Hays. and 1/4 in. by 4-1/2 in. in order to drill the holes in the ends. Then on the board put . Miss. with a steel sleeve. as it is sometimes called. with 10 teeth to the inch. F. fuse hole at D. at the same end. Ohio. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood.. On the upper side. hydraulic pipe.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. by 1 in. A. thick. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. -Contributed by Willard J. B. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. as shown. and a long thread plug. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C).

If you are going to use a current of low tension. some sheet copper or brass for plates. --Contributed by Chas. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. and some No. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. 4 jars. A lid may be added if desired. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. H. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. Boyd. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. Philadelphia. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. using about 8 in. the jars need not be very large. of wire to each coil.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. Connect up as shown. of rubber-covered wire. high around this apparatus. about 5 ft. as from batteries.

and for the rear runners: A. by 1-1/4 in. and bolt through. wide by 3/4 in.the way. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. The top disk in jar No. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. above the ground. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No.. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. 30 in. two pieces 14 in. 5 on switch. with the cushion about 15 in. 34 in. 2. 2. . square by 14 ft. 11 in.. are important. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. two for each jar. long. The illustration shows how to shape it. Use no screws on the running surface. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. Put arm of switch on point No. by 5 in. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. 4 in. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. First sandpaper all the wood. B. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. steel rod makes a good steering rod. direct to wire across jars. Construct the auto front (Fig. as they are not substantial enough. by 5 in. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. 4) of 3/4-in. 2 and 3.. On the door of the auto front put the . Use no nails. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. long. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. on No. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard.. At the front 24 or 26 in. For the brass trimmings use No. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. thick. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. 1 is connected to point No. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. 2. by 6 in. 1 and so on for No. then apply a coat of thin enamel. two pieces 34 in. A 3/4-in. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. beginning at the rear. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. by 2 in. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. 1 on switch. Fig. wide. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch.. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. 4. To wire the apparatus. long. B. & S. Their size also depends on the voltage. 3 in. B and C. long. and four pieces 14 in. long by 22 in. For the front runners these measurements are: A. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. 15-1/2 in. is used to reduce friction. C. however. wide and 2 in. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. 7 in. gives full current and full speed. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. by 2 in. sheet brass 1 in. In proportioning them the points A. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. The stock required for them is oak. 1. 16-1/2 in. 3. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. 2 in. 27 B. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. or source of current. A variation of 1/16 in. as they "snatch" the ice. Z. by 1-1/4 in. The current then will flow through the motor. 3 and No. An iron washer. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. and plane it on all edges. The sled completed should be 15 ft. 2 is lower down than in No. thick. two pieces 30 in. The connection between point No. Equip block X with screw eyes. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. See Fig. wide and 3/4 in. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor.. oak boards. apart. by 1 in.. C. making them clear those in the front runner. No.

Make the cushion for the back in the same way. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . or with these for $25. Then get some upholstery buttons. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. fasten a cord through the loop. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. which is somewhat moist. a brake may be added to the sled. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. a number of boys may share in the ownership. brass plated. cutting it out of sheet brass. to the wheel. parcels. such as used on automobiles. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. Fasten a horn. If desired.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. overshoes. lunch. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. to improve the appearance. If the expense is greater than one can afford. such as burlap. cheap material. may be stowed within. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. by 30 in. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. by 1/2 in. The best way is to get some strong. etc. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. If desired. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. long.

. --Contributed by Stewart H. Leland. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. Ill. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. Lexington.tree and bring. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks.

How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . with twenty-four teeth. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. the cut will be central on the line. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. The straight-edge. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. With no other tools than a hacksaw. This guide should have a beveled edge. 1. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. CD. outside diameter and 1/16 in. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. sheet metal. say 1 in. so that the center of the blade. A small clearance space. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. 2. from F to G. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. London. Draw a circle on paper. First take the case of a small gearwheel. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. Fig. the same diameter as the wheel. thick. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. by drawing diameters. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. some files. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. Fig. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. The first tooth may now be cut. FC. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. when flat against it. mild steel or iron. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. E. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. which. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. a compass. will be over the line FG. 4). though more difficult. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. The Model Engineer. 3. Fig. made from 1/16-in. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels.

A bright. either the pencils for arc lamps. as shown in Fig. Make a hole in the other. electric lamp. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. . as shown in Fig. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. each in the center. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. R. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. ground it with a large piece of zinc. B. If there is no faucet in the house. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. No shock will be perceptible. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. and the other outlet wire. hold in one hand. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. Then take one outlet wire. some wire and some carbons. as shown in Fig. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A.Four Photos on One Plate of them. 2. 1. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. Focus the camera in the usual manner. transmitter. B. or several pieces bound tightly together. 1.

Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. or more of the latter has been used. Wrenn. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. If desired. Ohio. Slattery. B. one at the receiver can hear what is said. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. D D are binding posts for electric wires. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . leaving about 10 in. and about that size. One like a loaf of bread. Then set the whole core away to dry. Ashland. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. Pa. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. as shown. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. and will then burn the string C. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. For a base use a pine board 10 in. of course. and again wind the wire around it. by 12 in. Several battery cells. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. a transmitter which induces no current is used. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. by 1 in. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. 36 wire around it.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. at each end for terminals. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. as indicated by E E. under the gable. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. --Contributed by Geo. But in this experiment. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. They have screw ends. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. serves admirably. J. Emsworth. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. Dry batteries are most convenient. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. are also needed. A is a wooden block.

soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. in series with bindingpost. F. B B. connecting lamp receptacles. D. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. 2. 14 wire. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. Turn on switch. Jr. The oven is now ready to be connected. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. The apparatus is now ready for operation. From the other set of binding-posts. These should have hollow ends. run a No. Ohio. The coil will commence to become warm. B B. First make a support. At one side secure two receptacles. as shown. while C is open. Place 16-cp. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. in parallel.wire. for the . E. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. Fig. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. and the lamps. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. C. D. Fig. 12 or No. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC.. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. as shown. Connect these three to switch. Newark. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. 1. C. and one single post switch. the terminal of the coil. and switch. until the hand points to zero on the scale. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter.

Continue in this way with 2 amperes. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. The pointer or hand. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. Mine is wound with two layers of No. To make one. drill a hole as shown at H.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. is then made and provided with a glass front. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. 1/2 in.. The core. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. E. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. C.E. until the scale is full. 14 wire. long.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. D. wind with plenty of No. long. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. remove the valve. drill in only to the opening already through. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. A wooden box. but if for a 4way. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. as shown in the cut. Fig. is made of iron. wide and 1-3/4 in. D. a variable resistance. etc. 4. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. --Contributed by J. The box is 5-1/2 in. although brass is better. This is slipped on the pivot. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. B. Fig. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. is made of wire. 1/4 in. If for 3-way. from the lower end. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. 7. wide and 1/8 in. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. 4 in. 36 magnet wire instead of No. 14. This may be made of wood. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. deep. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. a standard ammeter. 2. 5. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. Fig. 1. 3 amperes. to prevent it turning on the axle. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. although copper or steel will do. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. It is 1 in. drill through the entire case and valve.or 4-way valve or cock. where A is the homemade ammeter. inside measurements. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. 1. 10 turns to each layer. a battery. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. 6. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. Montreal. 4 amperes. and D. Fig. Dussault. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. high. 3. After drilling. thick. long and make a loop. At a point a little above the center. 5.

F. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. and a metal rod. high. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. A. B. which is used for reducing the current. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. To start the light. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. and the arc light. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. as shown. in diameter. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. By connecting the motor. E. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. provided with a rubber stopper. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. One wire runs to the switch. making two holes about 1/4 in. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. This stopper should be pierced. in thickness . How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. D.performing electrical experiments. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. and the other connects with the water rheostat.

As there shown. A piece of wood. 1. Fig. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. If the interrupter does not work at first. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. as shown in C. Y. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. long. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. 2. Carthage. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. Having fixed the lead plate in position. --Contributed by Harold L. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. If all adjustments are correct. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. as shown in B. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. A. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. Jones. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. 1. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. B. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. N. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. 2. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. Fig. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. To insert the lead plate. Having finished the interrupter. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. 1. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. Fig. Turn on the current and press the button. where he is placed in an upright open . Fig. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in.

Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. by 7 in. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. light-colored garments. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. which can be run by three dry cells. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. Its edges should nowhere be visible. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. high. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. figures and lights. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. within the limits of an ordinary room. The model. The glass should be the clearest possible. from which the gong has been removed. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. as the entire interior. to aid the illusion. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. especially the joints and background near A. If it is desired to place the box lower down. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. They need to give a fairly strong light. The box need not be made of particularly good wood.coffin. giving a limp. and wave his arms up and down. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly.. The lights. The skeleton is made of papier maché. If everything is not black. dressed in brilliant. is constructed as shown in the drawings. All . loosejointed effect. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. and can be bought at Japanese stores. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. by 7-1/2 in. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. inside dimensions. should be miniature electric lamps. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. with the exception of the glass. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. and must be thoroughly cleansed. A. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. could expect from a skeleton. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. the illusion will be spoiled. especially L. until it is dark there. L and M. A white shroud is thrown over his body. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. should be colored a dull black. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs.

fat spark. San Jose. placed about a foot apart. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. square block. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. If a gradual transformation is desired. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. W. as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Geo. Two finishing nails were driven in. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. after which it assumes its normal color. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. Fry. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. Cal.that is necessary is a two-point switch. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. a double-pointed rheostat could be used.

about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. and should be separated about 1/8 in. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. The plates are separated 6 in. In Fig. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. One of these plates is connected to metal top. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. with two tubes. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. or a solution of sal soda. as shown. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. -Contributed by Dudley H. by small pieces of wood. In Fig. F. hydrogen gas is generated. the remaining space will be filled with air. soldered in the top. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. Cohen. into the receiver G. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. 1. If a lighted match . add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. New York. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. B and C. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. A (see sketch). This is a wide-mouth bottle. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. to make it airtight. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells.

which should be magnetized previous to assembling. long. as is shown in the illustration. B. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. which is plugged up at both ends. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. 36 insulated wire. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. then a suitable burner is necessary. A. 1-5/16 in. copper pipe. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. says the Model Engineer. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. which forms the vaporizing coil. is then coiled around the brass tube. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. 1/2 in. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. C C. A nipple. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. 2 shows the end view. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. A piece of 1/8-in. or by direct contact with another magnet. A. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. Fig. London. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. The distance between the nipple. N. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. should be only 5/16 of an inch. One row is drilled to come directly on top. P. A. either by passing a current of electricity around it. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. from the bottom. Fig. copper pipe. A. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. If desired. N. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . by means of the clips. A 1/64-in. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. is made by drilling a 1/8in. and the ends of the tube. of No. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. 1. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. in diameter and 6 in. long.

After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. with a fine saw. Fig. smoothly. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. 3. this makes a much nicer book. at the front and back for fly leaves. Cut four pieces of cardboard. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges.lamp cord. 1. trim both ends and the front edge. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. Fig. longer and 1/4 in. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. fold and cut it 1 in. should be cut to the diameter of the can. leaving the folded edge uncut. but if the paper knife cannot be used. cut to the size of the pages. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. A disk of thin sheet-iron. duck or linen. 1/4 in. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. boards and all. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . Take two strips of stout cloth. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. Fig. Turn the book over and paste the other side. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. larger all around than the book. about 8 or 10 in. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. 2). taking care not to bend the iron. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring.

H. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. the joint will be gas tight. A gas cock. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. 18 in. Bedford City. Another tank. Parker. is fitted in it and soldered. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. Another can. without a head.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. D. pasting them down (Fig. --Contributed by Joseph N. 4). Toronto. This will cause some air to be enclosed. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. In the bottom. is made the same depth as B. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. Va. and a little can. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. B. deep. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. Noble. is soldered onto tank A. or rather the top now. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. --Contributed by James E. in diameter and 30 in. is perforated with a number of holes. which will just slip inside the little can. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. Ont. . from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. of tank A is cut a hole. A. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. as shown in the sketch. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. C. E. but its diameter is a little smaller. as shown. is turned on it.

If the back armature. 2. Fig. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. long. Beverly. should be cut a little too long. as shown at C. The longitudinal corner spines. to prevent splitting. basswood or white pine. exactly 12 in. Bott. shows how the connections are to be made. and sewed double to give extra strength. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. 1. A A. B. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. N. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. thus adjusting the . If the pushbutton A is closed. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. long. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. E. D. The bridle knots. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. D. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. The diagonal struts. and about 26 in. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. tacks. -Contributed by H. J. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. A. The wiring diagram. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. and the four diagonal struts. by 1/2 in. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. The armature. B. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. The small guards. square by 42 in.. S. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. when finished. which may be either spruce. should be 1/4 in. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. with an electric-bell magnet. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. H is a square knot. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. C. B. which moves to either right or left. are shown in detail at H and J. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. should be 3/8 in. fastened in the bottom. Fig. making the width.

to prevent slipping. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. however.lengths of F and G. A bowline knot should be tied at J. Chicago. shift toward F. --Contributed by Edw. as shown. Closing either key will operate both sounders. and. Kan. and if a strong wind is blowing. Stoddard. for producing electricity direct from heat. thus shortening G and lengthening F. If the kite is used in a light wind. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. D. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. the batteries do not run down for a long time. with gratifying results. can be made of a wooden . A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. Clay Center. that refuse to slide easily. --Contributed by A. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. E. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. Harbert. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K.

C. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device.frame. in position. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. with a number of nails. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. with a pocket compass. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. C. When the cannon is loaded. C. A. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. Then. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. The wood screw. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. A and B.. F. A. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. B. E. and the current may then be detected by means. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. or parallel with the compass needle. to the cannon. 16 single-covered wire. and also holds the pieces of wood. E. --Contributed by A. A. Fasten a piece of wood. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. Chicago. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. by means of machine screws or. spark. D. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. placed on top. which conducts the current into the cannon. 14 or No.

The fulcrum of the lever is at C. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. In Fig. where there is a staple.the current is shut off. B. A hole for a 1/2 in. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. requiring a strong magnet. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. Fig. within the reach of the magnet. A and S. Bend the strips BB (Fig. press the button. 1. Connect as shown in the illustration. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. L. to receive the screw in the center. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. but no weights or strings. square and 3/8 in. --Contributed by Henry Peck. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. Fig. A and S. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. Mich. Ohio. . H. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. 1. Big Rapids. To lock the door. 1. A. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. Marion. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Joseph B. now at A' and S'. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. in this position the door is locked. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. Keil. To unlock the door. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. screw is bored in the block. with the long arm at L'. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. To reverse. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. Chicago. when in position at A'.

The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. and C is a dumbbell. West Somerville. about 18 in. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. or for microscopic work. long. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. put in the handle. hole. Rand. are enameled a jet black. Thread the other end of the pipe. The standard and base. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. gas-pipe. and if desired the handles may . a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. pipe with 1-2-in. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. When ready for use. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. and may be made at very slight expense. J. if enameled white on the concave side. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. --Contributed by C. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. Mass. When the holes are finished and your lines set.

This peculiar property is also found in ice.be covered with leather. which shall project at least 2 in. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. A. E. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. Warren. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. B. 1. high by 1 ft. North Easton. Make a cylindrical core of wood. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. D. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. Mass. Fig. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. 1. as shown at A in the sketch. 8 in. --Contributed by C. long and 8 in. M. Fig. across. across.. inside the pail. with a cover.

Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. hotel china. This done. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in.. and your kiln is ready for business. and on it set the paper wrapped core. pipe. but will be cheaper in operation. layer of the clay mixture. passing wire nails through and clinching them. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. in diameter. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. let this dry thoroughly. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. Whatever burner is used. and graphite. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. if there is to be any glazing done. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. and with especial caution the first time. long over the lid hole as a chimney. thick. if you have the materials. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. Wind about 1/8 in. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. Fit all the parts together snugly. After finishing the core. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. of fine wire. and cut it 3-1/2 in. to hold the clay mixture. W. bottom and sides. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. strip of sheet iron. Cover with paper and shellac as before. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. projecting from each end (Fig. When lighted. in diameter. the firing should be gradual. If the cover of the pail has no rim. and 3/4 in. the point of the blue flame. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. The 2 in. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. but it will burn a great deal of gas. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. pipe 2-ft. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. C. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. Line the pail. 2. long. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. 1). Fig. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. make two wood ends. 1). pack this space-top. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. After removing all the paper. 1390°-1410°. diameter. which is the hottest part.. C. thick. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. about 1 in. say 1/4 in. C. 25%. 1330°. as dictated by fancy and expense. 15%. E. cutting the hole a little smaller. such . hard porcelain. sand.-G. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. It is placed inside the kiln.. or make one yourself. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. 3) with false top and bottom. 2 in. 60%. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. wider than the kiln. as is shown in the sketch. and varnish. and 3/8 in. Set aside for a few days until well dried. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning.mixture of clay. carefully centering it. L. full length of iron core.

bind tightly with black silk. 8 in. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. taking care to have the first card red. with a plane. C. 2). and discharges into the tube. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. C. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. Chicago. around the coil. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. 2. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. Washington. square them up and place in a vise. and so on. The funnel. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. Of course. Then take the black cards. every alternate card being the same color. D. 2. Take the red cards. as shown in the sketch herewith. square them up. R. all cards facing the same way. A. B.53 in. 1. . --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. You can display either color called for. red and black. and divide it into two piles.. procure a new deck. leaving long terminals. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. C. the next black. as in Fig. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. T. Then. --Contributed by J. and plane off about 1/16 in. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. about 1/16 in. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. overlaps and rests on the body. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. Next restore all the cards to one pack. diameter. length of . so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. as in Fig.

If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. through the holes already drilled.C. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. and this is inexpensive to build. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. stove bolts. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. The upright pieces. E. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. and then the frame is ready to assemble. All the horizontal pieces. Fig. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. so that when they are assembled. the same ends will come together again. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement.. To find the fall of snow. of the frame. F. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. N. the first thing to decide on is the size. 1. 1 gill of fine white sand. stove bolts. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. C. The cement. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. B. A. Let . Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. about 20 in. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. D. The bottom glass should be a good fit. as the difficulties increase with the size. angle iron for the frame. Drill all the horizontal pieces. A. to form a dovetail joint as shown. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. B. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in.J. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. E. Long Branch. thus making all the holes coincide. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. It should be placed in an exposed location. B. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. When the glass is put in the frame a space. 1 gill of litharge. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces.

Fasten the lever. B. D. on the door by means of a metal plate.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. a centerpiece (A. Aquarium Finished If desired. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. and. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. having a swinging connection at C. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. if desired. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. A. Fig. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. to the door knob. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish.

The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. hoping it may solve the same question for them. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. which is 15 in. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. showing the paddle-wheel in position. Cut two pieces 30 in. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. 1. D. 2 at GG. will open the door about 1/2 in. for the top. long. screwed to the door frame. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. long. Fig. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. F. --Contributed by Orton E. another. PAUL S. AA. but mark their position on the frame. Fig. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. according to the slant given C. and Fig. as at E. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. E. 2 is an end view. Buffalo. wide . or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. Fig. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. long. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. Fig. from the outside top of the frame. and another. Y. thus doing away with the spring. C. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. Do not fasten these boards now. 1 . B. White. 1 is the motor with one side removed. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. Fig. another. approximately 1 ft. 2 ft. 6 in.. A small piece of spring brass. to form the slanting part. Two short boards 1 in. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. to keep the frame from spreading. to form the main supports of the frame. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. 3 shows one of the paddles. wide by 1 in. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. with a water pressure of 70 lb. To make the frame. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. Fig. long. several lengths of scantling 3 in. soldered to the end of the cylinder. N. I referred this question to my husband. Cut two of them 4 ft. They are shown in Fig. 1. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. 26 in.

Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. take down the crosspieces. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. hole through them. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. in diameter. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. remove the cardboard. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. to a full 1/2 in. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. hole from the tops to the 1-in. as shown in Fig. long and filling it with babbitt metal. GG. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. Fig. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. Make this hole conical. hole through their sides centrally. steel shaft 12 in. 24 in. after which drill a 5/8 in. Take the side pieces. pipe. Fig. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. Drill 1/8-in. Tack one side on. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. with the wheel and shaft in place. 2) and another 1 in. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. and drill a 1/8-in. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel.along the edges under the zinc to form . from one end by means of a key. then drill a 3/16-in. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. hole through its center. by 1-1/2 in. that is. 2) with a 5/8-in. long to the wheel about 8 in. thick (HH. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. and drill a 1-in. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. 4. iron. tapering from 3/16 in. hole to form the bearings. Fig. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. When it has cooled. iron 3 by 4 in. Fasten them in their proper position. 2) form a substantial base. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. Next secure a 5/8-in. 1. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. Now block the wheel. These are the paddles. thick. and a 1/4 -in. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. hole through the exact center of the wheel. (I. holes. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in.burlap will do -.

and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. and the subject may move. as shown in the sketch at B. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. Focus the camera carefully. but as it would have cost several times as much. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. of course. . Darken the rest of the window. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. and as near to it as possible. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. drill press. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. If the bearings are now oiled. Correct exposure depends. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. remove any white curtains there may be. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. or what is called a process plate. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. shutting out all light from above and the sides. sewing machine. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. Raise the window shade half way.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. as this makes long exposure necessary. says the Photographic Times. place the outlet over a drain. light and the plate. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. It is obvious that. start the motor. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. but now I put them in the machine. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. Do not stop down the lens. it would be more durable. and leave them for an hour or so. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. If sheet-iron is used. The best plate to use is a very slow one. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly.a water-tight joint. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. on the lens. any window will do. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. ice-cream freezer. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. Drill a hole through the zinc. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting.

full of water. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. as shown in Fig. B. or wood. C. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. D. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. or can be taken from an old magnet. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. 2. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. as a slight current will answer. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. A.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. the core is drawn down out of sight. and without fog. or an empty developer tube. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. an empty pill bottle may be used. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. until the core slowly rises. The glass tube may be a test tube. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. a core. and a base. which is made of iron and cork. The current required is very small. With a piece of black paper. by twisting. without detail in the face. with binding posts as shown. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. a glass tube. 2. On completing . The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. The core C. hard rubber.

An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. and are changed by reversing the rotation. This is a mysterious looking instrument. finest graphite. 1 lb. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. 1 pt. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. and make a pinhole in the center. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. whale oil. white lead. 1. The colors appear different to different people. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. water and 3 oz. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. and one not easy to explain. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. is Benham's color top. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . according to his control of the current.

hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel.B. Chicago. A. -Contributed by D. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. fan-like. deuce. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. especially if the deck is a new one. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. In prize games. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. when the action ceases. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. or three spot. before cutting. As this device is easily upset.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. C. In making hydrogen. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. B..L. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. thus partly filling bottles A and C. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. nearly every time. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles.

to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. S. Jr.. 4. Make a 10-sided stick. (Fig. 9 in. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. W. as shown in Fig. J. 12 in. long.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. 1. Bently. long and 3 in. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in.. that will fit loosely in the tube A. Detroit. Detail of Phonograph Horn . . Fig. in length and 3 in. Dak. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. in diameter. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. Form a cone of heavy paper. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. --Contributed by F. Fig. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. 10 in. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. 3). Make ten pieces about 1 ft. Huron. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. --Contributed by C. 2. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. S.

Cut out paper sections (Fig. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. it is equally easy to block that trick. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. E. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. Fig. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. about the size of a leadpencil. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. making it three-ply thick. allowing 1 in. will cause an increased movement of C. Fortunately. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. Remove the form. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. push back the bolt. --Contributed by Reader. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. 6. but bends toward D. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. C. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. on one side and the top. A second piece of silk thread. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. Denver. bend it at right angles throughout its length. A piece of tin. long. and walk in. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. with a pin driven in each end. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. A. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B.

strip. or left to right. as shown. while the lower switch. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. The upper switch. Two wood-base switches. are 7 ft. will last for several years. long. long. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. West St. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. W. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . Jr. Paul. R. S. 4 ft. The reverse switch. By this arrangement one. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. is connected each point to a battery. are made 2 by 4 in. S S.. Fremont Hilscher. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. B. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. B. A. posts. --Contributed by J. put together as shown in the sketch. and rest on a brick placed under each end. The reverse lever when moved from right to left.. The feet. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. S. The 2 by 4-in. Minn.

3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. 3/8 in. and in Fig. Fig. FF. H and K. the other parts being used for the bearing B. the size of the hole in the bearing B. and valve crank S. The valve motion is shown in Figs. The base is made of wood. which is made of tin. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. with two washers. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. and the crank bearing C. In Fig. and has two wood blocks. 2. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. The piston is made of a stove bolt. Fig. which will be described later. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. either an old sewing-machine wheel. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. pulley wheel. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. and a cylindrical . 1. The steam chest D. thick. cut in half. E. The hose E connects to the boiler. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. or anything available. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. 2 and 3.every house. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. is an old bicycle pump.

J. 3. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. as it is merely a trick of photography. Wis. 4. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. Fry. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. at that.piece of hard wood. powder can. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. First. Fig. can be an old oil can. Schuh and A. The valve crank S. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. and a very amusing trick. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. to receive the connecting rod H. C. or galvanized iron. G. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. Fig. and the desired result is obtained. Cal. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. G. This is wound with soft string. The boiler. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. This engine was built by W. is cut out of tin. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. 1. and saturated with thick oil. as shown in Fig. Eustice. --Contributed by Geo. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. using the positive wire as a pen. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. of Cuba. W. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. San Jose. . The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed.

They may be of any size. B. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. and place a bell on the four ends. 1 will be seen to rotate. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. Fig. Fig. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. and Fig. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. The smaller wheel. Fig. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. and pass ropes around . must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. 1 by covering up Figs. B. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. diameter. When turning. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. C. as shown. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. to cross in the center. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. as shown at AA. Cut half circles out of each stave. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution.

DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end.M. To make this lensless microscope.G. but not on all.. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. This in turn will act on the transmitter. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. which allows the use of small sized ropes. Mo. W. produces a higher magnifying power). A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. from the transmitter. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. Louis. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. long. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. which accounts for the sound. A (a short spool. such as clothes lines. From a piece of thin . St. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. as shown in the illustration. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. procure a wooden spool. --Contributed by H. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry.

is made from an old electric-bell magnet. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in.. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. which may be moistened to make the object adhere.. cut out a small disk. can be made of brass and the armature. An innocent-looking drop of water. D. . a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. e. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. i. C. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. or 64 times. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. and look through the hole D. the object should be of a transparent nature. the diameter will appear twice as large. otherwise the image will be blurred. The lever. 1.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. The pivot. B. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. Fig. in which hay has been soaking for several days. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. is made of iron.) But an object 3/4-in. place a small object on the transparent disk. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. E. The spring. fastened to a wooden base. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. B. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. the diameter will appear three times as large. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. C. bent as shown. D. H. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. as in all microscopes of any power. darting across the field in every direction. 2. A. To use this microscope. (The area would appear 64 times as large. is fastened at each end by pins. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. which costs little or nothing to make. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. 3. and at the center. if the distance is reduced to one-third. Viewed through this microscope. which are pieces of hard wood. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. by means of brads. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. held at arm's length. and so on. if the distance is reduced to one-half.

wood. similar to the one used in the sounder. long by 16 in. Fig. wood: F. brass. connection of D to nail. D. The base of the key. long. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. thick. F. brass or iron soldered to nail. C. long and 14-1/2 in. coils wound with No. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. fastened near the end. or taken from a small one-point switch. Fig. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. can be made panel as shown. and are connected to the contacts. 2. Cut the top.SOUNDER-A. is cut from a board about 36 in. C. HH. B. D. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. wide. which are made to receive a pivot. 1. K. 16 in. soft iron. Each side. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. The door. wide and set in between sides AA. brass: E. wood: C. wide. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. wide. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. DD. wide and about 20 in. nail soldered on A. AA. The back. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. K. A switch. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. A. . FF. KEY-A. The binding posts. E. D. 16 in. binding posts: H spring The stop. should be about 22 in. between the armature and the magnet. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. 26 wire: E. wide. or a single piece. in length and 16 in. brass: B. B.

13-1/2 in. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. Garfield. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. Ill. as shown. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. with 3/4-in. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. Make 12 cleats. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. as shown in the sketch. long. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. material. cut in them. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. brads. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. In operation. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. When the electrical waves strike the needle. AA. E.. 2 and made from 1/4-in.

When the pipe is used. and. F.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. The cord is also fastened to a lever. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . Ridgewood. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. N. when used with a motor. down into the water increases the surface in contact. --Contributed by R. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. Pushing the wire. E. in order to increase the surface. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. A. --Contributed by John Koehler. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. B. C. through which a piece of wire is passed. the magnet. pulls down the armature. filled with water. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. N. and thus decreases the resistance. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. A. Y. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. Brown. Fairport. A fairly stiff spring. will give a greater speed. J. A (see sketch).

while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm.for the secret contact. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . thus discharging the contents of the hopper. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. B. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. Borden. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. even those who read this description. if desired. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. Gachville. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. --Contributed by Perry A. N. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. Of course. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other.

Jr. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. Nails for stops are placed at DD. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. J. --Contributed by Dr. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. C. East Orange. Dobson. wide. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. wide. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. The three shelves are cut 25-in. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. thick and 12-in. 1. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in.whenever the bell rings. long and full 12-in. Mangold. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. A. Cal. D. for 6-in. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. The top board is made 28-in. for 10in. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. Connect switch to post B. 2. From a piece of brass a switch. N. long and 5 in. Two drawers are fitted in this space. E. Washington. Compton. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. . Cut the end pieces each 36-in.. in a semicircle 2 in. With about 9 ft. H. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. records. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. wide. --Contributed by H. wide. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. wide. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. where the other end of wire is fastened. deep and 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. apart. and on both sides of the middle shelf. C. records and 5-5/8 in. from the bottom.

Roanoke. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. E. B. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. as shown in Fig. 1. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. When the cord is passed over pulley C. to which is fastened a cord.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . which in operation is bent. as shown by the dotted lines. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. closed. Va. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. A.

in diameter. 3). 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. These wheels should be 3/4 in. Do not fasten the sides too . The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. thick (A. Put the rubber tube. If the wheels fit too tightly. long. Notice the break (S) in the track. Now put all these parts together. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. 4 shows the wheel-holder. to turn on pins of stout wire. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. as shown in the illustration. but a larger one could be built in proportion. CC. excepting the crank and tubing. through one of these holes. deep and 1/2 in. 1 in. 3. deep. Figs. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. D. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. apart. In these grooves place wheels. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. In the sides (Fig. square and 7/8 in. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. in diameter. holes (HH. 5) when they are placed. 1. they will bind. is compressed by wheels. wide. one in each end. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. E. B.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. thick. they will let the air through. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. Fig. Fig. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. E. in diameter. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. which should be about 1/2 in. Cut two grooves. it too loose. 1 in. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. against which the rubber tubing. in diameter. The crankpin should fit tightly. Fig. Figs. wide. Bore two 1/4 in.

says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. The three legs marked BBB.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. 1. and mark for a hole. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. In the two cross bars 1 in. and are 30 in. the pump will give a steady stream. costing 10 cents. Fig. because he can . Kan. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. Cut six pieces. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. and 3-1/2 in. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. 2. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. 1. from each end. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. mark again. For ease in handling the pump. from each end. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. Idana.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. AA. tubing. Two feet of 1/4-in. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. the other wheel has reached the bottom. 1. as shown in Fig. though a small iron wheel is better. If the motion of the wheels is regular. mark for hole and 3 in. AA. Then turn the crank from left to right. The animal does not fear to enter the box. 1. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. 2. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. is all the expense necessary. Hubbard. 1. stands 20 in. 17-1/2 in. from that mark the next hole. --Contributed by Dan H. beyond each of these two. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. from the bottom and 2 in. A in Fig. as it gives steadiness to the motion. Fig. from each end. B. Fig. Take the center of the bar. a platform should be added. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. long. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. Fig. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. iron. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. 15 in. To use the pump. of material. The screen which is shown in Fig.

and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. some of it should be poured out. and the solution (Fig. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. or small electric motors. dropping. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. To cause a flow of electricity. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. C. potassium bichromate. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. however. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. rub the zinc well. The battery is now complete. sulphuric acid. Place the carbon in the jar. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. It is useful for running induction coils. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. Meyer. If the solution touches the zinc. long having two thumb screws. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. of the top. . It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. Philadelphia. giving it a bright. 14 copper wire. stirring constantly. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. of water dissolve 4 oz. but if one casts his own zinc. acid 1 part). until it is within 3 in. The mercury will adhere. When the bichromate has all dissolved.see through it: when he enters. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. there is too much liquid in the jar. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. and touches the bait the lid is released and. add slowly. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. shuts him in. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. 2). Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. 1) must be prepared. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. The battery is now ready for use. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. or. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. The truncated. --Contributed by H. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. If it is wet. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. If the battery has been used before. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. 4 oz. silvery appearance. When through using the battery.

If. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. After putting in the coal. Wis. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. the battery circuit. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. the jump-spark coil . pressing the pedal closes the door. while the coal door is being opened. however. Madison. --Contributed by Edward Whitney.Fig. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. e. i. with slight changes.. which opens the door. The price of the coil depends upon its size.

7). which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. while a 12-in. This coil. in a straight line from top to bottom. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. Fig. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. This will make an excellent receiver. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. Change the coil described. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. made of No. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. which is made of light copper wire. as shown in Fig. and closer for longer distances. 6. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". 7. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. After winding. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. as shown in Fig. apart. . In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig.7. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. the full length of the coil. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. in a partial vacuum.described elsewhere in this book. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. diameter. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. Now for the receiving apparatus. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. 7. W W. W W. coil. being a 1-in. 6. 5.

1 to 4. which will be described later. above the ground. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. . and for best results should extend up 50 ft. B the bed and C the tailstock. to the direction of the force that caused the circles.The aerial line. Run a wire from the other binding post. to the direction of the current. For an illustration. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. only. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. 90°. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated).6 stranded. A large cone pulley would then be required. Figs. being at right angles. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. at any point to any metal which is grounded. but it could be run by foot power if desired. after all. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. I run my lathe by power. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. The writer does not claim to be the originator. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. may be easily made at very little expense. in the air. A. are analogous to the flow of induction. and hence the aerial line. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. where A is the headstock. being vertical. These circles. as it matches the color well. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. using an electric motor and countershaft. 90°. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. but simply illustrates the above to show that. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. No. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. 1). A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig.

Fig. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. To make these bearings. 4. which are let into holes FIG. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. just touching the shaft. After pouring. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. which pass through a piece of wood. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. If the bearing has been properly made. steel tubing about 1/8 in. and it is well to have the shaft hot. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. Heat the babbitt well. 4. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. deep. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. on the under side of the bed. 5. The headstock. 2 and 3. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. 6 Headstock Details D. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. tapered wooden pin. A. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. Fig. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. thick. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. and Fig. too. The bearing is then ready to be poured. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. Fig. 6. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. Fig. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . and runs in babbitt bearings. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. but not hot enough to burn it. B. The bolts B (Fig. 5. one of which is shown in Fig. pitch and 1/8 in.

--Contributed by Donald Reeves. A. of the walk . the alarm is easy to fix up. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. N. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. Ill. lock nut.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. FIG. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. so I had to buy one. they may be turned up after assembling.J.other machines. This prevents corrosion. Oak Park. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. Newark. and a 1/2-in. The tail stock (Fig. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. Take up about 5 ft. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. B. If one has a wooden walk. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. embedded in the wood. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. If not perfectly true.

leaving a clear solution. clean the articles thoroughly. Minneapolis. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. Then make the solution . Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. before dipping them in the potash solution. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. save when a weight is on the trap. --Contributed by R. Connect up an electric bell. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. water. Do not touch the work with the hands again. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. S. Minn. hang the articles on the wires. (A. silver or other metal. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. Finally. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. and the alarm is complete. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. Jackson. of water. To avoid touching it. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. 2). American ash in 1-1/2 pt. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. to remove all traces of grease. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. Fig. so that they will not touch. add potassium cyanide again. to roughen the surface slightly. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering.

On brass.5 to 4 volts. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. if one does not possess a buffing machine. 1). Fig. as at F. but opens the door. make a key and keyhole. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. Before silver plating. I. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. lead. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. about 25 ft. which is advised. an old electric bell or buzzer. shaking. 1. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. must be about 1 in. Repeat six times. If more solution is required. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. In rigging it to a sliding door. with water. nickel and such metals. when the point of the key touches the tin. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. thick by 3 in. such metals as iron. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. with the pivot 2 in. The wooden catch. will serve for the key. To provide the keyhole. 3) directly over the hole. hole in its center. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. 1). and the larger part (F. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. When all this is set up. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. with water. of water. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. 3) strikes the bent wire L. Where Bunsen cells are used. saw a piece of wood. which . A 1/4 in. from the lower end. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. Fig. a circuit is completed.up to 2 qt. Having finished washing the precipitate. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. Make a somewhat larger block (E. pewter. The wooden block C. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. Take quick. With an electric pressure of 3. which is held by catch B. also. 1 in. Fig. Screw the two blocks together. of clothesline rope and some No. Fig. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. copper. German silver. 18 wire. --Model Engineer. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. 3. 10 in. and 4 volts for very small ones. 1 not only unlocks. long. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. If accumulators are used. a hand scratch brush is good. Then. square. as shown in Fig. silver can be plated direct. piece of broomstick. long. A (Fig. This solution. light strokes. use 2 volts for large articles. zinc. Can be made of a 2-in. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. and then treated as copper. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. B should be of the same wood. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig.

and a slit. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). Fig. one-third of the length from the remaining end. no painting inside is required. although a little more trouble. enlarged. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. top. In front of you. Next. East Orange. he points with one finger to the box. spoons and jackknives. and plenty of candles. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. cut in one side. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. 116 Prospect St. Klipstein. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. in his shirt sleeves. half way from open end to closed end. some black paint. to throw the light toward the audience. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. Fig. Receiving the bowl again. floor. 2. Objects appear and disappear. 2. Fig. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. and finally lined inside with black cloth. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. The interior must be a dead black. surrounding a perfectly black space. Fig. The magician stands in front of this. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. H. is the cut through which the rope runs. Next. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. 3. One thing changes to another and back again. . On either side of the box. The box must be altered first. He removes the bowl from the black box. sides and end. 0. some black cloth. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. shows catch B. H. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. B. the illumination in front must be arranged. 1. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. the box should be painted black both inside and out. To prepare such a magic cave. and black art reigns supreme. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C.. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. and hands its contents round to the audience. with the lights turned low. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. with a switch as in Fig. H. One end is removed. Thus. the requisites are a large soap box. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. heighten the illusion. so much the better. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. he tosses it into the cave. New Jersey. such as forks. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. 1. --Contributed by E. which unlocks the door. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. a few simple tools. or cave. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. should be cut a hole. between the parlor and the room back of it. Heavy metal objects.

of course. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. The illusion. and pours them from the bag into a dish. his confederate behind inserts his hand. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. and several black drop curtains. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. But illusions suggest themselves. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. the room where the cave is should be dark. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. and if portieres are impossible. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. you must have an assistant. had a big stage. was identical with this. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. a screen must be used. of course. if. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. is on a table) so much the better. which can be made to dance either by strings. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. one on each side of the box.Finally. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. as presented by Hermann. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. only he. into the eyes of him who looks. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. which are let down through the slit in the top. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. The exhibitor should be . Consequently. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. The audience room should have only low lights. in which are oranges and apples. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear.

1. with three brass strips. c1. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. FIG. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. d. when handle K is turned to one side. if you turn handle K to the right.a boy who can talk. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. 1. held down on disk F by two other terminals. or b2. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. respectively. held down by another disk F (Fig. and a common screw.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. so arranged that. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. held down on it by two terminals. terminal c3 will show +.. On the disk G are two brass strips. 2. their one end just slips under the strips b1.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). b3. by means of two wood screws. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. Finally. and c2 to the zinc. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. vice versa. A represents a pine board 4 in. by 4 in. as shown in Fig. respectively. respectively. and c1 – electricity. terminal c3 will show . f2. and c4 + electricity. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. making contact with them as shown at y. A. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . or binding posts. c3. Then. b3. e1 and e2. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. at L. square. making contact with them. c4. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. 2. Fig. b2. b2. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. b1. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. About the center piece H moves a disk. c2. 2). never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. is shown in the diagram.

Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. Jr. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. thus making the message audible in the receiver. when A is on No. Tuttle. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. and then hold the receiver to your ear.. B is a onepoint switch. When switch B is closed and A is on No. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. from five batteries. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. E. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . 4. from four batteries. when on No. Newark. you have the current of one battery. and when on No. 1. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). Joerin. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. -Contributed by A. 3. Ohio. when on No. and C and C1 are binding posts.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. jump spark coil. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. from three batteries. --Contributed by Eugene F. 5. .

Redmond. mark. per second for each second. traveled by the thread. New Orleans. When you do not have a graduate at hand. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. so one can see the time. P. and supporting the small weight. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. B. A. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. mark. Wis. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. A. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. The device thus arranged. of Burlington. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. A. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. E. as shown in the sketch. rule. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. over the bent portion of the rule.. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. Handy Electric Alarm . La. and placed on the windowsill of the car. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. per second. is the device of H. which may be a button or other small object. Thus. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in.

At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. --C. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. C. B. but may be closed at F any time desired. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. which illuminates the face of the clock. --Contributed by Gordon T. Lane. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. Instead. Pa. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. . will complete the circuit and ring the bell. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. wrapping the wire around the can several times. S. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. and with the same result. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. soldered to the alarm winder. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. for a wetting is the inevitable result. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. When the alarm goes off. Then if a mishap comes. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. Crafton. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn.which has a piece of metal.

as shown. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. and many other interesting and useful articles. but it is a mistake to try to do this. battery zincs. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. The first thing to make is a molding bench. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. Macey. 1 . which may. It is possible to make molds without a bench. 1. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. New York City. binding posts. Two cleats. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. engines. when it is being prepared. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. AA. and duplicates of all these. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. models and miniature objects. L. With the easily made devices about to be described. BE. cannons.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. --Contributed by A. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. small machinery parts. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . whence it is soon tracked into the house. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. C. bearings. as shown in Fig. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. ornaments of various kinds. A. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. If there is no foundry Fig. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment.

as shown. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. A slight shake of the bag Fig. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. the "cope. Fig. is about the right mesh. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. which should be nailed in. The rammer. CC. but this operation will be described more fully later on. J. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. 1. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. 2. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. and the lower pieces. The flask.How to Make a Mold [96] . is shown more clearly in Fig. If desired the sieve may be homemade. 1. DD. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. A A. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. The dowels. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. is filled with coal dust. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. and the "drag. try using sand from other sources. and a sieve. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. If the box is not very strong. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. by 8 in. G. 2 . A good way to make the flask is to take a box. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold.near at hand. previous to sawing. will be required. Fig. high. say 12 in. II . white metal. D. A wedge-shaped piece. which can be made of a knitted stocking. and saw it in half longitudinally. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. F." or upper half. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. E. H. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. and this.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. as shown. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient." or lower part. is made of wood. is nailed to each end of the cope. a little larger than the outside of the flask. An old teaspoon. makes a very good sieve. It is made of wood and is in two halves. which can be either aluminum. CC. The cloth bag. by 6 in.

as it is much easier to learn by observation. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. in order to remove the lumps." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. as shown at C. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. The sand is then ready for molding. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. and thus judge for himself. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. the surface of the sand at . either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. as shown at E. and then more sand is added until Fig. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. as shown. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. In finishing the ramming. turn the drag other side up. as described. and if water is added. where they can watch the molders at work. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. Place another cover board on top.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. After ramming. or "drag. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. as shown at D." in position. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. and scatter about 1/16 in. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. or "cope. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. It is then rammed again as before. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. and by grasping with both hands.

as shown in the sketch. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag." or pouring-hole. made out of steel rod. to give the air a chance to escape. in order to prevent overheating. as shown at H. III. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. thus making a dirty casting. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. as shown at H. as shown at F. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. is next cut. wide and about 1/4 in. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. in diameter. as shown at G. and then pour. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. The next operation is that of cutting the gate.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. The pattern is then drawn from the mold.E should be covered with coal-dust. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. Place a brick or other flat. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. it shows that the sand is too wet. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. The "sprue. After drawing the pattern. after being poured. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. thus holding the crucible securely. This is done with a spoon. Fig. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. deep. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. place the cope back on the drag. . which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. as shown at J. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask.

Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. may be used in either direction. Referring to the figure. If a good furnace is available. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. is very desirable. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. Morton. babbitt. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. although somewhat expensive. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. and the casting is then ready for finishing. white metal and other scrap available. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. In my own case I used four batteries. battery zincs. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. used only for zinc. 15% lead. Minneapolis. and.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. or from any adjacent pair of cells. Although the effect in the illustration . 5% zinc and 5% antimony. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. but any reasonable number may be used. --Contributed by Harold S. the following device will be found most convenient. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none.

it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. If desired. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. Put a sharp needle point. --Contributed by Draughtsman. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. as shown at A. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. shaft made. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. Then replace the table. Make one of these pieces for each arm. B. The bearings. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. By replacing the oars with paddles. connected by cords to the rudder.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. 3/4 in. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. may be made of hardwood. 2. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. To make it take a sheet-iron band. Fig. backward. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. A. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. outward. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. which will be sufficient to hold it. Chicago. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. Then walk down among the audience. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. as shown in the illustration. The brass rings also appear distorted. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. B.

as shown in Fig. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. E. 1. being simply finely divided ice. and a weight. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. should be made of wood. Snow. 3. W. C. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. 2 and 3. or the paint will come off. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure.melted babbitt. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. In the same way. or under pressure. If babbitt is used. when it will again return to its original state. but when in motion. 1. 2. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. A block of ice. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. If galvanized iron is used. 1. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. A. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. spoiling its appearance. The hubs. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. D. The covers. It may seem strange that ice . Fig. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost.

Pa. which resembles ice in this respect. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. as shown on page 65.should flow like water. in. as per sketch. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below.. but. thus giving a high resistance contact. no matter how slow the motion may be. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. brass. --Contributed by Gordon T. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. but by placing it between books. whenever there is any connection made at all. by 1/4. P. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. by 1/2 in. it will gradually change from the original shape A. or supporting it in some similar way. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. sometimes only one or two feet a day. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. B. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. by 2 in. Pressing either push button. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. Crafton. and assume the shape shown at B. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. The rate of flow is often very slow. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . Lane. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. by 5 in. square.

draft chain. cord. In the wiring diagram. A is the circuit breaker. G. Indianapolis. K . The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. the induction coil. E. The parts are: A. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message.thumb screws. The success depends upon a slow current. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. H. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. alarm clock. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3.000 ft. as shown. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. Wilkinsburg. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. Ward. furnace. D. about the size used for automobiles. I. J. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. draft. B. vertical lever. the battery. weight. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. as shown. --Contributed by A. G. horizontal lever. and C. F. wooden supports. and five dry batteries. C. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. B. pulleys. Pa.

How to Make an Electroscope [103] . The frame (Fig. as well as the bottom. Mich. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. 2 are dressed to the right angle. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. which will provide a fine place for the plants. such as used for a storm window. where house plants are kept in the home. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. material framed together as shown in Fig. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. Artistic Window Boxes The top. Kalamazoo. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. will fit nicely in them. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. 3. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning.

1 cp. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. and will give the . N. Grant. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. this must be done with very great caution. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. The 1/2-cp. and a suitable source of power. is something that will interest the average American boy. but maintain the voltage constant. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. since a battery is the most popular source of power. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case.. i. It must be remembered. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. as indicated by Fig. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. Push the needle into the cork. can be connected up in series. in any system of lamps. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. Halifax. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. in this connection.. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. for some time very satisfactorily. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. 1 each complete with base. Thus. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. W. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. after a rest. and cost 27 cents FIG. as if drawn upon for its total output. S. multiples of series of three. However. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary.. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. --Contributed by Wm. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. one can regulate the batteries as required. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. so as to increase the current. This is more economical than dry cells. which sells for 25 cents. and the instrument will then be complete. e. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. Canada. 1. a cork and a needle. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. However. in diameter. where they are glad to have them taken away. by connecting them in series. A certain number of these. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high.

2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. lamp. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. 18 B & S. or 22 lights. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. which is the same as that of one battery. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. These will give 3 cp. especially those of low internal resistance. . 11 series. 3. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. So. 2 shows the scheme. In conclusion. we simply turn on the water. where the water pressure is the greatest. However. FIG. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. to secure light by this method. lamps. making. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run.. and then lead No. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. as in Fig. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. Fig. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. and running the series in parallel. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. lamps. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. Thus. for display of show cases. 1-cp. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. if wound for 6 volts. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. Thus. If wound for 10 volts. and for Christmas trees. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. generates the power for the lights. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. each.proper voltage. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. double insulated wire wherever needed. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. Chicago. although the first cost is greater. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. by the proper combination of these. according to the water pressure obtainable. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. and diffused light in a room. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage.

Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. Ind. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. simply change the switch. A indicates the ground. field of motor. Plymouth. and C. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. are cut just alike. center points of switch. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. Parker. --Contributed by Leonard E. or from one pattern. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. Emig. CC. --Contributed by F. bars of pole-changing switch. as shown in the sketch. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. After I connected up my induction coil.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. a bait of meat. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. Santa Clara. brushes of motor. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. outside points of switch. or a tempting bone. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. the letters indicate as follows: FF. and the sides. thus reversing the machine. A. To reverse the motor. B. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. Cal. AA. . It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. switch. BB. DD. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. B. we were not bothered with them. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil.

thus locking the door. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. Fry. Hutchinson. or would remain locked. The experiment works best . Melchior. To unlock the door. -Contributed by Claude B. Cal. which is in the door. attached to the end of the armature B. as it is the key to the lock. W. The button can be hidden. merely push the button E. Minn. San Jose.. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. one cell being sufficient. 903 Vine St. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. and a table or bench. When the circuit is broken a weight. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. If it is not. a piece of string. A. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. a hammer. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo.

in the ceiling and has a window weight. Porto Rico. Brockville. 18 Gorham St. C. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. Ontario. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. 3. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. the key turns. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. . 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. I. 3. Crawford Curry.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. releasing the weight. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. Canada. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. When the alarm rings in the early morning. as shown in Fig. where it will remain suspended as shown. Madison. --Contributed by Geo. W. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. On another block of wood fasten two wires. A. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig.. 1). --Contributed by Edward Whitney. 2. run through a pulley. P. attached at the other end. the current flows with the small arrows. the stick falls away. Wis. Schmidt. which pulls the draft open. D. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. 4). Culebra. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig.Contributed by F. Tie the ends of the string together. forming a loop. -.

--Contributed by Wm. or tree. The cut shows the arrangement. and . and break the corners off to make them round. and the other to the battery. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. thence to a switch. D. J. J. including the mouthpiece. First. Jr. square and 1 in. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. made with his own hands. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. thick. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. Use a barrel to work on. 6 in. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. which fasten to the horn. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. R. running one direct to the receiver.. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. Connect two wires to the transmitter. N. Farley. S. Camden. and then to the receiver. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. get two pieces of plate glass. or from a bed of flowers.

block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle.. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. wetting it to the consistency of cream. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. and the under glass or tool convex. by the side of the lamp. or it will not polish evenly. A. or less. with 1/4-in. twice the focal length away. then take 2 lb. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. and a large lamp. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. Then warm and press again with the speculum. In a dark room. Fig. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. Fasten. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. 1. then 8 minutes. of water. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. and label. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. so the light . When dry.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. with pitch. When done the glass should be semitransparent.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. and spread on the glass. set the speculum against the wall. Use a binger to spread it on with. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. spaces. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. Have ready six large dishes. unless a longer focal length is wanted. melt 1 lb. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. while walking around the barrel. Fig. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. L. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. the coarse grinding must be continued. in length. a round 4-in. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. 2. When polishing the speculum.. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. using straight strokes 2 in. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. wet till soft like paint. also rotate the glass. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. and is ready for polishing. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. as in Fig. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. 2. wide around the convex glass or tool. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding.

………………………………. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. touched with rouge. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. Then add 1 oz.. face down. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). 2. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. and pour the rest into the empty dish. If not. 100 gr. with distilled water.. also how the rays R from a star .100 gr. longer strokes.. in the bath and leave until the silver rises. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. When dry. 25 gr. Fig. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. Fig. that was set aside. must be procured.. or hills. Then add solution B. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. then ammonia until bath is clear. 840 gr. Fig.……………. Place the speculum. Now add enough of the solution A. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way.. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark.……………………………. if a hill in the center.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. 4 oz. Silver nitrate ……………………………. 4 oz.. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. fill the dish with distilled water. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. The polishing and testing done. from the lamp. The knife should not be more than 6 in. Alcohol (Pure) ……………. With pitch. Solution D: Sugar loaf . Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. When the focus is found. 39 gr.. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. Two glass or earthenware dishes. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. long to the back of the speculum. deep.. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. as in K. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. cement a strip of board 8 in. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. Nitric acid . add the ammonia solution drop by drop.. the speculum will show some dark rings.. the speculum is ready to be silvered. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. Place the speculum S. 2.

About 20. . Thus an excellent 6-in. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. two glass prisms. which proves to be easy of execution. telescope can be made at home. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. is a satisfactory angle. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration.John E. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. cover with paper and cloth. Make the tube I of sheet iron. using strawboard and black paper. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. long and cost me just $15. Place over lens.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. Mellish. stop down well after focusing. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. Then I made the one described. My telescope is 64 in. and proceed as for any picture. with an outlay of only a few dollars. deg. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford.. The flatter they are the less they will distort. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. slightly wider than the lens mount.

If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. but will not preserve its hardening. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. A. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. and reflect through the negative. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. B. The rays of the clear. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. as shown in Fig. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. then add a little sulphate of potash. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. To unlock. 1. Ill. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. Do not stir it. says the Master Painter. 2. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. -Contributed by A. push the button D. instead of the contrary. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. Fig. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. through the lens of the camera and on the board. Zimmerman. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. The paper is exposed. . the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. unobstructed light strike the mirror. complete the arrangement. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. Boody. add the plaster gradually to the water. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. or powdered alum. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. D.

1). as in Fig. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. To reverse. 2. as at A and B. but will remain suspended without any visible support. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. so that it can rotate about these points.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. Fig. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. Fasten on the switch lever. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. Then blow through the spool. also provide them with a handle. 2. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. use a string. as shown in the sketch. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. throw . and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. 3.

C C. rinse in alcohol. binding posts. wash in running water. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. North Bend. Tex. the armature. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. A is the electricbell magnet. --Contributed by R. Take out. In the sketch. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. Levy. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. carbons. San Antonio. and rub dry with linen cloth. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. although this is not necessary. carbon sockets. --Contributed by Geo. San Marcos. Push one end of the tire into the hole. L. Tex. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. Thomas.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. D. . 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. and E E. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. as shown in the sketch. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. -Contributed by Morris L. Neb. Go McVicker. B.

Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. Brooklyn. wound evenly about this core. By means of two or more layers of No. Bell.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. 16 magnet wire. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. long or more. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. --Contributed by Joseph B. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. 36 magnet wire. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. 14 or No. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp.

beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. with room also for a small condenser. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. the entire core may be purchased readymade. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. at a time. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. The primary is made of fine annealed No. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. in length. wide. 2 yd. hole is bored in the center of one end. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. as the maker prefers. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. one piece of the paper is laid down. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. When cut and laid in one continuous length. long and 5 in. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. but if it is not convenient to do this work. The condenser is next wrapped . After the core wires are bundled. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. making two layers. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. which is an important factor of the coil. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. The following method of completing a 1-in. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. about 6 in. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. then the strip of tin-foil. No. and finally the fourth strip of paper. In shaping the condenser. Beginning half an inch from one end. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. a box like that shown in Fig. long and 2-5/8 in. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. as shown in Fig. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. A 7/8-in. which is desirable. This makes a condenser which may be folded. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. coil illustrates the general details of the work.which would be better to buy ready-made. or 8 in. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. in diameter. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. diameter. 4. and the results are often unsatisfactory. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. 1. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in.

long and 12 in. and the other sheet. wide. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. Fig. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. round so that the inside . C. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour.. battery . This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. V-shaped copper strip. go. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. the letters indicate as follows: A. G. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. switch. spark. D. open switch C. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. shows how the connections are made. lines H. 4 in. by 12 in. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. The alarm key will turn and drop down. B. whole length. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. copper lever with 1-in. long to key. E.) The wiring diagram. which is insulated from the first. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. one from bell.securely with bands of paper or tape. ready for assembling. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. forms the other pole or terminal. flange turned on one side. 3. shelf for clock. which allows wiring at the back. B. I. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. bell. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. F. and one from battery. A. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. to the door. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell.

or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. of blue stone. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. do not shortcircuit. 2 in. London. This is for blowing. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. That is what they are for. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. and then rivet the seam. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. but add 5 or 6 oz. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. of zinc sulphate. Use a glass or metal shade. . You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. instead of close to it. The circuit should also have a high resistance.diameter is 7 in. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. but with the circuit. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. If desired for use immediately. Line the furnace. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. Short-circuit for three hours.. says the Model Engineer. and the battery is ready for use. from the bottom.

Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. grip the stick firmly in one hand. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. At least it is amusing. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. thus producing two different vibrations. as in the other movement. the second finger along the side. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. changes white phosphorus to yellow. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. affects . If too low. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. Outside of the scientific side involved. g. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. To operate the trick. and therein is the trick. herein I describe a much better trick. Try it and see. porcelain and paper. for some it will turn one way. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. long. below the bottom of the zinc. or think they can do the same let them try it.. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. square and about 9 in. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. oxygen to ozone. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. imparting to them a violet tinge. while for others it will not revolve at all. Ohio. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. and then. and many other things in order to make the arm operate.9 of a volt. for others the opposite way. 1. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. but the thing would not move at all. This type of battery will give about 0. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass." which created much merriment. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. If any or your audience presume to dispute. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. Enlarge the hole slightly. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. 2.

carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. and. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. To the front board is attached a box. insects. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. but this is less satisfactory. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. If the worker is not after too high a magnification.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. a short-focus lens. if possible. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. an old tripod screw. chemicals. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. however. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. says the Photographic Times. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. but small flowers. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. a means for holding it vertical. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand .photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. earth. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. and one of them is photomicrography. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. but not essential. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces.

while it is not so with the quill. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Divide one-quarter of the circle . 1. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. If the balloon is 10 ft. 113 7 lb. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments.--Contributed by George C. 11 ft. or 3 ft. 697 44 lb. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. long and 3 ft. Mass. 381 24 lb. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. Ft Lifting Power. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. 12 ft. and a line. Madison. Cap. The following table will give the size. which is 15 ft. Boston.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. balloon. 7-1/2 in. wide from which to cut a pattern. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. in Cu. 9 ft. 179 11 lb. 268 17 lb. 65 4 lb. A line. Fig. CD. 10 ft 523 33 lb. AB. 905 57 lb. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. or 31 ft. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. 8 ft. 7 ft. 5 ft. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. 7-1/2 in. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. 6 ft. in diameter. 5 in.

If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. The pattern is now cut. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. The amounts necessary for a 10- . 4. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. keeping the marked part on the outside. of beeswax and boil well together. cutting all four quarters at the same time. on the curved line from B to C. 2. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. making a double seam as shown in Fig. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. The cloth segments are sewed together. using a fine needle and No. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. of the very best heavy body. Procure 1 gal. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. 3. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. 70 thread. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. This test will show if the bag is airtight. Repeat this operation four times. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. and so on. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas.

Green Iron ammonium citrate . 150 gr. as shown in Fig. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings.ft. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. should not enter into the water over 8 in. leaving the hand quite clean. 1 lb. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. B. All FIG. of sulphuric acid. A. B. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. of iron. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. B. with the iron borings. A. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. When the clock has dried. oil the spindle holes carefully. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. C. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. which may sound rather absurd. this should be repeated frequently. to the bag. pipe. 5 . with 3/4in. . capacity and connect them. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. of gas in one hour. A. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. until no more dirt is seen. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. In the barrel. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. but if any grease remains on the hand. Vegetable oils should never be used. 1 lb. After washing a part. C. The 3/4-in. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. ]. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. or a fan. by fixing. . with water 2 in. it is not fit to use. of water will make 4 cu. About 15 lb.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. 5.. above the level of the water in barrel A. using a fine brush. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. Water 1 oz. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. a clean white rag. or dusting with a dry brush. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. if it is good it will dry off. ft. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. of iron borings and 125 lb. balloon are 125 lb. The outlet. Fill the other barrel.

or zinc. Exposure. at the time of employment. . and a vigorous negative must be used. This aerial collector can be made in . may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. 20 to 30 minutes. or battery. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly.. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. dry atmosphere will give best results. The negative pole. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. says the Moving Picture World. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. and keep in the dark until used. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. . A cold. toning first if desired. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. Dry the plates in the dark. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. or carbon. to avoid blackened skin. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. Port Melbourne. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. Dry in the dark. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. fix in hypo. keeping the fingers out of the solution. The miniature 16 cp.Water 1 oz. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. of any make. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. A longer exposure will be necessary. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. The positive pole. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta.000 ft. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. Printing is done in the sun.

is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. in diameter. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. lead pipe. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. 5 in. If the wave ceases. both positive and negative. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. the resistance is less. holes . The storage cell. If the waves strike across the needle. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. As the telephone offers a high resistance. long. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. lay a needle. will soon become dry and useless. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. and as less current will flow the short way.various ways. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. and have the other connected with another aerial line. when left exposed to the air. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. forming a cup of the pipe. This will complete the receiving station. a positive and a negative. making a ground with one wire. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. as described below.

or tube C. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. of course. says the Pathfinder. namely: a square hole. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. on each end. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. This. or tube B. an oblong one and a triangular one. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. The other plate is connected to the zinc. except for about 1 in. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . Two binding-posts should be attached. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. one to the positive. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. by soldering the joint. This support or block. a round one. does not need to be watertight. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. D.as possible. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. B. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. When mixing the acid and water. This box can be square. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. and the other to the negative. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current.

A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. wide. 2. as it is not readily overturned. The third piece of brass. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. Ill. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. is built 15 ft. long. and match them together. leaving about 1/16 in. C. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. thick cut two pieces alike. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. 2. in place on the wood. C. all around the edge. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. deep and 4 ft. as shown in Fig. Only galvanized nails should be used. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. 1. 1. and has plenty of good seating capacity. back and under. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. about 20 in. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. A and B. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. Chicago. as shown in Fig. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. This punt. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. wide. . 3.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. were fitted by this one plug.

Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. square (Fig 2). Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. B. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. thick and 3-1/2 in. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. gas pipe.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. Wash. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. is cut 1 in. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. A. In Fig. Tacoma. A piece of 1/4-in. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in.

Wagner. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe." has no connection with the outside circuit. lamp. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. without auxiliary phase. it had to be borne in mind that. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. which can be developed in the usual manner. or "rotor. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. and to consume. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. may be of interest to some of our readers. says the Model Engineer. The winding of the armature. which the writer has made.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. with the exception of insulated wire. In designing. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. no more current than a 16-cp. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. if possible. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit.--Contributed by Charles H. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. no special materials could be obtained. H.

The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. 4. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. and filled with rivets. A. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. 1. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. 2. They are not particularly accurate as it is. while the beginnings . The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. C. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. After assembling a second time. being used. to be filed out after they are placed together. in diameter were drilled in the corners. and all sparking is avoided. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. this little machine is not self-starting. as shown in Fig. no steel being obtainable. as shown in Fig. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. bolts put in and tightened up. thick. were then drilled and 1/4-in. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. about 2-1/2 lb. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. or "stator. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. 5. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. 3. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. B. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. with the dotted line. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. holes. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. wrought iron.the field-magnet. also varnished before they were put in. Unfortunately. The stator is wound full with No. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. Holes 5-32 in.

A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. One is by contact. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. This type of motor has drawbacks. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. McKinney. and all wound in the same direction. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. and as the motor runs at constant speed. having no commutator or brushes. In making slides by contact. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. film to film. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. 3-Contributed by C. If too late for alcohol to be of use. Newark. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. and especially of colored ones. and as each layer of wire was wound. as shown in Fig. if applied immediately. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. which will make it appear as shown in Fig.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. and would not easily get out of order. as before stated. Jr. The lantern slide is a glass plate. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. it would be very simple to build. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. N. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. The rotor is wound with No.. a regulating resistance is not needed. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. 2. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. and the other by reduction in the camera. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. The image should . as a means of illustrating songs. E. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. 1. No starting resistance is needed. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. J. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit.

A. except that the binding is different. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. if possible. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. 3. a little extra work will be necessary. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. Being unbreakable. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. It is best. Select a room with one window. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. as shown in Fig. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. they are much used by travelers. 5. D. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. as shown in Fig. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. about a minute.appear in. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. the formulas being found in each package of plates. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. over the mat. B. to use a plain fixing bath. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. Draw lines with a pencil. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. and development should be over in three or four minutes. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. These can be purchased from any photo material store. 2. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. Fig. 1. 4. C. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. also. If the exposure has been correct. and then a plain glass.

but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. from the ends. in diameter and 20 in. 2. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. while the dot will be in front of the other. as shown at A. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. long. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. long. from the center of this dot draw a star. Fig. wide and 50 in. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. known as rods and cones. Hastings. holes bored in the end pieces. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. from the end piece of the chair. long. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. If the star is in front of the left eye. A piece of canvas. 1. as shown at B. 16 in. is to be used for the seat.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. in diameter and 40 in. or other stout cloth. 1. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. Fig. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. Corinth. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. as shown in Fig. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. These longer pieces can be made square. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. Vt. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown.

The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. A disk 1 in. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. A belt. J. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. . Auburn. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. as well as to operate other household machines. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. 2. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. O'Gara. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. in thickness and 10 in. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. 1. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. made from an ordinary sash cord. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely.-Contributed by P. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. per square inch. Cal. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block.

direction. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. will be the thickness of the object. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. . carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. says the Scientific American. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. long. fairly accurate. wide. thick and 2-1/2 in. leaving it shaped like a bench. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. or inconvenient to measure. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. and the construction is complete. Cut out a piece from the block combination. Bore a 1/4-in. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. 3/4 in. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. with as fine a thread as possible. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. Put the bolt in the hole. square for a support. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. A simple. screwing it through the nut. divided by the number of threads to the inch. to the top of the bench. it serves a very useful purpose. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. The part of a rotation of the bolt.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. then removing the object. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in.

This may appear to be a hard thing to do. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. piece of wood 12 ft. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. Oal. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. which show up fine at night. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. Bore a 3/4-in. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. long is used for the center pole. material 12 ft. globe that has been thrown away as useless. long.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. Santa Maria. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. Place a 3/4-in. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. The wheel should be open . This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. beyond the end of the wood. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. bolt in each hole. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in.

from the top end. in diameter. Graham. P. H and J.Side and Top View or have spokes. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. thick. long. A piece of brass 2 in. 1/2 in. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. The boards may be nailed or bolted. A cross bar. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. which should be 1/4 in. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. A. and the lower part 61/2 in. wide and 1/8 in. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. long. is soldered. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. at the bottom. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. C. long. wide and 1/8 in. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. Tex. from the ends. Fort Worth. The spool . at the top and 4 in. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. thick.-Contributed by A. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. B. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. made of the same material. thick is used for the armature. The coil. to be operated by the magnet coil. long. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. square and 3 or 4 in. O. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. L. of the ends with boards. C. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. pieces used for the spokes. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. and on its lower end a socket.

2. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way.J. and it will stay as if glued to the casing.000 for irrigation work. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. 2 the hat hanging on it. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. S. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. At the bottom end of the frame. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig.--A. . You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. This tie can be used on grain sacks. which may be had by using German silver wire. The armature. Bradlev. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. C. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. A soft piece of iron. one without either rubber or metal end. F. D and E. for insulating the brass ferrule. long. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. and directly centering the holes H and J. This is a very neat trick if performed right. and place it against a door or window casing. S. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. that holds the lower carbon.E. do it without any apparent effort. A. Mass. by soldering. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. and in numerous other like instances. R.is about 2-1/2 in.000. B. When you slide the pencil along the casing. or a water rheostat heretofore described. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. is drilled. --Contributed by Arthur D. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. Randolph. 1. then with a firm. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig.

is connected to a flash lamp battery. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. D. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. in diameter and 2 in. 1. S. for adjustment.500 turns of No. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. The vibrator. is constructed in the usual manner. The vibrator B. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. hole in the center. in diameter and 1/16 in. C. leaving the projections as shown. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. in diameter. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. About 70 turns of No. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. B. for the primary. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. F. mixed with water to form a paste. Fig. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. for the secondary. The switch. Experiment with Heat [134] . How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. A. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. about 3/16 in. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. 2. with a 3/16-in. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. may be made from a 3/8-in. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. and then 1. S. The coil ends are made from cardboard. from the core and directly opposite. long. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. in diameter. wide. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. about 1/8 in. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. long and 1 in. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. Fig. The core of the coil. thick. 1. about 1 in. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core.

An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. The tin is 4 in. which is cut with two holes. which is only 3/8-in. The hasp. thick on the inside. . The three screws were then put in the hasp. brass plate. long and when placed over the board.Place a small piece of paper. The lock. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. wide. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. Fig. which seemed to be insufficient. The knob on the dial extends out too far. 2 to fit the two holes. as shown in the sketch. between the boards. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. 1. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. lighted. it laps down about 8 in. as shown. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. and the same distance inside of the new board. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. with which to operate the dial. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. 16 in. in an ordinary water glass. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. and then well clinched. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. was to be secured by only three brass screws. board. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. 1.

or in the larger size mentioned. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. which completely divides the box into two parts. When making of wood. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. black color. If the box is made large enough. square and 8-1/2 in. When the rear part is illuminated. not shiny. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. clear glass as shown. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. the glass. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. and the back left dark. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. high for use in window displays. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . square and 10-1/2 in. one in each division. but when the front part is illuminated. any article placed therein will be reflected in. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box.

or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. above the top of the tank. as shown in the sketch. wide will be about the right size. alternately. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. a tank 2 ft. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. When using as a window display. and with the proper illumination one is changed. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp..Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. as shown at A in the sketch. into the other. . Instead of changing the current operated by hand. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. as it appears. long and 1 ft. When there is no electric current available.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

This hole must be continued . Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. or ferrous sulphate. radius. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. Shape the under sides first. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. and a door in front. but with a length of 12 in. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. gauge for depth. 2 ft. 6 in.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. however. wide. square. is built on the front. hole. 5 ft. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. long. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. Three windows are provided. long. 1 in. thick and 3 in. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. as shown. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. one for each side. Iron sulphate. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. each. high. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. hole bored the full length through the center. The 13-in. and boring two holes with a 1-in. from the ground. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. two pieces 1-1/8 in. wide. This precipitate is then washed. is the green vitriol. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. and a solution of iron sulphate added. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. Columbus. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. The pieces can then be taken out. lines gauged on each side of each. bore from each end. and 6 ft. with a length of 13 in. then use a red-hot iron to finish. If a planing mill is near. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. O. bit. square and 40 in. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. under sides together. using a 3/4-in. dried and mixed with linseed oil. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. A small platform. from either end and in the crack between the pieces.

three or four may be attached as shown. apply two coats of wax. For art-glass the metal panels are .through the pieces forming the base. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. A better way. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. Saw the two blocks apart. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. if shade is purchased. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. If the parts are to be riveted. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. Directions will be found on the filler cans. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. Electric globes--two. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. When this is dry. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. thick and 3 in. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. When the filler has hardened. hole in each block. square and drawing a diagonal on each. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. The sketch shows one method of attaching. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade.

as brass. such as copper. METAL SHADE .The Completed Lamp cut out. Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. and reinforcing and riveting with another metal.Construction of Shade .

The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . 2 the front view of this stand. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. Figure 1 shows the side. as in ordinary devices. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. The arms holding the glass. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. the other. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. as shown in the sketch. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. one way and 1/2 in. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. the object and the background. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. and Fig. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal.

Coat the entire surface with brown shellac.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. about 1-1/4 in. as shown in the cut. as shown in the sketch. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. Before mounting the ring on the base. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. thick 5/8-in. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. as it is very poisonous. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. wide and 6-5/16 in. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. pointing north and south. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. channel in the circumference of the ring. in diameter for a base. uncork and recork again. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. outside diameter. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. wide and 11 in. Put the ring in place on the base. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. and swinging freely. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. in diameter. If the light becomes dim. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. thus forming a 1/4-in. Cut another circular piece 11 in. and an inside diameter of 9 in. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. An ordinary pocket compass. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. long.

into these cylinders. and mirrors. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. CC. B. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye.182 . Place on top the so- . high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. and north of the Ohio river.088 .600 . AA. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. The results given should be multiplied by 1. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes . black oxide of copper.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. are mounted on a base. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. 1 oz. from the second to the third. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. to which a wire has been soldered for connections.420 . are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. in diameter and 8 in. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. above the half can. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings. Corresponding mirrors. EE.715 .500 .289 . but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders.865 1. of the top.

Put the solution in a long. always remove the oil with a siphon. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. the wheel will revolve in one direction. then they will not rust fast. In Fig. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. 31 gr. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. 62 gr. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. says Metal Worker. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. alcohol. Colo. slender bottle. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. little crystals forming in the liquid. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. University Park. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. When renewing. which otherwise remains clear. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. of pulverized campor. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom.

The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. floating on a solution. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. about 1-1/4 in. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. --Contributed by C. If two of them are floating on the same solution. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. will allow the magnet to point north and south. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. Lloyd Enos. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. This is used in place of the spoon. If zinc and copper are used. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. A paper-fastener box. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. Solder in the side of the box . Attach to the wires. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. on the under side of the cork. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. If zinc and carbon are used. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument.

of No. H. can be made of oak. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. wide and 2-1/2 in. brass tubing. C. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. and then solder on the cover. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. The standard.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. To this standard solder the supporting wire. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. B. long. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. 1-1/4 in. thick. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. Take a small piece of soft iron. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. Use a board 1/2. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. A.in. Bore holes for binding-posts. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. hole. A. The bottom of the box. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. and on the other around the glass tube. 3 in. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. of wire on each end extending from the coil. If the hose is not a tight fit. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. D. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. 1/2. away.not shorter than 18 in. C. piece of 1/4-in. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. 1. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. long that has about 1/4-in. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. B. E. G--No. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. stained and varnished. The spring should be about 1 in. D.Contributed by J. 14 wire will do.in. F. Put ends. as shown in Fig. Thos. Wind evenly about 2 oz. glass tubing . or made with a little black paint. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. E. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . is made from a piece of No. long. Rhamstine. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. D. . A circular piece of cardboard. The base. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. to it.1-in. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. C. 10 wire about 10 in. wide and 6 in. one on each side of the board.

When the glass becomes soft. D. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. . The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks.--Contributed by R. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. 3. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. The iron plunger. in diameter. J. is drawn nearer to the coil.--Contributed by Edward M. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. 1. about 1 in. Teasdale. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. long. N. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. 3 in. About 1-1/2 lb. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. two pieces 2 ft.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. canvas. long. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. of No. of 8-oz. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. Smith. making a support as shown in Fig. from the right hand. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. long are used for the legs. of mercury will be sufficient. long. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. Wis. Y. Milwaukee. as shown in Fig. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. four hinges. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. 5. E. 2. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. long. 3-in. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft.of the coil. long. Cuba.

holding in the left hand. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. 6. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. Can. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. thus leaving a. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. 4. Keys. of vacuum at the top. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. Break off the piece of glass. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. leaving 8 in. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. Fig. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. 2. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. expelling all the air. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. 5. --Contributed by David A.. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. small aperture in the long tube. Measure 8 in. This tube as described will be 8 in.. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. Take 1/2 in. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. The tube now must be filled completely.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. long. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. Toronto. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. 3. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube.

6 -. in diameter. This forms a slot. wide and 5 ft. 6. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. with each projection 3-in. wood screws. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. long. 3 in. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. cut in the shape shown in Fig. from the end of same. as shown in Fig. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. The large pulley is about 14 in. Four blocks 1/4 in. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . 1 in.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. and 1/4 in. 9 in. 2. 1. thick. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. long. These are bent and nailed. thick. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. joint be accurately put together. and the single projection 3/4 in. wide and 12 in. thick. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. long. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. thick. 4. wide and 5 ft. Fig. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. A crosspiece 3/4-in. 7. FIG. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. thick. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. as in Fig. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. wide and 5 ft. but yellow pine is the best. material 2 in. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. 3. 3 in. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. 1 in. 5. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. long. 4 in. as shown in Fig. wide and 3 in.

iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. Welsh. by 1-in. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. R. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. attach runners and use it on the ice. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. says Photography. --Contributed by C.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. first removing the crank. Manhattan. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. above the runner level. . The runners can be made from 1/4-in. Water 1 oz. Kan. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel.

1. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. Leominster. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. The print is washed. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. as shown in Fig. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. Mass. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. Printing is carried rather far. as shown in Fig.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. 3. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. from an ordinary clamp skate. 1 oz. of water. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. . The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. Treasdale. Newton. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. also. --Contributed by Edward M. --Contributed by Wallace C. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. and very much cheaper. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. This is done with a camel's hair brush. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. 2.

the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. Then. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. long. A. about 10 in. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. F. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. Fig. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. from one end. as shown in the sketch. causing the door to swing back and up. 1 ft. wide. The thread is broken off at the . which represents the back side of the door. too. hole. 1. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. high for rabbits. Take two glass tubes. wide and 4 in. Place a 10-in. Church. square piece. 1-1/2 ft. The swing door B. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. say. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. Fig. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. extending the width of the box. --Contributed by H. 2. fasten a 2-in. with about 1/8-in. Alexandria. and to the bottom. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. Va. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. 1. and 3 ft. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. and bend them as shown in the sketch. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. high.

1 in. Cut an opening in the other piece. as shown in Fig. shorter. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. horses and dogs. shorter at each end. to be used as a driving pulley. being 1/8 in. Jr. and go in the holder in the same way. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box.by 7-in. say 8 in. 10 in. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. Fig. long. says Camera Craft. camera and wish to use some 4. and exactly 5 by 7 in. Take two pieces of pasteboard. 3. Crilly. wide. trolley cars. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. A and B. Paste a piece of strong black paper. high and 12 in. This opening. long. Chicago.proper place to make a small hole. wide.. but cut it 1/4 in. Out two rectangular holes. wide and 5 in. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. B. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. 1. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. C. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. in size. 2. automobiles.by 5-in. Fig. plates. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. D. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. -Contributed by William M. in size. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. . inside of the opening. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. from the edge on each side of these openings. black surfaced if possible. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in.

Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. wide will be required. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. in diameter.." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in.in. making a . if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. if it has previously been magnetized. A cell of this kind can easily be made. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. The needle will then point north and south. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. long and 6 in. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. into which the dog is harnessed.

sal ammoniac. of rosin and 2 oz. Place the pan on the stove. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. fodder. when the paraffin is melted. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. under the spool in the paraffin. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. fuel and packing purposes. of the plate at one end. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. . allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. zinc oxide. for a connection. beeswax melted together. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. This makes the wire smooth. of the top. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. filter. F is a spool. says Electrician and Mechanic. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. leaving about 1/2-in. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. and a notch between the base and the pan. pull out the wire as needed. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. in which P is the pan. File the rods to remove the copper plate. short time. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. pine. in diameter and 6 in. Form a 1/2-in. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. 1 lb. plaster of paris. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. Pack the paste in. with narrow flanges. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. only the joints. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin.in. 3/4 lb. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. long which are copper plated. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb.watertight receptacle. of water. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. one that will hold about 1 qt. 1/4 lb. A is a block of l-in. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. B is a base of 1 in. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. Do not paint any surface.

for others the opposite way. If any of your audience presume to dispute. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. while for others it will not revolve at all. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. and one friend tells me that they were . You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. long. Ohio. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. and therein is the trick. and then. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. by the Hindoos in India. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. Enlarge the hole slightly. square and about 9 in. At least it is amusing. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1.. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. but the thing would not move at all. from vexation. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. Try it and see. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. for some it will turn one way. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm." which created much merriment. let them try it. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. or think they can do the same. as in the other movement. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. and he finally. grip the stick firmly in one hand.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. Toledo. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. thus producing two different vibrations. g. 2.

sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. 4. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. 6. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. Thus a circular or . The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. The experiments were as follows: 1. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. gave the best results. 3. A square stick with notches on edge is best. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. Speeds between 700 and 1. m. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. If the pressure was upon an edge. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. To operate. by means of a center punch. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. secondly. p. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. rotation was obtained. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. and I think the results may be of interest. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. and. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. 2. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face.100 r. 7. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. 5. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. no rotation resulted. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. the rotation may be obtained.

as shown. and the resultant "basket splash. A wire is tied around the can. --Contributed by G. Ph. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. or greasy. Duluth.. if the pressure is from the left. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise.D. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. --Contributed by M. and the height of the fall about 6 in. unwetted by the liquid. a piece of wire and a candle. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. A. G. Washington. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. it will be clockwise. C. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. so far as can be seen from the photographs.. at first. is driven violently away. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. Sloan. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. Minn.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. forming a handle for carrying. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. D. . Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. the upper portion is. Lloyd.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

flange and a 1/4-in. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. as shown in Fig. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. with a 1/16-in." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. hole drilled in the center. axle. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. Each wheel is 1/4 in. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . in diameter. thick and 1 in. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. as shown. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. 1.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. long. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. about 2-5/8 in. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel.

3. 3/4 in. each in its proper place. Fuller. as shown in Fig. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place.brass. --Contributed by Maurice E. 5. are shown in Fig. bent as shown. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. The current. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. long. wide and 16 in. of No. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. is made from brass. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. 2. bottom side up. lamp in series with the coil. The first piece. 2. is made from a piece of clock spring.50. The parts. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. as shown in Fig. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. 6. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. These ends are fastened together. which must be 110 volt alternating current. 4. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. with cardboard 3 in. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. 1 from 1/4-in. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. 3. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. put together complete. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. This will save buying a track. San Antonio. holes 1 in. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. Texas. If the ends are to be soldered. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. and the locomotive is ready for running. wood. The motor is now bolted. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. Fig. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. or main part of the frame. A trolley. Fig.

but do not heat the center. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. and as this end . as shown in Fig. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. as shown in Fig. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. O. Fig. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. The quarter will not go all the way down. When cold treat the other end in the same way. Cincinnati. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. 1. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. and holes drilled in them. 2. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. Fig 1. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. 3. the length of a paper clip. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. then continue to tighten much more. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top.

The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. When the trick is to be performed.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. and adjusted . Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. In the sketch. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. When the cutter A. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. or should the lathe head be raised. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. A pair of centers are fitted. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. has finished a cut for a tooth. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. or apparent security of the knot. 2 and 1 respectively. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel.

This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . N. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. (4. or one-half of the design. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. (3. and a nut pick. An ordinary machine will do. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. coin purse. if four parts are to be alike. twisted around itself and soldered. gentleman's card case or bill book. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). Bunker. book mark. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. (2. draw center lines across the required space. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. dividing it into as many parts as desired. lady's card case. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). When connecting to batteries. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. The frame holding the mandrel. if but two parts. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. --Contributed by Samuel C. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. (5. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. blotter back. 2.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. Fig. (1. 1. about 1-1/2 in. In this manner gears 3 in.) Place the paper design on the leather and. Y. such as brass or marble. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. (6. note book.to run true. above the surface. tea cosey.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. --Contributed by Howard S. trace the outline. Brooklyn. holding it in place with the left hand. at the same time striking light.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. lady's belt bag. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. long. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. swing lathe. Second row: -Two book marks. watch fob ready for fastenings.) Make on paper the design wanted. Fold over along these center lines. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. tea cosey. Bott.

How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. and an ordinary bottle. some heavy rubber hose. Secure .

The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. C. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. and push it through a cork.C. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm.. from Key West. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. A. into which fit a small piece of tube. The electrodes are made . The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. D. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. and bore a hole through the center. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. where it condenses. Florida. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. B. If the needle is not horizontal. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. Thrust a pin. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. a distance of 900 miles.

propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. wide and 3 ft. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. All wiring is done with No. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. long. thick. To make a glide. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. Four long beams 3/4 in. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. long for the body of the operator. 1. 1/2. wide and 4 ft long. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. 1-1/4 in. 16 piano wire. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. The operator can then land safely and . and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. --Contributed by Edwin L. which is tacked to the front edge. lengths and splice them. as shown in Fig. D. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. thick. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. long. using a high resistance receiver. long. or flying-machine. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. 12 uprights 1/2 in. If 20-ft. and also to keep it steady in its flight. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. use 10-ft. square and 8 ft long. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. 1. as shown in Fig. thick. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. C. both laterally and longitudinally. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. 2. wide and 4 ft. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. 1-1/2 in. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. thick. several strips 1/2 in. slacken speed and settle. 3. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. thick. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. apart and extend 1 ft. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. 2. as shown in Fig. 3/4 in. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. wide and 4 ft. 2 arm sticks 1 in. Connect as shown in the illustration. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. lumber cannot be procured. free from knots. wide and 20 ft. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. wide and 3 ft. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. long. Powell. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. long. by 3/4 in. 2 in. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight.in. 1. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. Washington. take the glider to the top of a hill. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends.

the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. Great care should be . gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. Glides are always made against the wind. but this must be found by experience.gently on his feet. Of course. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour.

The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle.exercised in making landings. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. Olson. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. 2. M. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. --Contributed by L. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. as shown in Fig. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . Bellingham. half man and half horse. which causes the dip in the line. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. a creature of Greek mythology. When heated a little. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. 1. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb.

When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. long and about 3/8 in. 14 in. square. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. a piece of brass or steel wire. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. about the size of stove pipe wire. long. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. will complete the material list. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. While at the drug store get 3 ft. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. this will cost about 15 cents. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. about the size of door screen wire. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. at the other. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. in diameter. The light from the . of small rubber tubing. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. outside the box. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. making it 2-1/2 in. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. Cut a strip of tin 2 in.

O. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. --Photo by M. 2. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. M.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. while others will fail time after time. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. 1. Hunting. Dayton. . as shown in the sketch. If done properly the card will flyaway. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. as shown in Fig. This is very simple when you know how. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. as shown in Fig. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic.

The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. hold the lump over the flame. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. If a certain color is to be more prominent. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. as before. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure ." or the Chinese students' favorite game. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. as shown. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. as described. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. This game is played by five persons. then put it on the hatpin head. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. Cool in water and dry. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. place the other two. closing both hands quickly. When the desired shape has been obtained. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly.

or more in width. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. passing through neutralizing brushes. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. distribute electric charges . After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. these sectors. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented.

the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. The plates. Fig. EE. in diameter. RR. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. and the outer end 11/2 in. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. or teeth. The drive wheels. free from wrinkles. These pins. 3/4 in. C C. after they are mounted. Two pieces of 1-in. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. the side pieces being 24 in. The collectors are made. from about 1/4-in. 1-1/2 in. 3.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. D. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. to which insulating handles . The fork part is 6 in. 4. turned wood pieces. long. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. long and the shank 4 in. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. 1. 2. as shown in Fig. The two pieces. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. material 7 in. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. as shown in Fig. and pins inserted and soldered. in diameter. are made from 7/8-in. long and the standards 3 in. wide at one end. in diameter. in diameter. and 4 in. Two solid glass rods. 1 in. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. brass tubing and the discharging rods. GG. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. in diameter. and of a uniform thickness. 3. at the other. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. long. Fig. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. wide. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. and this should be done before cutting the circle. are made from solid. in diameter. The plates are trued up. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. in diameter and 15 in.

and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. D. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . Lloyd Enos.are attached. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. 12 ft.. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. Colo. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. --Contributed by C. ball and the other one 3/4 in. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. in diameter. long. and the work was done by themselves. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. KK. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. one having a 2-in. Colorado City. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. wide and 22 ft. which are bent as shown. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall.

string together. The key will drop from the string. pens . Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall.is a good one. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. and bore a hole 1/2 in. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. yet such a thing can be done. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. They can be used to keep pins and needles. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. using a 1-in. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. bit. as at A. deep. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch.

Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. about 3/4-in. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. The second oblong was 3/4 in. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. draw on paper an oblong to represent it.and pencils. then the other side. 7. 3. inside the first on all. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. 23 gauge. Having determined the size of the tray. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. file. 5. above the work and striking it with the hammer. 9. flat and round-nosed pliers. unless it would be the metal shears. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. inside the second on all. two spikes. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. 4. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. Use . sharp division between background and design. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. 2. Proceed as follows: 1. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. extra metal on each of the four sides. or cigar ashes. When the stamping is completed. 8. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. They are easily made. Raise the ends. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. etc. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. also trace the decorative design. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. etc. This is to make a clean. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. very rapid progress can be made. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. Draw one-half the design free hand. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. above the metal. stamp the background promiscuously. and the third one 1/4 in. 6. slim screw. they make attractive little pieces to have about. Inside this oblong... The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. using a nail filed to chisel edge.

second fingers. third fingers. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. and the effect will be most pleasing. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. 7. In the first numbering.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . 8. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. 9. The eyes. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. 6. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. and fourth fingers. 10. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. first fingers.

Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. or 80. but being simple it saves time and trouble. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. which would be 16. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. 12.. which would be 70. the product of 12 times 12. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. 600. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. thumbs. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. or numbers above 10. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. 11. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. In the second numbering. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. At a glance you see four tens or 40. 2 times 2 equals 4.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. 25 times 25. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. renumber your fingers. Two times one are two. viz. if we wish. etc.. . Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. Put your thumbs together. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. Still. above 15 times 15 it is 200. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. or 60. and the six lower fingers as six tens. or the product of 6 times 6. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. or the product of 8 times 9. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. which tens are added. Let us multiply 12 by 12. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. there are no fingers above. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. etc. first fingers. 400. as high as you want to go. etc. above 20 times 20.. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired.

the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. 8. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. any two figures between 45 and 55. Proceed as in the second lumbering. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. twenties. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. in the case of a nearsighted person. being 80). In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. which is the half-way point between the two fives. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. It takes place also. 3. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. 2. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. adding 400 instead of 100. . thirties. For figures ending in 6. thumbs. the value which the upper fingers have. The inversion and reversion did not take place.. the inversion takes place against his will. when he removes his spectacles. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. beginning the thumbs with 16. further. the lump sum to add. first finger 17. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. 21.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. however. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. forties. first fingers 22. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. or from above or from below. Take For example 18 times 18. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. and. and so on. And the lump sum to add. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. not rotation. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. about a vertical axis. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. For example. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. as one might suppose. whether the one described in second or third numbering. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. the revolution seems to reverse. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. the value of the upper fingers being 20. 75 and 85. or what. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. at the will of the observer. etc. 7. lastly.

The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. A flat slide valve was used. as . sometimes the point towards him. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. The ports were not easy to make. the other appearance asserts itself. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. and putting a cork on the point. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. tee. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. Looking at it in semidarkness. when he knows which direction is right.

bottom side up. across and 1/2 in. it is easily built. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. inexpensive. about 2 in. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. The steam chest is round. H. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. Springfield. pipe. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. as in a vise. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. Kutscher.. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. Beating copper tends to harden it and. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. apart. The tools are simple and can be made easily. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. Fasten the block solidly. secure a piece of No. . The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. Next take a block of wood. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. in diameter. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. across the head. The eccentric is constructed of washers. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. and make in one end a hollow. -Contributed by W.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. such as is shown in the illustration. Ill. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. deep. While this engine does not give much power. saw off a section of a broom handle. pipe 10 in. If nothing better is at hand. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. if continued too long without proper treatment.

In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. as it softens the metal. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. Vinegar. To overcome this hardness. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object.will cause the metal to break. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. and. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. Hay. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. O. --Contributed by W. S. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. the other to the left. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . To produce color effects on copper. This process is called annealing. C. Camden. especially when the object is near to the observer.

Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. orange. not two mounted side by side. diameter. the one for the left eye being blue. So with the stereograph. and lies to the right on the picture. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. while both eyes together see a white background. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. with the stereograph. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. But they seem black. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. because of the rays coming from them. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange.stereoscope. The red portions of the picture are not seen. because. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. from the stereograph. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. that for the right. in the proper choice of colors. . they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. as for instance red and green. they must be a very trifle apart. it. and without any picture. the further from the card will the composite image appear. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. disappears fully. In order to make them appear before the card. The further apart the pictures are. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. although they pass through the screen. It is just as though they were not there. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. the left eye sees through a blue screen. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. would serve the same purpose. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. however. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. only the orange rays may pass through. The stereograph consists of a piece of card.

Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. 12 gauge wire. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. A No. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. Place a NO. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. 1/4 in. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. in diameter.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. San Francisco. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. long and a hole drilled in each end. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. in the shape of a crank. wireless. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. Cal. The weight of the air in round . 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. This should only be bored about half way through the block. or the middle of the bottle. wide and 1 in. thick. etc. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge.

Before fastening the scale. the instrument. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. inside diameter and 2 in. long. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. and a slow fall. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. internal diameter and about 34 in. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. wide and 4 in. a bottle 1 in. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. if you choose. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. but before attempting to put in the mercury. pine 3 in. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. Only redistilled mercury should be used. or. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. high. thick. long. 30 in. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. long. square. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. The 4 in. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled.. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. a glass tube 1/8 in. or a column of mercury (density 13. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. if accurately constructed. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. the contrary. will calibrate itself. wide and 40 in. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost.numbers is 15 lb. In general. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. high. square. high. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. . The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. But if a standard barometer is not available. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow.6) 1 in. 34 ft.

The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. which is slipped quickly over the end.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. the size of the outside of the bottle. a cover from a baking powder can will do. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. long. 2. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. Mark out seven 1-in. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. 6 and 7. wide and 10 in. and place them as shown in Fig. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. 5. 3. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . 1. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. Procure a metal can cover. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. Number the pieces 1. thick.

6. Move 7-Jump No. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. 7's place.-Contributed by W. 7 over No. 5 over No. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. shaped like Fig. Move 6-Move No. 3. 3 to the center. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. 6 into No. using checkers for men. Move 12-Jump No. which is the very best material for the purpose. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. Move ll-Jump No. Move 15-Move No. 5's place. Move 2-Jump No. 3 into No. l over No. Woolson. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. 2's place. in diameter. procure unbleached tent duck. 3. 6 in. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. 5 over No.J. Make 22 sections. Move 4-Jump No. 7 over No. This can be done on a checker board. N. Move 13-Move No. 2's place. 7. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. long and 2 ft. Move 9-Jump No. To make such a tent. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. 2 . 5's place. 6 to No. 1 into No. 3 over No. Move 3-Move No. Move 14-Jump No. 2 over No. Move 10-Move No. 3. L. Cape May Point.Position of the Men move only one at a time. 1 to No. 2. each 10 ft. 2 over No. 1. 6. 2. Move 5-Jump No. as shown in Fig. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. 5. 6 over No. Move 8-Jump No. 1. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads.

Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. --Contributed by G. As shown in the sketch. Emsworth. wide at the bottom. In raising the tent. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. These are ventilators. diameter. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. Nail a thin sheet of brass. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. Punch holes in the brass in . on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. 2 in. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. long and 4 in. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. wide by 12 in. Fig. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. fill with canvas edging. 3 in. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. made in two sections. high. will do. wide at the bottom. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. leaving the rest for an opening. Have the tent pole 3 in. 5. long. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. about 9 in. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. to a smooth board of soft wood. in diameter. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. added.. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. 2.J. back of the rice paper and before a bright light.in. from the top. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. Pa. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. Tress. round galvanized iron. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. Use blocks. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. After transferring the design to the brass. as in Fig. 9 by 12 in. 6-in. 5) stuck in the ground. Fig. 6.

around the outside of the pattern. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E.the spaces around the outlined figures. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. It will not. Chicago. apart. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. When the edges are brought together by bending. but before punching the holes. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. cut out the brass on the outside lines. When all the holes are punched. . the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. excepting the 1/4-in. The pattern is traced as before. bend into shape. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. Corr.

and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. pipe. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. E. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. better still. If a wheel is selected. Stevens. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil.. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. between which is placed the fruit jar. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. These pipes are . G.however. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. Dunham. Que. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. or center on which the frame swings. allowing 2 ft. --Contributed by H. or less. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. Mayger. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. pipe is used for the hub. or. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. Oregon. --Contributed by Geo. partially filled with cream. A cast-iron ring. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. Badger. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. A 6-in.

A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. An extra wheel 18 in. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. bent to the desired circle. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. pipe. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. Four braces made from 1/2-in. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. pipe clamps. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe.

The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. which was placed in an upright position. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. and the guide withdrawn. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. and dropped on the table. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. as shown in Fig. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. while doing this. 1. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . 3. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. The performer. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover.

Harkins. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. in a half circle. -Contributed by C. White. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. The box can be made of selected oak or . it requires no expensive condensing lens. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. 1. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. and second. St. Denver. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. first. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. 2. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. Colo. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. D. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. F. Louis. Mo. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. --Contributed by H. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. in diameter on another piece of tin.

long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. This will be 3/4 in. 3-1/2 in. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. high and must . focal length. If a camera lens is used. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. wide by 5 in. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. long.mahogany. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. fit into the runners. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. Two or three holes about 1 in. long. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. 5-1/2 in. wide. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. but not tight. The door covering this hole in the back. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. and 2 in. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. 1. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. wide and 6-1/2 in. wide and 5 in. AA. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. An open space 4 in. represented by the dotted line in Fig. 2. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. high and 11 in. from each end of the outside of the box. long and should be placed vertically. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. and. as shown in Fig. from each end.

then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. April. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. --Contributed by Chas. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. Bradley. then the second knuckle will be March. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days.. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. C. the article may be propped up . Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. calling that knuckle January. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. 1. June and November. Ohio. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. This process is rather a difficult one. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. and extending the whole height of the lantern. provided it is airtight. and so on. calling this February. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. as it requires an airtight case." etc. West Toledo. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand.

This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. In each place two electrodes. giving it an occasional stir. 1. in. --Contributed by J. in. running small motors and lighting small lamps. the lid or cover closed. one of lead and one of aluminum. H. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. and the lead 24 sq. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes.with small sticks. Pour in a little turpentine. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. 2. Schenectady. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. taking care to have all the edges closed. 1 and 2. N. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. The top of a table will do. . the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. or suspended by a string. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. Crawford. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. In both Fig. fruit jars are required. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. Y. but waxed. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. and set aside for half a day. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream.

The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. Cleveland. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. which you warm with your hands. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. as well as others. He. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. you remove the glass. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. he throws the other. O. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain.. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. You have an understanding with some one in the company. as you have held it all the time. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. After a few seconds' time. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. This trick is very simple. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts.

Crocker. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration.-Contributed by E. put it under the glass. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. near a partition or curtain.take the handiest one. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. Pull the ends quickly. on a table. J. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. if any snags are encountered. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. Colo. but by being careful at shores. Victor. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. Be sure that this is the right one. . but in making one. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. in diameter in the center. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use.

long. from each end to 1 in. of 1-yd. by 16 ft. 2 and braced with an iron band. 11 yd. by 8 in. of rope. at the ends. screws and cleats. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. thick and 3/4 in. square by 16 ft. wide and 12 ft. 9 ft. 8 in. for the bow. The keelson. by 16 ft.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. 3 in. by 10 ft. for center deck braces. 50 ft. 2 gunwales. is 14 ft. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. for the stern piece. 1 mast. drilled and fastened with screws. 2 in. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. long. 1 in. wide unbleached muslin. ducking. of 1-1/2-yd. wide. selected pine. are as follows: 1 keelson. apart. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. by 2 in. 1/4 in. and the other 12 in. long. 3 in. 1 piece. clear pine. 1 in. and fastened with screws. and. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. wide 12-oz. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. one 6 in. 1 in. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. 1 in. 3 and 4. by 12 in. 8 yd. wide and 12 ft. 1/8 in. 1. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. 1 piece. as illustrated in the engraving. from the stern. by 2 in. 4 outwales. the smaller is placed 3 ft. long. Fig. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. from the bow and the large one.. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. Paint. by 15 ft.. Both ends are mortised. and is removed after the ribs are in place. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . 14 rib bands. 7 ft. for cockpit frame.

Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. screws. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. Fig. is cut to fit under the top boards. Figs. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. They are 1 in. thick. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. Braces. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. 6. thick. This block. The trimming is wood. wide and 24 in. A seam should be made along the center piece. from the bow. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. wide. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. These are put in 6 in. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. 6 in. Fig. A block of pine. The deck is not so hard to do. wood screws. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. wide and 3 ft. is a cube having sides 6 in. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. apart. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. length of canvas is cut in the center. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. . and fastened to them with bolts. gunwales and keelson. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. in diameter through the block. long. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. doubled. A piece of oak. Before making the deck. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. 6 and 7. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. thick 1-1/2 in. 9. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. 1/4 in. wide and 14 in. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. thick and 12 in. 7 and 8. also. The 11-yd. a piece 1/4 in. long is well soaked in water. 1 in. 1 in. long. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. 3-1/2 ft. thick and 1/2 in. The block is fastened to the keelson. A 6-in. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. wide. 4 in. long. 5. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. corner braces.

Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. Fig. The keel. each 1 in. at the other. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. in diameter and 10 ft. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. . A strip 1 in. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. thick by 2 in. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. The mast has two side and one front stay. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. --Contributed by O. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. long. is 6 in. 10 with a movable handle. E. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. long. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. apart in the muslin. wide at one end and 12 in. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. are used for the boom and gaff. Wilmette. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. 11. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. Ill. 12. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. Tronnes. The sail is a triangle. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. The house will accommodate 20 families. wide.

The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. Bevel both sides of the pieces. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. 2-1/2 in. as shown in Fig. Cut the maple. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. long. Ill. 3. Wilmette. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. flat on one side. square. wide and 2 ft. wide. flat-headed screws. wide. long. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. about 5/16 in. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. 2 in. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. flat headed screws. 2-1/2 in. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. and 3 ft. five 1/2-in. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. wide and 30 in. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. thick. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. with the ends and the other side rounding. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. Fig. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. and the other 18 in. one 11-1/2 in. 2. long. E. long and five 1/2-in. Take this and fold it over . it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. Tronnes. thick.into two 14-in. 4. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. 1. thick. 5. --Contributed by O. 1 yd.

3/8 in. The bag is then turned inside out. long.once. Cut another piece of board. 2 and 3. After the glue. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. forming an eye for a screw. 5 from 1/16-in. this square box is well sandpapered. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. Make a double stitch all around the edge. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. and take care that the pieces are all square. but can be governed by circumstances. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. The sides are 3-1/4 in. as well as the edges around the opening. thick and 3 in. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. long. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. Figs. Bliss. St. A. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. 1. C. wide and 4-1/2 in. then centered. long. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. square. If carefully and neatly made. D. the top and bottom. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. 6-1/2 in. about 3/8 in. 3-1/4 in. 1-1/4 in. pieces 2-5/8 in. A. and the four outside edges. --Contributed by W. of each end unwound for connections. Louis. are rounded. long. wide and 6-3/4 in. long. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. Fig. Mo. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. soaked with water and blown up. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. About 1/2 in. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. is set. and make a turn in each end of the wires. square. C. wide and 3 ft. long. thick. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. long. leaving a small opening at one corner. long. Another piece. the mechanical parts can be put together. wide and 5 in. 3 in. The front. B. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. Glue a three cornered piece. E. thick. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. wide . A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. Wind three layers of about No. When the glue is set. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. wide and 6-1/2 in. F. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. wide and 2-3/4 in. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle.

that has the end turned with a shoulder. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place.R. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. Fig. 5. board. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. Richmond Hill. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. so it will just clear the tin. wide and 2-1/2 in. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. The resistance is now adjusted to show . G. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. 4 is not movable. Place the tin. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. showing a greater defection of the pointer. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. hole is fastened to the pointer. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. the same size as the first. and fasten in place. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass.and 2-5/8 in. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. 4. C. W.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. L. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. Austwick Hall. I. in diameter. 1/16 in. --Contributed by George Heimroth. These wires should be about 1 in. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. Another strip of tin. bored in the back. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. from one end. 5-1/2 in. Yorkshire. and as the part Fig. When the current flows through the coil. long. thick. long. wide and 9 in. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. The stronger the current. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. The base is a board 5 in.A. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. the part carrying the pointer moves away. Like poles repel each other. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. long. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. and the farther apart they will be forced. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left.S. Chapman. 4. from the spindle. Fig. A pointer 12 in. The end of the polar axis B. F. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. R. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. 1/4 in.

Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. 10 min. 1881. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. 10 min. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. and vice . mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. shows mean siderial. M. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. at 9 hr. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. thus: 9 hr. A. The following formula will show how this may be found. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. 30 min. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. say Venus at the date of observation. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line.

New Haven. and then verify its correctness by measurement. Hall. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. or. --Contributed by Robert W. . or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. if one of these cannot be had. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. owing to the low internal resistance. Conn. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection.m.f.

3/8 in. inside diameter and about 5 in. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. of alum and 4 oz. thick. as shown in the accompanying picture. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. put the fish among the ashes. leaves or bark. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. especially for cooking fish. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. cover up with the same. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. Fig. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. 1. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. and heap the glowing coals on top. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . 1-3/4 in. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. fresh grass.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. Wet paper will answer. Then. arsenic to every 20 lb. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. long. The boring bar. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. When the follower is screwed down.

the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the .bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. pipe. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. thick. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. about 1/2 in. and threaded on both ends. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. pipe. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. fastened with a pin. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. when they were turned in. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. turned to the same diameter as the flanges.

Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. 4. It . Fig. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. however. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. a jump spark would be much better. square iron. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. bent in the shape of a U. Fig. A 1-in. Clermont. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. Fig. 5. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. the float is too high. This plate also supports the rocker arms. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. but never one which required so little material. long. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. The rough frame. If the valve keeps dripping. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. wide. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. Iowa. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. and which gave such satisfactory results. labor and time. as the one illustrated herewith. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. thick and 3 in. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated.valve stems. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. 30 in. then it should be ground to a fit. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. 2. 3. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. was then finished on an emery wheel.

--Contributed by C. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. and. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. timber. being held in position by spikes as shown. long is the pivot. in the ground with 8 ft. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. extending above. square and 5 ft. If it is to be used for adults. As there is no bracing. This makes an easy adjustment. strong clear material only should be employed. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. hole bored in the post. long. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. Nieman. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. rope is not too heavy. W. in fact. square and 2 ft. for the "motive power" to grasp. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. from the center. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. Use a heavy washer at the head. and a little junk. butting against short stakes. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. long. completes the merry-go-round. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. The seats are regular swing boards. strengthened by a piece 4 in.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. The crosspiece is 2 in. from all over the neighborhood. 3/4 in. in diameter and 15 in. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. A 3/4 -in. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. so it must be strong enough. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. long. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. It looks like a toy." little and big. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. A malleable iron bolt. The illustration largely explains itself. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. square. with no trees or buildings in the way. no matter what your age or size may be. 12 ft. set 3 ft. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece.

4. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. if nothing better is at hand. square. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. Both have large reels full of .the fingers. To wind the string upon the reel. A reel is next made. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. away. and sent to earth. a wreck. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. as shown in Fig. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. Having placed the backbone in position. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. The bow is now bent. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. one for the backbone and one for the bow. 1/4 by 3/32 in. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. and 18 in. light and strong. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. then it is securely fastened. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. 1. The backbone is flat. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. 2. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced.2 emery. These ends are placed about 14 in. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. long.

Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . Moody. Y. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. Newburyport. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. --Contributed' by Harry S. The handle end is held down with a staple. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench.-Contributed by S. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. First. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. he pays out a large amount of string.string. often several hundred yards of it. If the second kite is close enough. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. C. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. Mass. N. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. Bunker. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. common packing thread. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. the balance. or glass-covered string. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. Brooklyn. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it.

lengths (Fig. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. each the size of half the table top. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. cutting the circular piece into quarters. such as mill men use. then draw the string up tight. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. If the table is round. Hastings. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. Vt. square (Fig. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. then a dust protector. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle .Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. Corinth. length of 2-in. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. --Contributed by Earl R. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. make the pad as shown in the illustration. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. must be attached to a 3-ft.

. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. Oakland. from E to F. 16-1/4 in. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. trace this or some other appropriate design on it.. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. Wharton. hard pencil. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. E. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. which spoils the leather effect. Moisten the . Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. from C to D. 2-1/4 in. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp.9-1/4 in. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. Calif. and E to G. Use a smooth. 6-1/4 in. G to H. . trace the design carefully on the leather.-Contributed by H. Make the other half circular disk in the same way.. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. 17-1/2 in. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions.

G-J. Cut it the same size as the bag. and lace through the holes. Trace the openings for the handles. also lines A-G. apart. with the rounded sides of the tools. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. if not more than 1 in. about 1/8 in. H-B. place both together and with a leather punch. wide. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. I made this motor . make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. To complete the bag. get something with which to make a lining. is taken off at a time. and E-G. Now cut narrow thongs. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. Cut out the leather for the handle openings.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. and corresponding lines on the other side.

The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. D. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. 24 gauge magnet wire. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead.M. 2-1/4 in. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. 2. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. --Contributed by J. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. as shown in Fig. Pasadena. of No. each being a half circle. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. Shannon. . 1. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. iron. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. Calif. B. 1. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. in length. long. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel.

pasted in alternately. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. from the bottom end. high. are the best kind to make.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. and the gores cut from these. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. The gores for a 6-ft. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. balloon should be about 8 ft. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. 1. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. near the center. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far.

widest point. After washing. leaving the solution on over night. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. B. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. If the gores have been put together right. Staunton. 3. 2. using about 1/2-in. E. Fig. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. after which the paint will adhere permanently. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. --Contributed by R. in diameter. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. as shown in Fig. 1. saturating it thoroughly. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. as shown in Fig. In starting the balloon on its flight. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. leaving a long wake behind. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . These are to hold the wick ball. lap on the edges. so it will hang as shown in Fig. As the boat is driven forward by this force. In removing grease from wood. 4. A. The steam. 5. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. The boat soon attains considerable speed. coming through the small pipe A. somewhat larger in size. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace.

This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware .Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. in bowling form. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. long and each provided with a handle. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. as is shown in Fig. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. apart on these lines. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. Third. In using either of the two methods described. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. if you have several copies of the photograph. wide by 6 in. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. high and 8 in. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. The blocks are about 6 in. There are three ways of doing this: First. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. Second. long. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. 1. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass.

thick. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. Hellwig. N. Albany. 2. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution.Fig. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. not pointed down at the road at an angle. being careful not to dent the metal. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. Rinse the plate in cold water. --Contributed by John A. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. Y. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. Fig.

long for the base. and. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. Corner irons. Break off the frame. with a set screw. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. 6 in. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. 5 in. These corner irons are also screwed to. through which passes the set screw S. Va. and not produce the right sound. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D.upon any particular object. CC. Richmond. in diameter. A. thick. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. are screwed to the circular piece. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. wide and 8 in. B. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. 2 the front view. wide and of any desired height. With this device. Paine. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. is fastened to a common camera tripod. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. A. S. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. 1 Fig. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. which is 4 in. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. and Fig. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. A circular piece of wood. In Fig. --Contributed by R.

This will make a very compact electric horn. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. S. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. D. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. This horn. Ill. I made a wheel 26 in. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. La Salle. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. pine boards. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. Kidder. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. in diameter of some 1-in. R. Lake Preston. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. as only the can is visible. -1. .Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. thus producing sound waves. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away.

the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. 2. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. Ghent. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. Fig. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. --Contributed by James R. 1. The frame is made of a heavy card. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. square. Purdy. Doylestown. A. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. O. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . 1. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. Kane. B. thick and 12 in. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. Feet may be added to the base if desired. If there is a large collection of coins. If the collection consists of only a few coins. the same thickness as the coins. --Contributed by C.

A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. Milwaukee. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. --Contributed by R. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. though not absolutely necessary. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives.E. --Contributed by August T. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. A lead pencil. a hammer or mallet. several large nails. If desired. of developer. Cal. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. into which to place the screws . they become uninteresting. The material required is a sheet of No. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. and then glued together as indicated. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. Wis. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. --Contributed by J. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. Smith. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. One Cloud. Noble. border all around. cut and grooved. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. melted and applied with a brush. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. for after the slides have been shown a few times. It will hold 4 oz. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. plus a 3/8-in. A rivet punch is desirable.J. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. Canada. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. Toronto. thick. Neyer.

and file it to a chisel edge. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. Remove the screws. like the one shown. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. There are several ways of working up the design. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . Take the nail. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. draw one part. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. screws placed about 1 in. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. using 1/2-in. both outline and decoration. never upon the metal directly. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board.

l-1/8 in. 3/4 in. for the top. long. About 1/2 yd. Provide four lengths for the legs. The pedal. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. square. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. as shown in Fig. being ball bearing. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. square and 11 in. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. Do not bend it over or flatten it. of 11-in. up from the lower end. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. each 1 in. and two lengths. in the other. .wall. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. 2. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. square and 181/2 in. 1. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. long. for the lower rails. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. Rivet the band to the holder. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. using a 1/2in. two lengths. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. 3. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. long.

--Contributed by John Shahan. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. New York City. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. Ala. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. F. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . Attalla. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. --Contributed by W. having quite a length of threads. Quackenbush. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled.

college or lodge colors. from one end. D. long. Purchase a 1/2-in. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. Assemble as shown in the sketch. wide and 8-1/4 in.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. long. and two holes in the other. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. each 1-1/4 in. Mich. in depth. and 3/8 in.. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. --Contributed by C. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. initial. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. using class. stitched on both edges for appearance. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. Luther. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. Two pieces of felt. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . wide and 4-1/4 in. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. The desired emblem. Ironwood. from the end. and the other 2-3/4 in. something that is carbonated. the end of the other piece is folded over. long. one about 1 in. making a lap of about 1 in.

which can be made at home with ordinary tools. in the cover and the bottom. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. as shown at B. 2. This method allows a wide range of designs. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. Punch two holes A. --Contributed by John H. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. or a pasteboard box. Schatz. or more in height. which can be procured from a plumber. 1. Fig. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. if desired by the operator. and the cork will be driven out. Indianapolis. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . Ind. from the center and opposite each other. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. as shown in the sketch. 1/4 in. A piece of lead. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. about 2 in. in diameter and 2 in.

3. 4. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. Columbus. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. . Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. it winds up the rubber band. The pieces of tin between the holes A. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. 1. When the can is rolled away from you. are turned up as in Fig. O. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick.Rolling Can Toy lead. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. Fig. metal. A piece of thick glass. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. on both top and bottom. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. 5. as shown in Fig. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. or marble will serve. allowing the two ends to be free. putting in the design. and the ends of the bands looped over them.

I secured a board 3/4 in. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. thicker than the pinion. deep in its face. face up. A pencil may be used the first time over. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. Next place the leather on the glass. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. After this has been done. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. The edges should be about 1/8 in. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . thick. New York City. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. hole through it. long and bored a 1/2-in. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. from each end. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. 1 in. 3 in. wide and 20 in. or more thick on each side. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. If it is desired to "line" the inside. and. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. mark over the design. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent.

3 by 3 by 36. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. much of the hard labor will be saved. 1 piece. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. 3 by 3 by 20 in. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. 1 top board. 1 by 12 by 77 in. --Contributed by A. Brooklyn. 1 piece for clamp. lag screws as shown. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. and fit it in place for the side vise. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. Fig. 2 by 2 by 18 in. Rice. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. 2. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . Cut the 2-in. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. thick top board. Syracuse. N. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. Now fit up the two clamps. 2 side rails. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. pieces for the vise slides. 1 top board. Y. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. 1. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. Make the lower frame first. 4 guides. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. in diameter. countersinking the heads of the vise end. 2 end rails. 3 by 3 by 6 in. 1 piece for clamp. 2 by 12 by 77 in. 2 crosspieces. 1 back board.in the board into the bench top. 1 screw block. M. 1 by 9 by 80 in. New York. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in.

1 pair dividers. 1 claw hammer. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. 1 compass saw. 1 bench plane or jointer. . They can be purchased at a hardware store. 24 in. 1 marking gauge. 3 and 6 in. 1 countersink.. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. 1 wood scraper. 1 cross cut saw. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in.. 1 pair pliers. If each tool is kept in a certain place.. as well as the pattern maker. it can be easily found when wanted. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. 1 rip saw. 1 nail set. The amateur workman. The bench is now complete. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. 1 jack plane or smoother. 2 screwdrivers. rule. 1 set chisels.screws. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. in diameter. 1 set gimlets. 24 in. 1 2-ft. 1 brace and set of bits. Only the long run. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. 1 pocket level. 1 monkey wrench.

Fig. Pa. Fig. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. after constant use. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. Kane. ---Contributed by James M. 1. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump.1 6-in. try square. 2 and 00 sandpaper. becomes like A. but will not make . being softer. the projecting point A. 1. No. 3. Fig. Fig. Doylestown. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness.1. will sink into the handle as shown at D. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. The calf skin. will be easier to work. 1 oilstone. 2.

give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. .as rigid a case as the cow skin. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. will do just as well. White. the same method of treatment is used. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. when dry. such as copper or brass. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. cover it completely with water enamel and. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. Having prepared the two sides. Turn the leather. If calf skin is to be used. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. After the outlines are traced. but a V-shaped nut pick. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. water or heat will not affect. New York City. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. -Contributed by Julia A. then prepare the leather. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. and the length 6-5/8 in. which steam. The form can be made of a stick of wood. lay the design on the face. If cow hide is preferred. secure a piece of modeling calf. First draw the design on paper. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. Two pieces will be required of this size. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster.

The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. Portland. . Herrman. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. A.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. --Contributed by Chas. and an adjustable friction-held loop. Cal. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. Jaquythe. as shown in the sketch. Maine. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. --Contributed by Chester L. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. C. Cobb. --Contributed by W. Richmond. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. New York City. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line.

Middletown. Cambridge. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. --Contributed by Geo. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. for instance. an inverted stewpan. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. A thick piece of tin. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. B.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. This was very difficult. Conn.. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. Wright. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. . the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. was marked out as shown. --Contributed by Wm. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. Mass. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. Roberts.

Chicago. F. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. When dry. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. . the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. --Contributed by Paul Keller. well calcined and powdered.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. of boiling water. but only an odor which soon vanished.. as shown. If the article is highly polished. and quite new. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. If any traces of the grease are left. face down. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. There was no quicklime to be had. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. and the grease will disappear. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. The next morning there was no trace of oil. used as part of furniture. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. which has been tried out several times with success. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. on a clear piece of glass. apply powdered calcined magnesia. pulverized and applied. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. so some bones were quickly calcined. Illinois. such as chair seats. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. --Contributed by C. but not running over. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. Bone. L. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. A beautifully bound book. Herbert. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. Ind. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. Indianapolis.

the pieces . high and are bolted to a block of wood. soft steel with the opening 6 in. 2 in. New York. long.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. A. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. set and thumbscrews. 6 in. deep and 5 in. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. Tarrytown. If properly adjusted. This coaster is simple and easy to make. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. says Scientific American. The pieces marked S are single.. Howe. thick. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. wide and 12 in.. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. --Contributed by Geo.

double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. Their size depends on the plate used. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. to the underside of which is a block. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. for sending to friends. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. E. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. no doubt. A sharp knife. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. The seat is a board. says Camera Craft. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. albums and the like. If the letters are all cut the same height. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. they will look remarkably uniform. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown.

but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. after." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. for example. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. So arranged. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. In cutting out an 0. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. So made. pasting the prints on some thin card. using care to get it in the right position. The puzzle is to get . and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. and. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. photographing them down to the desired size. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. mount them on short pieces of corks.

with the longest end outside. of its top. Cape May Point. A hole 6 or 7 in. Old-Time Magic . Bayley. N. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. hung on pivots. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. He smells the bait. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. says the American Thresherman. so they will lie horizontal. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. the tube righting itself at once for another catch.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. squeezes along past the center of the tube. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes.-Contributed by I.J. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. snow or anything to hide it. G. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. long that will just fit are set in.

Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. then expose again. N. then spread the string. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . Rhode Island. Brooklyn. Pocatello. Pawtucket. E. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. Press the hands together. --Contributed by L. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. Y. --Contributed by L. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. Idaho.faced up. --Contributed by Charles Graham. Szerlip. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. Parker. or rub the hands a little before doing so.

The pieces. near the point end. The blade should be about 27 in. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side.. Glue the other side of the blade. says the English Mechanic. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. and if carefully made. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. in width. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. When the glue is thoroughly dry. 1. wide and 2 in. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. 2 Fig. 4 on the blade. or green oil paint. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. they will look very much like the genuine article. thick. When the whole is quite dry. wipe the blade . narrower. or a complete suit of armor. 3 Fig. end of the blade. using a straightedge and a pencil. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in.. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. in building up his work from the illustrations. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. 1 Fig. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set.Genuine antique swords and armor. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. full size. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. whether he requires a single sword only. dark red. long. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. The handle is next made. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. if any.

using a soft and dry piece of cloth. take two pieces of wood. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. 1/8 in.. long. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. should be about 9 in. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. 2. In making this scimitar. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. Both edges of the blade are sharp. Fig. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. In making. 1. thick and 5 in. 1. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. preferably of contrasting colors. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A.with light strokes up and down several times. of course. as it is . The length of the handle. the other two are identical. 3. the illustration. 1. follow the directions as for Fig. and 3 in. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. square and of any length desired. allowing for a good hold with both hands. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. in diameter. This sword is about 68 in. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. the length of the blade 28 in. about 1-1/2 in. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. 3. the other is flat or half-round. 2. not for use only in cases of tableaux. shows only two sides. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. 4. In the finished piece. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. the other is flat or halfround. in the widest part at the lower end.. 1.

however. at the lower end. piping and jackets by hard water. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. Morse. On each edge of the board. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. N. Mass. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. in an attempt to remove it. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. as shown in the sketch. as can the pitch bed or block. Both can be made easily. Franklin. Y. A piece of mild steel. --Contributed by Katharine D. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. Syracuse. long. about 3/8 in. It is made of a plank. and if so. or an insecure fastening. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. and. A cold . Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. The thinness of the plank. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. --Contributed by John Blake. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. 2 in. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. square.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. as there was some at hand. each about 1 ft. Doctors probed for the button without success. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose.

heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. secure a piece of brass of about No.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. To put it in another way. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. on the pitch. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. design down.. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. 18 gauge. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. using a small metal saw. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. 5 lb. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. plaster of Paris. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. To remedy this. tallow. Trim up the edges and file them . a file to reduce the ends to shape. 5 lb. When the desired form has been obtained. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb.. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. When this has been done. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass.

Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. The smaller is placed within the larger. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. Cutter. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. and still revolve. 30 ft. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. lb.smooth.000 lb.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. lb. using powdered pumice with lye. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. Fill the 3-in. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. in one second. Fig. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. in diameter (Fig. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. but not to stop it. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. 1) and the other 12 in. over the smaller vessel. in diameter (Fig. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. 1 ft. That is lifting 33. in one minute or 550 lb. 3. it may be well to know what horsepower means. 1 ft. one 18 in. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. Clean the metal thoroughly. . This in turn divided by 33. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. in the center.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. 2). space between the vessels with water. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. or 550 ft. --Contributed by Harold H. make an unusual show window attraction. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. Before giving the description. or fraction of a horsepower. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. per second. and hang a bird swing. living together in what seems like one receptacle. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. to keep it from floating. A. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height.000 ft. per minute. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds.

Diameter Fig. Campbell.18 in. --Contributed by J. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . The effect is surprising. --Contributed. 1 Fig. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. Somerville. Diameter 12 in. F. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. 2 Fig. Mass. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. N. Y. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet.3 Fig. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. Brooklyn. Szerlip. or on a pedestal. by L.

so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. Rivet the cup to the base. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. after which it is ready for use. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. Polish both of these pieces. and the clay . Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. Do not be content merely to bend them over. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. then by drawing a straightedge over it. the same as removing writing from a slate. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. away from the edge. using any of the common metal polishes. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. often render it useless after a few months service. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. and cut out the shape with the shears. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. as a rule. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. keeping the center high. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. This compound is impervious to water. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. with other defects. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. In riveting. unsatisfactory. to keep the metal from tarnishing. and then. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. with the pliers. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet.copper of No. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. which. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. is. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. which may be of wood or tin.

1. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. 3/4 in. --Contributed by A. Shettleston.can be pressed back and leveled. Northville. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. A. 2. Scotland. --Contributed by John T. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. . the device will work for an indefinite time. as shown in Fig. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. The siphon is made of glass tubes. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. It is made of a glass tube. Houghton. Mich. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. DeLoof. Grand Rapids. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. Dunlop. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. -Contributed by Thos. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. in diameter and 5 in. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. Mich. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. long.

in width and 2 in. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. stilettos and battle-axes. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper.FIG.1 FIG. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. London. This sword is 4 ft. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. 1. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. As the handle is to . The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. long. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. long with the crossguard and blade of steel. put up as ornaments.

The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. is shown in Fig. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. This weapon is also about 1 ft. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. Both handle and axe are of steel. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. In Fig. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. with both edges of the blade sharp. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. When dry. The ball is made as described in Fig. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. the same as used on the end of the handle. then glued on the blade as shown. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. The sword shown in Fig. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. 20 spike. A German poniard is shown in Fig. 7.represent copper. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. The lower half of the handle is of wood. When the glue is thoroughly dry. These must be cut from pieces of wood. 5. firmly glued on. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. small rope and round-headed nails. in length. with both edges sharp. studded with brass or steel nails. wood with a keyhole saw. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. with wire or string' bound handle. Cut two strips of tinfoil. A German stiletto. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. This axe is made similar to the one . A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. 4. sometimes called cuirass breakers. long with a dark handle of wood. The crossbar and blade are steel. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. sharp edges on both sides. one about 1/2 in. This stiletto has a wood handle. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. Three large. in length. paint it a dark brown or black. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. This sword is about 4 ft. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. In Fig. In Fig. which is about 2-1/2 ft. string. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. When the whole is quite dry. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. 9. glue and put it in place. long. the upper part iron or steel. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. The handle is of wood. very broad. 3 is shown a claymore. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. 8. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. narrower. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. This weapon is about 1 ft. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. in width. 11 were used. 6. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. the axe is of steel.

. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. Chicago. 10. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. high.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. W. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. --Contributed by E. Davis.described in Fig. such as braided fishline. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. will pull where other belts slip. This will make a very good flexible belt. so the contents cannot be seen. Old-Time Magic . When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. the ends are tied and cut off. When wrapped all the way around. together as shown in Fig. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. 2. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig.

about one-third the way down from the top. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. Macdonald. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. The dotted lines in Fig. Bridgeton. held in the right hand.J. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. N. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. 1 and put together as in Fig. with the circle centrally located.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. As zinc is much lighter than iron. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. filled with water. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. S. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. Before the performance. an acid. Calif. causing the flowers to grow. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. or using small wedges of wood. some of the liquid. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. in a few seconds' time. Oakland. --Contributed by A. To make the flowers grow in an instant. There will be no change in color. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. These wires are put in the jar. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. 2. apparently. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. four glass tumblers.

The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. --Contributed by W. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. which are numbered for convenience in working. If the size wanted is No. This outlines the desired opening. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. Jaquythe. not only because of the fact just mentioned. A. practical and costs nothing. and equally worthy of individual treatment. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . When many slides are to be masked. and kept ready for use at any time. 2 for height.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. Cal. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. says a correspondent of Photo Era. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. unless some special device is used. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. Richmond. 4 for width and No.

about half and half. paint the design. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. and the extreme length 7 in. but they can be easily revived. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. or a pair of old tongs. Draw a design. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. 16 gauge. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. possibly. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. not the water into the acid. When etched to the desired depth. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. This done. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . is about right for the No. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. may be changed. The decoration. using the carbon paper. the paper is folded along the center line. and do not inhale the fumes. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. or. The one shown is merely suggestive. Secure a sheet of No. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. the margin and the entire back of the metal. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. too. With a stick. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. which is dangerous. a little less acid than water. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer.

To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. high. to the table. Cut out a piece of tin. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. through it. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. about 1 in. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. Fig. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. 3/8 in. so that when it is pressed down. A. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. long. 0 indicates the batteries. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. When the button S is pressed. or more wide. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. Fig. 1.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. 4. 3. 2. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. about 3 ft. Fig. wide. It may be either nailed or screwed down. 24 parts water. and about 2-1/2 ft. long and 1 ft. in diameter and 1/4 in. 5. Nail a board. Then get two posts. repeat as many times as is necessary. wide and of the same length as the table. as in Fig. with the wires underneath. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. as shown in the illustration. thick. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. Fig. Fig. 2. attached to a post at each end. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. 5. . Paint the table any color desired. 2. about 2-1/2 in. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. The connections are simple: I. as at H. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. C and D. about 8 in. as shown in Fig. it will touch post F. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. J is another wire attached in the same way. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. the bell will ring. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. and bore two holes. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired.

is to appear as steel. handle and all. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. The circle is marked out with a compass. This weapon is about 22 in.. long. but they are somewhat difficult to make. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. 2. says the English Mechanic. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. A wood peg about 2 in. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. such as . The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. The entire weapon. After the glue is dry. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. The imitation articles are made of wood. the wood peg inserted in one of them. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. long serves as the dowel. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. 1.Imitation Arms and Armor . Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. These rings can be carved out. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. thick.

long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. The upper half of the handle is steel. 5. the hammer and spike. The handle is of wood. as shown. The spikes are cut out of wood. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. flowers. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. 3. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. or the amateur cannot use it well. All of these axes are about the same length. as before mentioned. long. covered with red velvet. leaves. The entire handle should be made of one piece. This weapon is about 22 in. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. 8. The axe is shown in steel. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. as described in Fig. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. The lower half of the handle is wood. with a sharp carving tool. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. . is shown in Fig. etc. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker.ornamental scrolls. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. studded with large brass or steel nails. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. Its length is about 3 ft. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. 6. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. 2. used at the end of the fifteenth century. The handle is of steel imitation. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. If such a tool is not at hand. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. also.

6.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. and so on for nine innings. the knife resting on its back. 7) calls for one out. 5. Fig. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. calls for a home run. as shown in Fig. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. then the other plays. Chicago. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. a three-base hit. 3. 2. Each person plays until three outs have been made. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. 4). The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. as in Fig. 1. The knife falling on its side (Fig. .

as shown in Fig. This he does. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. as shown in Fig. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. 1. Somerville.-Contributed by J. one of them burning . the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. 2.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. F. while the committee is tying him up. with the rope laced in the cloth.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. If it is spotted at all. of the rope and holds it. Campbell. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. It may be found that the negative is not colored. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. hypo to 1 pt. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. of water for an hour or two. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. Mass. 3. Old-Time Magic . As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig.

the other without a light. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. of plumbago. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. of turpentine. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. of sugar. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. Louisville. New York City. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. Thome. 3/4 in. invisible to them (the audience). A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. 4 oz. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing.brightly. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. Lebanon. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. B. thus causing it to light. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. . The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. He then walks over to the other candle. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. Brown. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. The magician walks over to the burning candle. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. Ky. Ky. --Contributed by L. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. of water and 1 oz. etc. showing that there is nothing between them. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way.Contributed by Andrew G. bolt. and. 4 oz. --Contributed by C. thick. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe.. with which he is going to light the other candle. shades the light for a few seconds. Evans. Drill Gauge screw.

as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. or blotting paper. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. N. Denniston. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. but is not so good. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . Pulteney. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. 5 in. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. In making up the solution. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. for the material. Its current strength is about one volt. diameter. H. into a tube of several thicknesses. thick. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. --Contributed by C. long. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. steady current. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. To make the porous cell. Do not add water to the acid. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. which will give a strong. Y. about 5 in. long with an internal diameter of 2 in.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use.

but somewhat lighter. steel. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. steel. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. As to thickness. while the other end is attached by two screws. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws.) may be obtained. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. After much experimentation with bearings. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. long with a bearing at each end. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. Finally. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. The . so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. a positive adjustment was provided. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. one drawing them together. the other holding them apart. carrying the hour circle at one end. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. One hole was bored as well as possible. steel. To insure this. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument.station. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised.

the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. It is. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. All set screws. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. save the one in the pipe. 45 min. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. All these adjustments. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. The pole is 1 deg. excepting those on the declination axis. and if it is not again directed to the same point. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. are tightened. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . need not be changed. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. The pointer is directed to Alpha. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. Instead. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. is provided with this adjustment. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. and 15 min.. To locate a known star on the map. subtract 24. Cassiopiae. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. turn the pointer to the star. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial." Only a rough setting is necessary. Declination is read directly. To find a star in the heavens. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. If the result is more than 24 hours. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. Set the declination circle to its reading. Each shaft. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. Point it approximately to the north star. in each direction from two points 180 deg. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. The aperture should be 1/4 in. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. once carefully made. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis." When this is done. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps.. When properly set it will describe a great circle. apart.

He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. Strosnider. -Contributed by Ray E. Plain City. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. long. is folded several times. is the real cannon ball. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. taking care not to add too much. In reality the first ball. The dance will begin. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. as shown in the sketch. New Orleans. benzole. Ohio. then add 1 2-3 dr. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. The ball is found to be the genuine article. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. cannon balls.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. the others . which is the one examined. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. If this will be too transparent. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. 3 or 4 in. of ether. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. a great effect will be produced. add a little more benzole.. La. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover.

A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. without taking up any great amount of space. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. etc. In boxes having a sliding cover. --Contributed by J. as shown in the illustration. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. Milwaukee. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. 1). San Francisco. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . taps.. Somerville. Wis. 2. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. Fig. small brooches. Campbell. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. Cal. F. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. Mass. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. Return the card to the pack. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration.

Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. Beller. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. Connecticut. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. . which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. as shown in the illustration. This box has done good service. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. prints. from the bottom of the box. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. Hartford. round pieces 2-1/4 in. thus giving ample store room for colors. slides and extra brushes. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them.

Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. costing 5 cents. 1). as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. -Contributed by C. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. holes in the bottom of one. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. about threefourths full. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. or placed against a wall. with well packed horse manure. Darke.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. and pour water on it until it is well soaked.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. will answer the purpose. tacking the gauze well at the corners. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. Fill the upper tub. FIG. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. O. When the ends are turned under. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. West Lynn. . Mass. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. 2).

M. if this is not available. --Contributed by L. If the following directions are carried out.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. cutting the cane between the holes. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. If plugs are found in any of the holes. they should be knocked out. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. oil or other fluid. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. and each bundle contains . it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. when they are raised from the pan. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. Eifel. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. Chicago.

put about 3 or 4 in. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. 1. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. In addition to the cane. No plugs . it should be held by a plug. a square pointed wedge. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. as shown in Fig. held there by inserting another plug. then across and down. after having been pulled tight. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. and. as it must be removed again. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned.

The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. 1. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations.2+. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. Their difference is . The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place.075 in. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. It consists of a flat circular table. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. --Contributed by M. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. or the style. W. 3. 40°. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. 4. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . the height of which is taken from table No. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. 1 lat. 1. There are several different designs of sundials. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. R. 5 in. and for 1° it would be . 42° is 4. using the same holes as for the first layer. called the gnomon. 3. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. This will make three layers. is the horizontal dial. Patrick.= 4.15 in. After completing the second layer. 41 °-30'. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. for 2°. the next smallest.15+. as shown in Fig. From table No. and the one we shall describe in this article. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. the height of the line BC. Fig. stretch the third one. 1. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. lat. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. as it always equals the latitude of the place. D. The style or gnomon. No weaving has been done up to this time. Even with this lubrication. 5. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding.2 in. During the weaving. If you have a table of natural functions. trim off the surplus rosin. All added to the lesser or 40°. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs.3 in.42 in. but the most common. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. When cool. If handled with a little care. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. it is 4. Detroit. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. 41°-30'. Fig. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. Michigan. as the height of the line BC for lat. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented.075 in. as shown in Fig. we have 4. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. is the base (5 in. and for lat. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. in this case) times the . -Contributed by E. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside.5 in. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. as for example.

46 . with a radius of 5 in. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial. according to the size of the dial.49 30 .26 4.63 56° 7.03 3.10 6. 2.37 54° 6.12 52° 6.66 48° 5. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No.40 1.77 2.41 38° 3. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2.29 4-30 7-30 3.32 6.42 45 .55 30° 2.16 40 . interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style.57 3. Height of stile in inches for a 5in.91 58° 8. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in.83 27° 2. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks. 1.66 1.40 34° 3.27 2. and intersecting the semicircles. which will represent the base in length and thickness.85 35 .56 . may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in. draw two parallel lines AB and CD.20 60° 8. using the points A and C as centers.39 . if of metal.89 50° 5.94 1.14 5.28 .64 4 8 3. or if of stone.00 40° 4. gives the 6 o'clock points.37 5. . and perpendicular to the base or style. 2. Chords in inches for a 10 in.23 6.55 46° 5. or more.87 1.59 2.50 26° 2.11 3.18 28° 2.46 3.96 32° 3.30 2. Draw the line AD. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No. and for this size dial (10 in.87 4.33 42° 4.55 4. Table NO. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight.82 3.19 1.99 2. 2 for given latitudes.68 5-30 6-30 5.57 1.97 5 7 4. For latitudes not given.33 .93 6.93 2.79 4.49 3.82 5.44 44° 4. long.55 5.02 1.30 1.42 . an inch or two. Draw two semi-circles. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 . Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown. Fig. base.76 1.81 4.88 36° 3.66 latitude. A line EF drawn through the points A and C.82 2. To layout the hour circle.16 1.38 .07 4.85 1. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points.42 1. circle Sundial.06 2.tangent of the degree of latitude. Its thickness.

3. This correction can be added to the values in table No.77 3.79 6. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.49 3. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time.52 Table No. Iowa.06 2. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face.82 3. if west.53 1.50 55 . Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality. As they are the genuine reproductions. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker. then the watch is slower.01 1. London. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3.12 5.from Sundial lime. and the . reducing the answer to minutes and seconds. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen. 900 Chicago.19 2.68 3. 3 Corrections in minutes to change. says the English Mechanic. after allowing for the declination. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the . it will be faster. 25. and for the difference between standard and local time.87 6. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year.37 2.89 3. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time. Each weapon is cut from wood. Sept. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid.08 1. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached.50 .54 60 .98 4. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole.49 5. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York. 3.71 2.93 6.72 5. 2 and Dec. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west.14 1. will enable one to set the dial. April 16.24 5. June 15. and on these dates the dial needs no correction.add those marked + subtract those Marked . The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No.10 4. An ordinary compass. --Contributed by J.57 1.means that the dial is faster than the sun.60 4.46 5.21 2. Sioux City.. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. each article can be labelled with the name.63 1. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15.30 2. adding to each piece interest and value. Sun time to local mean time.34 5. Mitchell. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco. The + means that the clock is faster.46 4. E.

The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. When putting on the tinfoil. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in.. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. the length of which is about 5 ft. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. . The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. Partisan. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. 3. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. 1.

The edges are sharp. in diameter. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. is shown in Fig. A gisarm or glaive. 8. The spear is steel. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. long with a round wooden handle. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. . A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. 7. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. long. sharp on the outer edges. long with a round staff or handle. The extreme length is 9 ft. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. long. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century.which is square. It is about 6 ft. about 4 in. The length of this bar is about 5 in. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. which are a part of the axe. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. the holes being about 1/4 in. used about the seventeenth century. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. 6 ft. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. 5. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown.. press it well into the carved depressions. This weapon is about 6 ft.

As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. or in holes punched in a leather strap. used for spacing and binding the whole together. Workman. Cut all the cords the same length. Substances such as straw. 5. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. In Figs. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. are put in place. as shown in Fig. This is important to secure neatness. apart. are less durable and will quickly show wear. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. the most durable being bamboo. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. 1. the cross cords. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. 4.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. Loudonville. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. B. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. They can be made of various materials. 2 and 3. H. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired.-Contributed by R. The twisted cross cords should . Ohio. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity.

New York. below the top to within 1/4 in. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. shaped as shown at C. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. 3 in. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. -Contributed by Geo. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. La. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. as shown at B. of the bottom. Harrer. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. A slit was cut in the bottom. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. M. wide. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. This was turned over the top of the other can. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. The first design shown is for using bamboo.be of such material. New Orleans. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. Lockport. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. To remedy this. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. Four V-shaped notches were cut. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. for a length extending from a point 2 in. bamboo or rolled paper. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. in which was placed a piece of glass. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail.

giving the appearance of hammered brass. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. Pasadena. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. the brass is loosened from the block. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. and two along the side for attaching the staff. H. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. It would be well to polish the brass at first. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. This should be done gradually. --Contributed by W. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. Sanford.tape from sticking to the carpet. --Contributed by Joseph H. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. about 1/16 in. This plank. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. Newburgh. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. --Contributed by Chas. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. After this is finished. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . Maywood. N. Ill. Y. do not throw away the gloves. Shay. Schaffner. is shown in the accompanying sketch. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. turned over but not fastened. wide. Cal.

Oak Park. Marshall. Ill.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. Jaquythe. bent as shown. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. Unlike most clocks. K. the pendulum swings . This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. A. -Contributed by W. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. --E. Richmond. Cal. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. in diameter.

. C. Metzech. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. The construction is very simple. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. the center one being 2-3/4 in. are secured in the base bar. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. in diameter. by 1-5/16 in. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. A. Chicago. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. wide. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. --Contributed by V. wide that is perfectly flat. Now place the board to be joined. bar. 3/4 in. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. Two uprights. bearing on the latter. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. away. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. and the other two 2-5/8 in. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. 5/16 in. about 12 in. high. Secure a board. B. thick. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. high. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. 6 in. about 6 in. is an electromagnet. In using this method. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. Fasten another board. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. 7-1/2 in. only have the opposite side up. such as this one. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. to the first one with screws or glue. on the board B. long and at each side of this. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. high. high and 1/4 in.. says the Scientific American.

Phoenixville. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. square inside. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. 2. Fig. plates should be made 8 in. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. as shown at A. wide and 5 in. The trigger. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. 1. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. or more. Fig. --Contributed by Elmer A. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. from one end. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. 4. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. by driving a pin through the wood. is fastened in the hole A. square. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. wide and 1 in. 3. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. long. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. Pa. . 1. whose dimensions are given in Fig. Vanderslice. 1.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in.

Fostoria. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. 2 parts of whiting. one-half the length of the side pieces.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. square. if only two bands are put in the . 3 parts of stiff keg lead.A. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. by weight. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. as shown in the illustration. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. which allows 1/4 in. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. -Contributed by J. rubbing varnish and turpentine. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. Simonis. Ohio. 5 parts of black filler.

The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. preferably copper. as shown in Fig. Dartmouth. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. In use. 1. In constructing helmets. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. 8 in. place tracing paper on its surface. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. --Contributed by Thos. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. If a plain glass is used. which may be either of ground or plain glass. is necessary. G. It must be kept moist and well . Mass. deep. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. Michigan. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. keeps the strong light out when sketching. wide and about 1 ft. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. says the English Mechanic. Shaw. II. -Contributed by Abner B. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. A piece of metal. and the picture can be drawn as described. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. A double convex lens. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. No. is set at an angle of 45 deg.lower strings. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. and it may be made as a model or full sized. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. long. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. DeLoof. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. Grand Rapids. in the opposite end of the box. A mirror. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. London.

the clay model oiled. and continue until the clay is completely covered. and over the crest on top. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. with a keyhole saw. 2. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. shown in Fig. After the clay model is finished. All being ready. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. 3. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. on which to place the clay. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. and left over night to soak. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. 1.kneaded. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. brown. 1. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. take. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. will be necessary. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. The clay. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. a few clay-modeling tools. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. as shown in Fig. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. as in bas-relief. or some thin glue. and the deft use of the fingers. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. joined closely together. This being done. Scraps of thin. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work.

A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . The band is decorated with brass studs. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. Indiana. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. the skullcap. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. --Contributed by Paul Keller. Before taking it off the model. They are all covered with tinfoil. with the exception of the vizor. In Fig. square in shape. 7. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. should be modeled and made in one piece. one for each side. and so on. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. and the ear guards in two pieces. or. When perfectly dry. This contrivance should be made of wood. will make it look neat.as possible. owing to the clay being oiled. When dry. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. 1. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. as shown: in the design. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. then another coating of glue. the piecing could not be detected. a few lines running down. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. 5. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. In Fig. which should be no difficult matter. The whole helmet. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. a crest on top. Indianapolis. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. as seen in the other part of the sketch. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. 9. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. The center of the ear guards are perforated. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. When the helmet is off the model.

as it stands a higher temperature. 12 in. if the measurements are correct. AA. 1. AA. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. A round collar of galvanized iron. 1. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. about 1 lb. 4. Fig. The reverse side of the base. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. Fig. one glass tube. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. 3. 4. German-silver wire is better. 2. long. FF. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. in diameter and 9 in. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. thick. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. 2. one fuse block. above the collar. which can be bought from a local druggist. Fig. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. 22 gauge resistance wire. is then packed down inside the collar. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. also the switch B and the fuse block C. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. 1. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. 1. one oblong piece of wood. or. the holes leading to the switch. as shown in Fig. about 80 ft. to receive screws for holding it to the base. If asbestos is used. about 1/4 in. Fig. 4. 4 lb. when they are placed in opposite positions. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. GG. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. if this cannot be obtained. Fig. Fig. 4. The plate. high. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. should extend about 1/4 in. Fig. 1. long. long. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. screws. 2. for connections. AA. wide and 15 in. of fire clay. and two large 3in. are allowed to project about 1 in. 4. until it is within 1 in. and C. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. If a neat appearance is desired. 3 in. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. Fig. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. Fig. The two holes. The holes B and C are about 3 in. two ordinary binding posts. 1. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. of the top. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. each 4-1/2 in. 4. with slits cut for the wires. Fig. 1 in. one small switch. is shown in Fig. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. 4. the fuse block. of mineral wool. This will make an open space between the plates. and. This will allow the plate. Fig. thick sheet asbestos. of No. as shown in Fig. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . as shown in Fig. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. Fig. E and F. JJ. The mineral wool.same size. Fig.

when cool. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. When the tile is in place. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. when heated. Cnonyn. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. it leaves a gate for the metal. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. Catherines. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. allowing a space between each turn. When this is done. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. It should not be left heated in this condition. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . A file can be used to remove any rough places. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. Cover over about 1 in. This completes the stove. more wire should be added. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. Can. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. This point marks the proper length to cut it. Next. II. A. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. --Contributed by W. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. If this is the case. Cut a 1/2-in. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. It should not be set on end. and pressed into it. apart. While the clay is damp. as the turns of the wires. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. Cal. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. The clay. above the rim. 4. deep. Fig. will slip and come in contact with each other. steam will form when the current is applied. Richmond. H. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. Fig. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. KK. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. As these connections cannot be soldered. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. so that the circuit will not become broken. --Contributed by R.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. 2. Jaquythe. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. using care not to get it too wet. then. St. If it is not thoroughly dry. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. causing a short circuit.

but 12 by 24 in. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. Ky." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. square material in any size. Thorne. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. Louisville. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. --Contributed by Andrew G. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. is large enough. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. the pie will be damaged. and the frame set near a window. Then clip a little off the . If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. as shown. the air can enter from both top and bottom. and the prints will dry rapidly. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. says the Photographic Times. constructed of 3/4-in.

2-1/2 in. as shown. Two supports. 4 in. Fig. 1/2 in. 22 gauge magnet wire. thick and 3 in. long. high. The driving arm D. which gives the shaft a half turn. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. at GG. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. A 1/8-in. high. thick. -Contributed by S. in diameter. causing a break in the current. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. long. As the shaft revolves. slip on two cardboard washers. wide and 3 in. Fig. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. 1. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. wide. Le Mars. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. which are fastened to the base. each 1/2 in. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. long. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. W. 14 in. The board can be raised to place . thereby saving time and washing. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail.Paper Funnel point. 1. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. allowing each end to project for connections. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. open out. wide and 7 in. Figs. The upright B. long. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. 1. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. 2. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. 1 and 3. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. thick and 3 in. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. 1/2 in. An offset is bent in the center. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. Herron. in diameter and about 4 in. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. 3. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. for the crank. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. Iowa. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. Fig. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. high. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. The connecting rod E. each 1 in. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. 1. The connections are made as shown in Fig.

as shown in the sketch. in height. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. 3 in. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. One or more pots may be used. Mass. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. In designing the roost. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. Stecher. making a framework suitable for a roost. bottom side up. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. on a board. Dorchester. . --Contributed by William F. Place the pot.

. in diameter. F. ordinary glue. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. if it is other than straight lines. preferably. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. The materials required are rope or. and give it time to dry. Wind the . Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. as shown in Fig. The bottom part of the sketch. when combined. 1. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. grills and gratings for doors. shelves. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. that it is heated. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. paraffin and paint or varnish. odd corners. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired.. F. adopt the method described. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. 1. etc. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. will produce the pattern desired. without any corresponding benefit. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. Fig. windows.

Y. cut and glue them together. Fig. N. Lockport.Fig. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. -Contributed by Geo. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . 2. M. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. Harrer. six designs are shown.

London.. chips of iron rust. but no farther. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. This piece of horse armor.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular.. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. As the . and the sides do not cover the jaws. etc. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches.. which was used in front of a horse's head. 1. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. when it will be observed that any organic matter. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. etc. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. will be retained by the cotton. says the English Mechanic. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig.

If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. then another coat of glue. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. This being done. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. An arrangement is shown in Fig. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. and the clay model oiled. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. This will make the model light and easy to move around. as the surface will hold the clay. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. and therefore it is not described. except the thumb and fingers. 2. 2. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. This can be made in one piece. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. as shown in the sketch. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. but the back is not necessary. 4. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. This triangularshaped support. and will require less clay.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. 8. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. which is separate. the same as in Fig. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. 6 and 7. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. All being ready. with the exception of the thumb shield. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. which can be made in any size. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. In Fig. the rougher the better. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. but for . The armor is now removed from the model. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers.

Redondo Beach. wide and 1/2 in. two for the jaws and one a wedge. long. Fasten a polished brass ball to. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. La Rue. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. Goshen. will be about right. Calif. . If it does not hold a charge. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. A piece of board. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. 9. the top of the rod. Buxton. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. --Contributed by John G. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. two in each jaw. the two pieces of foil will draw together. The two pieces of foil. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. 2. but 3-1/2 in. fastened to the rod. the foils will not move. are glued to it. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. --Contributed by Ralph L. running down the plate. each about 1/4 in. in depth. Y. cut into the shape shown in Fig. 1/2 in. When locating the place for the screw eyes. and the instrument is ready for use. N. are better shown in Fig. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle.

from the smaller end. as shown in the illustration. --Contributed by Mrs. The can may be bronzed. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. A. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. hole bored through it. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. Bryan. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. as this will cut under the water without splashing. enameled or otherwise decorated. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. pine board. Texas. Corsicana. M. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. as indicated in the . How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. 2-1/2 in. When a fish is hooked. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. is made of a 1/4-in. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. silvered. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. At a point 6 in. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. long. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. about 15 in.

they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. A good size is 5 in. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. take a piece of thin wood. Having completed the drawing. using powdered pumice and lye. will do as well as the more expensive woods. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. thick. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. 22 is plenty heavy enough. as shown. 3/8 or 1/4 in. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. Any kind of wood will do. Next prepare the metal holder. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. Basswood or butternut. If soft wood. then with a nail. such as basswood or pine was used. or even pine. wide by 6 in. When it has dried over night. punch the holes." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. and trace upon it the design and outline. put a coat or two of wax and polish . Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. Polish the metal. long over all. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. using a piece of carbon paper.Match Holder accompanying sketch. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth.

wide and 5 in. is used for the base of this instrument. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. It is useful for photographers. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. Richmond. long. thick. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. 2 in. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. are used for the cores of the magnets. each 1 in. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. --Contributed by W. of pure olive oil. the whole being finished in linseed oil. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. Jaquythe. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. . The metal holder may next be fastened in place. 1/2 in. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. Two wire nails. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. long. If one has some insight in carving. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. A. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. If carving is contemplated. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. Cal. can be made on the same standards. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. Instead of the usual two short ropes.

is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. --Contributed by W. acts as a spring to keep the key open. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. . in the shape shown in the sketch. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. 1. at A. similar to that used in electric bells. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. H. then covered with red. All of the parts for the armor have been described. cloth or baize to represent the legs. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. the paper covering put on. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. cut in the shape of the letter T. 3. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. except that for the legs. A piece of tin. says the English Mechanic. 25 gauge. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. About 1 in. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. London. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. Lynas. about No. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. A rubber band. as shown by the dotted lines. when the key is pushed down. leaving about 1/4 in. as shown in Fig.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key.

. Cut them to a length or 40 in. Take the piece shown in Fig. one to another . in the other end. Fig. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. A 1/4-in. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. apart. Instead of using brass headed nails. for the sake of lightness. In one end of the piece. 2. not too tight. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. at each end. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. completes the equipment. By moving the position of the bolt from. So set up. Secure two strips of wood. can be made in a few minutes' time. 3 in. Silver paper will do very well. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. hole in the center. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. flat headed carriage bolt. and eight small holes. drill six 1/4-in. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. The two pieces are bolted together. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. about 1 in. 1 and drill a 1/4in. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. or ordinary plaster laths will do. says Camera Craft. 1 in. long. holes. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. make the same series of eight small holes and. apart. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. These can be purchased at a stationery store.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in.

2. Then take B and lay it over A. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. the one marked A. long. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. in Fig. taking the same start as for the square fob. as shown in Fig. Fig. and the one beneath C. then B over C and the end stuck under A. doubled and run through the web of A. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. for instance. C over D and B. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. Start with one end. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. A is the first string and B is the second. 2. D over A and C. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. 1. as in portraiture and the like. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. Then draw all four ends up snugly. A round fob is made in a similar way. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. 2. but instead of reversing . In this sketch. lay Cover B and the one under D.of the larger holes in the strip. of the ends remain unwoven. and lay it over the one to the right. 4.

over the one to its right. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. Ohio. always lap one string. 3. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. 1-1/2 in. as at A in Fig. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. The round fob is shown in Fig. as B. Rupp. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. the design of which is shown herewith. as in making the square fob. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. --Contributed by John P. 5. A loop. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. long. especially if silk strings are used. is to be made of leather. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . Monroeville. Other designs can be made in the same manner. is left out at the center before starting on one side.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer.

The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. such as a nut pick. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. A. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. Mich. . The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. beeswax or paraffin. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. it can be easily renewed.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. filling them with wax. When the supply of wax is exhausted. door facing or door panel. Houghton. Any smooth piece of steel. using the reverse side. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. pressing it against the wood. Northville. -Contributed by A. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description.

New York. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. J. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. N. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. Ill. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. thick. --Contributed by O. leaving about 1/4 in. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. those on matte paper will work best. if blueprints are used. E and F. remaining above the surface of the board. Fold together on lines C. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. says Photographic Times. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. place it face down in the dish. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. although tin ones can be used with good success. Enough plaster should. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. Select the print you wish to mount. . be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. D. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. long. but any kind that will not stick may be used. Platinum or blueprint papers work well.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. and after wetting. Thompson. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. apart and driven in only part way. Y. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. The tacks should be about 1 in. Petersburg. and about 12 in. it is best to leave a plain white margin. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth.

Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes.. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. violets. Lower into the test tube a wire. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. as shown in the right of the sketch. as shown at the left in the sketch. bell flowers. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. roses. etc. will be rendered perfectly white. filling the same about onehalf full. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. One of the . The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. without mixing the solutions. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored.

A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. Shabino. and at the larger end. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. South Dakota. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. The sound box. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. long. long and made of wood. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. but which will not wobble loose. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. 1-7/8 in. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. 2. thick. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. --Contributed by L. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. 3. not too tightly. or delicate tints of the egg. to keep the core from coming off in turning. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. turned a little tapering. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. made of heavy tin. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. Fig. as shown in the sketch. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. should be soldered to the box. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. 1. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. in diameter and 1 in.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. The diaphragm. A rod that will fit the brass tube. Millstown. is about 2-1/2 in. The tin horn can be easily made. about 1/8s in. L. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. as shown. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. The first point should be ground blunt. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. When soldering these parts together.. shading.

A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. Victor.Contributed by E. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. and. Ill. Colo. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. put a board on top. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. E. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. Chicago. Jr. wondering what it was. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. and weighted it with a heavy stone. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. Gold. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. mice in the bottom. says the Iowa Homestead.

Can. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. Ottawa. Y. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. Buffalo. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. --Contributed by Lyndwode. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. . The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. Pereira. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. N. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen.

--Contributed by Thos. This cart has no axle. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. a piece of tin. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. --Contributed by W. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . cut round. Mich. through which several holes have been punched. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. A. Cal. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. as shown. and at one end of the stick fasten. Grand Rapids. Richmond. above the end of the dasher. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. Put a small nail 2 in. De Loof. as it can be made quickly in any size. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. Jaquythe. longer than the length of the can. by means of a flatheaded tack. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil.

deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. 2. Kane. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. were below the level of the bullseye. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. deep and 3 in. 1-1/2 in. Doylestown. A wedge-shaped piece of . as shown. of course. New Orleans. Pa. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. --Contributed by James M. 1/4 in. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. 1. 1 ft. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. wide and 3 ft. 2 in. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye.1. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. The candles. I reversed a door gong. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. Notches 1/8 in. La. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. wide and as long as the box. wide and 1/8 in. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. 2. board. thick. wide. screwed it on the inside of a store box. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. The baseboard and top are separable. Fig. apart. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. cut in the center of the rounding edge. 2. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. long. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier.

it can be removed without marring the casing. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. dressing one surface of each piece. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. Wood. the shelf could not be put on the window. When not in use. to prevent its scratching the desk top. can be picked up without any trouble. 3. will. Cover the block with rubber. After the glue has dried. 1. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. West Union. when placed as in Fig. --Contributed by G. Worcester. the reason being that if both were solid. For the handle. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge.. etc. stone or wood.Book Back Holders metal. wide into each side of the casing. take two pieces of hard wood. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. by cutting away the ends. the blade is put back into the groove . Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. A. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. Ia. wide rubber bands or felt. scissors. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. The block can also be used as a paperweight. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. After completing the handle. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. This device is very convenient for invalids. Needles. Mass. as shown in Fig.

as shown in Fig. A notch is cut in one side. Mass. -Contributed by W. thus carrying the car up the incline. S. 1 in. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. 1. Malden. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. --Contributed by Maud McKee. --Contributed by H. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it.and sharpened to a cutting edge. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. . Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. Erie. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. If desired. 2. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. Pa. A. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. Cleveland. square and 4 in. is shown in the accompanying sketch. long. Ohio. Jacobs. Hutchins. as shown in Fig. Each one is made of a hardwood block.

.. This will insure having all parts alike. Prepare a design for the front.J. will be needed. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. Cape May Point. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. and an awl and hammer. N. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. The letters can be put on afterward. a board on which to work it. One sheet of metal.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. 6 by 9-1/2 in. If one such as is shown is to be used.

On the back. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. 3/4 part. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. in the waste metal. which is desirable. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. as shown. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. If any polishing is required. a violin. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. So impressive are the results. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. One coat will do. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. . placed on a table. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. The music will not sound natural. to right angles. Remove the metal. or. turpentine. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. flat brush. but weird and distant.Fasten the metal to the board." In all appearance. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. behind or through the center of a table leg. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. if desired. varnish. paste the paper design right on the metal. The stick may be placed by the side of. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. mandolin or guitar. 2 parts white vitriol. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. applied by means of a brush. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. 1 part. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. that can be worked in your own parlor. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. says Master Painter. only the marginal line is to be pierced. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. 1/4 part.

are shaped as shown in Fig. 2. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. wide. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. The longest piece. which should be about 5-1/2 ft.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. square bar iron. Two pairs of feet. and is easy to construct. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. is bent square so as to form two uprights. round-head machine screws. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. each 28 in. thick by 1/2 in. apart. long and measuring 26 in. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. long. London. says Work. . long and spread about 8 in. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. without them. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. 3. With proper tools this is easy. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. each 6 in. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. it might be difficult. across the top. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig.

is held by the brads. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. cut a long piece of lead. 5. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. 4. Place the corner piece of glass. D. better still. C. lead. The brads are then removed. 7. the latter being tapped to . The glass. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. The design is formed in the lead. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. A. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. special flux purchased for this purpose. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. After the glass is cut. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. B. While the piece of lead D. on it as shown. using rosin as a flux. as shown in Fig. 6. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. and the base border. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. Fig.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. After the joints are soldered. 5. in the grooves of the borders. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. or. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. Fig.

strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. J. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. in diameter and about 9 in. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. --Contributed by W. in diameter and 1/4 in. as shown in Fig. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. This . wood screws in each washer.. bolt. long. plank about 12 ft. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. bolt. The center pin is 3/4-in. Jr. square and of the length given in the drawing. Bore a 3/4-in. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. thick and drill 3/4-in. Bore a 5/8-in. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. Dreier. Fasten the plates to the block B. H. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. Make three washers 3-in. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. not less than 4 in. This ring can be made of 1-in. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. rocker bolt. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. long. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. long. Camden. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. rounded at the top as shown. holes through their centers. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. A and B. one on each side and central with the hole. N. plates. and round the corners of one end for a ring. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. then drill a 3/4-in. then flatten its end on the under side. 8. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. Secure a post.the base of the clip. Two styles of hand holds are shown. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. and two wood blocks. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in.

Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. long. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. New Orleans. 1/2 in. by 6-1/2 ft. straight-grained hickory. 4 filler pieces. 3 in. 2 by 4 in. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. 1. long and 1 piece. 9 in. La. boards along the side of each from end to end. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Draw a line on the four 7-in. 1-1/4in. square by 5 ft. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. the money outlay will be almost nothing. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. 2-1/2 in. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. If trees are convenient. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. screws. maple. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. The four 7-in. 16 screws. long. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. 7 in. apart for a distance of 3 ft. bit. bolts and rope. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. long. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. by 2 ft. in diameter and 7 in. of 1/4-in. chestnut or ash. To substitute small. from one edge. and some one can swing an axe. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. horse and rings. square by 9-1/2 ft. 3/4 by 3 in. shanks. can make a first class gymnasium. long. by 3 ft. 1 by 7 in. hickory. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. long. 50 ft. 4 pieces.will make an excellent cover for a pot. 4 in. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. long. 4 pieces. because it will not stand the weather. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. 4 in.

A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving .. each 3 ft. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. piece of wood. Bore a 9/16-in. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly.bored. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. boards coincide. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. apart. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. 8 in. from the end. so the 1/2-in. at each end. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. 2. deep and remove all loose dirt. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones.. apart.

not even the tumbler. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. passing through a screweye at either end. . about 100 ft. and materially heightened the illusion.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room.. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. and ascends the stem. W. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. And all he used was a black thread. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. it is taken to the edge of the foot. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. When the interest of the crowd. which at once gathered." which skimmed along the distant horizon. just visible against the dark evening sky. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. apart. not much to look at in daytime. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. was at its height. and then passes in a curve across the base. the effect is very striking. but most deceptive at dusk. If the tumbler is rotated. it follows the edge for about 1 in. in an endless belt. He stretched the thread between two buildings. disappearing only to reappear again.

so the point will be on top. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. long. from either side of the center. by 10 ft. wide and 1 in. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. 2 by 3 in. long. 7 in. 4 in. 4 bolts. by 3 ft. 2 by 4 in. 2 in. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. large spikes. long. Bevel the ends of . long. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. 1. 2 base pieces. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. deep. Chisel out two notches 4 in. long. To make the apparatus. 6 in. 2 by 4 in. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. preferably cedar. 8 bolts. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. 4 knee braces. A wire about No. long. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. beginning at a point 9 in. 2 by 4 in. The cork will come out easily. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. Fig. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. 4 in. long and 1 doz. 2 cross braces. and turned in a spiral D. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. square and 51/2 ft. La. square and 6 ft. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. New Orleans. long.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. 4 wood screws. by 7 ft. 8 in. 8 in. 2 side braces. long. by 2 ft. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. 8 in.

save the bars. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. additional long. etc. Cal. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. except the bars. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. as shown in the diagram. jellies.the knee braces. A. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. leave it undressed. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. Two endpieces must be made. and countersinking the heads. using four of the 7-in bolts. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. The wood so treated will last for years. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. so the bolts in both will not meet. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. . If using mill-cut lumber. of 7 ft. equipped with a strainer.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. but even unpainted they are very durable. After the trenches are dug. Richmond.. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. ( To be Continued. leaving the strainer always in position. These will allow the ladle to be turned. Jaquythe. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. --Contributed by W. screws. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. which face each other. A large sized ladle. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in.

An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. which seems impossible. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. In order to accomplish this experiment. If a little turpentine is added to the oil.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. milling machine. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. of sufficient 1ength. it is necessary to place a stick. thus holding the pail as shown. drill press or planer. A. partly a barrier for jumps. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. or various cutting compounds of oil. . Oil. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch.

4-1/2 in. bolts. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. 3 in. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. 7 in. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. long. ten 1/2-in. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. beginning 1-1/2 in. 2 by 4 in. by 3 ft. 4 in. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . Procure from a saw mill. and free from knots. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. long. 1 in. but 5 ft. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. long.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. square by 5-1/2 ft. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. 1 cross brace. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. square by 5 ft. apart in a central position on the horse. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. stud cut rounding on one edge. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. 2 adjusting pieces. 2 by 4 in. long. two 1/2-in. to fasten the knee braces at the top. long. is a good length. To construct. The round part of this log must be planed. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. long. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. apart. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. by 3 ft. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. These are placed 18 in. bolt. Hand holds must be provided next. long. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. 2 bases. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft.. bolts. in diameter--the larger the better. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. 4 in.. from each end. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. wood yard or from the woods. long. by 3 ft. bolts. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. 4 in. projections and splinters. piece of 2 by 4-in. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. in the ground. 2 by 4 in. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. The material required is as follows: Two posts. These are well nailed in place. 4 knee braces.

When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. Cal. pipe and fittings. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. A. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. Richmond. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. snow. Also. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. such as a dent. it is caused by some obstruction. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape.horse top. water. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. but nevertheless. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber.--Contributed by W. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. it is caused by an overloaded shell. etc. over and around. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. no one is responsible but himself. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. Such a hand sled can be made in a . and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. Jaquythe. then bending to the shape desired. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in.

which. Boston. 2. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. when straightened out. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. is much better than a wood sled. Joerin. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. thick. The end elevation. --Contributed by Arthur E. in width and 1/32 in. are all the tools necessary. at E and F. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. --Contributed by James E. France. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. then run a string over each part. 1/4 or 3/16 in. 1. will give the length. --Contributed by J. Vener. Mass. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. . Paris. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. W. when complete. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. Ontario. Toronto. These. Noble.

After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. nor that which is partly oxidized. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. The method shown in Figs. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. AA and BB. 4. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. It is best to use soft water. . are nailed.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. 3. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. and the latter will take on a bright luster. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver.

Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. or various rulings may be made. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. class ice-yacht. The materials used are: backbone. Percy Ashley in Rudder. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. 3. 1). or unequal widths as in Fig. as shown in Fig. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. Broad lines can be made. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. . two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. 2. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. 8 and 9. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. 4. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. as shown in Fig. 2. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. It can be made longer or shorter. Both the lower . pipe. bent and drilled as shown. a larger size of pipe should be used. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. A good and substantial homemade lathe. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. but if it is made much longer. The point should extend about 11/2 in. 1. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. out from the collar. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. about 30 in.Fig. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. 1-Details of Lathe sort. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. The headstock is made of two tees. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. long. pins to keep them from turning. a tee and a forging. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut.

Fruitvale. 2. To do this. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. . Cal. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. and will answer for a great variety of work. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. It is about 1 in. as shown in Fig. else taper turning will result. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. Laporte. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. or a key can be used as well. Boissevain. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. Held. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. Musgrove. as shown in Fig. 1. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. M. a corresponding line made on this. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. --Contributed by M. 2. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. --Contributed by W. Indiana. 2. thick as desired. W. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. Man. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. UpDeGraff. but also their insulating properties. a straight line should be scratched Fig. --Contributed by W. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. 3/4 or 1 in.

Cline. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. The handle is of pine about 18 in. long. Ark. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. J. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. Ft. --Contributed by E. as shown. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. In use.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. To obviate this. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. Smith. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates.

This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. White. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. take . by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. and when once in true up to its size. New Orleans. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. centering is just one operation too many. This prevents the drill from wobbling. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. the drill does not need the tool. --Contributed by Walter W. which should be backed out of contact. on starting the lathe. After being entered. Denver. if this method is followed: First. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. face off the end of the piece. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. La. Colo. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual.

as shown in D. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. the cap is placed over the paper tube. is put into the paper tube A. In doing this. shown at C. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. unknown to the spectators.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. and can be varied to suit the performer. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. a long piece of glass tubing. vanishing wand. The handkerchief rod. It can be used in a great number of tricks. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. says the Sphinx. after being shown empty. all the better. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. The glass tube B. by applying caustic soda or . Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. After the wand is removed. shorter t h a n the wand. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. a bout 1/2 in. and this given to someone to hold.

3/16 by 14 by 17 in. 1 Bottom. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. cut to any shape desired.potash around the edges of the letters. The brace at D is 1 in. As the cement softens. End. square and 1-7/8 in. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. The sides. 1 Neck. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. by 14 by 17 in. 1. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. With care and patience. Glue the neck to the box. as shown by K. 1 End. preferably hard maple. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. Cut a piece of hard wood. thick. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. across the front and back to strengthen them. 2 Sides. can be made by the home mechanic. with the back side rounding. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. Glue strips of soft wood. This dimension and those for the frets . 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. and glue it to the neck at F. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. long. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. and if care is taken in selecting the material. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. 3/16. 1/4 in.

Frary. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. or backbone. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. in diameter. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. When it is completed you will have a canoe.should be made accurately. Norwalk. toward each end. A board 1 in. thick and about 1 ft. but it is not. E. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. and beveled . 3/16 in. H. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. 1) on which to stretch the paper. long is used for a keel. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. wide and 11-1/2 ft. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. Carbondale. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. --Contributed by Chas. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. Stoddard. Six holes.Pa. O. -Contributed by J.

fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. C. apart. two twigs may be used to make one rib. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. Shape these as shown by A. The cross-boards (B. some tight strips of ash. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. long. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. The ribs. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. Fig. B. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. thick. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. Osiers probably make the best ribs. as shown in Fig. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. and notched at the end to receive them (B. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. twigs 5 or 6 ft. slender switches of osier willow. Fig. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. 3/8 in. 3). the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. but before doing this. 2. 4. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. when made of green elm. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. two strips of wood (b. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. procure at a carriage factory. In drying.) in notches. 4). These are better. such as is used for making chairbottoms. Fig. such as hazel or birch. 3. b. Fig. Fig. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. long are required. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. which are easily made of long. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. Green wood is preferable. 1. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. buy some split cane or rattan. as before described. in such cases. a. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. wide by 26 in. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. in thickness and should be cut.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. C. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. b. and are not fastened. Fig. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. 1 and 2. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. will answer nearly as well. thick. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. Fig. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. 3). Fig. 2). Any tough. as they are apt to do. as shown in Fig. Fig. are next put in. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. but twigs of some other trees. probably. with long stout screws. . and. or similar material. 2). They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. the loose strips of ash (b.. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. or other place. b. 3. 13 in. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. For the gunwales (a. by means of a string or wire. and so.

tacking it to the bottom-board. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. and as soon as that has soaked in. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. of very strong wrapping-paper. however. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. and light oars. 5). and held in place by means of small clamps. but neither stiff nor very thick. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. It should be drawn tight along the edges. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. B. If not. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. and very tough. You may put in . after wetting it. The paper is then trimmed. but with less turpentine. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. If the paper be 1 yd. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. Fig. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. Then take some of the split rattan and. Being made in long rolls. and steady in the water. When thoroughly dry. wide. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. apply a second coat of the same varnish. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. preferably iron. It should be smooth on the surface. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. When the paper is dry. if it has been properly constructed of good material. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards.

1. 5. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. Fig. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. to fit it easily. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. they will support very heavy weights. 5). We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. Fig. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. 2. 1 and the end in . Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. Drive the lower nail first. Fig. We procured a box and made a frame. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. and make a movable seat (A. fore and aft. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. and if driven as shown in the cut.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes.

slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. Close the other end with the same operation. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. This way has its drawbacks. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. Pa. This is an easy . then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. 4. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. 5. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. 3. A good way to handle this work. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. and the glass. Pittsburg. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. and the result is. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg.Fig. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. this makes the tube airtight. being softer where the flame has been applied.

By holding the nail about 1/4 in. flat and round-nosed pliers. Give the metal a circular motion. three. rivet punch. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. extra metal all around. also trace the decorative design. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. Oswald. thin screw. above the work and striking it with the hammer. above the metal. very rapid progress can be made. Seventh. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. third. second. 23 gauge. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. then reverse. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. Sixth. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. file. fifth. four. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. or six arms. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet.way to make a thermometer tube. with a piece of carbon paper. fourth. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. The candle holders may have two. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. metal shears. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. -Contributed by A. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. After the bulb is formed.

The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. and holder. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. drip cup. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. Having pierced the bracket. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. Small copper rivets are used. Metal polish of any kind will do.

winding the ends where they came together with wire. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. Mother let me have a sheet. of glycerine to about 200 deg. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. using a steel pen. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. and other things as they were needed. N. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. and water 24 parts. J. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. F. thus it was utilized. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. A saw. is a broomstick. if it has not absorbed too much ink. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. when it will be ready for use.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. they were like an ice boat with a sail. Heat 6-1/2 oz. Twenty cents was all I spent. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. Soak 1 oz. The gaff. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. hammer. Fifty. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. and add the gelatine. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. deep. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. Shiloh. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. on a water bath. and in a week . The wind was the cheapest power to be found. and it will be ready for future use. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. I steer with the front wheel. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. smooth it down and then remove as before. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. except they had wheels instead of runners. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. glycerine 4 parts. the stick at the bottom of the sail. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. all the rest I found. The boom. alcohol 2 parts. and brace and bit were the tools used. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. sugar 1 part. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge.

Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up. A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly. a projecting lens .

A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. The slide support. and. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. DD. 8 in. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. G. The board is centered both ways. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. wide and 15 in. A table. high. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. and the work carefully done. slide to about 6 ft. and the lens slide. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. long. If a small saw is used. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. A and B. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. thick. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. This ring is made up from two rings. well seasoned pine. provided the material is of metal. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. 1/2 to 3/4 in.. above the center. are . so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. but if such a box is not found. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. 1. as desired. describe a 9-in. about 2 ft. focus enlarging a 3-in. E. 3. at a distance of 24 ft. or a lens of 12-in. at a point 1 in. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. Fig. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. and 14 in. wide. and a projecting lens 2 in. H. or glue. wire brads. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw.

Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. of safe. P. B.constructed to slip easily on the table. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. Minn. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. the water at once extinguishes the flame. Small strips of tin. The arrangement is quite safe as. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed.-Contributed by G. St. and when the right position is found for each. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. E. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. the strips II serving as guides. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. should the glass happen to upset. Paul. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. light burning oil. A sheet . but not long enough. apply two coats of shellac varnish. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. placed on the water. JJ. To reach the water.

Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. 3 in. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. Fig. Y. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. 2. 12 ft. 3. to cover the mattresses. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. I ordered a canvas bag. then the corners on one end are doubled over. If one of these clips is not at hand. Crawford. 3. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together.. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. --Contributed by J. form a piece of wire in the same shape. by 12 ft. 1. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. 9 in. Fig. Schenectady. 4.H. N. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. from a tent company. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart.

Teasdale. Fold two strips of light cardboard. White. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. Fig. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. Attach a piece of steel rod. Warren. 1/2 in. to keep it from unwinding. so as to form two oblong boxes. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in.each edge. in the center coil. To calibrate the instrument. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. C. --Contributed by Edward M. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. insulating them from the case with cardboard. holes in the edge. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. A rubber band. D. Pa. Denver. A Film Washing Trough [331] . as shown in Fig. drill two 3/16 in. 2. 3 to swing freely on the tack. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. 1. 1. --Contributed by Walter W. long. and insert two binding-posts. Do not use too strong a rubber. first mark the binding-post A. through which the indicator works. An arc is cut in the paper. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. long and 3/16 in. Fasten the wire with gummed label. open on the edges. for amperes and the other post. V. apart. 2. 3/4 in. 2. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. Fig. Colo. 1/2 in. to the coil of small wire for volts. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. 3/4 in. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. thick. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. wide.

Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. as shown. Dayton. with the large hole up. Hunting. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. Place this can on one end of the trough. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. --Contributed by M. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. Wood Burning [331] . Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. Cut a 1/4-in. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. O. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. M. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet.

a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the .Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. mouth downward. then into this bottle place.

N. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. Auburn. Whitehouse. 3/4 in.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. 2. wide and 4 in. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. 1. thick. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. This will make a very pretty ornament. provided the bottle is wide. as shown in the sketch. many puzzling effects may be obtained. Ala. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. If the cork is adjusted properly. If the small bottle used is opaque. but not very thick. --Contributed by Fred W. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. Place the small bottle in as before.Y. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. --Contributed by John Shahan. Upper Troy. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. long. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen.

On a 1000-ft. Both bearings were made in this manner. in diameter and 1 in. 2 ft. even in a light breeze. which gave considerable power for its size. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. W. high without the upper half. 1. Fig. If a transmitter is used. pulley F. 1. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. was keyed to shaft C. The 21/2-in. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. 1. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. as shown in Fig. by the method shown in Fig. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. Fig. wide. sugar pine on account of its softness. line. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. Fig. thick. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. 1 in. The shaft C. which was nailed to the face plate. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. A staple. The bearing blocks were 3 in. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. I. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. pulley. thick and 3 in. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. Its smaller parts. B. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. such as blades and pulleys. 3. 4. which was 6 in. The wire L was put . 2. Milter. K. which extended to the ground. thick. long. was 1/4in. 1. Fig. to the shaft. were constructed of 1-in. or ordinary telephone transmitters. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. --Contributed by D. G. Fig. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. iron rod. 1.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line.

This board was 12 in. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. 1) 4 in. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. hole was bored for it. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. R. so that the 1/4-in. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. 2. Fig. long and bend it as shown at A. long and bend it as . Shaft G was but 1/4 in. wide and 1 in. 1. pine 18 by 12 in. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. The power was put to various uses. cut out another piece of tin (X. Fig. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. washers were placed under pulley F. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. in the center of the board P. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. 6. Fig. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. across the thin edge of a board. 1.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. H. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. through the latter. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. as. To lessen the friction here. Fig. providing one has a few old materials on hand. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. in diameter. long. for instance. 3 in. 0. long and 3 in. 25 ft. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. The bed plate D. This completes the receiver or sounder. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. 5. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. 6. This fan was made of 1/4-in. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. with brass headed furniture tacks. Two washers were placed on shaft C. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. was 2 ft. 1. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. apart in the tower. hole for the shaft G was in the center. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. long and 1/2 in. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. a 1/2-in. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. If you have no bell. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. strips. square to the board P at the top of the tower. There a 1/4-in. 1. long. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. The smaller one. Fig. G. top down also. To make the key. when the windmill needed oiling. The other lid. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. Fig. was tacked. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. Fig. with all parts in place. and was cut the shape shown.

1. Before tacking it to the board. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. Now. fitted with paddles as at M. and. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. McConnell. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. using cleats to hold the board frame. Going back to Fig. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. as shown at Water. Thus a center drive is made. causing a buzzing sound. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. The rear barrels are. -Contributed by John R. as indicated. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. after the manner of bicycle wheels.shown. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. like many another device boys make. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. 2. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. although it can be made with but two. By adjusting the coils. at the front. When tired of this instrument. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. leaving the other wire as it is. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code.

Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. The speed is slow at first. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. If the journals thus made are well oiled. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. 1. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. there will not be much friction. To propel it. as shown in Fig. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. There is no danger. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. which will give any amount of pleasure. copper piping and brass tubing for base. feet on the pedals. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. or even a little houseboat. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. can be built. 3.

When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. Fig. or it may be put to other uses if desired. 2. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. 2. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. then the glass disc and then the other ring. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. Place one brass ring in cylinder. 1. B. and so creating a false circuit. 1. If it is desired to make the light very complete. A. If magnifying glass cannot be had. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. Then melt out the rosin or lead.of pleasure for a little work. Turn a small circle of wood. Shape small blocks of boxwood. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. D. Fig. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. Fig. 1. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. C. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. 2. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. Fig.

B. wire from light to switch. T. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. The parts indicated are as follows: A. wire from bell to switch. by having the switch on the baseboard. Pa. 5-1/4 by 10 in. 4 in. --Contributed by Geo. and pulled tight. --Contributed by C. brass rod. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. C. or 1/4in. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. such as is used for cycle valves.india rubber tubing. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. E. shelf. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. dry batteries. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. long. switch. To operate this. C. contact post. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock.. near the bed. F. In placing clock on shelf. while lying in bed. set alarm key as shown in diagram. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. S. some glue will secure them. Utah. which stops bell ringing. X. thick. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . To get the cylinder into its carriage. after two turns have been made on the key. Ogden. Brinkerhoff. 4-1/2 in. after setting alarm. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. Throw lever off from the right to center. G. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. wide and 1/16 in. copper tubing. To throw on light throw levers to the left. key of alarm clock. Chatland. wire from batteries to switch. 3/8 in. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. When alarm goes off. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. H. brass strip. bell. bracket. Swissvale. I. D. long. if too small. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. J. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used.

about 3-1/2 in. making it as true and smooth as possible. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. A small lamp of about 5 cp. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. Fig. from one end. Having finished this. This is to form the fuse hole. Make a shoulder. as at A. Chapman. will do the heating.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. Fig. for instance. 4 in. as at A. which can be made of an old can. Pull out the nail and stick. 1/4 in. as in Fig. in diameter. --Contributed by Chas. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. 1. beyond the end of the spindle. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. about 6 in. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. Minn. S. All that is required is a tin covering. place stick and all in a pail of sand. a bed warmer. 1. as at B. A flannel bag. Fig. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. as . Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. gives the heater a more finished appearance. long. 2. being careful not to get the sand in it. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. wide. 2. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. in diameter. Lanesboro. Make the spindle as in Fig. 3. letting it extend 3/4 in. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. Procure a good quality of stiff paper.

Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. 3/8 in. good straight-grained pine will do. A piece of oak. will be sufficient to make the trigger. wide and 6 ft. 5/8 in. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. thick. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. 6 in. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. long. or hickory. 1 in. long. this is to keep the edges from splitting. long. wide and 3/8 in. spring and arrows. deep. The illustration shows how this is done. wide and 3 ft. Joerin. but if this wood cannot be procured. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. The material must be 1-1/2 in. thick.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . The bow is made from straight-grained oak. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. ash. --Contributed by Arthur E. 1. 11/2 in. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. A piece of tin. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. thick.

with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. Fig. Fig. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. better still. --Contributed by O. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. Ill. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. 8. it lifts the spring up. To throw the arrow. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. 4. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. which is 1/4 in. in diameter. from the opposite end. as shown in Fig. wide at each end. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. 2. or through the necessity of. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. Fig. The bow is not fastened in the stock. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. 9. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. The trigger. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. Such a temporary safe light may be . then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. from the end of the stock. 6. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. A spring. place the arrow in the groove. thick. To shoot the crossbow. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. and one for the trigger 12 in. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. When the trigger is pulled. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. as shown in Fig. E. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. Wilmette. Trownes. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. The stick for the bow. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. having the latter swing quite freely. 7. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. 3. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger.

it is the easiest camp to make. The hinged cover E. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. C. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. Remove the bottom of the box. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. By chopping the trunk almost through. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. and replace as shown at B. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. making lighting and trimming convenient. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. says Photo Era. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. make the frame of the wigwam. or only as a camp on a short excursion. respectively. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. Remove one end. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. apart. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. The cut should be about 5 ft. is used as a door. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. This lamp is safe. and nail it in position as shown at A. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. from the ground. from the ground. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. since the flame of the candle is above A. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. the bark lean-to is a . Moreover.

long. 3 ft. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. Sheets of bark. thick. long and 1-1/2 in. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. A piece of elm or hickory. . Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. deep and covered with blankets. will dry flat. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. Where bark is used. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. spruce. wide and 6 ft. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. For a foot in the middle of the stick. In the early summer. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. For a permanent camp. are a convenient size for camp construction. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. selecting a site for a camp. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. long and 2 or 3 ft. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. and when the camp is pitched. and cedar. make the best kind of a camp bed. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. a 2-in. and split the tops with an ax. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. makes a good pair of tongs. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. Tongs are very useful in camp. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. nails are necessary to hold it in place. piled 2 or 3 ft. 6 ft. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. wide. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides.

and affording accommodation for several persons. .Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. hinges. or even a rough lock for the camp larder. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top.

Pa. deep and 4 in. Doylestown. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. B. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. Kane. about 4 in. changing the water both morning and night. --Contributed by James M. Fig. B. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. I drove a small cork. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. wide.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube.. to another . A. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. and provide a cover or door. the interior can. 1. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within.

The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. Fig. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. This makes . open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. if necessary. 2. for instance. until. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. fused into one side. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. to pass through an increasing resistance. 4 and 5). This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. E. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. The diagram. a liquid. C. limit. for instance. which project inside and outside of the tube. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. 3. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. such as ether.glass tube. 2. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. The current is thus compelled. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5.

When the frame is finished so far. mark off a space. 1. Fig. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. two holes. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. they will make a frame 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. Before removing the field from the lathe. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. or even 1/16 in. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. After the template is marked out. thick. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. After cleaning them with the solution. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. by turning the lathe with the hand. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. The bearing studs are now made. or pattern. 4-1/2 in. These holes are for the bearing studs. hole is . brass or iron. Alpena. but merely discolored.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. on a lathe. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. which may be of any thickness so that. 3. making it 1/16 in. Then the field can be finished to these marks. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. to allow for finishing. tap. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. between centers. set at 1/8 in. which will make it uniform in size. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. and for the outside of the frame. screws. when several pieces are placed together. assemble and rivet them solidly. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. as shown in the left-hand sketch. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. is composed of wrought sheet iron. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. A. thick. Michigan. in diameter. larger than the dimensions given. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. 2. Fig. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. brass. clamp the template. If the thickness is sufficient. A 5/8in. 3-3/8 in. thicker. in diameter. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. drill the four rivet holes. 3-3/8 in. cannot be used so often. bent at right angles as shown. therefore. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame.

The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . The shaft of the armature. brass rod is inserted. into which a piece of 5/8-in. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. or otherwise finished. solder them to the supports. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. 4. When the bearings are located. and build up the solder well. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. soldered into place. file them out to make the proper adjustment. Fig. is turned up from machine steel.

brass rod. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. thick.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. washers. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. Armature-Ring Core. After the pieces are cut out. After they . thick and 1/4 in. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. 6. as shown in Fig. 3. as shown m Fig. as shown in Fig. then drill a 1/8-in. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. by 1-1/2 in. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside.. hole and tap it for a pin. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. The pins are made of brass. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. threaded. 5. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. Procure 12 strips of mica. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. and held with a setscrew. as shown in Fig. The sides are also faced off and finished. as shown in Fig. or segments. Rivet them together. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. being formed for the ends. thick. 8. Make the core 3/4 in. sheet fiber. When this is accomplished. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. to allow for finishing to size. as shown in Fig. 6. 3/4 in. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. Find the centers of each segment at one end. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. 9. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. 3/4 in. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. thick. inside diameter. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. wide. wide. 7. 1-1/8 in. When annealed. 3. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. 1/8 in. and then they are soaked in warm water. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. deep and 7/16 in. holes through them for rivets. thick are cut like the pattern. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in.

Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. shown at B. The two ends are joined at B. 6 in. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. The field is wound with No. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. shown at A. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. long. of No. thick. Fig. about 100 ft. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. wide and 1 in. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. To connect the wires. by bending the end around one of the projections. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. the two ends of the wire. being required.have dried. After one coil. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. they are glued to the core insulation. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. until the 12 slots are filled. 8 in. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. The source of current is connected to the terminals. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. This winding is for a series motor. and bring the end of the wire out at B. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. In starting to wind. after the motor is on the stand. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. Fig. 1. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. which will take 50 ft. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. 1. yet it shows a series of . The winding is started at A. All connections should be securely soldered. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. are soldered together. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. 5. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. When the glue is set. sheet fiber. and wind on four layers. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. of the end to protrude. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. or side. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. sheet fiber. of the wire. Run one end of the field wire.

Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. or. Nine wires run from the timer. one from each of the eight contacts. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. which serves as the ground wire. is fastened to the metallic body. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. A 1/2-in. still more simply. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. as in the case of a spiral. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. and one.

This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. Covering these is a thin. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. It should be . Without this attachment.The Wind Vane. 45 deg. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. circle. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. board. of the dial. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. long. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. 6 in. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. thus giving 16 different directions. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration.

will be sufficient. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. Before tacking the fourth side. -Contributed by James L. Place the leather on some level. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. . if not too high. Cut 3-in. making it heavy or light. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. high. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. will answer the purpose just as well. thus making a universal joint. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown.about 6 ft. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. N. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. Buffalo. and securely nail on the top of the box. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. To make it. also a piece of new carpet. To work these outlines. 14 by 18 in. though a special knife. according to who is going to use it. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. Blackmer. called a chip carving knife. is most satisfactory. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. Y. and about 6 in. long to give the best results. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. or. will be enough for the two sides. however. Fill the box with any handy ballast.

fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. An ordinary sewing-machine . Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine. Paste the silk plush to the inner side. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. A good leather paste will be required.

Syracuse. can be thrown away when no longer needed. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. If a fire breaks out. Morse.will do if a good stout needle is used. square and tying a piece of . Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. N. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. of common salt and 10 lb. and tie them together securely at the bottom. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. temporary lameness. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. and fasten the feathers inside of it. Y. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. a needle and some feathers. away from it. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. of water. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. rather than the smooth side. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. B. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. or a hip that has been wrenched. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. as in cases of a sprained ankle. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. --Contributed by Katharine D.

Albany. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. made up of four layers of No. F. . 22 gauge copper magnet wire. thus helping the rats to enter. wide and 1/16 in. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. long. high. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. This not only keeps the rats out. setting traps. and a coil of wire. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. Hellwig. The end is filed to an edge. The strings should be about 15 in. A small wooden or fiber end. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. and the receiver is ready for use. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. The coil is 1 in. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. --Contributed by J. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. There is a 1-in.. --Contributed by John A. is cut on the wood. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown.string to each corner. Paterson. Y. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. 1/8 in. G. B. but not sharp. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. N. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. E. etc. One end is removed entirely. long. as shown. and tacked it to the boards. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. Ashland. commonly called tintype tin. cut to the length of the spool. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. A. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration.J. wound on the head end. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. Wis. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. which is the essential part of the instrument. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. The body of the receiver. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. The diaphragm C. board all around the bottom on the inside. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. deep. the corners being wired. laying poisoned meat and meal. Gordon Dempsey. letting it go at arm's length. N. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail.

and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. a piece of small wire. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. Take a piece of string or. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. To clean small articles. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. begin with the smallest scrolls. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. wide. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. gold. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. The vase is to have three supports. A single line will be sufficient. and bend each strip in shape.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. better still. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. to .

Trace also the line around the purse. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. from E to F. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. sharp pencil. using a duller point of the tool. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. from C to D. After taking off the pattern. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. About 1 in. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. through which to slip the fly AGH. and does not require coloring.. 4-1/4 in. Work down the outside line of the design. wide when stitching up the purse. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily.which the supports are fastened with rivets. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. 6-3/8 in. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. 3-1/4 in. thus raising it. as shown in the sketch. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. 3-1/2 in. Fold the leather on the line EF. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened.. from the lines EF on the piece. Press or model down the leather all around the design. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. .

being cast in wooden molds. with pins or small nails. Fit this to the two . Make the lug 1/4 in. then place the square piece out of which Fig. square. by 12 ft. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. 1/2 in. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. This also should be slightly beveled. It is neat and efficient. long. and. and cut it out as shown in Fig. and cut out a wheel. 2. and a model for speed and power. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. It can be made without the use of a lathe. deep. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. around the wheel. Now take another piece of wood. Then nail the wheel down firmly. Cut off six pieces 12 in. 1. all the way around. thick. and tack the other piece slightly. leaving the lug a. as well as useful. b. then nail it. the "open" side. with a compass saw. as shown in Fig.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. The entire cut should be slightly beveled.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. and the projections B. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. When it is finished. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. deep. First. 1 was cut. with the largest side down. and which will be very interesting. following the dotted lines. with the open side down. 3.

as shown by the . and cut it out as shown in Fig. holes through it. square pieces of wood. bolts. hole bored through its center. Now take another of the 12-in. hole 1/4 in. and bore six 1/4-in. and lay it away to dry. 1. as shown by the black dots in Fig. Now put mold No. one of which should have a 3/8-in. square pieces of wood. slightly beveled. and boring a 3/8-in. deep.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. place it between two of the 12-in. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. hole entirely through at the same place. and clean all the shavings out of it. 4. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. then bolt it together. Take the mold apart.pieces just finished. in the center of it. After it is finished.

2. 6. and pour babbitt metal into it. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. 4. only the one is left-handed. and run in babbitt metal again. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. as shown in illustration. see that the bolts are all tight. and the exhaust hole in projection b. over the defective part. Now cut out one of the 12-in. and 3/8-in. This is mold No.black dots in Fig. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. place the entire machine in a vise. until it is full. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. This is for a shaft. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. and pouring metal in to fill it up.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. long. true it up with a square. b. d. screw down. 5. take an ordinary brace. holes. long. so that it will turn easily. one in the projections. holes at d. put the top of the brace through this hole. wide and 16 in. Let it stand for half an hour. one in the lug. and lay it away to dry. Fig. fasten a 3/8-in.1. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. B. Put this together in mold No. and two 1/4-in. and the other in the base. Using the Brace . 1. lay it on a level place. After it is fitted in. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. Then bolt the castings together. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. place it under the drill. Commencing 1-1/2 in. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. where the casting did not fill out. instead of the right-handed piece. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. 6. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. This will cast a paddle-wheel. Now take mold No. from the one end. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. and bore three 1/4-in. drill in it. Pour metal into mold No. This is the same as Fig. and connect to the boiler. and drill them in the same manner. in diameter must now be obtained. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. as shown by the black dots in Fig. the other right-handed.2. A piece of mild steel 5 in. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. and drill it entirely through.1. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it.

How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. long. Plan of Ice Boat . one 6 ft. At each end of the 6ft. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. and. turn the wheel to the shape desired. while it is running at full speed. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. Then take a knife or a chisel. will do good service. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. with a boss and a set screw. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. and if instructions have been carefully followed. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. and with three small screw holes around the edge. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in.. and the other 8 ft. piece and at right angles to it. and the pleasure many times repays the effort.

as the runners were fastened.These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. should be of hardwood. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. Over the middle of the 6-ft. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. long and 2-1/2 in. 1. projecting as in Fig. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. in the top before the skate is put on. plank. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. Fig. 1. To the under side of the 8-ft. 3. where they often did considerable damage. The spar should be 9 ft. in diameter in the center. 2 by 3 in. at the end. Fig. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. in front of the rudder block. piece and at right angles to it. in diameter. bolt the 8-ft. which may come in handy in heavy winds. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. tapering to 1-1/2 in. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in. long. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. distant. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. Run the seam on a machine. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. plank nail 8-in. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. Make your runners as long as possible. boards to make the platform. and about 8 in. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. The tiller. in diameter at the base. long. at the butt and 1 in. leaving 1 ft. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. This fits in the square hole. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. 8 a reef point knot. so much the better will be your boat. at the top.

allowing the springs to contact at C. and place it behind a stove. two pieces of sheet brass about 1/4 in. P. but one that will afford any amount of amusement. and when we pushed the button up in the shop the rat would be thrown 2 or 3 ft. --Contributed by J. Simple Fire Alarm When the stove becomes too hot the wax will melt at the ends. P. B. small piece of wood. Its parts are as follows: A. Electric Rat Trap How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359] A fire alarm which is both inexpensive and simple in construction is shown in the illustration.another from the zinc plate through the intervening yard and into the shop. To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359] This is a very simple device. that an electrical connection would be made through the body of the rat. Comstock. R. Adams. and the alarm bell will ring. for after a week the rats all departed and the boys all regretted that their fun was at an end. The . Mechanicsburg. S S. block of wood nailed to A. binding-posts fastening the springs S S. It is quite evident that when a rat put its two fore feet on the edge of the pan in order to eat the mush which it contained. connect the device in circuit with an electric bell. to block B. When these parts have been put together in the manner described. A good sized induction coil was through connected with these wires and about six dry batteries were used to run the induction coil whenever a push button was manipulated. wide. in the air and let out a terrific squeak. Pa. --Contributed by John D. The arrangement proved quite too effective. Ariz. so that they come in contact at C. Phoenix. bent into a hook at each end. W is a piece of wax crayon just long enough to break the contact at C when inserted as shown in the illustration.

The stump makes the best support. Gild the pan all over. in diameter. 6 in. Put the works back in the metal shell and solder it to the frying pan by the pieces turned out as in Fig. The seat arms may be any length desired. including the . high. Then get a 10-cent frying pan. Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360] An inexpensive and easy way to make an unique ornament of a clock The Clock with Holder for kitchen use is to take an old alarm clock or a new one if preferred. and make it into a clock to hang on the wall. The wheel is anchored out by several guy Home-Made Merry-Go-Round wires. The center pole should be 10 ft. 1. Take the glass. 2. and drill a hole in the center so the shaft for the hands will easily pass through and extend out far enough to replace the two hands. dial and works out of the shell and cut some pieces out of the metal so that when the pi