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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial

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08/17/2011

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Sections

  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother

THE BOY MECHANIC VOLUME I

Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)

BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I

THE

700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
HOW TO CONSTRUCT
WIRELESS OUTFITS, BOATS, CAMP EQUIPMENT, AERIAL. GLIDERS, KITES, SELF-PROPELLED VEHICLES ENGINES, MOTORS, ELECTRICAL APPARATUS, CAMERAS
AND

HUNDREDS OF OTHER THINGS WHICH DELIGHT EVERY BOY

WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
COPYRIGHTED, 1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO

POPULAR MECHANICS CO.
PUBLISHERS

A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

The pieces are then dressed round. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. Toronto. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. 2. 2. as shown in Fig.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. 1. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. A piece of plank 12 in. with the hollow side away from you. wide and 2 ft. Noble. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. 1. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. --Contributed by J. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. To throw a boomerang. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. 1. It is held in this curve until dry. Ontario. as shown in Fig. apart. away. 2 -. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. distant. grasp it and hold the same as a club. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. E. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. Fig. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. long will make six boomerangs. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated.Fig. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. until it is bound as shown in Fig.

The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. 6 in. long. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. A very light. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. thick.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. forcing it down closely. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. it is not essential to the support of the walls. which makes the building simpler and easier. or rather no bottom at all. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. the block will drop out. blocks . high and 4 or 5 in. but about 12 in. A wall. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. and it may be necessary to use a little water. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. First. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. one inside of the circle and the other outside. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. and with a movable bottom. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. If the snow is of the right consistency. dry snow will not pack easily. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. minus the top. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. made of 6-in. however. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in.

It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. 2. Goodbrod. which is about 1 ft.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. 3 -. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. D. which can be made of wood. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. is 6 or 8 in. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. 1. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. 1. --Contributed by Geo. wide. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. Union. and the young architect can imitate them. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. A nail. 2. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. long and 1 in. It also keeps them out. The piece of wood. 3. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. Ore. Fig. Fig. a. There is no outward thrust. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. Fig. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. or an old safe dial will do. C. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. above the ground. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig.

Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. New York. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. one pair of special hinges. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. the box locked . says the Sphinx. --Contributed by R. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. as the weight always draws them back to place. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. S. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. If ordinary butts are used. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal.When taking hot dishes from the stove. Merrill. Syracuse. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up.

Ga. as shown in Fig. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. It remains to bend the flaps. When the sieve is shaken. All . 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. on drawing paper. 3. 2. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. allowing each coat time to dry. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. If they do not. draw one-half of it. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. Place the piece in a vise. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. Augusta. To make a design similar to the one shown. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. one for each corner. as shown in Fig. With the metal shears.and the performer steps out in view. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. about 1-32 of an inch. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. as shown. 1. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. Fig. smooth surface. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. If the measuring has been done properly. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. proceed as follows: First. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. Alberta Norrell. -Contributed by L.

Colo. used for insulation. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. in passing through the lamp.the edges should be left smooth. R. heats the strip of German-silver wire. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. A piece of porcelain tube. from the back end. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. which is about 6 in. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. B. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. should be in the line. After this has dried. In boring through rubber corks. A resistance. 25 gauge German-silver wire. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. and in the positions shown in the sketch. 25 German-silver wire. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . To keep the metal from tarnishing. If a touch of color is desired. if rolled under the shoe sole. long. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. --Contributed by R. as shown at AA. The current. Denver. about 6 in. causing it to expand. is fitted tightly in the third hole. When the current is turned off. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. The common cork. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. Galbreath. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. of No. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. in diameter. C. H.

Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. --Contributed by David Brown. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. with thin strips of wood. Fig. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. 1. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. as shown in Fig. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. . leaving a space of 4 in. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. 2. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. Mo. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely.bottom ring. 3. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. Kansas City. Purchase two long book straps. between them as shown in Fig.

A. one weighing 15 lb. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. and one weighing 25 lb. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. which is the right weight for family use. These are shown in Fig. Fig. 36 in. Pa. 1. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. Doylestown. Syracuse. and tack smoothly. The folds are made over the string. as .An ordinary electric bell. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. 3. --Contributed by James M. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. --Contributed by Katharine D. and a pocket battery. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. just the right weight for a woman to use. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. N. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom.. Fig. When the aeroplane tips. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. Morse. in diameter. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. 2. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. Two strips of brass. The string is then tied. long. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. Kane. Y.. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. 1. 4. 1. are mounted on the outside of the box. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. to form a handle. C. having a gong 2-1/2 in. Fig. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end.

bookracks and shelves can be made with one. Y. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. The saw. machine screws. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. Day. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. Frame Made of a Rod . Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. bent as shown in Fig. and many fancy knick-knacks. 1. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. in diameter. long.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. 2. two 1/8 -in. --Contributed by Louis J. Floral Park. N. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. 2. 3/32 or 1/4 in. four washers and four square nuts. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. if once used. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. such as brackets. AA.

Watch Fob For coloring silver. If it colors the metal red. In the design shown. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. 1 part sulphuric acid. of course. Apply two coats. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. of water. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. An Austrian Top [12] . the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. as well as brass and copper. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. if copper or brass.. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. therefore. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. Silver is the most desirable but. File these edges. using a swab and an old stiff brush. allowing each time to dry.may be made of either brass. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. as well as the depth of etching desired. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. or silver. be covered the same as the back. though almost any color may be obtained. Scranton.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. Rub off the highlights. Drying will cause this to change to purple. Of the leathers. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. The buckle is to be purchased. A. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. Michigan. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. of water in which dissolve. the most expensive. treat it with color. use them in place of the outside nuts. --Contributed by W. after breaking up. it has the correct strength. copper. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. For etching. 1 part nitric acid. Detroit. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. green and browns are the most popular.

thick. Michigan.F. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. in diameter. pass one end through the 1/16-in. Tholl. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. A 1/16-in. When the shank is covered. Bore a 3/4-in. long. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. is formed on one end. set the top in the 3/4 -in. starting at the bottom and winding upward. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. 1-1/4 in. wide and 3/4 in. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. long. Ypsilanti. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. --Contributed by J.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. hole. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. The handle is a piece of pine. . hole in this end for the top. Parts of the Top To spin the top. 3/4 in. allowing only 1-1/4 in. 5-1/4 in. A handle.

The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. Mich. having no sides. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. A. For black leathers. --A. tarts or similar pastry. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. Alberta Norrell. Augusta. --Contributed by Miss L. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. Northville. Houghton. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. Ga. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. The baking surface. .

The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. Centralia. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. Mo. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. two turns will remove the jar. glass fruit jar. then solder cover and socket together. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. Stringing Wires [13] A. says Studio Light. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. When you desire to work by white light. the same as shown in the illustration. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook.

1-1/4 in. Wis. Janesville. square by 12 in. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. They are fastened. 4 Vertical pieces. 16 Horizontal bars. as shown in the cross-section sketch. . 1-1/4 in. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. square by 62 in. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. so it can be folded up. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. 4 Braces.for loading and development. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. and not tip over.

C. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. H. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. after filling the pail with water.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. -Contributed by Charles Stem. New York. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. Rosenthal. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. The whole. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. O. --Contributed by Dr. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. If the loop is tied at the proper place. The front can be covered . from scrap material. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. Phillipsburg. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. and a loop made in the end. Cincinnati. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. After rounding the ends of the studs. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes.

2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. In my own practice. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. and. the color will be an undesirable. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. you are. either for contact printing or enlargements. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. --Contributed by Gilbert A. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. the mouth of which rests against a. principally mayonnaise dressing. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. if you try to tone them afterward. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. Wehr. By using the following method. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. The results will be poor. The . sickly one. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. thoroughly fix. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. Develop them into strong prints. FIG. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. 1 FIG. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. Md. Baltimore. by all rules of the game.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. If the gate is raised slightly. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper.

. Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper. It will bleach slowly and evenly. this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain. 16 oz.. The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table... L...... Cal.. This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print. wide and 4 in......." Cyanide of potassium . Gray..... They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder.. The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished. where it will continue to bleach.... 2 oz... thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses..... San Francisco. when it starts to bleach......... --Contributed by T. 2.. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig. three times. Iodide of potassium . Put one on each corner of the blotting paper.. A good final washing completes the process... in size. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away. Place the dry print... The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper. etc.. An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in... 1 and again as in Fig.. With a little practice. preferably the colored kind.. When the desired reduction has taken place. Water .. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes. Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete. 5 by 15 in. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper... in this solution. The blotting paper can .. long to admit the angle support. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects... stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax.bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison... 20 gr.. but. without previous wetting.. to make it 5 by 5 in... as it will appear clean much longer than the white.. transfer it to a tray of water..

--Contributed by L. the shaft 1 in. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. wide below the . Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. the head of which is 2 in. Corners complete are shown in Fig. Canada. 20 gauge. wide. Make a design similar to that shown. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. Wisconsin. having a width of 2-1/4 in. Oshkosh. Wilson Aldred Toronto.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners.J. --Contributed by J. Monahan. 3. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. and a length of 5 in. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use.

4. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. Pierce a hole with a small drill. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. 1 part sulphuric acid. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. . freehand. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. Apply with a small brush. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. then coloring. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. as shown in Fig. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. 1 Fig. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. after folding along the center line. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. Make one-half of the design. then put on a second coat. Do not put the hands in the solution. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. 1 part nitric acid. With the metal shears. deep. Trace the design on the metal.FIG. With files. Fig. After this has dried. 3. which gives the outline of the design Fig. using a small metal saw. 2. then trace the other half in the usual way. Allow this to dry. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. The metal must be held firmly. but use a swab on a stick. 1. For coloring olive green. using carbon paper. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. being held perpendicular to the work. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. After the sawing. using turpentine.

Syracuse. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. --Contributed by H. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. thick. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. it does the work rapidly. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. Carl Cramer. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. After the stain has dried. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. then stain it a mahogany color. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. When this is cold. Cal. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. --Contributed by Katharine D. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. as shown. . Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. --Contributed by M. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. Richmond. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. M. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. Ii is an ordinary staple. New York. Morse. Burnett. on a chopping board. Conn. attach brass handles. East Hartford.

two stopcocks with 1/8 in. 53 steel pens. A. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. and several 1/8-in. also locate the drill holes. --Contributed by Mrs. Fig. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. Richmond. thick. about 3/16 in. brass. Kissimmee. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. indicating the depth of the slots. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. not over 1/4 in. thick and 4 in. one shaft. as shown in Fig. in width at the shank. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. Cal. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. --Contributed by W. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. WARNECKE Procure some brass. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. 1/4 in. Atwell. saucers or pans. two enameled. Florida. square. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. some pieces of brass.. H. 4. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. as shown at A. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. or tin. L. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. holes. Jaquythe. 1. machine screws. .

using two nuts on each screw. Fig.. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. A 3/4-in. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. 2. hole. as shown. These are connected to a 3/8-in. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. 3. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. 1. each about 1 in. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. thick. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. into the hole. can be procured. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. lead should be run into the segments. with the face of the disk. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. and pins inserted. machine screws and nuts. If metal dishes.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. as in Fig. in diameter and 1/32 in. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. wide. and the ends filed round for the bearings. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. 2. about 1/32 in. as shown in Fig. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. 5. wide and bend as shown in Fig. There should be a space of 1/16 in. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. hole in the center. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. machine screws. The shaft hole may also be filed square. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . The driven shaft should have a long bearing. 6. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. 3. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. a square shaft used. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. hole is drilled to run off the water. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. long and 5/16 in. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. brass and bolted to the casing. long by 3/4 in. Fig. Bend as shown in Fig. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. If the shaft is square. with a 3/8-in. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. with 1/8-in. supply pipe. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. Fig. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. 7. thick. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in.

Hamilton. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. --Contributed by F. Cooke. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. using four to each leg. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. or more in diameter. V. The lower part. deep over all. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. When assembling. Canada. 8-1/2 in. high and 15 in. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. square and 30-1/2 in.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. long. screws. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. Ill. Be sure to have the cover. The four legs are each 3/4-in. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. to make the bottom. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. we will call the basket. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. --Contributed by S. Now you will have the box in two pieces. deep and 1-1/4 in. from the top of the box. Smith. make these seams come between the two back legs. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. Fasten with 3/4-in. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. from the bottom end of the legs. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. La Salle. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. Stain the wood before putting in the . With a string or tape measure. three of which are in the basket. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base.

--also the lower edge when necessary. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible.2 Fig. 1. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. The folded part in the center is pasted together. The side. 2.lining. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . -Contributed by Stanley H. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. Packard. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. you can. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. Boston. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. If all the parts are well sandpapered. Cover them with the cretonne. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. wide. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. When making the display. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. wide and four strips 10 in. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. Mass. Md. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. and gather it at that point. Sew on to the covered cardboards. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. sewing on the back side. Baltimore. as shown in the sketch. Fig. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound.

are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. It is not difficult to . Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. saving all the solid part. Orlando Taylor. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. When through using the pad. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. L. --Contributed by H. Fig. Crockett. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. 3. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. Y. --Contributed by B. N. It is cleanly. and.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. Gloversville. with slight modifications. Mo. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. Cross Timbers. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home.

It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. Bourne.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. El Paso. --Contributed by Edith E. If a file is used. After stirring. Lowell. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . or if desired. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. and scrape out the rough parts. Texas. S. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. it should be new and sharp. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. -Contributed by C. remove the contents. Mass. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. are shown in the diagram. Both of these methods are wasteful. across the face. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. and secure it in place with glue or paste. After this is done. Lane.

After several hours' drying. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. Iowa. F. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. Des Moines. --Contributed by Loren Ward. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. Greenleaf. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible.cooking utensil. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. Ill. Oak Park. Oregon. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. --Contributed by Geo. Wheeler. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. A Postcard Rack [25]. circled over the funnel and disappeared. Ill. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. --Contributed by Marion P. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. Turl. He captured several pounds in a few hours. The insects came to the light. Those having houses . The illustration shows a rack for postcards. As these were single-faced disk records. Canton. The process works well and needs no watching. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel.

The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. and both exactly alike. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. and the second one for the developing bench. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. 6 in. the bottom being 3/8 in. boards are preferable. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. material. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. Lay the floor next. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. 6 in.. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. thick. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. Worcester. one on each side of what will be the . Mass. by 2 ft. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. --Contributed by Thomas E. Only three pieces are required. Both sides can be put together in this way. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. --Contributed by Wm. and as they are simple in design. Dobbins. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. Conn. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. Rosenberg. The single boards can then be fixed. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. not even with the boards themselves. Glenbrook. plane and pocket knife. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. the best material to use being matched boards. will do as well. but for cheapness 3/4 in..

and to the outside board of the sides. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. as shown in Figs. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. and should be zinc lined. The roof boards may next be put on. It is shown in detail in Fig. so that the water will drain off into the sink. etc. 10). which is fixed on as shown . A shelf for bottles and another for plates. Fig. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. hinged to it. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. nailing them to each other at the ridge. 2 in section. by screwing to the floor. At the top of the doorway. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig.. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig.. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. wide. 8. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. 5. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door.doorway. 3 and 4. the closing side as at B. The developing bench is 18 in. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. 9 by 11 in. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. of the top of the door for the same reason. and in the middle an opening. brown wrapping paper. so that it will fit inside the sink.. 6. 6. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. below which is fixed the sink. 11. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. and the top as at C in the same drawing. 9). and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. 7. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. In hinging the door. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. 6 and 9. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. and act as a trap for the light. is cut.

Details of the Dark Rook .

which makes it possible to have white light. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. 16. 16. 18. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. Fig. Fig. as at I. The house will be much strengthened if strips. if desired. though this is hardly advisable. Erie. Karl Hilbrich. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. 2. screwing them each way into the boards. 15. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. are fastened in the corners inside. 13. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. or red light as at K. as at M. 14. preferably maple or ash. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. 20. In use. as shown in the sections. these being shown in Fig. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. but not the red glass and frame. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above.in Fig. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. 1. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. 17. as shown in Fig. The handle should be at least 12 in. For beating up an egg in a glass. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. and a tank stand on it. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. Fig. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. after lining with brown paper. or the room may be made with a flat roof. 13. and a 3/8-in. four coats at first is not too many. 19. Fig. Pennsylvania. mixing flour and water. --Contributed by W. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. 6. as in Fig. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. it is better than anything on the market. hole bored in the center for a handle. A circular piece about 2 in.

about 3/8 in. which. for a handle. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. Yonkers. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. Schweiger. Kansas City. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. --Contributed by Wm. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. Eureka Springs. -Contributed by E. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. L. G. To operate. Mo. New York. when put together properly is a puzzle. D. Mitchell. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. as shown in the sketch. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. Ark. long.copper should be. Smith. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. --Contributed by L.

to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. A number of 1/2-in. . and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. especially for filling-in purposes. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. need them. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. holes should be drilled in the bottom. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. as shown in Fig. 3. Each cork is cut as in Fig. The corks in use are shown in Fig. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. 2. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. as shown in Fig. in order to thoroughly preserve it. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. the rustic work should be varnished. the box will require a greater height in front. Having completed the bare box. The design shown in Fig. as is usually the case. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. for the moment. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. to make it set level. as well as improve its appearance. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. which binds them together. 3. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. After the box is trimmed. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. If the sill is inclined. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. 1 is very simple and easy to construct.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. 1. One form of panel design is shown in Fig.

THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. and observe results. But I have solved the difficulty. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. 1. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. can't use poison. life in the summer time is a vexation. too dangerous. etc. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. cabbages. They eat all they can and carry away the rest.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. . 3. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. 4. it's easy. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. 2. share the same fate. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. When the corn is gone cucumbers. drilled at right angles. as shown in Fig. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. Traps do no good. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. F. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. being partly eaten into. Each long projection represents a leg.. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs.

Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. strips. -. the coil does not heat sufficiently. by trial. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. long. and made up and kept in large bottles. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. If. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. Iowa. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. cut in 1/2-in. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. . cut some of it off and try again. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. About 9-1/2 ft. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. of No. The solution can be used over and over again. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections.

C. Pa. --Contributed by James M. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. N. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. as shown in the sketch. Syracuse. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. forks. hot-water pot. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. is a good size--in this compound. Doylestown. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. Stir and mix thoroughly. Texas. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. to cause the door to swing shut. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. Fig 2. . and the dog has locked himself in for the night. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. of gasoline. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. coffee pot. In cleaning silver. Morse. Do not wash them. --Contributed by Katharine D. and a strip. Y. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. but with unsatisfactory results. of oleic acid with 1 gal. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. D. Knives. 1) removed. Dallas. it falls to stop G. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. Kane. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. of whiting and 1/2 oz.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in.

Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. Pa. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. New Orleans. which is. Ill. Waverly. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. --Contributed by Oliver S. --Contributed by Theodore L. later fixed and washed as usual. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. but unfixed. Harrisburg. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. using the paper dry. of course. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. . They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. La. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . Sprout. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. negatives. Fisher. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed.

a harmonograph is a good prescription. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. then . Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. To obviate this difficulty. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. metal. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. 1. In this uncertainty lies the charm. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. Fig. The harmonograph. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E.

with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. The length of the short pendulum H.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. Holes up to 3 in. and unless the shorter pendulum is. G. Another weight of about 10 lb. of about 30 or 40 lb. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. provides a means of support for the stylus. exactly one-third. 1. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. as shown in Fig. in diameter. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. K. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. or the lines will overlap and blur. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. to prevent any side motion. what is most important. Ingham. for instance. as shown in the lower part of Fig. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. is about right for a 10-ft. --Contributed by James T.. etc. makes respectively 3. A weight. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. that is. J. Gaffney. which can be regulated. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. one-fourth. Rosemont.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. A length of 7 ft. is attached as shown at H. with a nail set or punch. --Contributed by Wm. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. 1-3/4 by 2 in. Punch a hole. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. ceiling. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. one-fifth. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane.. Arizona. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. A pedestal. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. in the center of the circle to be cut. R. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. A small table or platform. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. 1. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. such as a shoe buttoner. as long as the other. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. Chicago. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. A small weight.

A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. --Contributed by J. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. and 4 as in Fig. then 3 as in Fig. 1. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. 2. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. N. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side.H. Cruger. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. one for the sender and one for the receiver. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block.J. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. 3. The two key cards are made alike. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. Chicago. distributing them over the whole card. Fig.J. 5. The capacity of the vise. Fig. then put 2 at the top. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. a correspondent of . Morey. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. 6. of course. -Contributed by W. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. Cape May City. dividing them into quarters. and proceed as before. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. 4.

The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. If constructed of the former. 6 gauge wires shown. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. citrate of iron and ammonia. long. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. Alberta Norrell. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. 22 gauge German-silver wire. Cut through the center. wood-screws. After securing the tint desired. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. from the top and bottom. remove the prints. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. drill 15 holes. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. of ferricyanide of potash. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. Ga. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. Asbestos board is to be preferred. of the uprights. 30 gr. deep. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. 1/4 in. sheet of well made asbestos paper. of 18-per-cent No. Wind the successive turns of . The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. After preparing the base and uprights. acetic acid and 4 oz. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. the portion of the base under the coil. Augusta. says Popular Electricity. --Contributed by L. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. 1/2 oz. of water. respectively. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. To assemble. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr.

A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. etc. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. cut and dressed 1/2 in. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. rivets. Ampere.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. The case may be made of 1/2-in. but these are not necessary. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. as they are usually thrown away when empty. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material.. which. Small knobs may be added if desired. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. N. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. 16 gauge copper wire. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. screws. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. if one is not a smoker. Y. Ward. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. then fasten the upright in place. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. Labels of some kind are needed. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. 14 gauge. square. --Contributed by Frederick E.

--Contributed by A. especially if a large tub is used. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. tinner's acid. This is considerable annoyance. Copper. B. --Contributed by W.. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. zinc. a piece of solder. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. it must be ground or filed to a point. then to the joint to be soldered. or has become corroded. and rub the point of the copper on it. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. brass. lead. --C. and one made of poplar finished black. tin. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. The parts are put together with dowel pins. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. Heat it until hot (not red hot). sandpaper or steel wool. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. as shown in the sketch. the pure muriatic acid should be used. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. Ark. and labeled "Poison. galvanized iron. of glycerine to 16 oz. G. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. Wis. particularly so when the iron has once been used. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. California. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. In soldering galvanized iron. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. The material can be of any wood.14 oz. Jaquythe. C. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. Richmond. . as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. If the soldering copper is an old one. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. Kenosha. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. of water. Larson. Eureka Springs. being careful about the heat. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. A. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. E and F. S. D.

which gives two bound volumes each year. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. 7/8 in. thick and 1-1/4 in. nut. a ring may be made from any metal. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. This completes the die. Fig. Brass rings can be plated when finished. 2. brass and silver. Take a 3/4-in. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. with good results. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. however. D. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. round iron. Six issues make a well proportioned book. in diameter. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. wide. Place the band. N. This will leave a clear hole. The covers of the magazines are removed. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. such as copper. The metal used should be about 1/16 in.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. Troy. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. -Contributed by H. W. 1. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. I bind my magazines at home evenings. The dimensions shown in Fig. Apart from this. and drill out the threads. The punch A. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. in diameter. Hankin. Fig. B. C. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. The disk will come out pan shaped. Y.

making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. which is fastened the same as the first. 1. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. Coarse white thread. Five cuts. using . which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. 1. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. The covering should be cut out 1 in. threaded double. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. and then to string No. . longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. is nailed across the top. After drawing the thread tightly. size 16 or larger. The covering can be of cloth. and place them against the strings in the frame. allowing about 2 in. 1. The string No. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. deep. then back through the notch on the right side. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. 2. 1 in Fig. and a third piece.4. 5. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. The sections are then prepared for sewing. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. 2. through the notch on the left side of the string No. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. Place the cardboard covers on the book. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. Start with the front of the book. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. on all edges except the back. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. is used for the sewing material. If started with the January or the July issue. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. as shown in Fig. of the ends extending on each side. C. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. 1/8 in.

The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. For the blade an old talking-machine . --Contributed by Clyde E. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. College View. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. Divine. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. at opposite sides to each other. and mark around each one. and. Cal. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. round iron. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. Encanto. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. on which to hook the blade. Nebr. Place the cover on the book in the right position. Tinplate. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge.

Moorhead.. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. and file in the teeth. and 1/4 in. On the upper side.. with a steel sleeve. C. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. thick. by 4-1/2 in. F. thick. -Contributed by Willard J. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. and another piece (B) 6 in. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. long. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). Miss. Then on the board put . Ohio. and 1/4 in. at the same end. or double extra heavy. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. B. Hays. E. as shown. Make the blade 12 in. with 10 teeth to the inch. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. fuse hole at D.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. and a long thread plug. by 1 in. Summitville. hydraulic pipe. in order to drill the holes in the ends. as it is sometimes called. A. bore. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in.

Philadelphia. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. some sheet copper or brass for plates. of rubber-covered wire. Connect up as shown. A lid may be added if desired. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. high around this apparatus. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. as from batteries. Boyd. and some No. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. If you are going to use a current of low tension. the jars need not be very large. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. about 5 ft. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . --Contributed by Chas. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. of wire to each coil. using about 8 in. 4 jars. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. H.

The current then will flow through the motor. 2 and 3. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. The illustration shows how to shape it. Their size also depends on the voltage. as they are not substantial enough. gives full current and full speed. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. 1. with the cushion about 15 in. 3 in. 15-1/2 in. In proportioning them the points A. 1 and so on for No.. C. C. by 2 in. The connection between point No. wide and 2 in. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. sheet brass 1 in. 3 and No. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. B. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. 2. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. Construct the auto front (Fig. 4 in. & S. wide by 3/4 in.the way. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. are important. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. by 1-1/4 in. 5 on switch. 4) of 3/4-in. on No.. oak boards. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. 27 B. The top disk in jar No. above the ground. square by 14 ft. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. 2 in. by 1 in. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. or source of current. A 3/4-in.. See Fig. Use no screws on the running surface. apart. 2 is lower down than in No. First sandpaper all the wood. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. Put arm of switch on point No. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. two for each jar. thick. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled.. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. direct to wire across jars. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. To wire the apparatus. The sled completed should be 15 ft. Use no nails. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. by 5 in. B and C. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. 30 in. and bolt through. 1 on switch. 2. long. No. 2. however. then apply a coat of thin enamel. beginning at the rear. by 6 in. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. long. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. two pieces 14 in. two pieces 34 in. 4. A variation of 1/16 in. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. by 2 in. On the door of the auto front put the . The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. by 5 in. long by 22 in. The stock required for them is oak. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. two pieces 30 in. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. At the front 24 or 26 in.. Z. wide and 3/4 in. Equip block X with screw eyes. as they "snatch" the ice. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. 34 in. B. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. 16-1/2 in. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. . making them clear those in the front runner. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. steel rod makes a good steering rod. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. For the front runners these measurements are: A. Fig. wide. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. long. long. by 1-1/4 in. An iron washer. 7 in. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. 3. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. is used to reduce friction. 11 in.. and plane it on all edges. and four pieces 14 in. 1 is connected to point No. thick. and for the rear runners: A.. For the brass trimmings use No.

This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. If the expense is greater than one can afford. Fasten a horn. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. If desired. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. brass plated. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. a brake may be added to the sled. such as burlap. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. overshoes.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. to improve the appearance. to the wheel. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. If desired. cutting it out of sheet brass. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. a number of boys may share in the ownership. Then get some upholstery buttons. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. long. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. lunch. such as used on automobiles. by 1/2 in. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . or with these for $25. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. by 30 in. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. may be stowed within. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. which is somewhat moist. fasten a cord through the loop. parcels. cheap material. The best way is to get some strong. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. etc.

. Ill.tree and bring. --Contributed by Stewart H. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. Leland. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. Lexington. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written.

should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. The straight-edge. With no other tools than a hacksaw. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. the same diameter as the wheel. The Model Engineer. Draw a circle on paper. with twenty-four teeth. so that the center of the blade. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. from F to G. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. will be over the line FG. Fig. made from 1/16-in. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. which. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. outside diameter and 1/16 in. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. say 1 in. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. when flat against it. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. 4). In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. E. Fig. CD. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. London. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. Fig. some files. First take the case of a small gearwheel. This guide should have a beveled edge. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. 1. by drawing diameters. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. The first tooth may now be cut. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. FC. A small clearance space. thick. mild steel or iron. sheet metal. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. a compass. the cut will be central on the line. 3. though more difficult. 2.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill.

Make a hole in the other. 1. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. hold in one hand. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. R. as shown in Fig. Then take one outlet wire. and the other outlet wire. electric lamp. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. A bright. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. as shown in Fig. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. each in the center. some wire and some carbons. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. as shown in Fig. No shock will be perceptible. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. B. B. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. Focus the camera in the usual manner. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. either the pencils for arc lamps. If there is no faucet in the house. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. ground it with a large piece of zinc. 1. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. . 2. transmitter. or several pieces bound tightly together. place the prepared slide with the corner cut.Four Photos on One Plate of them.

by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. one at the receiver can hear what is said. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. If desired. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. B. serves admirably. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . Pa. A is a wooden block. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. and about that size. and again wind the wire around it. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. leaving about 10 in. a transmitter which induces no current is used. and will then burn the string C. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. But in this experiment. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. Several battery cells. Dry batteries are most convenient. D D are binding posts for electric wires. 36 wire around it. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. under the gable. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. as shown. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. Slattery. One like a loaf of bread. by 1 in. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. as indicated by E E. --Contributed by Geo. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. J. Ashland. For a base use a pine board 10 in. Wrenn. Then set the whole core away to dry. at each end for terminals. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. or more of the latter has been used. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. They have screw ends. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. by 12 in. Ohio. Emsworth. are also needed. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. of course. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient.

as shown. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. while C is open. and one single post switch. 1. and the lamps. 12 or No. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. 2. Jr. These should have hollow ends. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. Fig. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. B B. in parallel. the terminal of the coil. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. C. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. From the other set of binding-posts. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. At one side secure two receptacles.. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. Fig. Turn on switch. The oven is now ready to be connected. E. as shown. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. 14 wire. Connect these three to switch. connecting lamp receptacles. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. First make a support. run a No.wire. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. F. in series with bindingpost. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. Ohio. until the hand points to zero on the scale. B B. Newark. The apparatus is now ready for operation. for the . and switch. C. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. D. D. Place 16-cp. The coil will commence to become warm. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C.

wide and 1-3/4 in. deep. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. At a point a little above the center. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. drill through the entire case and valve. from the lower end. Fig. 3. 7. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. long. etc. Fig. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. to prevent it turning on the axle. D. Dussault. 6. long and make a loop. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. as shown in the cut. The box is 5-1/2 in. Fig. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. is then made and provided with a glass front. 4 amperes. drill in only to the opening already through. wind with plenty of No. a standard ammeter. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. After drilling.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. D. 14 wire. is made of wire. a variable resistance. high. 14. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. To make one. remove the valve. is made of iron. thick.or 4-way valve or cock. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D.E. 4. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. The core. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. 5. long. 1/2 in. but if for a 4way. --Contributed by J. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. If for 3-way. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. C. Montreal. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. 36 magnet wire instead of No. It is 1 in. 1. a battery. 2. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. This is slipped on the pivot. and D. where A is the homemade ammeter. Mine is wound with two layers of No. E. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. 3 amperes. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. 5. until the scale is full. The pointer or hand. drill a hole as shown at H. 1. wide and 1/8 in. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument.. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. 10 turns to each layer. inside measurements. A wooden box. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. although copper or steel will do. 1/4 in. Fig. 4 in. This may be made of wood. B. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . although brass is better.

The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. One wire runs to the switch. in thickness . The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. By connecting the motor. high. as shown. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators.performing electrical experiments. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. making two holes about 1/4 in. E. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. A. which is used for reducing the current. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. in diameter. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. D. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. B. and the arc light. and a metal rod. and the other connects with the water rheostat. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. F. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. provided with a rubber stopper. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. This stopper should be pierced. To start the light. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in.

Carthage. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. 1. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. 1. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. Y. Fig. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. Jones.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. Having fixed the lead plate in position. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. as shown in B. --Contributed by Harold L. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. A piece of wood. 1. where he is placed in an upright open . This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. 2. Fig. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. N. Fig. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. If all adjustments are correct. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. To insert the lead plate. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. As there shown. A. Having finished the interrupter. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. long. If the interrupter does not work at first. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. Fig. 2. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. as shown in C. Turn on the current and press the button. B.

giving a limp. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. figures and lights. The model. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. the illusion will be spoiled. and wave his arms up and down. should be miniature electric lamps. A. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. with the exception of the glass. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. A white shroud is thrown over his body. within the limits of an ordinary room. They need to give a fairly strong light. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. is constructed as shown in the drawings. as the entire interior. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. which can be run by three dry cells. by 7-1/2 in. If everything is not black. from which the gong has been removed. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. especially the joints and background near A. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. could expect from a skeleton. light-colored garments. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. The skeleton is made of papier maché. dressed in brilliant. inside dimensions. and can be bought at Japanese stores. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. loosejointed effect.. by 7 in. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. L and M. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. especially L. to aid the illusion. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. Its edges should nowhere be visible. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. All . high. If it is desired to place the box lower down. The lights. should be colored a dull black. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. The glass should be the clearest possible.coffin. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. until it is dark there. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. and must be thoroughly cleansed. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass.

Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. W. Two finishing nails were driven in. If a gradual transformation is desired. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. --Contributed by Geo. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. Fry. Cal. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. square block. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. fat spark. after which it assumes its normal color. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. placed about a foot apart. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. as shown in the sketch. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth.that is necessary is a two-point switch. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. San Jose.

The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. 1. or a solution of sal soda. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. the remaining space will be filled with air. F. One of these plates is connected to metal top. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. hydrogen gas is generated. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. and should be separated about 1/8 in. This is a wide-mouth bottle.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. The plates are separated 6 in. -Contributed by Dudley H. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. soldered in the top. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. with two tubes. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. New York. B and C. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. If a lighted match . by small pieces of wood. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. to make it airtight. In Fig. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. into the receiver G. In Fig. A (see sketch). Cohen. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. as shown.

copper pipe. A nipple. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. either by passing a current of electricity around it. A piece of 1/8-in. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. long. is made by drilling a 1/8in. of No. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. copper pipe. A. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. N. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. which is plugged up at both ends. by means of the clips. in diameter and 6 in. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. The distance between the nipple. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. P. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. Fig. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. says the Model Engineer. A. 1. 1/2 in. If desired. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. from the bottom. N. then a suitable burner is necessary. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. One row is drilled to come directly on top. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. C C. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. long. A. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. 36 insulated wire.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. London. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. should be only 5/16 of an inch. A. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. 2 shows the end view. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. as is shown in the illustration. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. 1-5/16 in. and the ends of the tube. Fig. B. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. is then coiled around the brass tube. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. or by direct contact with another magnet. A 1/64-in. which forms the vaporizing coil.

long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. about 8 or 10 in. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. boards and all. Fig. trim both ends and the front edge. A disk of thin sheet-iron. with a fine saw. 2). duck or linen. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. 1/4 in. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. at the front and back for fly leaves. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. should be cut to the diameter of the can. Take two strips of stout cloth. leaving the folded edge uncut. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. Fig. smoothing and creasing as shown at A.lamp cord. longer and 1/4 in. taking care not to bend the iron. but if the paper knife cannot be used. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. Fig. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. cut to the size of the pages. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. smoothly. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. 3. this makes a much nicer book. Cut four pieces of cardboard. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. 1. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. fold and cut it 1 in. Turn the book over and paste the other side. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. larger all around than the book.

is soldered onto tank A. of tank A is cut a hole. Ont. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. without a head. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. Toronto. 4). This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. as shown. is made the same depth as B. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. in diameter and 30 in. Bedford City. the joint will be gas tight. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. deep. or rather the top now. which will just slip inside the little can. B. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. is fitted in it and soldered. is perforated with a number of holes. A gas cock. --Contributed by Joseph N. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. Parker. but its diameter is a little smaller. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. and a little can. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. . Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. Another tank. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. This will cause some air to be enclosed. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. H. A. 18 in. D. C. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. Noble. is turned on it. --Contributed by James E. pasting them down (Fig. Another can. as shown in the sketch. In the bottom. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. Va. E.

The bridle knots. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. with an electric-bell magnet. when finished. making the width. square by 42 in. 1. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. S.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. The longitudinal corner spines. B. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. should be cut a little too long. Beverly. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. If the pushbutton A is closed. and about 26 in. H is a square knot. which may be either spruce. J. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. The small guards. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. A. exactly 12 in. C. If the back armature. tacks. should be 3/8 in. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. by 1/2 in. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. long. B. fastened in the bottom. D. N. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. D. to prevent splitting. thus adjusting the . of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. and the four diagonal struts.. Bott. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. long. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. The wiring diagram. B. The armature. basswood or white pine. are shown in detail at H and J. The diagonal struts. as shown at C. Fig. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. A A. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. should be 1/4 in. 2. which moves to either right or left. shows how the connections are to be made. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. E. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. and sewed double to give extra strength. -Contributed by H. Fig.

E. thus shortening G and lengthening F. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. the batteries do not run down for a long time. Stoddard. --Contributed by A. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. with gratifying results. A bowline knot should be tied at J. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. can be made of a wooden . and. --Contributed by Edw. Chicago. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. that refuse to slide easily. and if a strong wind is blowing. to prevent slipping. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. D. as shown. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. Kan. shift toward F. for producing electricity direct from heat. Harbert. Clay Center. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. however.lengths of F and G. If the kite is used in a light wind. Closing either key will operate both sounders.

The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. F. E. A. C. --Contributed by A. to the cannon. by means of machine screws or. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries.. Fasten a piece of wood. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. with a pocket compass. or parallel with the compass needle. in position. and also holds the pieces of wood. 14 or No. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. Then. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. 16 single-covered wire. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. Chicago.frame. C. When the cannon is loaded. B. A. C. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. spark. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . The wood screw. A. placed on top. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. A and B. D. E. and the current may then be detected by means. with a number of nails. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. which conducts the current into the cannon. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore.

1. press the button. to receive the screw in the center. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. --Contributed by Henry Peck. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. Ohio. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. To reverse. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. Fig. in this position the door is locked. when in position at A'. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. --Contributed by Joseph B. A and S. 1. A. To unlock the door. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. Fig. square and 3/8 in. To lock the door. In Fig. Connect as shown in the illustration. H. Bend the strips BB (Fig. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. 1. A hole for a 1/2 in. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. with the long arm at L'. B. A and S. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. where there is a staple. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. within the reach of the magnet. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. Keil. now at A' and S'. Marion. . L. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. screw is bored in the block. Chicago. requiring a strong magnet. Big Rapids. but no weights or strings. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest.the current is shut off. Mich.

Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. When ready for use. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. and C is a dumbbell. The standard and base. gas-pipe. long. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. Thread the other end of the pipe. J. are enameled a jet black. about 18 in. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. and may be made at very slight expense. When the holes are finished and your lines set. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. if enameled white on the concave side. Rand. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. or for microscopic work. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. pipe with 1-2-in. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. and if desired the handles may . put in the handle. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. --Contributed by C. West Somerville. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. hole. Mass.

Any old pail which is thick enough will do. with a cover. D. Warren. across. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. B. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end.be covered with leather. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. Make a cylindrical core of wood. 1. Mass. North Easton. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. This peculiar property is also found in ice. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. high by 1 ft. inside the pail. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. M. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. across.. A. 8 in. as shown at A in the sketch. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . which shall project at least 2 in. Fig. 1. Fig. long and 8 in. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. E. --Contributed by C.

The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. full length of iron core. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. C. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. and on it set the paper wrapped core. layer of the clay mixture. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln.mixture of clay. carefully centering it. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. C. Fig. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. thick. as is shown in the sketch. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. and your kiln is ready for business. in diameter. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. W. It is placed inside the kiln. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. wider than the kiln. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. strip of sheet iron. Fit all the parts together snugly. Wind about 1/8 in. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. if you have the materials. pipe. and 3/8 in.-G. passing wire nails through and clinching them. to hold the clay mixture. of fine wire. diameter. and with especial caution the first time. which is the hottest part. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. the firing should be gradual. long over the lid hole as a chimney. let this dry thoroughly. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. the point of the blue flame. make two wood ends. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. 25%. in diameter. and cut it 3-1/2 in. 1330°. long. L. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. If the cover of the pail has no rim. 60%. thick. 15%. pipe 2-ft. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. projecting from each end (Fig. but it will burn a great deal of gas. The 2 in. After finishing the core. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. When lighted.. After removing all the paper. 1390°-1410°. hotel china. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. 2.. 1). of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. or make one yourself. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. say 1/4 in. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. Cover with paper and shellac as before. This done. 1). bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. but will be cheaper in operation. and varnish. and 3/4 in. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. cutting the hole a little smaller. bottom and sides. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. 2 in. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. Whatever burner is used. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. as dictated by fancy and expense. such . allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. Line the pail. if there is to be any glazing done. E. and graphite.. pack this space-top. Set aside for a few days until well dried. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. about 1 in. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. C. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. sand. 3) with false top and bottom. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. hard porcelain.

2. square them up and place in a vise. and divide it into two piles. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. C. Then.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. all cards facing the same way.53 in. as in Fig. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. Take the red cards. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. B. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. The funnel. length of . 8 in. and so on. C. procure a new deck. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. with a plane. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. R. and plane off about 1/16 in. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. square them up. 1. Washington. red and black. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. Then take the black cards. the next black. 2. . and discharges into the tube. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. 2). Next restore all the cards to one pack. as shown in the sketch herewith. about 1/16 in. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. You can display either color called for. T. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. Of course. --Contributed by J. A. around the coil. Chicago. as in Fig. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. leaving long terminals. overlaps and rests on the body.. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. every alternate card being the same color. diameter. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. C. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. taking care to have the first card red. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. bind tightly with black silk. D.

Long Branch. B. The upright pieces. 1 gill of fine white sand. C. and this is inexpensive to build. B. of the frame. E. To find the fall of snow. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. Fig. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. When the glass is put in the frame a space. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. through the holes already drilled.. the first thing to decide on is the size. 1 gill of litharge. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. N. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. to form a dovetail joint as shown. It should be placed in an exposed location. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. so that when they are assembled. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. The cement. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. stove bolts. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. A. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. stove bolts. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass.J.C. as the difficulties increase with the size. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. Let . All the horizontal pieces. Drill all the horizontal pieces. D. thus making all the holes coincide. angle iron for the frame. E. the same ends will come together again. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. about 20 in. 1. B. A. F. The bottom glass should be a good fit. and then the frame is ready to assemble.

Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. Fasten the lever. A. and. to the door knob. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . on the door by means of a metal plate. Fig. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. D. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. B. having a swinging connection at C. if desired. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. a centerpiece (A. Aquarium Finished If desired. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown.

nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. hoping it may solve the same question for them. Fig. from the outside top of the frame. D. 1 . Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. wide . screwed to the door frame. several lengths of scantling 3 in. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. White. Fig. To make the frame. will open the door about 1/2 in. which is 15 in. 1. and Fig. Fig. They are shown in Fig. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. and another. long. B. WINTER In these days of modern improvements.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. for the top. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. Fig. 6 in.. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. wide by 1 in. --Contributed by Orton E. 1 is the motor with one side removed. long. 26 in. another. Cut two of them 4 ft. according to the slant given C. to form the slanting part. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. with a water pressure of 70 lb. E. showing the paddle-wheel in position. Two short boards 1 in. N. I referred this question to my husband. soldered to the end of the cylinder. another. C. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. 2 ft. A small piece of spring brass. Buffalo. as at E. approximately 1 ft. PAUL S. F. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. 2 at GG. Y. AA. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. 2 is an end view. Do not fasten these boards now. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. thus doing away with the spring. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. 1. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. long. Fig. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. to form the main supports of the frame. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. 3 shows one of the paddles. long. Cut two pieces 30 in. to keep the frame from spreading. but mark their position on the frame. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. Fig.

the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. Make this hole conical. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. 2) and another 1 in. Drill 1/8-in. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. (I. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. long and filling it with babbitt metal. from one end by means of a key. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. thick (HH. thick. Take the side pieces. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. to a full 1/2 in. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. as shown in Fig. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. 4. GG. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. Fig. These are the paddles. Next secure a 5/8-in. long to the wheel about 8 in. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. holes. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. hole to form the bearings. Tack one side on. When it has cooled. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. Fig. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. pipe. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. 24 in. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. take down the crosspieces.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. 1. iron. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. in diameter. remove the cardboard. hole through the exact center of the wheel. Now block the wheel. by 1-1/2 in. 2) with a 5/8-in. and drill a 1-in. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces.along the edges under the zinc to form . hole from the tops to the 1-in. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. hole through them.burlap will do -. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. and a 1/4 -in. hole through their sides centrally. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. that is. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. and drill a 1/8-in. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. 2) form a substantial base. iron 3 by 4 in. hole through its center. Fasten them in their proper position. tapering from 3/16 in. after which drill a 5/8 in. Fig. with the wheel and shaft in place. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). then drill a 3/16-in. steel shaft 12 in. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in.

remove any white curtains there may be. . the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. If sheet-iron is used. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. drill press. any window will do. sewing machine. shutting out all light from above and the sides. and leave them for an hour or so. start the motor. of course. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. Correct exposure depends. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. and the subject may move. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. The best plate to use is a very slow one. If the bearings are now oiled. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. but as it would have cost several times as much. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. says the Photographic Times. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. but now I put them in the machine. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. place the outlet over a drain. it would be more durable. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. Drill a hole through the zinc. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. as this makes long exposure necessary.a water-tight joint. ice-cream freezer. Darken the rest of the window. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. Focus the camera carefully. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. and as near to it as possible. light and the plate. on the lens. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. It is obvious that. as shown in the sketch at B. Do not stop down the lens. Raise the window shade half way. or what is called a process plate.

is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. On completing . Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. a glass tube. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. which is made of iron and cork. with binding posts as shown. or wood. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. The core C. a core. The glass tube may be a test tube. 2. B. C. D. The current required is very small. A. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. without detail in the face. and without fog. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. or an empty developer tube. 2. hard rubber. With a piece of black paper. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. as a slight current will answer. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. an empty pill bottle may be used. full of water. as shown in Fig. or can be taken from an old magnet. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. the core is drawn down out of sight. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. until the core slowly rises. by twisting. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. and a base. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink.

whale oil. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. and are changed by reversing the rotation. This is a mysterious looking instrument. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. 1 pt. finest graphite. water and 3 oz. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. 1. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. according to his control of the current. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. 1 lb. and one not easy to explain. The colors appear different to different people. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. is Benham's color top. and make a pinhole in the center. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. white lead. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected.

B. In prize games. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. when the action ceases. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. As this device is easily upset. especially if the deck is a new one. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. In making hydrogen. fan-like. which is then replaced in any part of the pack.. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. A. before cutting. C. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. Chicago. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. B. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. deuce. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done.L. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. or three spot.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. thus partly filling bottles A and C. -Contributed by D. nearly every time. and asks an observer to withdraw a card.

long. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. 1. 2. W. Jr. Huron. in length and 3 in. --Contributed by F. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. . Form a cone of heavy paper. --Contributed by C. Make a 10-sided stick. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. 12 in. 10 in.. as shown in Fig. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. Detroit. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. Detail of Phonograph Horn . 3). 4. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A.. Fig. J. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. in diameter. long and 3 in. S. (Fig. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. 9 in. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. Fig. that will fit loosely in the tube A. Bently. Dak. S.

push back the bolt. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. E. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. allowing 1 in. long. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. Cut out paper sections (Fig.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. bend it at right angles throughout its length. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. about the size of a leadpencil. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. C. 6. A. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. with a pin driven in each end. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. Remove the form. A second piece of silk thread. Fig. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. will cause an increased movement of C. Fortunately. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. making it three-ply thick. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. Denver. and walk in. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. it is equally easy to block that trick. on one side and the top. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . Fasten the sections all around in like manner. but bends toward D. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. A piece of tin. --Contributed by Reader.

are made 2 by 4 in. The upper switch.. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. long. R. Minn. long. --Contributed by J. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. will last for several years. as shown. and rest on a brick placed under each end. A. S. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. S S. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. B. By this arrangement one. while the lower switch. The 2 by 4-in. S. is connected each point to a battery. or left to right. Paul. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. posts. W. Fremont Hilscher. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. are 7 ft. West St. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. 4 ft. The feet. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . B.. The reverse switch. put together as shown in the sketch. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire.strip. Jr. Two wood-base switches.

The hose E connects to the boiler. the other parts being used for the bearing B. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel.every house. or anything available. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. The base is made of wood. pulley wheel. and a cylindrical . and has two wood blocks. which is made of tin. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. 2. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. Fig. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. In Fig. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. and in Fig. The piston is made of a stove bolt. which will be described later. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. and the crank bearing C. thick. E. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. 3/8 in. cut in half. 2 and 3. H and K. the size of the hole in the bearing B. either an old sewing-machine wheel. FF. The valve motion is shown in Figs. Fig. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. 1. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. The steam chest D. with two washers. and valve crank S. is an old bicycle pump.

Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. Cal. This is wound with soft string. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. G. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. and a very amusing trick. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. G. This engine was built by W. The boiler. or galvanized iron. W. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. as it is merely a trick of photography. Eustice. is cut out of tin. First. Fig. 3. 4. and saturated with thick oil. powder can. of Cuba. as shown in Fig. using the positive wire as a pen. and the desired result is obtained. C. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. can be an old oil can.piece of hard wood. The valve crank S. J. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. Fig. Wis. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. San Jose. --Contributed by Geo. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. . Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. 1. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. Schuh and A. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. Fry. at that. to receive the connecting rod H.

but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. as shown at AA. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. Cut half circles out of each stave. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. as shown. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. B. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. Fig. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. Fig. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. and pass ropes around . 1 by covering up Figs. and Fig. Fig. They may be of any size. and place a bell on the four ends. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. B. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. to cross in the center. C. 1 will be seen to rotate. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. When turning. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. diameter. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. The smaller wheel. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved.

having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. St. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. --Contributed by H. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry.. from the transmitter. From a piece of thin . thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. This in turn will act on the transmitter. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. produces a higher magnifying power). W.M. which allows the use of small sized ropes. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. Mo. Louis.G. To make this lensless microscope. A (a short spool. such as clothes lines. which accounts for the sound. as shown in the illustration. procure a wooden spool. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. but not on all. long.

To use this microscope. by means of brads. An innocent-looking drop of water. and so on. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. held at arm's length. C. The spring. is fastened at each end by pins. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. B. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. the diameter will appear twice as large. bent as shown. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. place a small object on the transparent disk. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. B. 3. is made of iron. which may be moistened to make the object adhere..) But an object 3/4-in. i. Viewed through this microscope. 2. A. the object should be of a transparent nature. 1. The lever. fastened to a wooden base. . the diameter will appear three times as large. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. if the distance is reduced to one-half. which costs little or nothing to make. otherwise the image will be blurred. (The area would appear 64 times as large. Fig. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. H. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. e. as in all microscopes of any power. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. or 64 times. darting across the field in every direction. It is very important that the hole D should be very small.. and at the center. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. can be made of brass and the armature. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. in which hay has been soaking for several days. E. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. The pivot. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. and look through the hole D. C. D. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. cut out a small disk. if the distance is reduced to one-third. D. which are pieces of hard wood.

wide. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. long and 14-1/2 in. wide. which are made to receive a pivot. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. K. is cut from a board about 36 in. wide. C. B. wood. wide and set in between sides AA. B. The binding posts. F. in length and 16 in. HH. wood: F. or a single piece. A switch. 1. The base of the key. DD. 26 wire: E. E. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood.SOUNDER-A. K. connection of D to nail. Cut the top. and are connected to the contacts. FF. nail soldered on A. D. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. long by 16 in. can be made panel as shown. The door. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. thick. long. . soft iron. 2. AA. coils wound with No. fastened near the end. Fig. 16 in. wide. wood: C. D. KEY-A. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. brass: E. brass or iron soldered to nail. or taken from a small one-point switch. between the armature and the magnet. brass: B. Fig. C. The back. wide and about 20 in. Each side. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. should be about 22 in. D. A. 16 in. binding posts: H spring The stop. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. similar to the one used in the sounder. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. brass.

--Contributed by Carl Formhals. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. E. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. long. as shown in the sketch. Garfield. In operation. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. brads.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. 2 and made from 1/4-in. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. material. cut in them. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. When the electrical waves strike the needle. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in.. as shown. AA. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. Ill. Make 12 cleats. 13-1/2 in. with 3/4-in.

Pushing the wire. --Contributed by John Koehler. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. down into the water increases the surface in contact. A fairly stiff spring. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. Brown. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. The cord is also fastened to a lever. Fairport. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . through which a piece of wire is passed.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. A. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. B. filled with water. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. the magnet. and thus decreases the resistance. and. when used with a motor. A. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. When the pipe is used. N. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. J. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. E. in order to increase the surface. pulls down the armature. A (see sketch). and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. C. F. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. N. Y. will give a greater speed. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. Ridgewood. --Contributed by R. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock.

a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. --Contributed by Perry A.for the secret contact. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. Of course. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. B. even those who read this description. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. Borden. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . N. if desired. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. Gachville. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door.

A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. records and 5-5/8 in. E.. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. Mangold. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. Cal. in a semicircle 2 in. Nails for stops are placed at DD. Dobson. for 6-in. J. Compton. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in.whenever the bell rings. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. as shown in Fig. 2. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. Washington. With about 9 ft. where the other end of wire is fastened. for 10in. Connect switch to post B. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. C. A. Two drawers are fitted in this space. long and full 12-in. --Contributed by H. East Orange. from the bottom. The top board is made 28-in. From a piece of brass a switch. deep and 3/4 in. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. wide. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. C. The three shelves are cut 25-in. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. D. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. wide. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. H. Jr. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. as shown in Fig. records. N. wide. thick and 12-in. wide. apart. and on both sides of the middle shelf. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. wide. 1. --Contributed by Dr. . long and 5 in.

which in operation is bent. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. 1. Roanoke. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. Va. A. closed. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. as shown by the dotted lines. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . as shown in Fig. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. E. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. When the cord is passed over pulley C. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. B. to which is fastened a cord.

E. apart. E. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. thick. In the sides (Fig. but a larger one could be built in proportion. deep. in diameter. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. 3. 4 shows the wheel-holder. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. is compressed by wheels. If the wheels fit too tightly. it too loose. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. through one of these holes. thick (A. deep and 1/2 in. In these grooves place wheels. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. These wheels should be 3/4 in. Now put all these parts together. 5) when they are placed. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. Fig. in diameter. wide. one in each end. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. Do not fasten the sides too . holes (HH. Bore two 1/4 in.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. CC. they will bind. Fig. The crankpin should fit tightly. 1. wide. against which the rubber tubing. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. as shown in the illustration. Fig. square and 7/8 in. D. long. excepting the crank and tubing. which should be about 1/2 in. 1 in. 1 in. Put the rubber tube. in diameter. Figs. to turn on pins of stout wire. Notice the break (S) in the track. Figs. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. 3). The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. B. they will let the air through. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. in diameter. Cut two grooves. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in.

and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. To use the pump. The three legs marked BBB. the pump will give a steady stream. as it gives steadiness to the motion. iron.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. tubing. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. The animal does not fear to enter the box. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. B. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. and 3-1/2 in. as shown in Fig. the other wheel has reached the bottom. 15 in. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. from each end. Cut six pieces. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. mark again.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. Idana. long. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. 1. 17-1/2 in. of material. 1. a platform should be added. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. 1. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. Two feet of 1/4-in. costing 10 cents. from that mark the next hole. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. Fig. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. beyond each of these two. 2. though a small iron wheel is better. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. from each end. 2. --Contributed by Dan H. For ease in handling the pump. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. If the motion of the wheels is regular. and mark for a hole. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. In the two cross bars 1 in. stands 20 in. because he can . 1. Kan. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. AA. A in Fig. Hubbard. AA. mark for hole and 3 in. and are 30 in. The screen which is shown in Fig. is all the expense necessary. Fig. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. Fig. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. Fig. from each end. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. from the bottom and 2 in. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. 1. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. Take the center of the bar. Then turn the crank from left to right.

This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. It is useful for running induction coils. 2). but if one casts his own zinc. When through using the battery. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. dropping.see through it: when he enters. of the top. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. To cause a flow of electricity. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. Philadelphia. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. The battery is now ready for use. --Contributed by H. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. of water dissolve 4 oz. shuts him in. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. some of it should be poured out. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. add slowly. or. The battery is now complete. however. until it is within 3 in. sulphuric acid. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. 14 copper wire. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. rub the zinc well. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. and the solution (Fig. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. The truncated. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. there is too much liquid in the jar. potassium bichromate. When the bichromate has all dissolved. If it is wet. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. . 4 oz. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. long having two thumb screws. The mercury will adhere. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. 1) must be prepared. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. acid 1 part). If the battery has been used before. Meyer. C. Place the carbon in the jar. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. or small electric motors. and touches the bait the lid is released and. If the solution touches the zinc. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. silvery appearance. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. giving it a bright. stirring constantly. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid.

pressing the pedal closes the door. however.Fig. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. while the coal door is being opened. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. If. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. After putting in the coal. The price of the coil depends upon its size. which opens the door.. the battery circuit. e. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. the jump-spark coil . Madison. with slight changes. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. Wis. i. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house.

Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. 6. being a 1-in. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. W W. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core.described elsewhere in this book. Change the coil described. as shown in Fig. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile.7. made of No. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. the full length of the coil. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. coil. 6. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. 5. while a 12-in. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. 7. in a straight line from top to bottom. diameter. . along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. W W. Now for the receiving apparatus. After winding. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. apart. Fig. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. This coil. in a partial vacuum. 7. which is made of light copper wire. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. 7). Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. This will make an excellent receiver. and closer for longer distances. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. as shown in Fig. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece.

Run a wire from the other binding post. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. . where A is the headstock. A. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. 90°. 90°. These circles. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. A large cone pulley would then be required. but simply illustrates the above to show that. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. which will be described later. at any point to any metal which is grounded. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. after all. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. in the air. but it could be run by foot power if desired. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. being vertical. I run my lathe by power. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm.The aerial line. No. B the bed and C the tailstock. 1). above the ground. are analogous to the flow of induction. may be easily made at very little expense. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil.6 stranded. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. only. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. For an illustration. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. and hence the aerial line. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. as it matches the color well. The writer does not claim to be the originator. to the direction of the current. using an electric motor and countershaft. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. being at right angles. Figs. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. 1 to 4.

Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. which pass through a piece of wood. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. and it is well to have the shaft hot. 6. If the bearing has been properly made. one of which is shown in Fig. thick. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. Fig. steel tubing about 1/8 in. Fig. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. and Fig. pitch and 1/8 in. too. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. 4. The bearing is then ready to be poured. just touching the shaft. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. 5. 5. Heat the babbitt well. Fig.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. but not hot enough to burn it. tapered wooden pin. A. which are let into holes FIG. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. 2 and 3. on the under side of the bed. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. After pouring. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. and runs in babbitt bearings. The bolts B (Fig. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. 4. B. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. The headstock. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. Fig. 6 Headstock Details D. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. To make these bearings. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. deep.

Ill. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. so I had to buy one. Oak Park.J. If not perfectly true. Take up about 5 ft. N. and a 1/2-in. of the walk . they may be turned up after assembling. Newark.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. This prevents corrosion. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. the alarm is easy to fix up. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. A. B. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. FIG. embedded in the wood. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. lock nut. If one has a wooden walk. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock.other machines. The tail stock (Fig. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut.

so that they will not touch. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. silver or other metal. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. before dipping them in the potash solution. hang the articles on the wires. add potassium cyanide again. to remove all traces of grease. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. Finally. (A. Then make the solution . To avoid touching it. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. clean the articles thoroughly. Do not touch the work with the hands again. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. 2).and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. Minn. S. save when a weight is on the trap. water. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. --Contributed by R. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. Minneapolis. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. Fig. to roughen the surface slightly. leaving a clear solution. Jackson. of water. and the alarm is complete. Connect up an electric bell.

To provide the keyhole. The wooden catch. a hand scratch brush is good. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. make a key and keyhole. Fig. of clothesline rope and some No. When all this is set up. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. 1). On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. thick by 3 in. as at F. which is held by catch B. of water. B should be of the same wood. and the larger part (F. an old electric bell or buzzer. with water. zinc. Fig. 1 not only unlocks. long. and 4 volts for very small ones. shaking. This solution. when the point of the key touches the tin. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts.5 to 4 volts. piece of broomstick. Fig. In rigging it to a sliding door. Make a somewhat larger block (E. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. as shown in Fig. 10 in. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. --Model Engineer. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. use 2 volts for large articles. A (Fig. but opens the door. with the pivot 2 in. with water. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. Can be made of a 2-in. long. light strokes. 3. The wooden block C. Take quick. hole in its center. silver can be plated direct. With an electric pressure of 3. and then treated as copper. 3) directly over the hole. such metals as iron. 18 wire. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. must be about 1 in. Having finished washing the precipitate. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. 1). 3) strikes the bent wire L. Where Bunsen cells are used. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. nickel and such metals. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. from the lower end. I. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. Screw the two blocks together. Repeat six times. 1 in. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator.up to 2 qt. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. On brass. German silver. If accumulators are used. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. lead. if one does not possess a buffing machine. also. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. a circuit is completed. will serve for the key. Fig. pewter. If more solution is required. 1. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. Then. copper. Before silver plating. which is advised. square. saw a piece of wood. A 1/4 in. which . Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. about 25 ft. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other.

a few simple tools. although a little more trouble. 116 Prospect St. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. half way from open end to closed end. should be cut a hole. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. Fig. some black paint. shows catch B. and plenty of candles. one-third of the length from the remaining end. the requisites are a large soap box. Objects appear and disappear. and finally lined inside with black cloth. cut in one side. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. 1. Fig. Klipstein. One thing changes to another and back again. The magician stands in front of this. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). he points with one finger to the box. H. enlarged. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. Heavy metal objects. to throw the light toward the audience. is the cut through which the rope runs. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. sides and end. floor. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. and hands its contents round to the audience. heighten the illusion. Next. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. or cave. On either side of the box. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. Fig. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. 3. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. 2. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. B.. In front of you. East Orange. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. The box must be altered first. between the parlor and the room back of it. such as forks. with the lights turned low. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. the illumination in front must be arranged. the box should be painted black both inside and out. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. some black cloth. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. To prepare such a magic cave. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. New Jersey. 1. . and black art reigns supreme. --Contributed by E. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. 2. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. he tosses it into the cave. Next. Thus. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. surrounding a perfectly black space. H. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. H. with a switch as in Fig. The interior must be a dead black. One end is removed. Receiving the bowl again. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. 0. in his shirt sleeves. He removes the bowl from the black box. and a slit. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. Fig. spoons and jackknives. top. no painting inside is required. so much the better. which unlocks the door.

and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. Consequently. which are let down through the slit in the top. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background.Finally. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. was identical with this. is on a table) so much the better. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. of course. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. and if portieres are impossible. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. one on each side of the box. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. as presented by Hermann. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. a screen must be used. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. The illusion. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. which can be made to dance either by strings. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. in which are oranges and apples. and several black drop curtains. only he. The exhibitor should be . of course. into the eyes of him who looks. had a big stage. and pours them from the bag into a dish. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. you must have an assistant. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. But illusions suggest themselves. if. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. his confederate behind inserts his hand. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. the room where the cave is should be dark. The audience room should have only low lights.

About the center piece H moves a disk. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal.. square. or binding posts. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. d. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. held down by another disk F (Fig. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. 2. A. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. and a common screw. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. and c2 to the zinc. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. their one end just slips under the strips b1. c1. c3. at L. 2. 2). e1 and e2. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. when handle K is turned to one side.a boy who can talk.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. 1. b1. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. b3. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. so arranged that. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. c2. by 4 in. making contact with them. respectively. b2. Finally. making contact with them as shown at y. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). A represents a pine board 4 in. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . respectively. f2. Fig. held down on disk F by two other terminals. b2. vice versa. Then. or b2. On the disk G are two brass strips. if you turn handle K to the right.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. with three brass strips. and c1 – electricity. by means of two wood screws. held down on it by two terminals. FIG. terminal c3 will show . respectively. is shown in the diagram. c4. terminal c3 will show +. b3. and c4 + electricity. as shown in Fig. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. 1.

Joerin. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. from three batteries. E. Newark. jump spark coil. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. -Contributed by A. 4. when on No. from four batteries.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. . Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. thus making the message audible in the receiver. B is a onepoint switch. and then hold the receiver to your ear. and when on No. when A is on No. Jr. When switch B is closed and A is on No. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. --Contributed by Eugene F. from five batteries. 5. when on No. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . and C and C1 are binding posts. 3. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it.. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). 2 you receive the current from two batteries. Tuttle. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. Ohio. 1. you have the current of one battery.

Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. A. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. and placed on the windowsill of the car. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft.. New Orleans. P. per second. mark.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. which may be a button or other small object. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. La. When you do not have a graduate at hand. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. as shown in the sketch. rule. is the device of H. and supporting the small weight. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. traveled by the thread. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. so one can see the time. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. A. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. mark. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. per second for each second. Handy Electric Alarm . Thus. Redmond. A. B. The device thus arranged. of Burlington. E. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. Wis. over the bent portion of the rule. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand.

How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. --Contributed by Gordon T. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. soldered to the alarm winder. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. and with the same result. C. for a wetting is the inevitable result. Then if a mishap comes. . This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. wrapping the wire around the can several times. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. Crafton. Pa. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. Lane. Instead. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. but may be closed at F any time desired. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. When the alarm goes off. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. S.which has a piece of metal. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. which illuminates the face of the clock. B. --C.

A. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. Macey. battery zincs.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. bearings. binding posts.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . models and miniature objects. The first thing to make is a molding bench. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. small machinery parts. C. engines. whence it is soon tracked into the house. ornaments of various kinds. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. when it is being prepared. AA. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. and many other interesting and useful articles. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. L. --Contributed by A. as shown. If there is no foundry Fig. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. as shown in Fig. 1. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. BE. Two cleats. cannons. which may. With the easily made devices about to be described. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. New York City. It is possible to make molds without a bench. 1 . and duplicates of all these. but it is a mistake to try to do this. as the sand is sure to get on the floor.

will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. which should be nailed in. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. An old teaspoon. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. The rammer. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. and the "drag. If desired the sieve may be homemade. previous to sawing.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. The dowels. The flask. as shown. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. and the lower pieces. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. a little larger than the outside of the flask. by 6 in. is nailed to each end of the cope. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. F. but this operation will be described more fully later on. Fig. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. high. say 12 in. The cloth bag. If the box is not very strong.How to Make a Mold [96] . and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. 1. and saw it in half longitudinally. A slight shake of the bag Fig. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. white metal. is made of wood. A good way to make the flask is to take a box.near at hand. It is made of wood and is in two halves. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. II . the "cope. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described." or lower part. DD. by 8 in. E. A wedge-shaped piece." or upper half. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. D. is filled with coal dust. which can be either aluminum. which can be made of a knitted stocking. makes a very good sieve. and this. is about the right mesh. is shown more clearly in Fig. Fig. A A. will be required. and a sieve. 2. CC. as shown. J. try using sand from other sources. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. G. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. 2 . 1. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. H. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. CC.

of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. and by grasping with both hands. Place another cover board on top. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. and if water is added. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. the surface of the sand at . as described. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. or "cope. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. and then more sand is added until Fig." in position.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. and scatter about 1/16 in. as it is much easier to learn by observation. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. It is then rammed again as before. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. and thus judge for himself. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. After ramming. in order to remove the lumps. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. as shown at D. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. as shown at C. or "drag. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. as shown at E. where they can watch the molders at work. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. The sand is then ready for molding. turn the drag other side up. In finishing the ramming. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. as shown. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together.

by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. made out of steel rod. place the cope back on the drag. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. as shown in the sketch. as shown at G. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. as shown at J. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. as shown at H. as shown at F. deep. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. Fig. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. it shows that the sand is too wet. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. After drawing the pattern. The "sprue. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. as shown at H. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. . after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern." or pouring-hole. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. thus holding the crucible securely. in order to prevent overheating. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. wide and about 1/4 in.E should be covered with coal-dust. to give the air a chance to escape. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. This is done with a spoon. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. is next cut. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. and then pour. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. in diameter. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. thus making a dirty casting. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. III. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. after being poured. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. Place a brick or other flat. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold.

--Contributed by Harold S. or from any adjacent pair of cells. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. 15% lead. white metal and other scrap available. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. may be used in either direction. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. Minneapolis. the following device will be found most convenient. and. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. used only for zinc. If a good furnace is available. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. although somewhat expensive. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. Although the effect in the illustration . is very desirable.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. battery zincs. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. Referring to the figure. babbitt. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. and the casting is then ready for finishing. In my own case I used four batteries. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. but any reasonable number may be used. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. Morton.

but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. A. Then walk down among the audience. To make it take a sheet-iron band. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. as shown at A. 3/4 in. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. outward. --Contributed by Draughtsman. Put a sharp needle point. Fig. The bearings. may be made of hardwood. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. which will be sufficient to hold it.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. By replacing the oars with paddles. Make one of these pieces for each arm. The brass rings also appear distorted. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. If desired. B. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. connected by cords to the rudder. as shown in the illustration. B. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. 2. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. shaft made. Then replace the table. backward. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. Chicago.

but when in motion. In the same way. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. 1. or the paint will come off. and a weight. being simply finely divided ice. D. 2 and 3. 1. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. C. as shown in Fig. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. as shown in Fig. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. when it will again return to its original state. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. W. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. 1. or under pressure. E. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. If babbitt is used. The hubs. 2. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. Snow. should be made of wood. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. It may seem strange that ice . A. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking.melted babbitt. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. A block of ice. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. Fig. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. If galvanized iron is used. spoiling its appearance. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. The covers. 3. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball.

The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. by 1/4. but by placing it between books. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. as per sketch. Lane. no matter how slow the motion may be. and assume the shape shown at B. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. sometimes only one or two feet a day. using a closed circuit or gravity battery.. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. Pressing either push button. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . by 2 in. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. by 5 in. in. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. The rate of flow is often very slow. which resembles ice in this respect. or supporting it in some similar way. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. Pa. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. it will gradually change from the original shape A. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. square. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. thus giving a high resistance contact. Crafton. but. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. brass. by 1/2 in. whenever there is any connection made at all. B. --Contributed by Gordon T. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. as shown on page 65.should flow like water. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. P. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax.

and C. I. draft chain. pulleys. E. In the wiring diagram. cord. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. alarm clock. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. Ward. as shown. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. draft. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. A is the circuit breaker. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. furnace. Pa. about the size used for automobiles. the induction coil. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. H. G. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. Indianapolis. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch.thumb screws. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. J. F. The parts are: A. G. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. horizontal lever. wooden supports. Wilkinsburg. as shown. C. the battery. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. D. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat.000 ft. B. K . vertical lever. and five dry batteries. The success depends upon a slow current. --Contributed by A. weight. B.

The frame (Fig. material framed together as shown in Fig. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. such as used for a storm window. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. How to Make an Electroscope [103] .shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. Mich. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. Artistic Window Boxes The top. 3. 2 are dressed to the right angle. Kalamazoo. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. where house plants are kept in the home. which will provide a fine place for the plants. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. as well as the bottom. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. will fit nicely in them. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open.

as if drawn upon for its total output.. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. in this connection. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. and a suitable source of power. However. this must be done with very great caution. is something that will interest the average American boy. The 1/2-cp. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. Halifax. and the instrument will then be complete. However. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. A certain number of these. i. by connecting them in series. a cork and a needle. can be connected up in series. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. e. and cost 27 cents FIG. N. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. one can regulate the batteries as required. as indicated by Fig. in any system of lamps. 1 cp. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs.. Grant. It must be remembered. W. for some time very satisfactorily. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. 1 each complete with base. so as to increase the current. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. multiples of series of three. Thus. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. which sells for 25 cents. since a battery is the most popular source of power. Canada. and will give the . put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. This is more economical than dry cells. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. 1..An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. in diameter. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. --Contributed by Wm. Push the needle into the cork. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. after a rest. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. S. but maintain the voltage constant. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. where they are glad to have them taken away. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series.

Thus. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. for display of show cases. although the first cost is greater. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. FIG. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. 2 shows the scheme. if wound for 6 volts. However. and running the series in parallel. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. If wound for 10 volts. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. which is the same as that of one battery. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. 18 B & S. or 22 lights. Thus. 3. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. lamps. as in Fig. especially those of low internal resistance. 1-cp. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. These will give 3 cp. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. Fig.proper voltage. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. to secure light by this method. and then lead No. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. In conclusion. and diffused light in a room. lamps. by the proper combination of these. according to the water pressure obtainable. So. and for Christmas trees. double insulated wire wherever needed. each. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. 11 series. we simply turn on the water. . making. generates the power for the lights. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments.. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. lamp. where the water pressure is the greatest. Chicago. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used.

Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. and the sides. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. . bars of pole-changing switch. A. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. simply change the switch. as shown in the sketch. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. Emig. CC. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. --Contributed by F. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. Santa Clara. A indicates the ground. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. Plymouth. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. --Contributed by Leonard E. BB. are cut just alike. outside points of switch. Ind. DD. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. B. After I connected up my induction coil. we were not bothered with them.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. Cal. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. brushes of motor. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. B. the letters indicate as follows: FF. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. To reverse the motor. center points of switch. or a tempting bone. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. or from one pattern. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. a bait of meat. thus reversing the machine. AA. switch. field of motor. Parker. and C.

The button can be hidden. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. as it is the key to the lock. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. To unlock the door. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. San Jose. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet.. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. a piece of string. If it is not. which is in the door. A. Minn. W. Fry. and a table or bench. The experiment works best . a hammer.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. Melchior. one cell being sufficient. When the circuit is broken a weight. or would remain locked. merely push the button E. Hutchinson. 903 Vine St. thus locking the door. attached to the end of the armature B. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. -Contributed by Claude B. Cal.

Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. When the alarm rings in the early morning. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square.Contributed by F. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. Brockville. where it will remain suspended as shown. 4). Ontario. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. --Contributed by Geo. Tie the ends of the string together. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. 3. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. Wis. the current flows with the small arrows. 3. which pulls the draft open. Madison. in the ceiling and has a window weight. -. Culebra. as shown in Fig. 1). On another block of wood fasten two wires.. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. Canada. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. . Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. run through a pulley. 2. A. releasing the weight. D. the stick falls away. I. W. P. Porto Rico. C. the key turns. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. Crawford Curry. attached at the other end. Schmidt. 18 Gorham St. forming a loop. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig.

and break the corners off to make them round. square and 1 in. thence to a switch. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. running one direct to the receiver. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. Camden. and then to the receiver. The cut shows the arrangement. and the other to the battery. R. or tree. J. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. Connect two wires to the transmitter. Jr. Use a barrel to work on. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. 6 in. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. Farley. thick. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. J. S. N. including the mouthpiece. made with his own hands. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. --Contributed by Wm.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. or from a bed of flowers. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. and . get two pieces of plate glass. which fasten to the horn. D. First. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter..

or it will not polish evenly. then 8 minutes. Fig. In a dark room. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. Have ready six large dishes. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. When done the glass should be semitransparent. wide around the convex glass or tool. with 1/4-in. 1. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. by the side of the lamp. of water. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. Then warm and press again with the speculum. set the speculum against the wall. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. melt 1 lb. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. and a large lamp. unless a longer focal length is wanted. wetting it to the consistency of cream. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. a round 4-in. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. the coarse grinding must be continued. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. Fig. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. then take 2 lb. and the under glass or tool convex. using straight strokes 2 in. so the light . as in Fig. spaces. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. 2. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. wet till soft like paint. When dry. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum.. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. while walking around the barrel. and spread on the glass. twice the focal length away. 2. and is ready for polishing.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. Use a binger to spread it on with. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. with pitch. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding.. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. L. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. A. in length. and label. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. also rotate the glass. or less. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. When polishing the speculum. Fasten.

stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. The polishing and testing done. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. 100 gr. longer strokes. Then add solution B.. face down. and pour the rest into the empty dish. also how the rays R from a star . Now add enough of the solution A. Fig. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia.………………………………. touched with rouge.100 gr. Then add 1 oz. as in K.……………………………. Place the speculum. 4 oz. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. Two glass or earthenware dishes. Nitric acid . When the focus is found. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. or hills. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. Fig. With pitch. fill the dish with distilled water. cement a strip of board 8 in. Place the speculum S. that was set aside. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. Solution D: Sugar loaf . as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. Fig. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. Alcohol (Pure) ……………. When dry. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. if a hill in the center.. The knife should not be more than 6 in. deep. 4 oz. add the ammonia solution drop by drop. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. with distilled water.. 2. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. 25 gr. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. must be procured.. the speculum is ready to be silvered. 39 gr. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. 2. the speculum will show some dark rings. If not. from the lamp... 840 gr. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. then ammonia until bath is clear. Silver nitrate ……………………………. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside.. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use..…………….. in the bath and leave until the silver rises. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum).. long to the back of the speculum. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke.

The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. which proves to be easy of execution. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. and proceed as for any picture. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. Thus an excellent 6-in. using strawboard and black paper. cover with paper and cloth. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. Make the tube I of sheet iron. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. stop down well after focusing. telescope can be made at home.. long and cost me just $15. The flatter they are the less they will distort. two glass prisms. Then I made the one described. is a satisfactory angle. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. About 20. Mellish. . Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet.John E. My telescope is 64 in. with an outlay of only a few dollars. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. deg. Place over lens. slightly wider than the lens mount. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black.

Do not stir it. says the Master Painter. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. Fig.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. add the plaster gradually to the water. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. complete the arrangement. 1. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. -Contributed by A. push the button D. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. D. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. and reflect through the negative. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. 2. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. then add a little sulphate of potash. or powdered alum. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. . The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. instead of the contrary. Ill. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. The rays of the clear. unobstructed light strike the mirror. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. To unlock. but will not preserve its hardening. as shown in Fig. B. The paper is exposed. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. A. Zimmerman. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. through the lens of the camera and on the board. Boody.

To reverse. throw . This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. Fig. as in Fig. as at A and B.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. but will remain suspended without any visible support. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. 3. 2. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. so that it can rotate about these points. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. Fasten on the switch lever. Then blow through the spool. 2. 1). A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. also provide them with a handle. use a string. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. as shown in the sketch.

A is the electricbell magnet. Neb. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. Levy. the armature. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. rinse in alcohol. --Contributed by R. D. -Contributed by Morris L. wash in running water. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. although this is not necessary. binding posts. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. carbon sockets. San Antonio. --Contributed by Geo. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. Go McVicker. Take out. In the sketch. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. North Bend. L. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. C C. and rub dry with linen cloth. . Thomas. Tex. as shown in the sketch. B. Push one end of the tire into the hole. and E E. San Marcos. carbons. Tex.

Divested of nearly all technical phrases. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . --Contributed by Joseph B. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. Bell. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. 16 magnet wire. long or more. 36 magnet wire. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. 14 or No. By means of two or more layers of No. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. wound evenly about this core. Brooklyn. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp.

This makes a condenser which may be folded. When cut and laid in one continuous length. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. diameter. 1. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. as shown in Fig. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. the entire core may be purchased readymade. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. but if it is not convenient to do this work. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. long and 5 in. coil illustrates the general details of the work. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. one piece of the paper is laid down. and the results are often unsatisfactory. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. in diameter. with room also for a small condenser. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. at a time. hole is bored in the center of one end. 2 yd.which would be better to buy ready-made. After the core wires are bundled. making two layers. The primary is made of fine annealed No. in length. then the strip of tin-foil. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. wide. which is desirable. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. The following method of completing a 1-in. Beginning half an inch from one end. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. In shaping the condenser. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. No. A 7/8-in. or 8 in. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. about 6 in. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. and finally the fourth strip of paper. 4. long and 2-5/8 in. which is an important factor of the coil. The condenser is next wrapped . The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. a box like that shown in Fig. as the maker prefers. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil.

ready for assembling. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types.. whole length. go. A. and the other sheet. Fig. C. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. E. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. which is insulated from the first. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. bell. copper lever with 1-in. open switch C.) The wiring diagram. and one from battery. lines H. battery . G.securely with bands of paper or tape. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. the letters indicate as follows: A. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. The alarm key will turn and drop down. D. I. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. 3. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. V-shaped copper strip. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. one from bell. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. B. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. round so that the inside . and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. to the door. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. forms the other pole or terminal. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. F. shelf for clock. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. shows how the connections are made. switch. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. spark. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. long to key. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. 4 in. flange turned on one side. by 12 in. which allows wiring at the back. wide. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. long and 12 in. B. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back.

Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. says the Model Engineer. 2 in. This is for blowing. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. and then rivet the seam. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. If desired for use immediately. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. of blue stone. The circuit should also have a high resistance. That is what they are for. but with the circuit. from the bottom. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. . To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. but add 5 or 6 oz. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. Short-circuit for three hours. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. Line the furnace. instead of close to it. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. of zinc sulphate. and the battery is ready for use. do not shortcircuit.diameter is 7 in. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. London. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. Use a glass or metal shade. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage.. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells.

and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. below the bottom of the zinc. long. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. Outside of the scientific side involved. 1. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. the second finger along the side. square and about 9 in. Ohio. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. imparting to them a violet tinge. as in the other movement. but the thing would not move at all. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. changes white phosphorus to yellow. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. To operate the trick. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. or think they can do the same let them try it.. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. oxygen to ozone. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. grip the stick firmly in one hand. porcelain and paper. g." which created much merriment. and then. herein I describe a much better trick. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. At least it is amusing. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. 2. while for others it will not revolve at all. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. and therein is the trick. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made.9 of a volt. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. thus producing two different vibrations. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. If too low. Enlarge the hole slightly. for others the opposite way. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. This type of battery will give about 0. If any or your audience presume to dispute.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. Try it and see. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. affects . and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. for some it will turn one way.

the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. earth. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. and. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. says the Photographic Times. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. but small flowers. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. insects. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. To the front board is attached a box. a means for holding it vertical. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. and one of them is photomicrography. if possible. a short-focus lens. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. an old tripod screw. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. chemicals. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. however. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. but this is less satisfactory. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. but not essential. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. that also can be obtained from hardware stores.

113 7 lb. 65 4 lb. balloon. 381 24 lb. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. 9 ft. 5 ft. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. Boston. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. wide from which to cut a pattern. or 3 ft. while it is not so with the quill. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. in Cu. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. or 31 ft. 11 ft. 12 ft. The following table will give the size. If the balloon is 10 ft. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. 7-1/2 in. Mass. Fig. 7 ft. 7-1/2 in. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. 179 11 lb. 268 17 lb. 10 ft 523 33 lb. AB. long and 3 ft. 5 in. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. Divide one-quarter of the circle . A line. Madison. Cap. 8 ft. 697 44 lb. 1.--Contributed by George C. 905 57 lb. 6 ft. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. Ft Lifting Power. and a line. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. CD. in diameter. which is 15 ft.

Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. The pattern is now cut. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. of the very best heavy body. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. and so on. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. using a fine needle and No. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. cutting all four quarters at the same time. The cloth segments are sewed together. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. 2. keeping the marked part on the outside. 3. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. on the curved line from B to C. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. of beeswax and boil well together. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. The amounts necessary for a 10- . When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. Repeat this operation four times. Procure 1 gal. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. 70 thread. 4. This test will show if the bag is airtight. making a double seam as shown in Fig.

of water will make 4 cu. 5. a clean white rag. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. The outlet. pipe. A. B. When the clock has dried. by fixing. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. which may sound rather absurd. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. A. it is not fit to use. this should be repeated frequently. capacity and connect them. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. 1 lb. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. B. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. to the bag.Green Iron ammonium citrate . The benzine should be clean and free from oil. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. . 150 gr. but if any grease remains on the hand. C.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. After washing a part. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. The 3/4-in. Vegetable oils should never be used. above the level of the water in barrel A. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. using a fine brush. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb.. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. . balloon are 125 lb. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. of gas in one hour. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. with the iron borings. with water 2 in. In the barrel. or a fan. oil the spindle holes carefully. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. until no more dirt is seen. ]. of sulphuric acid.ft. All FIG. of iron. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. should not enter into the water over 8 in. or dusting with a dry brush. ft. Fill the other barrel. A. C. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. leaving the hand quite clean. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. of iron borings and 125 lb. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. with 3/4in. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. if it is good it will dry off. About 15 lb. 5 . 1 lb. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. as shown in Fig. B. Water 1 oz.

and keep in the dark until used. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. or carbon. The miniature 16 cp. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. Exposure. of any make.. . The negative pole. keeping the fingers out of the solution. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. This aerial collector can be made in . A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. or zinc. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. . The positive pole. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. says the Moving Picture World. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. dry atmosphere will give best results. Dry the plates in the dark. A longer exposure will be necessary. Port Melbourne. to avoid blackened skin. and a vigorous negative must be used. fix in hypo. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. A cold.000 ft. Printing is done in the sun. Dry in the dark. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. toning first if desired. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. or battery. at the time of employment. 20 to 30 minutes. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E.Water 1 oz.

lay a needle. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. when left exposed to the air. forming a cup of the pipe. lead pipe. and have the other connected with another aerial line. This will complete the receiving station. long. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. As the telephone offers a high resistance. and as less current will flow the short way. making a ground with one wire. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. the resistance is less. 5 in. in diameter. holes . the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. will soon become dry and useless. as described below. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. a positive and a negative. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. both positive and negative. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. The storage cell. If the wave ceases. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air.various ways. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. If the waves strike across the needle. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe.

says the Pathfinder. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. D. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. The other plate is connected to the zinc. Two binding-posts should be attached. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. one to the positive. or tube C. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. except for about 1 in. does not need to be watertight. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. an oblong one and a triangular one. or tube B. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C.as possible. When mixing the acid and water. of course. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. This box can be square. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. This support or block. on each end. This. and the other to the negative. by soldering the joint. B. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. namely: a square hole. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. a round one. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours.

is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. long. 1. and has plenty of good seating capacity. were fitted by this one plug. wide. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. back and under. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. as it is not readily overturned. A and B. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. all around the edge. as shown in Fig. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. is built 15 ft. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. Chicago. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. This punt. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. as shown in Fig.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. thick cut two pieces alike. The third piece of brass. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. 3. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. 2. Ill. . leaving about 1/16 in. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. deep and 4 ft. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. Only galvanized nails should be used. in place on the wood. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. C. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. about 20 in. C. 1. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. 2. and match them together. wide. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in.

Wash. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. square (Fig 2). with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. A piece of 1/4-in. gas pipe. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. B.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. In Fig. A. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. Tacoma. is cut 1 in. thick and 3-1/2 in. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . long and fitted with a thumbscrew.

H. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. it had to be borne in mind that. may be of interest to some of our readers. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. if possible. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. and to consume. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor." has no connection with the outside circuit. with the exception of insulated wire. In designing. The winding of the armature.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning.--Contributed by Charles H. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. without auxiliary phase. no more current than a 16-cp. which can be developed in the usual manner. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. lamp. Wagner. no special materials could be obtained. or "rotor. says the Model Engineer. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. which the writer has made.

The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. 1. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. no steel being obtainable. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. wrought iron. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. were then drilled and 1/4-in. in diameter were drilled in the corners. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. They are not particularly accurate as it is. about 2-1/2 lb. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. being used. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. with the dotted line. thick. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. 4. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. while the beginnings . and all sparking is avoided. A. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. as shown in Fig. 2.the field-magnet. bolts put in and tightened up. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. and filled with rivets. also varnished before they were put in. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. Holes 5-32 in. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. The stator is wound full with No. After assembling a second time. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. to be filed out after they are placed together. holes. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. or "stator. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. 5. Unfortunately. as shown in Fig. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. this little machine is not self-starting. B. 3. C. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire.

Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. The lantern slide is a glass plate. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. and as each layer of wire was wound. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. and would not easily get out of order. Jr. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. In making slides by contact. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. Newark. E. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper.. and especially of colored ones. No starting resistance is needed. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. McKinney. and the other by reduction in the camera. The image should . as a means of illustrating songs. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. film to film. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. as shown in Fig. and as the motor runs at constant speed. The rotor is wound with No. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. having no commutator or brushes. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. 1. This type of motor has drawbacks. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. J. N. it would be very simple to build. 2.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. One is by contact. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. and all wound in the same direction. 3-Contributed by C. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. If too late for alcohol to be of use. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. a regulating resistance is not needed. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. if applied immediately. as before stated.

Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. and development should be over in three or four minutes. A. C. they are much used by travelers. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. if possible. a little extra work will be necessary. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. 2. 1. the formulas being found in each package of plates. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . D. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. to use a plain fixing bath. These can be purchased from any photo material store. also. It is best. 5. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. and then a plain glass.appear in. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. as shown in Fig. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. about a minute. 3. Select a room with one window. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. Fig. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. except that the binding is different. 4. over the mat. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. Draw lines with a pencil. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. B. If the exposure has been correct. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. Being unbreakable. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density.

from the ends. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. 1. holes bored in the end pieces. in diameter and 40 in. known as rods and cones. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. These longer pieces can be made square. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . from the end piece of the chair. Fig. as shown at B. wide and 50 in. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. while the dot will be in front of the other. Vt. as shown in Fig. or other stout cloth. 2. as shown at A. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. Corinth. long. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. from the center of this dot draw a star. Fig. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. If the star is in front of the left eye. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. in diameter and 20 in. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. 1. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. long. A piece of canvas. is to be used for the seat. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. long. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. 16 in. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. Hastings. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax.

per square inch. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. 2. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. Auburn. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. as shown in Fig. A belt. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. Cal. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. J. as shown in Fig.-Contributed by P. 1. . large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. O'Gara. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. as well as to operate other household machines. made from an ordinary sash cord. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. in thickness and 10 in. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. A disk 1 in. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley.

Put the bolt in the hole. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. Cut out a piece from the block combination.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. screwing it through the nut. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. will be the thickness of the object. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. then removing the object. A simple. direction. long. to the top of the bench. fairly accurate. divided by the number of threads to the inch. it serves a very useful purpose. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. leaving it shaped like a bench. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. . and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. The part of a rotation of the bolt. says the Scientific American. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. thick and 2-1/2 in. square for a support. wide. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. Bore a 1/4-in. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. and the construction is complete. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. 3/4 in. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. with as fine a thread as possible. or inconvenient to measure. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends.

A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. globe that has been thrown away as useless. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. material 12 ft. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. which show up fine at night. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. Santa Maria. Bore a 3/4-in. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. bolt in each hole. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. long. Place a 3/4-in. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. The wheel should be open . Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. long is used for the center pole. Oal. piece of wood 12 ft. beyond the end of the wood.

from the top end. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. The spool . and the lower part 61/2 in. wide and 1/8 in. The boards may be nailed or bolted. made of the same material. long. P. is soldered. B. Graham. A. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. C. Tex. long. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. square and 3 or 4 in. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. pieces used for the spokes. in diameter. L. The coil. at the bottom. long. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. to be operated by the magnet coil. from the ends. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. H and J.Side and Top View or have spokes. and on its lower end a socket. 1/2 in. thick. O. thick. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. long. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. Fort Worth.-Contributed by A. at the top and 4 in. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. wide and 1/8 in. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. C. which should be 1/4 in. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. A piece of brass 2 in. of the ends with boards. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. thick is used for the armature. A cross bar.

by soldering. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. B. S. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. A soft piece of iron. D and E. and in numerous other like instances. This tie can be used on grain sacks. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. 2 the hat hanging on it.000. R. for insulating the brass ferrule. that holds the lower carbon. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. Bradlev. The armature. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. . S. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. --Contributed by Arthur D. which may be had by using German silver wire. Mass. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. 2. Randolph. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. placing the end of the cord under the first loop.J. then with a firm. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil.000 for irrigation work. This is a very neat trick if performed right. F. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. At the bottom end of the frame. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. which is also connected to the brass ferrule.E. do it without any apparent effort. or a water rheostat heretofore described.--A. When you slide the pencil along the casing. C. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. one without either rubber or metal end. is drilled. and place it against a door or window casing. and directly centering the holes H and J. long. 1. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. A. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig.is about 2-1/2 in.

It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. Fig. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. Experiment with Heat [134] . The vibrator B. is constructed in the usual manner. is connected to a flash lamp battery. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. about 3/16 in. with a 3/16-in. for adjustment. S. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. 2. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. Fig. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. F. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. in diameter and 2 in. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. S. in diameter. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. long. about 1/8 in. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. The vibrator. long and 1 in. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. may be made from a 3/8-in. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. in diameter. C. The switch. thick. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. wide. for the primary. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. leaving the projections as shown. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. 1. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. A. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. D.500 turns of No. for the secondary. The coil ends are made from cardboard. The core of the coil. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. 1. and then 1. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. about 1 in. B. in diameter and 1/16 in. hole in the center. mixed with water to form a paste. from the core and directly opposite. About 70 turns of No. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite.

The tin is 4 in. The hasp. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. The three screws were then put in the hasp. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section.Place a small piece of paper. was to be secured by only three brass screws. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. and then well clinched. brass plate. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. . in an ordinary water glass. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. lighted. 2 to fit the two holes. The knob on the dial extends out too far. as shown in the sketch. it laps down about 8 in. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. between the boards. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. as shown. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. 1. long and when placed over the board. board. and the same distance inside of the new board. with which to operate the dial. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. which seemed to be insufficient. 1. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. which is only 3/8-in. wide. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. 16 in. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. The lock. which is cut with two holes. thick on the inside. Fig.

These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. not shiny. square and 10-1/2 in. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. If the box is made large enough. the glass. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . clear glass as shown. black color. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. one in each division. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. any article placed therein will be reflected in. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. When making of wood. square and 8-1/2 in. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. which completely divides the box into two parts. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. or in the larger size mentioned. When the rear part is illuminated. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. and the back left dark. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. but when the front part is illuminated. high for use in window displays. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish.

this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. a tank 2 ft.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. into the other. wide will be about the right size. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. as shown at A in the sketch. as shown in the sketch. and with the proper illumination one is changed. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket.. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. When using as a window display. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. long and 1 ft. When there is no electric current available. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. alternately. above the top of the tank. as it appears. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. .

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. using a 3/4-in. long. wide. bit. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. A small platform. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. If a planing mill is near. lines gauged on each side of each. Three windows are provided. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. This precipitate is then washed. however. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. and a door in front. each. but with a length of 12 in. 6 in. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. from the ground. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. then use a red-hot iron to finish. as shown.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. radius. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. The 13-in. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. O. dried and mixed with linseed oil. or ferrous sulphate. This hole must be continued . all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. Iron sulphate. bore from each end. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. long. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. with a length of 13 in. is the green vitriol. square. square and 40 in. Shape the under sides first. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. two pieces 1-1/8 in. 2 ft. 5 ft. The pieces can then be taken out. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. high. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. wide. hole. gauge for depth. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. is built on the front. under sides together. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. hole bored the full length through the center. 1 in. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. Columbus. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. and 6 ft. and boring two holes with a 1-in. thick and 3 in. one for each side. and a solution of iron sulphate added.

through the pieces forming the base. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. Directions will be found on the filler cans. For art-glass the metal panels are . sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. hole in each block. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. A better way. Saw the two blocks apart. thick and 3 in. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. The sketch shows one method of attaching. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. three or four may be attached as shown. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. If the parts are to be riveted. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. Electric globes--two. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. apply two coats of wax. When the filler has hardened. When this is dry. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. if shade is purchased. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. square and drawing a diagonal on each. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint.

Construction of Shade . as brass. Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal. and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. METAL SHADE . the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. such as copper.The Completed Lamp cut out.

This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. The arms holding the glass. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. as in ordinary devices. 2 the front view of this stand. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. and Fig. Figure 1 shows the side. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. the object and the background. the other. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. one way and 1/2 in. as shown in the sketch. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side.

All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. wide and 6-5/16 in. as shown in the sketch. uncork and recork again. about 1-1/4 in. Cut another circular piece 11 in. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. as it is very poisonous. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. pointing north and south. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. Put the ring in place on the base. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. and swinging freely. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. as shown in the cut. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. channel in the circumference of the ring. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. and an inside diameter of 9 in. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. thick 5/8-in. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . wide and 11 in. If the light becomes dim. Before mounting the ring on the base. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. in diameter. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. outside diameter. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. thus forming a 1/4-in. An ordinary pocket compass. long. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. in diameter for a base.

Place on top the so- .715 . and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. CC. B.600 . are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. to which a wire has been soldered for connections. are mounted on a base.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. The results given should be multiplied by 1. into these cylinders. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz.289 .420 . The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current.500 . but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings.088 . For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes . The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. Corresponding mirrors. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second.865 1. from the second to the third. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. and north of the Ohio river. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. AA. 1 oz. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in.182 . and mirrors.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. of the top. above the half can. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. black oxide of copper. EE.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. in diameter and 8 in.

1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. alcohol. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. 62 gr. University Park. says Metal Worker. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. Colo. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. slender bottle. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. When renewing.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. then they will not rust fast. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. little crystals forming in the liquid. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . of pulverized campor. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. 31 gr. always remove the oil with a siphon. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. which otherwise remains clear. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. In Fig. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. the wheel will revolve in one direction. Put the solution in a long.

The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. A paper-fastener box. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. on the under side of the cork. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. If zinc and carbon are used. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. about 1-1/4 in. This is used in place of the spoon. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. will allow the magnet to point north and south. --Contributed by C. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. Lloyd Enos. Solder in the side of the box . the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. floating on a solution. If two of them are floating on the same solution. If zinc and copper are used. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. Attach to the wires.

is made from a piece of No. The bottom of the box. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube.in. 1-1/4 in. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. thick. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. If the hose is not a tight fit.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. The spring should be about 1 in. E. can be made of oak. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. C. one on each side of the board. long. 14 wire will do. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. D. D. wide and 2-1/2 in. long that has about 1/4-in. and then solder on the cover. wide and 6 in. long. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. Wind evenly about 2 oz. B. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. brass tubing. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. A circular piece of cardboard. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. piece of 1/4-in. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. hole. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring.1-in. C. A. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. stained and varnished. Use a board 1/2. of No. . 10 wire about 10 in. To this standard solder the supporting wire. and on the other around the glass tube. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. away. 1/2. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. F.not shorter than 18 in. Thos. Bore holes for binding-posts. as shown in Fig. Rhamstine. D. 3 in. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron.in. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. Put ends. C. G--No. B. 1. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . glass tubing . Take a small piece of soft iron. The standard. of wire on each end extending from the coil. A. E. or made with a little black paint. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. H.Contributed by J. The base. to it.

The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. of mercury will be sufficient. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. about 1 in. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks.of the coil. is drawn nearer to the coil. 1. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. canvas. About 1-1/2 lb. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. 3. of 8-oz. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. long. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. from the right hand. When the glass becomes soft. N. Wis. Y. The iron plunger. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. as shown in Fig. Cuba. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. long. Smith. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. long. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. D. E. J. Teasdale. making a support as shown in Fig. of No. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. 3 in. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. long. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. long. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. long are used for the legs. four hinges.--Contributed by R. . 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. in diameter. Milwaukee. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. 2. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. 5. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. 3-in.--Contributed by Edward M. two pieces 2 ft.

As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. Take 1/2 in. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. Keys. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. Measure 8 in. 6. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. leaving 8 in. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. small aperture in the long tube. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. Can. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction.. The tube now must be filled completely. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. 5. 2. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. This tube as described will be 8 in. thus leaving a. Break off the piece of glass. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. expelling all the air. --Contributed by David A. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. of vacuum at the top. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. long. 3. holding in the left hand.. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. 4. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . Toronto. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. Fig.

as in Fig. 2. as shown in Fig. wide and 3 in. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. 4 in. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. joint be accurately put together. thick. long. 1 in. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. and the single projection 3/4 in. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. thick. 1.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. 4. in diameter. thick. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. wide and 5 ft.6 -. wide and 12 in. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. thick. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. thick. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. cut in the shape shown in Fig. wood screws. This forms a slot. wide and 5 ft. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. from the end of same. 3 in. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. FIG. Fig. wide and 5 ft. 6. 3. long.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. 1 in. and 1/4 in. The large pulley is about 14 in. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. material 2 in. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. 9 in. as shown in Fig. with each projection 3-in. long. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. 5. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. 3 in. 7. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. Four blocks 1/4 in. These are bent and nailed. long. but yellow pine is the best. A crosspiece 3/4-in. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights.

Water 1 oz. . Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. Welsh. --Contributed by C. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. Kan. above the runner level. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. Manhattan. first removing the crank. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. says Photography. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. R. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. attach runners and use it on the ice. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. by 1-in. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel.

Newton. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. Treasdale. as shown in Fig. Printing is carried rather far. . as shown in Fig. Mass. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. This is done with a camel's hair brush. --Contributed by Wallace C. --Contributed by Edward M. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. 2. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. 1 oz.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. 3. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. The print is washed. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. Leominster. of water. 1. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. from an ordinary clamp skate. also. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. and very much cheaper. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part.

1-1/2 ft. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. Take two glass tubes. long. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. and 3 ft. extending the width of the box. which represents the back side of the door. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. and to the bottom. --Contributed by H. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. and bend them as shown in the sketch. 1. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. high. Place a 10-in. with about 1/8-in. F. The thread is broken off at the . The swing door B. say. causing the door to swing back and up. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. 1. A. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. Then.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. high for rabbits. as shown in the sketch. wide and 4 in. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. Alexandria. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. Church. from one end. wide. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. 2. square piece. hole. Va. fasten a 2-in. 1 ft. Fig. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. too. Fig. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. about 10 in. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig.

long. Paste a piece of strong black paper. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. from the edge on each side of these openings. wide. A and B. Cut an opening in the other piece. . Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. wide and 5 in. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. Chicago.by 7-in. but cut it 1/4 in. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. trolley cars. high and 12 in. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. being 1/8 in. and go in the holder in the same way. and exactly 5 by 7 in. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. camera and wish to use some 4. 10 in. to be used as a driving pulley. Take two pieces of pasteboard. say 8 in. plates. B. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. Fig. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. wide. shorter at each end. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. 3. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. horses and dogs. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. -Contributed by William M. Jr. C. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. D.proper place to make a small hole. This opening. 1. black surfaced if possible. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. shorter. in size. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. says Camera Craft. 1 in. inside of the opening.by 5-in. as shown in Fig. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. Crilly. 2. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. automobiles. in size. long. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box.. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. Out two rectangular holes. Fig. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people.

A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. in diameter. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. The needle will then point north and south. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. into which the dog is harnessed. long and 6 in. making a . A cell of this kind can easily be made. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. wide will be required. if it has previously been magnetized.in.. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in.

in diameter and 6 in. B is a base of 1 in. fuel and packing purposes. with narrow flanges. when the paraffin is melted. filter. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. says Electrician and Mechanic. 3/4 lb. short time. of rosin and 2 oz. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. of the plate at one end. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. Do not paint any surface. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. of the top. File the rods to remove the copper plate. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. F is a spool. only the joints. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. for a connection. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. fodder. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in.watertight receptacle. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. and a notch between the base and the pan. one that will hold about 1 qt. 1 lb. . Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. sal ammoniac. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. leaving about 1/2-in. 1/4 lb. plaster of paris. A is a block of l-in. beeswax melted together. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. pull out the wire as needed. pine. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. long which are copper plated. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. This makes the wire smooth. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. Place the pan on the stove. of water. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up.in. under the spool in the paraffin. in which P is the pan. Form a 1/2-in. Pack the paste in. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. zinc oxide. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only.

long. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. Enlarge the hole slightly. for others the opposite way. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. let them try it. and he finally. grip the stick firmly in one hand. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. thus producing two different vibrations. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. Try it and see. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. 2. Toledo. as in the other movement. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. and then. square and about 9 in. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. from vexation. Very few can make it turn both ways at will.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley.. and one friend tells me that they were . * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. At least it is amusing. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. while for others it will not revolve at all. for some it will turn one way. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. g. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. and therein is the trick. or think they can do the same. by the Hindoos in India." which created much merriment. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. If any of your audience presume to dispute. but the thing would not move at all. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. Ohio.

The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. gave the best results. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. Speeds between 700 and 1. To operate. The experiments were as follows: 1. 3. rotation was obtained. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. p. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. 5. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. If the pressure was upon an edge. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. 2. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. 7. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. 6. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. secondly. A square stick with notches on edge is best.100 r. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. Thus a circular or . one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. the rotation may be obtained. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. 4. m. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. no rotation resulted. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. by means of a center punch. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. and. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. and I think the results may be of interest. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first.

while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. forming a handle for carrying. Lloyd. if the pressure is from the left. or greasy. A wire is tied around the can. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. and the height of the fall about 6 in. unwetted by the liquid. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. Ph. the upper portion is.. and the resultant "basket splash. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. Minn. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. as shown. C.D." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. . the liquid is forced away from the sphere. --Contributed by G. G.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch.. so far as can be seen from the photographs. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. at first. --Contributed by M. D. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. A. Washington. Duluth. a piece of wire and a candle. Sloan. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. is driven violently away. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. it will be clockwise.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

in diameter. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. Each wheel is 1/4 in. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. thick and 1 in. as shown. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. flange and a 1/4-in. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. about 2-5/8 in. long. hole drilled in the center. as shown in Fig. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. 1. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. with a 1/16-in. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. axle.

1 from 1/4-in. Texas. The first piece. Fuller. with cardboard 3 in. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. as shown in Fig. or main part of the frame. bottom side up. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. bent as shown. 3. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. are shown in Fig. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. lamp in series with the coil. long. A trolley. The parts. The other binding-post is connected to the frame.50. wood. The motor is now bolted. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. 4. These ends are fastened together. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. put together complete. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized.brass. is made from brass. The current. If the ends are to be soldered. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. of No. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. 2. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. and the locomotive is ready for running. Fig. is made from a piece of clock spring. 3. as shown in Fig. Fig. holes 1 in. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. 2. San Antonio. wide and 16 in. This will save buying a track. 3/4 in. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. 5. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. which must be 110 volt alternating current. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. 6. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. each in its proper place. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. --Contributed by Maurice E. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame.

The quarter will not go all the way down. the length of a paper clip. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. as shown in Fig. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. 1. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. 3. and holes drilled in them. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. When cold treat the other end in the same way. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. then continue to tighten much more. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. O. Cincinnati. Fig 1. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. 2. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. Fig. and as this end . but do not heat the center. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. as shown in Fig. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece.

In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. When the trick is to be performed. 2 and 1 respectively. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. has finished a cut for a tooth. or apparent security of the knot. A pair of centers are fitted. and adjusted . 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. When the cutter A. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. or should the lathe head be raised. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. In the sketch. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool.

to run true. 1. Fig. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. draw center lines across the required space. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. blotter back. twisted around itself and soldered. (2. --Contributed by Howard S. --Contributed by Samuel C. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). With such objects as coin purses and card cases. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. (4. N. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. (5. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). Y. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. at the same time striking light.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. if but two parts. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. Bott. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. book mark. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. swing lathe. Second row: -Two book marks. (3. lady's card case. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. When connecting to batteries.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. lady's belt bag. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. tea cosey.) Place the paper design on the leather and. Bunker. dividing it into as many parts as desired. if four parts are to be alike.) Make on paper the design wanted. or one-half of the design. (1. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. Brooklyn. holding it in place with the left hand. coin purse. and a nut pick. long. An ordinary machine will do. 2. (6. such as brass or marble. about 1-1/2 in. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. watch fob ready for fastenings. above the surface. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. tea cosey. note book. gentleman's card case or bill book. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. Fold over along these center lines. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. In this manner gears 3 in.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. trace the outline. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. The frame holding the mandrel.

and an ordinary bottle.How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. Secure . some heavy rubber hose.

through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. If the needle is not horizontal. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington.. into which fit a small piece of tube. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. a distance of 900 miles.C. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. C. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. Florida. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. B. A. Thrust a pin. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. The electrodes are made . through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. D. and bore a hole through the center. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. from Key West. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. where it condenses. and push it through a cork.

C. 2 in. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. 3/4 in. long for the body of the operator. 1. If 20-ft. lumber cannot be procured. 1/2. 2 arm sticks 1 in. several strips 1/2 in. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. using a high resistance receiver. and also to keep it steady in its flight. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. both laterally and longitudinally. Washington. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. 16 piano wire. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. wide and 3 ft. wide and 4 ft. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders.in. The operator can then land safely and . To make a glide. thick. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. thick. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. slacken speed and settle. 1-1/2 in. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. wide and 3 ft. 1. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. 1-1/4 in. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. thick. Four long beams 3/4 in. lengths and splice them. or flying-machine. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. square and 8 ft long. All wiring is done with No. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. wide and 20 ft. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. D. wide and 4 ft long. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. 12 uprights 1/2 in. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. as shown in Fig. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. which is tacked to the front edge. as shown in Fig. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. long. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. long.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. 3. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. 2. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. long. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. 1. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. use 10-ft. free from knots. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. long. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. 2. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. apart and extend 1 ft. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. --Contributed by Edwin L. as shown in Fig. take the glider to the top of a hill. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. Connect as shown in the illustration. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. thick. long. thick. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. Powell. by 3/4 in. wide and 4 ft. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable.

Of course. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. but this must be found by experience. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. Great care should be . Glides are always made against the wind. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour.gently on his feet.

Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. which causes the dip in the line.exercised in making landings. Bellingham. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . 2. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. half man and half horse. --Contributed by L. 1. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. M. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. Olson. as shown in Fig. a creature of Greek mythology. When heated a little.

outside the box. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. square. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. this will cost about 15 cents. long. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. long and about 3/8 in. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. While at the drug store get 3 ft. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. of small rubber tubing. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. will complete the material list. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. 14 in. at the other. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. making it 2-1/2 in. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. about the size of stove pipe wire. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. about the size of door screen wire. in diameter. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. The light from the . Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. a piece of brass or steel wire. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral.

flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. O. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. . 2. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. This is very simple when you know how. If done properly the card will flyaway. Dayton. --Photo by M. Hunting. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. as shown in the sketch. while others will fail time after time. M. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. as shown in Fig. 1. as shown in Fig. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply.

Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. place the other two. as before. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. then put it on the hatpin head. hold the lump over the flame. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. When the desired shape has been obtained. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. closing both hands quickly. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. If a certain color is to be more prominent. This game is played by five persons. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. Cool in water and dry. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . one between the thumb and finger of each hand." or the Chinese students' favorite game. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. as shown. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. as described. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters.

passing through neutralizing brushes. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. distribute electric charges . Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. or more in width. these sectors. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held.

The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. 3. in diameter. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. Fig. in diameter. The fork part is 6 in. D. turned wood pieces. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. long and the shank 4 in. 3. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. in diameter. as shown in Fig. to which insulating handles . at the other. long. and of a uniform thickness. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. 4. from about 1/4-in. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. as shown in Fig. are made from solid. RR. and the outer end 11/2 in. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. and this should be done before cutting the circle. Fig. long. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. after they are mounted. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. EE. The drive wheels. 1. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. 2. material 7 in. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. in diameter. Two pieces of 1-in. 1 in. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. C C. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. 3/4 in. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. Two solid glass rods. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. These pins. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. in diameter. and 4 in. The two pieces.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. or teeth. in diameter and 15 in. long and the standards 3 in. brass tubing and the discharging rods. The collectors are made. wide. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. are made from 7/8-in. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. GG. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. in diameter. 1-1/2 in. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. the side pieces being 24 in. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. The plates are trued up. wide at one end. free from wrinkles. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. The plates. and pins inserted and soldered.

and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. and the work was done by themselves. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. KK. Lloyd Enos. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. D. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . 12 ft. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. Colo. in diameter. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. which are bent as shown. --Contributed by C. Colorado City. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates.are attached. one having a 2-in. long.. wide and 22 ft. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. ball and the other one 3/4 in.

HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. The key will drop from the string. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. bit. pens . yet such a thing can be done. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. and bore a hole 1/2 in. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. deep. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. as at A. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. using a 1-in. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. string together. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. They can be used to keep pins and needles. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up.is a good one.

With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. 2. This is to make a clean. Use . Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. or cigar ashes. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. very rapid progress can be made. 5. flat and round-nosed pliers. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. above the metal. 3. Having determined the size of the tray. Draw one-half the design free hand. Proceed as follows: 1. inside the second on all. Inside this oblong.. also trace the decorative design. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. about 3/4-in. The second oblong was 3/4 in.. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. extra metal on each of the four sides. 9. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. and the third one 1/4 in. 4. file.and pencils. They are easily made. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. two spikes. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. unless it would be the metal shears. etc. Raise the ends. 23 gauge. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. sharp division between background and design. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. using a nail filed to chisel edge. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. above the work and striking it with the hammer. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. When the stamping is completed. etc. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. stamp the background promiscuously. 8. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. slim screw. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. they make attractive little pieces to have about. then the other side. inside the first on all. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. 7. 6. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored.

second fingers. In the first numbering.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. The eyes. third fingers. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. first fingers. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . and the effect will be most pleasing. 7. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. 8. and fourth fingers. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. 10. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. 6. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. 9.

if we wish. and 20 plus 16 equals 36.. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. Still. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. or 80.. 25 times 25. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. above 15 times 15 it is 200. which would be 16.. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. or the product of 8 times 9. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. 600. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. In the second numbering. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. thumbs. Put your thumbs together. 12. but being simple it saves time and trouble. or the product of 6 times 6. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. Two times one are two. the product of 12 times 12. as high as you want to go. which tens are added. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. and the six lower fingers as six tens. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. etc. which would be 70. there are no fingers above. etc. or 60. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. . Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. renumber your fingers. etc. 2 times 2 equals 4. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. first fingers. above 20 times 20. viz. 400. 11. At a glance you see four tens or 40. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. or numbers above 10. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. Let us multiply 12 by 12.

Proceed as in the second lumbering.. however. thirties. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. the lump sum to add. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. first fingers 22. lastly. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. Take For example 18 times 18. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. 7. about a vertical axis. and. the value of the upper fingers being 20. For figures ending in 6. twenties. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. adding 400 instead of 100. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. or what. as one might suppose. not rotation. And the lump sum to add. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. 75 and 85. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. at the will of the observer. . forties. further. the revolution seems to reverse. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. the value which the upper fingers have. etc. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. the inversion takes place against his will. 8. beginning the thumbs with 16. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. or from above or from below. The inversion and reversion did not take place. 3. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. and so on. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. in the case of a nearsighted person. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. 2. any two figures between 45 and 55. first finger 17. being 80). Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. when he removes his spectacles. It takes place also. For example.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. thumbs. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. 21. whether the one described in second or third numbering. which is the half-way point between the two fives. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. Oppose the proper finger tips as before.

The ports were not easy to make. Looking at it in semidarkness. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. the other appearance asserts itself. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. as . but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. A flat slide valve was used. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. and putting a cork on the point. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. sometimes the point towards him. tee. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. when he knows which direction is right.

bottom side up. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. The eccentric is constructed of washers. saw off a section of a broom handle. secure a piece of No..The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. inexpensive. apart. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. Kutscher. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. Springfield. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. in diameter. If nothing better is at hand. pipe. across and 1/2 in. The steam chest is round. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. Beating copper tends to harden it and. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. The tools are simple and can be made easily. such as is shown in the illustration. if continued too long without proper treatment. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. Next take a block of wood. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. pipe 10 in. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. -Contributed by W. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. Ill. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. deep. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. and make in one end a hollow. it is easily built. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. as in a vise. about 2 in. across the head. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. H. Fasten the block solidly. While this engine does not give much power. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. .

Camden. Hay. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. This process is called annealing. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. especially when the object is near to the observer. as it softens the metal. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. To produce color effects on copper. the other to the left. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. S. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. and. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. O. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good.will cause the metal to break. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. C. Vinegar. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. --Contributed by W. To overcome this hardness. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border.

It is just as though they were not there. as for instance red and green. because of the rays coming from them. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. orange. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. So with the stereograph. from the stereograph. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. the one for the left eye being blue. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. and without any picture. however. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. although they pass through the screen. and lies to the right on the picture. not two mounted side by side. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. In order to make them appear before the card. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. with the stereograph. it. in the proper choice of colors. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. diameter." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. the further from the card will the composite image appear. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. they must be a very trifle apart. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. The further apart the pictures are. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. while both eyes together see a white background. that for the right. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. would serve the same purpose. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils.stereoscope. because. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. the left eye sees through a blue screen. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. disappears fully. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. But they seem black. . one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. only the orange rays may pass through. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. The red portions of the picture are not seen. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter.

Two types of make-and-break connection are used. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. The weight of the air in round . A small round bottle about 1/2 in. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. 12 gauge wire. Cal. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. 1/4 in. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. etc. wireless. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. This should only be bored about half way through the block. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. long and a hole drilled in each end.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. thick. San Francisco. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. or the middle of the bottle. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. Place a NO. in diameter. A No. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. in the shape of a crank. wide and 1 in. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom.

Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. 30 in. high. wide and 4 in. inside diameter and 2 in. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. wide and 40 in. if accurately constructed. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. a glass tube 1/8 in. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. 34 ft. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. The 4 in. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. .6) 1 in. In general. the instrument. or. Before fastening the scale. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. will calibrate itself. if you choose. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. and a slow fall. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. a bottle 1 in. high. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. thick. the contrary. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31.. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax.numbers is 15 lb. or a column of mercury (density 13. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. square. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. but before attempting to put in the mercury. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. long. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. pine 3 in. long. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. long. internal diameter and about 34 in. square. Only redistilled mercury should be used. high. But if a standard barometer is not available. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch.

Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. and place them as shown in Fig.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. Procure a metal can cover. Mark out seven 1-in. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. Number the pieces 1. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. a cover from a baking powder can will do. 3. 1. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . wide and 10 in. 5. long. the size of the outside of the bottle. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. 6 and 7. which is slipped quickly over the end. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. thick. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. 2.

Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. 6. 7. Move 5-Jump No. shaped like Fig. 2 over No. 5's place. 3. Move 2-Jump No. Move 15-Move No. 6. This can be done on a checker board. Move 6-Move No. 1. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. 5. Cape May Point. 7's place. 1. as shown in Fig. Move 14-Jump No. 5 over No. 3 over No. N. 3. 6 over No. l over No. 1 to No. Move 13-Move No. 5 over No. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. in diameter. 7 over No. 6 into No. 2 over No.J. Move 8-Jump No. long and 2 ft. 5's place. 2's place. which is the very best material for the purpose.Position of the Men move only one at a time. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. Move 9-Jump No. Woolson. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. 2's place. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. 3 into No. Move 12-Jump No. L. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. procure unbleached tent duck. each 10 ft. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. 2 . 3 to the center. Move 4-Jump No. Move 7-Jump No. Move ll-Jump No. 7 over No. To make such a tent. 6 in. Make 22 sections. Move 3-Move No. 2. 1 into No. using checkers for men. 2. 3.-Contributed by W. 6 to No. Move 10-Move No.

from the top. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. 2. 9 by 12 in. diameter. leaving the rest for an opening. wide at the bottom. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. wide at the bottom. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. 5. long and 4 in. to a smooth board of soft wood.in. Fig. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. 6. As shown in the sketch. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. long. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. about 9 in. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. 5) stuck in the ground. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. These are ventilators. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. round galvanized iron. Punch holes in the brass in . fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. fill with canvas edging. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. wide by 12 in. 3 in. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. --Contributed by G. Use blocks. Emsworth. Nail a thin sheet of brass. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. Tress. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. Pa. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. In raising the tent. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. made in two sections. Fig. as in Fig. high. added. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. in diameter. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. 6-in. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams.. will do. Have the tent pole 3 in. 2 in. After transferring the design to the brass.J.

apart. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. Chicago. When all the holes are punched. but before punching the holes. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. bend into shape. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. cut out the brass on the outside lines. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. . When the edges are brought together by bending. It will not. around the outside of the pattern. excepting the 1/4-in. Corr. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. The pattern is traced as before.the spaces around the outlined figures. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E.

Oregon. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in.. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. pipe is used for the hub. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. pipe. E. --Contributed by H. partially filled with cream. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. between which is placed the fruit jar. or center on which the frame swings. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. These pipes are . allowing 2 ft. Stevens. --Contributed by Geo. Dunham. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. Mayger. Badger. A 6-in. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. or. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. A cast-iron ring. better still. Que. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post.however. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. or less. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. If a wheel is selected. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. G.

pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. pipe. bent to the desired circle. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. Four braces made from 1/2-in. pipe clamps. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. An extra wheel 18 in. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] .

in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. 1. and the guide withdrawn. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. and dropped on the table. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. while doing this. 3. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. The performer. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. which was placed in an upright position. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. as shown in Fig. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in.

These leaves can be made up in regular book form.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. Louis. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. Harkins. 2. White. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. St. 1. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. -Contributed by C. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. Colo. D. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. it requires no expensive condensing lens. F. and second. --Contributed by H. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. The box can be made of selected oak or . first. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. in diameter on another piece of tin. Denver. in a half circle. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. Mo. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives.

The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. high and must . 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. and. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. as shown in Fig. from each end. long. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. An open space 4 in. wide. 3-1/2 in. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. fit into the runners. If a camera lens is used. wide and 5 in. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. AA. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. 5-1/2 in. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. long. and 2 in. from each end of the outside of the box. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. focal length. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. represented by the dotted line in Fig. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. 1. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. 2. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. Two or three holes about 1 in. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. The door covering this hole in the back. wide and 6-1/2 in. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. This will be 3/4 in. but not tight. wide by 5 in. high and 11 in. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. wide and 6-1/2 in.mahogany. long and should be placed vertically.

Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. Bradley. This process is rather a difficult one. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. provided it is airtight. West Toledo. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. calling this February. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia." etc. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. June and November. calling that knuckle January.. and so on. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. then the second knuckle will be March. and extending the whole height of the lantern. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. Ohio. as it requires an airtight case. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. 1. C. --Contributed by Chas. April. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. the article may be propped up . Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September.

The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. In each place two electrodes. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. In both Fig. the lid or cover closed. in. N. in. running small motors and lighting small lamps. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. Y. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. but waxed. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. 2. The top of a table will do. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. 1. one of lead and one of aluminum. and set aside for half a day. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. Schenectady. giving it an occasional stir. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. taking care to have all the edges closed. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. Pour in a little turpentine. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. . and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. --Contributed by J. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. Crawford. or suspended by a string. fruit jars are required. H.with small sticks. and the lead 24 sq. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. 1 and 2.

are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. which you warm with your hands. O. You have an understanding with some one in the company. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug.. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. as you have held it all the time. you remove the glass. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. After a few seconds' time. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. He. he throws the other. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. as well as others. This trick is very simple. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. Cleveland. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine.

in diameter in the center. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. Victor. Crocker. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward.-Contributed by E. Be sure that this is the right one. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. Pull the ends quickly. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. near a partition or curtain. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief.take the handiest one. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. . put it under the glass. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. J. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. but in making one. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. Colo. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. but by being careful at shores. if any snags are encountered. on a table. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole.

wide unbleached muslin. 1/8 in. one 6 in. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. Both ends are mortised. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. long. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . 2 and braced with an iron band. 3 in. Paint. long. by 16 ft. 1 piece. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. long. 3 in. wide. from the bow and the large one. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. selected pine. by 15 ft. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. apart. 4 outwales. drilled and fastened with screws. wide and 12 ft. 14 rib bands.. of 1-yd. of rope. and the other 12 in. Fig. The keelson. thick and 3/4 in. 7 ft. 50 ft. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. 11 yd. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. is 14 ft. 1. by 2 in. 1/4 in. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. wide 12-oz. 2 gunwales. 8 in. by 2 in. 1 in.. 9 ft. at the ends. 1 in. and fastened with screws. 8 yd. and is removed after the ribs are in place. ducking. for the bow. long. wide and 12 ft. of 1-1/2-yd. for the stern piece. for cockpit frame. 1 in. screws and cleats. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. the smaller is placed 3 ft. and. 2 in. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. square by 16 ft. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. are as follows: 1 keelson. clear pine. by 10 ft. by 8 in. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. for center deck braces. from each end to 1 in. by 16 ft. from the stern. 1 mast.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. by 12 in. 3 and 4. 1 in. as illustrated in the engraving. 1 piece.

The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. wide. doubled. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. long is well soaked in water. This block. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. wide and 3 ft. apart. 3-1/2 ft. corner braces. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. 7 and 8. 4 in. They are 1 in. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. screws. also. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. Fig. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. 6. 1 in. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. A block of pine. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. long. length of canvas is cut in the center. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. 6 and 7. thick 1-1/2 in. wide and 24 in. Figs. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. thick and 1/2 in. 6 in. thick. a piece 1/4 in. is cut to fit under the top boards. 1/4 in. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. and fastened to them with bolts. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. These are put in 6 in. wide. thick. The block is fastened to the keelson. The 11-yd. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. 1 in. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. Before making the deck. wood screws. 9. The deck is not so hard to do. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. long. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. 5. Fig. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. long. . in diameter through the block. thick and 12 in. A seam should be made along the center piece. wide and 14 in. from the bow. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. gunwales and keelson. The trimming is wood. Braces. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. is a cube having sides 6 in. A 6-in. A piece of oak.

11. A strip 1 in. in diameter and 10 ft. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. Wilmette. apart in the muslin. 10 with a movable handle. thick by 2 in. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. E. long. Tronnes. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. The keel. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. is 6 in. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. The sail is a triangle. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. The house will accommodate 20 families. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. Ill. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. at the other. The mast has two side and one front stay. Fig. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. long. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. 12. wide. --Contributed by O. . long that will fit the holes in the hinge. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. are used for the boom and gaff. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. wide at one end and 12 in. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. each 1 in.

2 in. long. wide. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. 2-1/2 in. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. and the other 18 in. thick. one 11-1/2 in.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. long. about 5/16 in. 3. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. wide and 30 in. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. flat-headed screws. Wilmette. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. 1 yd. Cut the maple. long. thick. 2.into two 14-in. wide and 2 ft. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. five 1/2-in. 4. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. flat on one side. 5. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. 1. E. Ill. --Contributed by O. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. as shown in Fig. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. with the ends and the other side rounding. Fig. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. square. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. Tronnes. flat headed screws. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. Bevel both sides of the pieces. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. long and five 1/2-in. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. wide. 2-1/2 in. and 3 ft. thick. Take this and fold it over .

A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. Wind three layers of about No. 3/8 in. 2 and 3. Bliss. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. wide and 2-1/2 in. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. C. Figs. square. A. thick. Make a double stitch all around the edge. wide and 3 ft. The sides are 3-1/4 in. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. the top and bottom. Another piece. A. Cut another piece of board. leaving a small opening at one corner. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. wide and 5 in. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. long. long. pieces 2-5/8 in. C. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. then centered. Louis. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. 3 in. wide and 6-3/4 in. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. this square box is well sandpapered. B. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. and take care that the pieces are all square. forming an eye for a screw. 5 from 1/16-in. After the glue. of each end unwound for connections. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. 1-1/4 in. The front. The bag is then turned inside out. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. wide and 6-1/2 in. Glue a three cornered piece. as well as the edges around the opening. St. long.once. is set. about 3/8 in. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. the mechanical parts can be put together. About 1/2 in. 1. and make a turn in each end of the wires. wide and 4-1/2 in. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. long. If carefully and neatly made. wide and 2-3/4 in. 6-1/2 in. but can be governed by circumstances. long. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. E. Fig. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. soaked with water and blown up. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. and the four outside edges. 3-1/4 in. long. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. square. --Contributed by W. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. D. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. are rounded. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. thick and 3 in. thick. long. F. When the glue is set. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. wide . Mo. long. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle.

The resistance is now adjusted to show . the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. The base is a board 5 in. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. Fig. 1/4 in. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. Like poles repel each other. 4. Fig. thick. Austwick Hall. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. the same size as the first. --Contributed by George Heimroth. The end of the polar axis B. wide and 9 in. in diameter. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. and the farther apart they will be forced. 4 is not movable. long. wide and 2-1/2 in. and fasten in place. from the spindle. G. so it will just clear the tin. Place the tin.R. bored in the back. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. The stronger the current. R. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. the part carrying the pointer moves away. board. These wires should be about 1 in. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. 5-1/2 in. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. 4. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. C. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. Richmond Hill. Chapman. I. A pointer 12 in. 5. that has the end turned with a shoulder. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. When the current flows through the coil. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. hole is fastened to the pointer.A. 1/16 in. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. Another strip of tin.S. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. L. long. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. F. from one end. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . long. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips.and 2-5/8 in. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. Yorkshire. and as the part Fig. W. showing a greater defection of the pointer.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis.

shows mean siderial. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. 10 min. A. and vice . 30 min. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. at 9 hr. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. 10 min. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. say Venus at the date of observation. The following formula will show how this may be found. M. 1881. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. thus: 9 hr. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies.

The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. Hall. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances.f. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. if one of these cannot be had. owing to the low internal resistance. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. and then verify its correctness by measurement. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. . or. New Haven.m. Conn. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. --Contributed by Robert W. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon.

If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. 1. as shown in the accompanying picture. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. of alum and 4 oz. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. thick. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. The boring bar. Then. 1-3/4 in. especially for cooking fish. cover up with the same. arsenic to every 20 lb. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. long. 3/8 in. inside diameter and about 5 in.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. leaves or bark. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. Fig. fresh grass. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. put the fish among the ashes. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. Wet paper will answer. and heap the glowing coals on top. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . When the follower is screwed down. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes.

to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. fastened with a pin. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. thick. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. and threaded on both ends. when they were turned in. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. about 1/2 in. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. pipe. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. pipe. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel.

however. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. The rough frame. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. 3. thick and 3 in. wide. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. Clermont. long. This plate also supports the rocker arms.valve stems. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. and which gave such satisfactory results. Fig. a jump spark would be much better. It . one of which is plainly shown in the picture. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. but never one which required so little material. If the valve keeps dripping. Fig. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. labor and time. A 1-in. 4. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. 30 in. the float is too high. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. as the one illustrated herewith. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. Iowa. 5. bent in the shape of a U. square iron. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. was then finished on an emery wheel. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. then it should be ground to a fit. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. Fig. 2.

the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. If it is to be used for adults. square. A malleable iron bolt. long. square and 2 ft. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. This makes an easy adjustment. being held in position by spikes as shown. strengthened by a piece 4 in." little and big. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. W. in the ground with 8 ft. A 3/4 -in. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. --Contributed by C. 3/4 in. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. hole bored in the post. completes the merry-go-round. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. The crosspiece is 2 in. strong clear material only should be employed." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. from the center. with no trees or buildings in the way. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. butting against short stakes. for the "motive power" to grasp. in fact. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . so it must be strong enough. long is the pivot. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. from all over the neighborhood. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. and a little junk. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. Nieman. Use a heavy washer at the head. 12 ft. As there is no bracing. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. square and 5 ft. timber. and. It looks like a toy. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. The illustration largely explains itself. in diameter and 15 in. The seats are regular swing boards. long. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. rope is not too heavy. set 3 ft. extending above. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. long. no matter what your age or size may be. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright.

paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. a wreck. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. A reel is next made. These ends are placed about 14 in. The backbone is flat. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. long.the fingers. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. if nothing better is at hand. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. one for the backbone and one for the bow. as shown in Fig. Having placed the backbone in position. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. The bow is now bent. To wind the string upon the reel. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. and sent to earth. 1/4 by 3/32 in.2 emery.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. away. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. square. 1. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. and 18 in. Both have large reels full of . 4. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. 2. then it is securely fastened. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. light and strong. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel.

The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string.-Contributed by S. Moody. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. often several hundred yards of it. First. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. If the second kite is close enough. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. C. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. common packing thread. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. Bunker. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . --Contributed' by Harry S. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. The handle end is held down with a staple.string. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. Newburyport. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. Y. Mass. he pays out a large amount of string. the balance. or glass-covered string. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. Brooklyn. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. N.

Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. lengths (Fig. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. --Contributed by Earl R. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. then draw the string up tight. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. each the size of half the table top. square (Fig. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. such as mill men use. If the table is round. make the pad as shown in the illustration. Vt. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. Corinth. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. must be attached to a 3-ft. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. Hastings. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. cutting the circular piece into quarters. length of 2-in. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. then a dust protector. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. Cut four pieces of canton flannel.

trace the design carefully on the leather. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. Wharton. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. Oakland. and E to G. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. Calif. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B... which spoils the leather effect. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. hard pencil. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. G to H. . How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. from C to D.. Use a smooth. Moisten the . Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions.-Contributed by H. 16-1/4 in. 17-1/2 in.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. 2-1/4 in. E.9-1/4 in. from E to F. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. 6-1/4 in.

H-B. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. also lines A-G. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. place both together and with a leather punch. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. if not more than 1 in. Trace the openings for the handles. get something with which to make a lining. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. and corresponding lines on the other side. Cut it the same size as the bag. about 1/8 in. G-J. To complete the bag.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. and E-G. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. I made this motor . Now cut narrow thongs. is taken off at a time. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. apart. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. wide. with the rounded sides of the tools. and lace through the holes.

. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. 1. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. D. as shown in Fig. each being a half circle. of No. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. --Contributed by J. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. long. B. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. 2-1/4 in. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. 24 gauge magnet wire. Pasadena.M. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. 1. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. Calif. in length. Shannon. 2. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. iron. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws.

will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. high. from the bottom end. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. and the gores cut from these. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. balloon should be about 8 ft. 1. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. pasted in alternately. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. are the best kind to make. The gores for a 6-ft. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. near the center. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions.

the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. leaving the solution on over night. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. 3. In starting the balloon on its flight. using about 1/2-in. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. after which the paint will adhere permanently. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. If the gores have been put together right. 4. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . so it will hang as shown in Fig. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. lap on the edges. leaving a long wake behind. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. These are to hold the wick ball. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. 2. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. Staunton. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. In removing grease from wood. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. 1. 5. coming through the small pipe A. The steam. B.widest point. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. somewhat larger in size. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. saturating it thoroughly. E. in diameter. After washing. --Contributed by R. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. As the boat is driven forward by this force. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. Fig. A. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. The boat soon attains considerable speed. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball.

apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. long. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. high and 8 in. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. Second. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. The blocks are about 6 in. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. 1. In using either of the two methods described. wide by 6 in. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. apart on these lines. long and each provided with a handle. as is shown in Fig. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. There are three ways of doing this: First. if you have several copies of the photograph. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. in bowling form.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. Third.

Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. N. 2. --Contributed by John A. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution.Fig. not pointed down at the road at an angle. being careful not to dent the metal. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. thick. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. Albany. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . Hellwig. Fig. Y. Rinse the plate in cold water. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint.

In Fig. 2 the front view. 1 Fig. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. are screwed to the circular piece. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. CC. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. and. A. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. Richmond. Break off the frame. These corner irons are also screwed to. and not produce the right sound. Paine. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. and Fig. --Contributed by R. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. With this device. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. in diameter. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. Va. wide and 8 in. S. A circular piece of wood. wide and of any desired height. A. which is 4 in. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. 5 in.upon any particular object. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . B. is fastened to a common camera tripod. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. long for the base. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. with a set screw. 6 in. through which passes the set screw S. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. thick. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. Corner irons.

Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. R. Kidder. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. La Salle. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. I made a wheel 26 in. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. as only the can is visible. -1. D. Ill. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. Lake Preston. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. This will make a very compact electric horn. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. . Mount the bell vibrator on the base. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. pine boards. S. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. thus producing sound waves. in diameter of some 1-in. This horn.

The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. If there is a large collection of coins. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. thick and 12 in. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. Kane. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. 2. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. --Contributed by C. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . B. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. A. 1. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. O.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. Doylestown. Purdy. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. 1. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. square. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. Fig. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. Ghent. The frame is made of a heavy card. If the collection consists of only a few coins. Feet may be added to the base if desired. --Contributed by James R. the same thickness as the coins.

One Cloud. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. of developer. Toronto. though not absolutely necessary. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. several large nails. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. A lead pencil. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. Cal.E. plus a 3/8-in. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. Milwaukee. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. and then glued together as indicated. for after the slides have been shown a few times. Neyer. thick.J. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. --Contributed by August T. Canada. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. It will hold 4 oz. --Contributed by R. a hammer or mallet. A rivet punch is desirable. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. border all around. Wis. The material required is a sheet of No. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. into which to place the screws . --Contributed by J. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. they become uninteresting. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. If desired. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. Smith. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. Noble. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. melted and applied with a brush. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. cut and grooved.

both outline and decoration. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. and file it to a chisel edge. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . Fasten the metal to the board firmly.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. never upon the metal directly. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. screws placed about 1 in. draw one part. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. like the one shown. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. Take the nail. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. Remove the screws. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. There are several ways of working up the design. using 1/2-in. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal.

inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. . How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. long. for the lower rails. long. 2. as shown in Fig. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. in the other. for the top. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. About 1/2 yd. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. 1. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. of 11-in. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. long. two lengths. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. each 1 in. 3/4 in. square and 11 in. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. square. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed.wall. Provide four lengths for the legs. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. l-1/8 in. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. Rivet the band to the holder. using a 1/2in. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. up from the lower end. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. being ball bearing. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. and two lengths. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. The pedal. square and 181/2 in. Do not bend it over or flatten it. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. 3.

was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. Quackenbush. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. Attalla. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. New York City. having quite a length of threads. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. --Contributed by W. Ala. F.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. --Contributed by John Shahan.

in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. Two pieces of felt. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. one about 1 in. long. initial. and two holes in the other. stitched on both edges for appearance. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. --Contributed by C. from one end. the end of the other piece is folded over. Mich. and the other 2-3/4 in. each 1-1/4 in. wide and 4-1/4 in. something that is carbonated. Purchase a 1/2-in. and 3/8 in. Assemble as shown in the sketch. making a lap of about 1 in. Luther. long. from the end. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. long. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. in depth. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. D. college or lodge colors. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. using class. The desired emblem. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid.. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. Ironwood. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. wide and 8-1/4 in.

sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . in the cover and the bottom. if desired by the operator. about 2 in. This method allows a wide range of designs. as shown in the sketch. from the center and opposite each other. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. Punch two holes A. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. Fig. A piece of lead. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. or more in height. 1. and the cork will be driven out. --Contributed by John H. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. Schatz. or a pasteboard box. as shown at B. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. which can be procured from a plumber. Ind. in diameter and 2 in. Indianapolis. 1/4 in. 2. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid.

or marble will serve. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. are turned up as in Fig. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. allowing the two ends to be free. on both top and bottom. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. A piece of thick glass. 5. The pieces of tin between the holes A. Fig. metal. O. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. When the can is rolled away from you. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. as shown in Fig. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. Columbus. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. . How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. putting in the design. and the ends of the bands looped over them. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. 3. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. 4.Rolling Can Toy lead. it winds up the rubber band. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. 1.

3 in. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. I secured a board 3/4 in. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . thicker than the pinion. long and bored a 1/2-in. A pencil may be used the first time over. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. After this has been done. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. New York City. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. wide and 20 in. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. face up. hole through it. The edges should be about 1/8 in. If it is desired to "line" the inside. thick. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. 1 in. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. deep in its face. mark over the design. or more thick on each side. from each end. and. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. Next place the leather on the glass.

The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. New York. lag screws as shown. Make the lower frame first. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. much of the hard labor will be saved. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. 1 piece for clamp. Now fit up the two clamps. pieces for the vise slides. 3 by 3 by 6 in. 1 by 12 by 77 in. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. Syracuse. 2 crosspieces. --Contributed by A. 2 side rails. 2. Y. 3 by 3 by 36. Rice. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. 4 guides. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. N.in the board into the bench top. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. 1 top board. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. 2 by 12 by 77 in. Cut the 2-in. 1 by 9 by 80 in. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. 1 piece. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. 1. 1 piece for clamp. 1 screw block. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. M. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. countersinking the heads of the vise end. Fig. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. and fit it in place for the side vise. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. 1 back board. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. in diameter. 1 top board. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . 2 end rails. Brooklyn. 3 by 3 by 20 in. thick top board. 2 by 2 by 18 in. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts.

As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. 1 set chisels.. If each tool is kept in a certain place.. 1 jack plane or smoother. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. it can be easily found when wanted. 1 bench plane or jointer. 1 brace and set of bits.screws. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. The amateur workman. 1 pair pliers.. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. 1 compass saw. as well as the pattern maker. 1 claw hammer. 24 in. 1 wood scraper. 2 screwdrivers. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. 1 pocket level. 1 cross cut saw. Only the long run. 1 2-ft. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. 1 monkey wrench. in diameter. 1 pair dividers. . 1 nail set. 1 marking gauge. 1 set gimlets. The bench is now complete. 24 in. They can be purchased at a hardware store. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. rule. 1 countersink. 3 and 6 in. 1 rip saw.

1. 2. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. try square. being softer. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. Doylestown. Fig. will be easier to work. Kane. becomes like A. but will not make .1 6-in. after constant use. Fig. The calf skin. No. 3.1. 1. 2 and 00 sandpaper. ---Contributed by James M. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. the projecting point A. will sink into the handle as shown at D. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. Fig. Pa. 1 oilstone. Fig.

and the length 6-5/8 in. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. -Contributed by Julia A. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. White. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. Two pieces will be required of this size. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. The form can be made of a stick of wood. but a V-shaped nut pick. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. lay the design on the face. which steam. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. secure a piece of modeling calf. New York City.as rigid a case as the cow skin. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. Having prepared the two sides. then prepare the leather. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. such as copper or brass. when dry. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. If calf skin is to be used. If cow hide is preferred. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. . cover it completely with water enamel and. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. Turn the leather. the same method of treatment is used. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. water or heat will not affect. First draw the design on paper. will do just as well. After the outlines are traced. This will make a perfectly impervious covering.

New York City. --Contributed by W. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. A. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. --Contributed by Chester L. Maine. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. Jaquythe. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. and an adjustable friction-held loop. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. Herrman. Cobb. as shown in the sketch. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. Portland. Richmond. . Cal. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. C. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. --Contributed by Chas.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel.

an inverted stewpan. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. Cambridge.. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. was marked out as shown. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. Roberts. Wright.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. --Contributed by Geo. for instance. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. A thick piece of tin. --Contributed by Wm. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. B. . especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. Conn. Mass. This was very difficult. Middletown. or anyone that can shape tin and solder.

Chicago. pulverized and applied.. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. L. face down. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. but only an odor which soon vanished. . Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. Ind. and quite new. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. Illinois.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. F. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. such as chair seats. --Contributed by Paul Keller. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. apply powdered calcined magnesia. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. and the grease will disappear. of boiling water. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. on a clear piece of glass. The next morning there was no trace of oil. as shown. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. There was no quicklime to be had. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. Bone. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. Indianapolis. When dry. If the article is highly polished. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. well calcined and powdered. If any traces of the grease are left. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. Herbert. but not running over. which has been tried out several times with success. A beautifully bound book. so some bones were quickly calcined. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. used as part of furniture. --Contributed by C. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned.

6 in. --Contributed by Geo. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. long. deep and 5 in. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. the pieces . How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. set and thumbscrews. wide and 12 in. 2 in.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired.. soft steel with the opening 6 in. Howe. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. This coaster is simple and easy to make. New York. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. The pieces marked S are single.. A. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. thick. high and are bolted to a block of wood. says Scientific American. If properly adjusted. Tarrytown.

The seat is a board. no doubt. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. to the underside of which is a block. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. A sharp knife. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. Their size depends on the plate used. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. they will look remarkably uniform. If the letters are all cut the same height. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. E. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. albums and the like. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. for sending to friends. says Camera Craft. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work.

to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. after. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. mount them on short pieces of corks. So arranged. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. So made. pasting the prints on some thin card. and. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. In cutting out an 0. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. photographing them down to the desired size. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. for example. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. The puzzle is to get . each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. using care to get it in the right position.

Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. with the longest end outside. of its top. He smells the bait.-Contributed by I. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. long that will just fit are set in. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. G. Bayley. says the American Thresherman. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. squeezes along past the center of the tube. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. snow or anything to hide it. Cape May Point. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit.J. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. N. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. A hole 6 or 7 in. so they will lie horizontal. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. hung on pivots. Old-Time Magic .

Pocatello. Idaho. then spread the string. --Contributed by Charles Graham. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. Y. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . N. or rub the hands a little before doing so. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. Brooklyn. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. E. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. --Contributed by L. Szerlip. then expose again.faced up. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. Press the hands together. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. Parker. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. Rhode Island. --Contributed by L. Pawtucket.

The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. or a complete suit of armor. 3 Fig. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. if any. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. dark red. end of the blade. using a straightedge and a pencil.. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. whether he requires a single sword only. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. 2 Fig. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. thick. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. narrower. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. 1. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel.. says the English Mechanic. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. they will look very much like the genuine article. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. Glue the other side of the blade. or green oil paint.Genuine antique swords and armor. wipe the blade . When the whole is quite dry. The pieces. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. and if carefully made. full size. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. in building up his work from the illustrations. The blade should be about 27 in. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. 4 on the blade. When the glue is thoroughly dry. The handle is next made. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. wide and 2 in. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. in width. 1 Fig. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. near the point end. long.

and 3 in. take two pieces of wood. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. In making. 1. shows only two sides. 2. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. the other is flat or halfround. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. allowing for a good hold with both hands. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. as it is . long. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. 3. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. thick and 5 in. Both edges of the blade are sharp. the other two are identical. 2. In making this scimitar. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A.with light strokes up and down several times. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. the other is flat or half-round. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration.. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. about 1-1/2 in. 1.. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. should be about 9 in. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. the length of the blade 28 in. 3. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. The length of the handle. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. of course. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. in the widest part at the lower end. 4. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. square and of any length desired. 1. in diameter. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. the illustration. This sword is about 68 in. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. In the finished piece. not for use only in cases of tableaux. 1. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. Fig. follow the directions as for Fig. 1/8 in. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. preferably of contrasting colors.

as shown in the sketch. as there was some at hand. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. Morse. The thinness of the plank. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. however. --Contributed by John Blake. It is made of a plank. Y. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. long. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. at the lower end. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. Syracuse. Both can be made easily. Mass. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. Franklin. and if so. and. piping and jackets by hard water. Doctors probed for the button without success. as can the pitch bed or block. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. each about 1 ft. square. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. in an attempt to remove it. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. --Contributed by Katharine D. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. N. or an insecure fastening. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. about 3/8 in. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. A piece of mild steel. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. 2 in. On each edge of the board. A cold . Fasten this to the plank with bolts.

5 lb. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch.. using a small metal saw. a file to reduce the ends to shape. Trim up the edges and file them . The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. When the desired form has been obtained.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. To put it in another way. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. plaster of Paris. tallow. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. secure a piece of brass of about No. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. design down. on the pitch. 5 lb. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. To remedy this. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. 18 gauge. When this has been done..

1) and the other 12 in. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. A. --Contributed by Harold H. to keep it from floating. That is lifting 33. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. in one minute or 550 lb. Fill the 3-in. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. or fraction of a horsepower. Cutter. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. but not to stop it. 2). Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. . These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. in one second. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. 1 ft. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little.000 lb. in the center. 3. it may be well to know what horsepower means. lb. and still revolve. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines.000 ft. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. or 550 ft. 1 ft.smooth. per minute. The smaller is placed within the larger. Fig. lb. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. space between the vessels with water. Clean the metal thoroughly. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. per second. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. using powdered pumice with lye. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. Before giving the description. over the smaller vessel. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. in diameter (Fig. one 18 in. in diameter (Fig. living together in what seems like one receptacle. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. 30 ft. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. This in turn divided by 33. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. and hang a bird swing. make an unusual show window attraction. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft.

Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. Diameter Fig. by L. or on a pedestal. --Contributed.18 in. Y. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. Szerlip. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. Somerville. Diameter 12 in. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. The effect is surprising. Brooklyn. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . --Contributed by J. Campbell. F.3 Fig. N. Mass.

In riveting. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. and cut out the shape with the shears. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. with the pliers. This compound is impervious to water. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. away from the edge. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. keeping the center high. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. the same as removing writing from a slate. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. which may be of wood or tin. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. Polish both of these pieces. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. then by drawing a straightedge over it. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. often render it useless after a few months service. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. using any of the common metal polishes. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. and then. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. as a rule. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. with other defects. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. is. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. Rivet the cup to the base. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. to keep the metal from tarnishing.copper of No. which. after which it is ready for use. and the clay . as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. unsatisfactory. Do not be content merely to bend them over.

The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. A. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark.can be pressed back and leveled. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by A. -Contributed by Thos. . Grand Rapids. in diameter and 5 in. Scotland. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. Shettleston. DeLoof. --Contributed by John T. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. Mich. as shown in Fig. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. 3/4 in. Dunlop. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. The siphon is made of glass tubes. 2. 1. long. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. Northville. the device will work for an indefinite time. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. Mich. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. It is made of a glass tube. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. Houghton.

FIG. put up as ornaments. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. 1. long with the crossguard and blade of steel. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. long.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. This sword is 4 ft. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. stilettos and battle-axes.1 FIG. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. in width and 2 in. London. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. As the handle is to . A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig.

Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. the axe is of steel. Three large. one about 1/2 in. firmly glued on. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. This stiletto has a wood handle. This sword is about 4 ft. This weapon is also about 1 ft. The lower half of the handle is of wood. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. In Fig. 8. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. The handle is of wood. When the whole is quite dry. sometimes called cuirass breakers. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. In Fig. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. small rope and round-headed nails. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. string. 5. studded with brass or steel nails. This weapon is about 1 ft. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. 11 were used. very broad. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. In Fig. A German poniard is shown in Fig. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. the upper part iron or steel. The crossbar and blade are steel. These must be cut from pieces of wood. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. is shown in Fig. 7. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. When the glue is thoroughly dry. with both edges of the blade sharp. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. in width. with wire or string' bound handle. 3 is shown a claymore. in length. 6. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. Cut two strips of tinfoil. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. with both edges sharp. Both handle and axe are of steel. sharp edges on both sides. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. When dry. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. which is about 2-1/2 ft. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. glue and put it in place. then glued on the blade as shown. long. The sword shown in Fig. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. The ball is made as described in Fig. A German stiletto. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. 20 spike. long with a dark handle of wood. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. the same as used on the end of the handle. This axe is made similar to the one . long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. in length. paint it a dark brown or black. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. 4. 9. wood with a keyhole saw. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle.represent copper. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. narrower. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge.

Davis. Chicago. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. --Contributed by E. Old-Time Magic . together as shown in Fig. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. When wrapped all the way around.described in Fig. 10. This will make a very good flexible belt.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. W. so the contents cannot be seen. . high. 2. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. the ends are tied and cut off. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. such as braided fishline. will pull where other belts slip.

in a few seconds' time. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . filled with water. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. 1 and put together as in Fig. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. or using small wedges of wood. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. These wires are put in the jar. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. causing the flowers to grow. As zinc is much lighter than iron. N. Macdonald. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. Oakland. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. To make the flowers grow in an instant. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. held in the right hand. some of the liquid. an acid. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. The dotted lines in Fig. apparently. Before the performance. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. 2. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. --Contributed by A. Bridgeton. There will be no change in color.J. Calif. four glass tumblers. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. about one-third the way down from the top. S. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. with the circle centrally located. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist.

but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. When many slides are to be masked. Richmond. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. A. Jaquythe. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. 2 for height. unless some special device is used. 4 for width and No. Cal. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. not only because of the fact just mentioned. This outlines the desired opening. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. says a correspondent of Photo Era. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. which are numbered for convenience in working. --Contributed by W. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. and kept ready for use at any time. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. and equally worthy of individual treatment. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. If the size wanted is No.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. practical and costs nothing. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print.

the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. Draw a design. the margin and the entire back of the metal. The decoration. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. paint the design. too. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. When etched to the desired depth. may be changed. but they can be easily revived. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. 16 gauge. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. about half and half. With a stick. the paper is folded along the center line. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. or a pair of old tongs. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. a little less acid than water. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. possibly. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. using the carbon paper. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. and do not inhale the fumes. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . The one shown is merely suggestive. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. Secure a sheet of No. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. or. not the water into the acid. is about right for the No. and the extreme length 7 in. This done. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. which is dangerous.

Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. as at H.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. 5. When the button S is pressed. Nail a board. through it. and about 2-1/2 ft. as in Fig. 5. 2. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. about 2-1/2 in. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. Then get two posts. or more wide. 3. with the wires underneath. 4. Cut out a piece of tin. the bell will ring. . and bore two holes. Fig. J is another wire attached in the same way. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. as shown in the illustration. about 8 in. Fig. Fig. 3/8 in. It may be either nailed or screwed down. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. C and D. 2. as shown in Fig. about 1 in. attached to a post at each end. it will touch post F. Fig. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. long and 1 ft. to the table. wide. in diameter and 1/4 in. 24 parts water. 2. A. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. The connections are simple: I. 1. so that when it is pressed down. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. repeat as many times as is necessary. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. about 3 ft. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. long. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. thick. Fig. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. 0 indicates the batteries. wide and of the same length as the table. Paint the table any color desired. high. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate.

An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. thick. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. long. 1. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. The imitation articles are made of wood. After the glue is dry. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. but they are somewhat difficult to make. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. The circle is marked out with a compass. The entire weapon. These rings can be carved out. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. 2. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. the wood peg inserted in one of them. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. A wood peg about 2 in. is to appear as steel. such as . long serves as the dowel. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. says the English Mechanic. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. This weapon is about 22 in.. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. handle and all.Imitation Arms and Armor . The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel.

as before mentioned.ornamental scrolls. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. covered with red velvet. The handle is of steel imitation. studded with large brass or steel nails. with a sharp carving tool. leaves. etc. 2. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. Its length is about 3 ft. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. 6. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. . or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. 8. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The upper half of the handle is steel. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. 3. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. is shown in Fig. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. The handle is of wood. All of these axes are about the same length. flowers. This weapon is about 22 in. long. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. or the amateur cannot use it well. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. The entire handle should be made of one piece. The axe is shown in steel. The spikes are cut out of wood. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. as shown. as described in Fig. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. also. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. If such a tool is not at hand. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The lower half of the handle is wood. the hammer and spike. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. 5. used at the end of the fifteenth century.

A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. and so on for nine innings. 6. Fig. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. a three-base hit.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. the knife resting on its back. 7) calls for one out. 2. Each person plays until three outs have been made. as in Fig. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. 5. as shown in Fig. 1. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. The knife falling on its side (Fig. . The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. calls for a home run. then the other plays. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. 4). 3. Chicago.

Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. Campbell. while the committee is tying him up. F. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. hypo to 1 pt.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. It may be found that the negative is not colored. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. with the rope laced in the cloth. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. If it is spotted at all. of the rope and holds it. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. of water for an hour or two. Mass. 2. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through.-Contributed by J. one of them burning .How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. Old-Time Magic . Somerville. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. This he does. 1. 3. as shown in Fig.

The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. showing that there is nothing between them. of turpentine.. Ky. bolt.Contributed by Andrew G. Lebanon. . etc. --Contributed by C. New York City. of water and 1 oz. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. of plumbago. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. Ky. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. He then walks over to the other candle. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. thick. 4 oz. thus causing it to light. --Contributed by L. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. of sugar. Evans. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. Louisville. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. the other without a light. Brown. 3/4 in. and. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. invisible to them (the audience). The magician walks over to the burning candle. shades the light for a few seconds. B. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. Drill Gauge screw. with which he is going to light the other candle. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. 4 oz. Thome.brightly.

with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. about 5 in. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. Its current strength is about one volt. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. N. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. To make the porous cell. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. 5 in. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. thick. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. but is not so good. diameter. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. In making up the solution. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. or blotting paper. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. into a tube of several thicknesses. Do not add water to the acid. which will give a strong. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . H. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. long. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. Y. for the material. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. steady current.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. Pulteney. Denniston. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. --Contributed by C. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes.

carrying the hour circle at one end. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. the other holding them apart. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. After much experimentation with bearings. One hole was bored as well as possible. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. but somewhat lighter. steel. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. As to thickness. To insure this. a positive adjustment was provided. Finally. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. one drawing them together.) may be obtained. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace.station. while the other end is attached by two screws. long with a bearing at each end. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. steel. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. The . Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. steel.

To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. To locate a known star on the map. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. It is. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. and if it is not again directed to the same point. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. If the result is more than 24 hours." When this is done. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. subtract 24.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. are tightened. excepting those on the declination axis. All set screws. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. The pointer is directed to Alpha. The pole is 1 deg.. Point it approximately to the north star. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit." Only a rough setting is necessary. need not be changed. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar.. Each shaft. apart. 45 min. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. once carefully made. turn the pointer to the star. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. in each direction from two points 180 deg. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. Set the declination circle to its reading. When properly set it will describe a great circle. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. Cassiopiae. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. Instead. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. The aperture should be 1/4 in. Declination is read directly." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. To find a star in the heavens. save the one in the pipe. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. All these adjustments. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. is provided with this adjustment. and 15 min. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result.

3 or 4 in. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. Plain City. -Contributed by Ray E. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. The ball is found to be the genuine article. Strosnider. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. a great effect will be produced. then add 1 2-3 dr. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. the others . of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. Ohio. The dance will begin.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. long. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. In reality the first ball. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. of ether. If this will be too transparent. add a little more benzole. is the real cannon ball. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. as shown in the sketch. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. taking care not to add too much. is folded several times. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. La. which is the one examined. cannon balls. New Orleans. benzole.. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor.

taps. Wis. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. Campbell. without taking up any great amount of space. Return the card to the pack. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards.. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. Cal. 2. Milwaukee. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. F. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. Somerville. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. Fig. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. Mass. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. 1). small brooches. etc. In boxes having a sliding cover.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. as shown in the illustration. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . --Contributed by J. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. San Francisco.

prints. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. slides and extra brushes.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. thus giving ample store room for colors. from the bottom of the box. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. Connecticut. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. Beller. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. round pieces 2-1/4 in. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. Hartford. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. . The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. as shown in the illustration. This box has done good service. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled.

O. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. holes in the bottom of one. 1). Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. costing 5 cents.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. When the ends are turned under. tacking the gauze well at the corners. will answer the purpose. West Lynn. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. or placed against a wall. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. Mass. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. FIG. Darke. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. about threefourths full. -Contributed by C. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. Fill the upper tub. with well packed horse manure. . 2).

and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. If plugs are found in any of the holes. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. If the following directions are carried out. M. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. Chicago. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. Eifel. --Contributed by L. if this is not available.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. cutting the cane between the holes. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. and each bundle contains . they should be knocked out. when they are raised from the pan. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. oil or other fluid. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel.

Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. No plugs . The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. 1. held there by inserting another plug. it should be held by a plug. as it must be removed again. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. put about 3 or 4 in. as shown in Fig. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. after having been pulled tight. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. In addition to the cane. a square pointed wedge. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. then across and down. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. and.

is the horizontal dial. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. From table No. for 2°. 1. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. Michigan. called the gnomon. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. the height of the line BC. It consists of a flat circular table. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. All added to the lesser or 40°. Their difference is . as it always equals the latitude of the place. stretch the third one. 4. 1 lat. The style or gnomon. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. Detroit. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. During the weaving.075 in. as for example. or the style. If you have a table of natural functions. as shown in Fig. the next smallest. 40°. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. trim off the surplus rosin. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. as the height of the line BC for lat. This will make three layers. 42° is 4. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. After completing the second layer. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. Fig. but the most common. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. 3. Even with this lubrication. 1.5 in. Patrick.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place.2 in. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations.15 in. 41°-30'. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. R.075 in. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. and the one we shall describe in this article. No weaving has been done up to this time.3 in. There are several different designs of sundials. 5 in. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts.42 in.= 4. and for 1° it would be . Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. 3. lat. If handled with a little care. 5. 1. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. in this case) times the . using the same holes as for the first layer. -Contributed by E. and for lat. as shown in Fig. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through.2+. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. Fig. W. D. we have 4. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. it is 4. When cool. is the base (5 in. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or .15+. 41 °-30'. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. the height of which is taken from table No. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. --Contributed by M.

in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in.49 30 .93 6.42 .26 4.40 1. Draw the line AD. or if of stone.42 1. circle Sundial.32 6.30 2. with a radius of 5 in.03 3. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points.63 56° 7.94 1. long.tangent of the degree of latitude.88 36° 3.55 30° 2.85 35 . To layout the hour circle.27 2.00 40° 4. 1.12 52° 6.85 1.96 32° 3.59 2.49 3. Chords in inches for a 10 in.97 5 7 4.55 46° 5.42 45 .82 3.55 5.87 4. Draw two semi-circles.19 1. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style. and perpendicular to the base or style.79 4. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 . and intersecting the semicircles.14 5.76 1. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in.56 .82 2.20 60° 8.06 2.39 .93 2. and for this size dial (10 in.64 4 8 3.66 48° 5.99 2.91 58° 8. or more. an inch or two.87 1.30 1. if of metal. using the points A and C as centers.89 50° 5.81 4.66 1.16 40 .40 34° 3. 2.28 .07 4. Table NO.77 2.16 1.10 6.57 1. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown. Fig. which will represent the base in length and thickness.55 4.83 27° 2. . The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight.46 3.44 44° 4. gives the 6 o'clock points. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No. according to the size of the dial. base.57 3.02 1. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial.38 .29 4-30 7-30 3.46 .37 5.18 28° 2.68 5-30 6-30 5.33 . A line EF drawn through the points A and C.33 42° 4.41 38° 3.23 6. 2.66 latitude.11 3. draw two parallel lines AB and CD. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No. 2 for given latitudes. Its thickness.50 26° 2. Height of stile in inches for a 5in.82 5. For latitudes not given.37 54° 6.

3. and for the difference between standard and local time.79 6. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York.57 1. --Contributed by J. then the watch is slower.71 2.68 3. each article can be labelled with the name.60 4.89 3. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached. Sun time to local mean time.19 2. Sioux City. if west.82 3.01 1.add those marked + subtract those Marked .means that the dial is faster than the sun. June 15. The + means that the clock is faster. Mitchell.50 . with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole.24 5.50 55 . it will be faster.from Sundial lime. after allowing for the declination. will enable one to set the dial.54 60 . If the dial is east of the meridian chosen. 3 Corrections in minutes to change. This correction can be added to the values in table No. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face. 900 Chicago.06 2. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds.46 5. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco.98 4.10 4.14 1.87 6. says the English Mechanic. 3. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid.49 3.63 1. London.53 1. An ordinary compass.. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3.93 6. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west.34 5. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon. adding to each piece interest and value. 25.46 4.52 Table No. Iowa. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker. and on these dates the dial needs no correction.37 2. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality. 2 and Dec. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time. April 16. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Sept. E.21 2. and the . Each weapon is cut from wood. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No.30 2.12 5. As they are the genuine reproductions. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year.49 5.77 3. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the .72 5.08 1.

The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. Partisan. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. When putting on the tinfoil. 3. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. . Glaive and Voulge brass nails. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. the length of which is about 5 ft. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft..swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. 1. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century.

These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. sharp on the outer edges. A gisarm or glaive. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. The extreme length is 9 ft. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. It is about 6 ft. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. 7.which is square. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. in diameter. 6 ft. the holes being about 1/4 in. long. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. long with a round wooden handle. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. long. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. 8. is shown in Fig. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. The length of this bar is about 5 in. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. about 4 in. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. The spear is steel. press it well into the carved depressions. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. 5. used about the seventeenth century. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. which are a part of the axe. This weapon is about 6 ft. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. . long with a round staff or handle.. The edges are sharp. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails.

This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. the cross cords. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. 1. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. Cut all the cords the same length. In Figs. 4. Ohio. used for spacing and binding the whole together. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. are put in place. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. Substances such as straw.-Contributed by R. 5.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. as shown in Fig. This is important to secure neatness. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. are less durable and will quickly show wear. the most durable being bamboo. The twisted cross cords should . H. or in holes punched in a leather strap. They can be made of various materials. B. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. Workman. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. apart. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. Loudonville. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. 2 and 3. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom.

below the top to within 1/4 in. in which was placed a piece of glass. wide. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. Harrer. The first design shown is for using bamboo.be of such material. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. To remedy this. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. Lockport. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. bamboo or rolled paper. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. Four V-shaped notches were cut. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. A slit was cut in the bottom. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. shaped as shown at C. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. This was turned over the top of the other can. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. as shown at B. -Contributed by Geo. 3 in. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. for a length extending from a point 2 in. New Orleans. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. of the bottom. La. M. New York.

The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . is shown in the accompanying sketch. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. N. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. --Contributed by Chas. --Contributed by W. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. --Contributed by Joseph H. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. Y. Sanford. Newburgh. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. This plank. giving the appearance of hammered brass. wide. do not throw away the gloves. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. It would be well to polish the brass at first. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. H. Schaffner.tape from sticking to the carpet. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. Ill. Pasadena. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. the brass is loosened from the block. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. Shay. This should be done gradually. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. After this is finished. and two along the side for attaching the staff. turned over but not fastened. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. about 1/16 in. Maywood. Cal.

-Contributed by W. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. Oak Park. the pendulum swings .by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. Ill. A. Richmond. Marshall. --E. bent as shown. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. Jaquythe. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. K. Cal. in diameter. Unlike most clocks.

The construction is very simple. Now place the board to be joined. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. high. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. 5/16 in. says the Scientific American. high.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. are secured in the base bar. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. Chicago. high and 1/4 in. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. away. Secure a board. Two uprights. bearing on the latter. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. --Contributed by V. to the first one with screws or glue. on the board B. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. Fasten another board. thick. high. wide that is perfectly flat. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. by 1-5/16 in. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. such as this one. 3/4 in. 7-1/2 in. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. about 12 in. only have the opposite side up.. is an electromagnet. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. long and at each side of this. the center one being 2-3/4 in. A. bar. . in diameter. In using this method. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. and the other two 2-5/8 in. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. wide. about 6 in. C. Metzech. 6 in. B. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip.

. --Contributed by Elmer A. 1. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. Pa. square inside. 1. 4. 3. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. Fig. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. long. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. from one end. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. Vanderslice. 1. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. is fastened in the hole A. The trigger. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. as shown at A. wide and 1 in. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. by driving a pin through the wood. wide and 5 in. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. 2. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. plates should be made 8 in. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. Fig. or more. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. Phoenixville.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. whose dimensions are given in Fig. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. square.

A. 2 parts of whiting. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. -Contributed by J. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. which allows 1/4 in. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. 5 parts of black filler. one-half the length of the side pieces. rubbing varnish and turpentine. if only two bands are put in the . when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. Simonis. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. Fostoria. as shown in the illustration. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. Ohio. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. square. by weight.

the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. Michigan. which may be either of ground or plain glass. --Contributed by Thos. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. G. A double convex lens. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. DeLoof. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. Shaw. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. wide and about 1 ft. 1. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. is set at an angle of 45 deg. In constructing helmets. as shown in Fig. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. Mass. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. 8 in. place tracing paper on its surface. Dartmouth. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. -Contributed by Abner B. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. London. says the English Mechanic. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. A mirror. If a plain glass is used. and it may be made as a model or full sized.lower strings. preferably copper. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. and the picture can be drawn as described. long. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. In use. keeps the strong light out when sketching. deep. is necessary. in the opposite end of the box. No. Grand Rapids. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. It must be kept moist and well . A piece of metal. II. There is no limit to the size of the helmet.

or some thin glue. 1. shown in Fig. the clay model oiled. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. as in bas-relief. Scraps of thin. The clay. with a keyhole saw. on which to place the clay. a few clay-modeling tools. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. brown. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. After the clay model is finished. 3. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. and the deft use of the fingers. and over the crest on top. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. as shown in Fig. take.kneaded. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. 2. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. and continue until the clay is completely covered. All being ready. This being done. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. 1. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. will be necessary. joined closely together. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. and left over night to soak. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly .

The center of the ear guards are perforated. and so on. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. will make it look neat. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. In Fig. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. They are all covered with tinfoil. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. Indiana. When dry.as possible. which should be no difficult matter. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. and the ear guards in two pieces. square in shape. should be modeled and made in one piece. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. as seen in the other part of the sketch. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. as shown: in the design. 5. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. 9. owing to the clay being oiled. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. a crest on top. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. The band is decorated with brass studs. When the helmet is off the model. the skullcap. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. one for each side. In Fig. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. with the exception of the vizor. then another coating of glue. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. the piecing could not be detected. This contrivance should be made of wood. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. Indianapolis. Before taking it off the model. --Contributed by Paul Keller. 1. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. When perfectly dry. The whole helmet. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. a few lines running down. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. 7. or. through which to insert some fancy brass nails.

as shown in Fig. with slits cut for the wires. if this cannot be obtained. about 1 lb. long. 3 in. screws. as shown in Fig. if the measurements are correct. which can be bought from a local druggist. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. one oblong piece of wood. AA. FF. of No. 1. 4. If a neat appearance is desired. is then packed down inside the collar. The reverse side of the base. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. 1. 1. GG. JJ. 2. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. Fig. also the switch B and the fuse block C. one glass tube. of fire clay. 12 in. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. wide and 15 in. 1. Fig. This will make an open space between the plates. AA. for connections. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. Fig. to receive screws for holding it to the base. are allowed to project about 1 in. 4. should extend about 1/4 in. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. 2. Fig. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. 1. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. thick sheet asbestos. A round collar of galvanized iron. thick. 22 gauge resistance wire. E and F. German-silver wire is better. one fuse block. Fig. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. two ordinary binding posts. 4 lb. The plate. about 80 ft. 4. above the collar. each 4-1/2 in. as shown in Fig. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. the fuse block. in diameter and 9 in. This will allow the plate. Fig. Fig. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. Fig. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. 3. the holes leading to the switch. high. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. when they are placed in opposite positions. The holes B and C are about 3 in. long.same size. If asbestos is used. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. and C. and two large 3in. Fig. The two holes. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. as it stands a higher temperature. long. 2. about 1/4 in. Fig. 4. AA. 4. one small switch. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. Fig. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . 4. or. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. 4. and. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. 1 in. of mineral wool. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. Fig. The mineral wool. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. Fig. of the top. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. 1. until it is within 1 in. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. is shown in Fig.

A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. Richmond. II. Can. While the clay is damp. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. A file can be used to remove any rough places. deep. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. Cal. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. Fig. When this is done. This point marks the proper length to cut it. As these connections cannot be soldered. Cnonyn. St. It should not be left heated in this condition. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. above the rim. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. so that the circuit will not become broken. then. Cover over about 1 in. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. using care not to get it too wet. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. causing a short circuit. Fig. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. when heated. Catherines. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. --Contributed by R. it leaves a gate for the metal. as the turns of the wires. KK. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. This completes the stove. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. more wire should be added. steam will form when the current is applied. A. H. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. When the tile is in place. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. Cut a 1/2-in. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. It should not be set on end.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. --Contributed by W. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. Jaquythe. 2. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. allowing a space between each turn. and pressed into it. when cool. 4. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. The clay. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. If it is not thoroughly dry. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. apart. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. If this is the case. Next. will slip and come in contact with each other. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts.

If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. says the Photographic Times. Then clip a little off the . the air can enter from both top and bottom. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. constructed of 3/4-in. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. is large enough. and the prints will dry rapidly.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. Ky. and the frame set near a window. Louisville. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. the pie will be damaged. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. --Contributed by Andrew G. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. as shown. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. but 12 by 24 in. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. Thorne. square material in any size.

allowing each end to project for connections. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. 14 in. as shown. high. slip on two cardboard washers. in diameter and about 4 in. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. As the shaft revolves. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. high. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. in diameter. 2-1/2 in. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. 1/2 in. wide. wide and 3 in. which are fastened to the base. long. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. 1. Le Mars. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft.Paper Funnel point. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. 1. 2. The connections are made as shown in Fig. long. Herron. A 1/8-in. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. -Contributed by S. Two supports. open out. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. Fig. 1. 1 and 3. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. at GG. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. long. 3. wide and 7 in. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. thick and 3 in. 1/2 in. 1. The upright B. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. thereby saving time and washing. causing a break in the current. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. thick. long. high. 4 in. Iowa. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. each 1/2 in. An offset is bent in the center. each 1 in. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. 22 gauge magnet wire. W. which gives the shaft a half turn. for the crank. Fig. thick and 3 in. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. The board can be raised to place . Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. Figs. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. The driving arm D. Fig. The connecting rod E.

Mass. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. One or more pots may be used. in height. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. Place the pot. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. 3 in. Stecher. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. Dorchester. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. --Contributed by William F. on a board. as shown in the sketch. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. bottom side up. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. . making a framework suitable for a roost. In designing the roost.

paraffin and paint or varnish. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. The materials required are rope or. adopt the method described. if it is other than straight lines. 1. when combined. grills and gratings for doors. The bottom part of the sketch. Wind the . as shown in Fig. F. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. odd corners. shelves. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in.. and give it time to dry. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. etc. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin.. 1. Fig. that it is heated.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. F. preferably. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. in diameter. without any corresponding benefit. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. ordinary glue. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. will produce the pattern desired. windows.

I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig.Fig. six designs are shown. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. N. Harrer. cut and glue them together. Fig. -Contributed by Geo. 2. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . Lockport. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. M. Y.

and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. which was used in front of a horse's head. says the English Mechanic. 1. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. etc.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. As the . chips of iron rust. This piece of horse armor. and the sides do not cover the jaws. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made.. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. when it will be observed that any organic matter. will be retained by the cotton.. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. London. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. but no farther. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure.. etc.

as the surface will hold the clay. The armor is now removed from the model. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. This being done. but the back is not necessary. with the exception of the thumb shield. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. the rougher the better. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. This will make the model light and easy to move around. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. All being ready. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. This triangularshaped support. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. except the thumb and fingers. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. This can be made in one piece. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. 6 and 7. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. the same as in Fig. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. which can be made in any size. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. then another coat of glue. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. and the clay model oiled. and will require less clay. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. An arrangement is shown in Fig. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. as shown in the sketch. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. but for . which is separate. 8. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. In Fig. 4. 2.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. and therefore it is not described. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. 2.

--Contributed by Ralph L. in depth. A piece of board. are glued to it. Buxton. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. . The two pieces of foil. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. wide and 1/2 in. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. Y. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. Calif. and the instrument is ready for use. will be about right. La Rue. 2. the two pieces of foil will draw together. two for the jaws and one a wedge. running down the plate. Redondo Beach. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. the top of the rod.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. cut into the shape shown in Fig. two in each jaw. --Contributed by John G. N. Goshen. each about 1/4 in. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. long. 9. are better shown in Fig. but 3-1/2 in. When locating the place for the screw eyes. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. 1/2 in. fastened to the rod. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. Fasten a polished brass ball to. If it does not hold a charge. the foils will not move.

A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. pine board. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. Corsicana. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. At a point 6 in. about 15 in. M. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. A. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. Texas. hole bored through it. is made of a 1/4-in. 2-1/2 in. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. from the smaller end. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. Bryan. When a fish is hooked.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. The can may be bronzed. long. as indicated in the . --Contributed by Mrs. as this will cut under the water without splashing. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. enameled or otherwise decorated. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. as shown in the illustration. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. silvered.

as shown. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. Next prepare the metal holder. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. wide by 6 in. Any kind of wood will do. or even pine. such as basswood or pine was used. Basswood or butternut. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running.Match Holder accompanying sketch." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. Having completed the drawing. punch the holes. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. A good size is 5 in. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. When it has dried over night. take a piece of thin wood. using powdered pumice and lye. then with a nail. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. 22 is plenty heavy enough. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. thick. 3/8 or 1/4 in. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. and trace upon it the design and outline. will do as well as the more expensive woods. If soft wood. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. put a coat or two of wax and polish . Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. long over all. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. Polish the metal. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. using a piece of carbon paper.

allowing them to project 1 or 2 in.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. wide and 5 in. are used for the cores of the magnets. If one has some insight in carving. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. is used for the base of this instrument. . tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. the whole being finished in linseed oil. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. --Contributed by W. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. Cal. 2 in. Instead of the usual two short ropes. Jaquythe. It is useful for photographers. of pure olive oil. each 1 in. Two wire nails. Richmond. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. long. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. A. thick. 1/2 in. can be made on the same standards. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. long. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. If carving is contemplated.

--Contributed by W. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. as shown in Fig. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. says the English Mechanic. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. similar to that used in electric bells. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. H. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. in the shape shown in the sketch. then covered with red. 25 gauge. 3. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. All of the parts for the armor have been described. leaving about 1/4 in.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. 1. About 1 in. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. at A. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. except that for the legs. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. . London. acts as a spring to keep the key open. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. Lynas. cloth or baize to represent the legs. A piece of tin. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. the paper covering put on. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. A rubber band. cut in the shape of the letter T. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. when the key is pushed down. as shown by the dotted lines. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. about No.

Instead of using brass headed nails. completes the equipment. holes. By moving the position of the bolt from. long. or ordinary plaster laths will do. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. says Camera Craft. apart. Silver paper will do very well. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. 1 in. The two pieces are bolted together. 3 in. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. in the other end. 2. apart. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. Cut them to a length or 40 in. A 1/4-in. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. drill six 1/4-in. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. Secure two strips of wood. Take the piece shown in Fig. flat headed carriage bolt. can be made in a few minutes' time. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. at each end. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. make the same series of eight small holes and. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. So set up. about 1 in. and eight small holes. not too tight. In one end of the piece. Fig.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. These can be purchased at a stationery store. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. 1 and drill a 1/4in. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. hole in the center. one to another .. for the sake of lightness. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor.

of the ends remain unwoven. 2. in Fig. Then take B and lay it over A. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig.of the larger holes in the strip. as shown in Fig. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. doubled and run through the web of A. lay Cover B and the one under D. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. long. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. taking the same start as for the square fob. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. then B over C and the end stuck under A. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. C over D and B. In this sketch. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. A round fob is made in a similar way. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. Fig. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. but instead of reversing . Then draw all four ends up snugly. and the one beneath C. and lay it over the one to the right. 2. Start with one end. D over A and C. 1. for instance. as in portraiture and the like. 2. A is the first string and B is the second. the one marked A. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. 4.

Rupp. is to be made of leather. --Contributed by John P. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. over the one to its right. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. is left out at the center before starting on one side. Other designs can be made in the same manner. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. as B. 1-1/2 in. especially if silk strings are used. 3. always lap one string. A loop. 5. as at A in Fig. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. long. Ohio. The round fob is shown in Fig. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. the design of which is shown herewith. Monroeville. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. as in making the square fob.

A. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. When the supply of wax is exhausted. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. Any smooth piece of steel. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. . A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. it can be easily renewed. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. Mich.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. filling them with wax. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. -Contributed by A. using the reverse side. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. pressing it against the wood. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. Northville. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. Houghton. such as a nut pick. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. beeswax or paraffin. door facing or door panel. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description.

The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. New York. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. those on matte paper will work best. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. leaving about 1/4 in. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. thick. place it face down in the dish. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. Thompson. D. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. The tacks should be about 1 in. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. and after wetting. J. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. and about 12 in. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. N. says Photographic Times. Ill. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. if blueprints are used. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. apart and driven in only part way. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. Fold together on lines C. it is best to leave a plain white margin. remaining above the surface of the board. but any kind that will not stick may be used. Y. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. --Contributed by O. Enough plaster should. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. Select the print you wish to mount. Petersburg. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. E and F.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. long. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. . Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. although tin ones can be used with good success.

The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. as shown at the left in the sketch. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes.. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. as shown in the right of the sketch. roses. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. will be rendered perfectly white. without mixing the solutions. One of the . lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. violets.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. etc. Lower into the test tube a wire. bell flowers. filling the same about onehalf full.

but which will not wobble loose. Fig.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. Shabino. L. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. about 1/8s in. thick. as shown in the sketch. The first point should be ground blunt. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. The tin horn can be easily made. and at the larger end. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. 3. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. 1-7/8 in. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. A rod that will fit the brass tube. turned a little tapering. not too tightly. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. made of heavy tin. Millstown. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. in diameter and 1 in. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. When soldering these parts together. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. 2. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. should be soldered to the box. The diaphragm. The sound box. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. shading. South Dakota. long. to keep the core from coming off in turning. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. 1. --Contributed by L. or delicate tints of the egg.. is about 2-1/2 in. as shown. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. long and made of wood.

The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. E. Gold. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. Victor.Contributed by E. Colo. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. and weighted it with a heavy stone. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. and. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. Ill. says the Iowa Homestead. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. mice in the bottom. wondering what it was. put a board on top. Jr. Chicago. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. while playing in the yard close to a grain house.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it.

-Contributed by Albert O'Brien. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. Ottawa. .Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. Y. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. Pereira. Buffalo. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. Can. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. --Contributed by Lyndwode. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. N.

Cal. Put a small nail 2 in. longer than the length of the can. This cart has no axle. as shown. Jaquythe. above the end of the dasher. and at one end of the stick fasten.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. A. De Loof. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. --Contributed by Thos. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. Richmond. by means of a flatheaded tack. --Contributed by W. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. Grand Rapids. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. through which several holes have been punched. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . cut round. a piece of tin. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. as it can be made quickly in any size. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. Mich.

At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. 2. 1 ft. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. 2. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. The candles. 1/4 in. screwed it on the inside of a store box. The baseboard and top are separable. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. 1-1/2 in. cut in the center of the rounding edge. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. 1. 2. long. New Orleans. were below the level of the bullseye. Doylestown. apart. wide and 3 ft. A wedge-shaped piece of . deep and 3 in. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. Pa. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. as shown. I reversed a door gong. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. Notches 1/8 in. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. wide. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock.1. --Contributed by James M. of course. board. Kane. wide and as long as the box. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. 2 in. thick. wide and 1/8 in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. La. Fig. The base may be made of a 1/2-in.

1. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. When not in use. After completing the handle. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. when placed as in Fig. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. After the glue has dried. will. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. by cutting away the ends. etc. Worcester. wide rubber bands or felt. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. as shown in Fig. the shelf could not be put on the window. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. Ia. wide into each side of the casing.. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. Wood. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. Needles.Book Back Holders metal. scissors. the blade is put back into the groove . 3. For the handle. the reason being that if both were solid. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. Cover the block with rubber. A. dressing one surface of each piece. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. stone or wood. take two pieces of hard wood. --Contributed by G. The block can also be used as a paperweight. Mass. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. can be picked up without any trouble. This device is very convenient for invalids. West Union. to prevent its scratching the desk top. it can be removed without marring the casing.

thus carrying the car up the incline. as shown in Fig. Malden. as shown in Fig. Mass. If desired. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. Each one is made of a hardwood block. Jacobs. A. Erie. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. 1. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. A notch is cut in one side. long. . Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. 1 in. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. is shown in the accompanying sketch. S. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. --Contributed by Maud McKee. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. 2. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. Ohio. Hutchins. square and 4 in. Cleveland. -Contributed by W. Pa. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. --Contributed by H.and sharpened to a cutting edge.

Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. 6 by 9-1/2 in. . and an awl and hammer. Prepare a design for the front. will be needed. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. One sheet of metal. N. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing.. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first.J. The letters can be put on afterward. a board on which to work it. If one such as is shown is to be used.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. This will insure having all parts alike. Cape May Point.

Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. if desired. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. a violin. Remove the metal. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal." In all appearance. turpentine. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. If any polishing is required. as shown. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic.Fasten the metal to the board. to right angles. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. . behind or through the center of a table leg. but weird and distant. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. says Master Painter. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. varnish. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. The stick may be placed by the side of. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. One coat will do. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. The music will not sound natural. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. mandolin or guitar. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. 1 part. only the marginal line is to be pierced. that can be worked in your own parlor. in the waste metal. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. 1/4 part. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. So impressive are the results. paste the paper design right on the metal. or. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. which is desirable. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. flat brush. 2 parts white vitriol. applied by means of a brush. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. placed on a table. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. On the back. 3/4 part.

which should be about 5-1/2 ft. says Work. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. across the top. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. each 6 in. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. long and spread about 8 in. Two pairs of feet. long and measuring 26 in.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. London. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. is bent square so as to form two uprights. long. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. without them. wide. are shaped as shown in Fig. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. it might be difficult. 2. square bar iron. and is easy to construct. thick by 1/2 in. 3. The longest piece. each 28 in. apart. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. With proper tools this is easy. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. . round-head machine screws. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig.

lead. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. the latter being tapped to . Fig. or. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. is held by the brads. 5. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. After the joints are soldered. 6. on it as shown. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. While the piece of lead D. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. in the grooves of the borders. 7. The glass. D. 5. Fig. and the base border. Place the corner piece of glass. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. special flux purchased for this purpose. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. B. better still. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. 4. The brads are then removed. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. C. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. as shown in Fig. using rosin as a flux. cut a long piece of lead. The design is formed in the lead. After the glass is cut. A. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered.

Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. one on each side and central with the hole. Two styles of hand holds are shown. and round the corners of one end for a ring. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. holes through their centers. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. Dreier. square and of the length given in the drawing. Secure a post. This ring can be made of 1-in. in diameter and about 9 in. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. and two wood blocks. Concrete is much better if it can be secured.the base of the clip. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. wood screws in each washer. Bore a 5/8-in. not less than 4 in. in diameter and 1/4 in. H. 8. then drill a 3/4-in. then flatten its end on the under side. long. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. Bore a 3/4-in. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. Camden. as shown in Fig. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. Fasten the plates to the block B. rounded at the top as shown. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in.. This . Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. Make three washers 3-in. A and B. thick and drill 3/4-in. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. Jr. long. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. long. The center pin is 3/4-in. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. plates. bolt. N. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. J. --Contributed by W. plank about 12 ft. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. rocker bolt. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. bolt.

long. from one edge. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. boards along the side of each from end to end. 3 in.will make an excellent cover for a pot. bit. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. long. because it will not stand the weather. maple. La. 4 in. 16 screws. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. 2 by 4 in. chestnut or ash. 2-1/2 in. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . long and 1 piece. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. 3/4 by 3 in. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. 4 pieces. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. 4 pieces. hickory. 9 in. shanks. horse and rings. long. square by 9-1/2 ft. screws. 50 ft. by 3 ft. 1-1/4in. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. of 1/4-in. Draw a line on the four 7-in. 1 by 7 in. long. To substitute small. square by 5 ft. long. straight-grained hickory. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. the money outlay will be almost nothing. New Orleans. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. 1. 1/2 in. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. 4 in. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. in diameter and 7 in. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. bolts and rope. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. 4 filler pieces. by 2 ft. The four 7-in. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. long. by 6-1/2 ft. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. and some one can swing an axe. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. apart for a distance of 3 ft. can make a first class gymnasium. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. 7 in. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. If trees are convenient.

. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. 8 in. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. deep and remove all loose dirt. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. Bore a 9/16-in. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. each 3 ft. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. then buried to a depth of 2 ft.. apart. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. 2. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. at each end.bored. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. from the end. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. so the 1/2-in. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. apart. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. boards coincide. piece of wood. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks.

in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. in an endless belt. apart. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. W. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. If the tumbler is rotated. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. and then passes in a curve across the base. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. passing through a screweye at either end. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. which at once gathered. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. When the interest of the crowd. not even the tumbler. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. it follows the edge for about 1 in.. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. .platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. the effect is very striking. And all he used was a black thread. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. just visible against the dark evening sky. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. it is taken to the edge of the foot. He stretched the thread between two buildings. about 100 ft. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. and materially heightened the illusion. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. not much to look at in daytime. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement." which skimmed along the distant horizon. disappearing only to reappear again. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. but most deceptive at dusk. and ascends the stem. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. was at its height. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference.

lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. A wire about No. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. 8 in. by 10 ft. by 2 ft. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. New Orleans. 8 in. 2 side braces. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. 4 in. 2 in. 6 in. 4 knee braces. 2 base pieces. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. long. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The cork will come out easily. from either side of the center. by 7 ft. beginning at a point 9 in. square and 6 ft. long. long and 1 doz. long. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. 2 by 4 in. 8 in. Fig. deep. long. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. 7 in. square and 51/2 ft. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. wide and 1 in. 8 bolts. To make the apparatus. Chisel out two notches 4 in. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. long. by 3 ft. large spikes. long. so the point will be on top. and turned in a spiral D. 2 by 4 in. preferably cedar. 4 wood screws. 2 by 3 in. 2 cross braces. 2 by 4 in. La. Bevel the ends of . long. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. 4 in. 4 bolts. long. 1. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts.

A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. If using mill-cut lumber. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. additional long. After the trenches are dug. Two endpieces must be made. which face each other. using four of the 7-in bolts. These will allow the ladle to be turned. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. The wood so treated will last for years. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. leaving the strainer always in position. etc. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. jellies.. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. screws. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. ( To be Continued. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint.the knee braces. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. A. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. and countersinking the heads. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. of 7 ft. A large sized ladle. . equipped with a strainer. so the bolts in both will not meet. save the bars. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. Jaquythe. except the bars. as shown in the diagram. --Contributed by W. but even unpainted they are very durable. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. Cal. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. Richmond. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. leave it undressed. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in.

thus holding the pail as shown. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. In order to accomplish this experiment. drill press or planer.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. or various cutting compounds of oil. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. Oil. A. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. partly a barrier for jumps. it is necessary to place a stick. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. . which seems impossible. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. milling machine. of sufficient 1ength. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good.

two 1/2-in. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. square by 5 ft. 4 knee braces. long. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. long. 7 in. 2 by 4 in. apart in a central position on the horse. 4 in. long. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. to fasten the knee braces at the top. by 3 ft. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. piece of 2 by 4-in. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. The round part of this log must be planed. 2 bases. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the .. long. 1 cross brace. To construct. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. apart. by 3 ft. 1 in. ten 1/2-in. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. These are well nailed in place. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. bolt. and free from knots. beginning 1-1/2 in. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. Procure from a saw mill. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. 3 in. is a good length. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. square by 5-1/2 ft. stud cut rounding on one edge. These are placed 18 in.. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. in diameter--the larger the better. bolts. by 3 ft. wood yard or from the woods. 4 in. 2 by 4 in. from each end. 4 in. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. 4-1/2 in. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. long. bolts. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. 2 adjusting pieces. projections and splinters. long. bolts. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. 2 by 4 in. in the ground. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. but 5 ft.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. Hand holds must be provided next. The material required is as follows: Two posts. long. long.

pipe and fittings. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. Jaquythe. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. snow.horse top. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. it is caused by some obstruction. Richmond. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. over and around. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. water. it is caused by an overloaded shell. then bending to the shape desired. but nevertheless. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. Cal. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. such as a dent. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. etc. Also. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. says the Sporting Goods Dealer.--Contributed by W. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. A. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. no one is responsible but himself. Such a hand sled can be made in a .

Noble. will give the length. W.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. --Contributed by Arthur E. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. 1/4 or 3/16 in. is much better than a wood sled. when complete. are all the tools necessary. These. then run a string over each part. Boston. which. Joerin. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. Vener. . Mass. Toronto. Paris. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. in width and 1/32 in. thick. France. --Contributed by James E. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. 1. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. at E and F. Ontario. The end elevation. --Contributed by J. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. when straightened out. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. 2. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack.

1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. 4. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. nor that which is partly oxidized. . The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. AA and BB. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. and the latter will take on a bright luster. 3. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. are nailed. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. It is best to use soft water. The method shown in Figs. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked.

If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. . 3. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. 2. or unequal widths as in Fig. Broad lines can be made. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. class ice-yacht. or various rulings may be made. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. 1). 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. 4. as shown in Fig. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. 2. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. as shown in Fig. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. 8 and 9. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. The materials used are: backbone. Percy Ashley in Rudder. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

Both the lower . The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. a larger size of pipe should be used. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. pipe. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. It can be made longer or shorter. long. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. 1. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. out from the collar. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. pins to keep them from turning. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. a tee and a forging. The point should extend about 11/2 in. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. The headstock is made of two tees. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it.Fig. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. 1-Details of Lathe sort. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. about 30 in. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. bent and drilled as shown. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. A good and substantial homemade lathe. but if it is made much longer.

2. a corresponding line made on this. UpDeGraff. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. else taper turning will result. 2. Laporte. To do this. 3/4 or 1 in. --Contributed by W. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. Musgrove. --Contributed by M. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. --Contributed by W. 2. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. Indiana. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. Fruitvale.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. . W. 1. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. Cal. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. as shown in Fig. M. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. Boissevain. Held. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. but also their insulating properties. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. and will answer for a great variety of work. or a key can be used as well. thick as desired. as shown in Fig. a straight line should be scratched Fig. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. Man. It is about 1 in. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs.

long. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. Smith. Ft. Ark. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. The handle is of pine about 18 in. J. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. --Contributed by E. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. To obviate this. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. In use. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. Cline. as shown.

This prevents the drill from wobbling. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. take . face off the end of the piece. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. White. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. La. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. if this method is followed: First. on starting the lathe. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. New Orleans. Colo. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. centering is just one operation too many. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. Denver. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. After being entered. the drill does not need the tool. --Contributed by Walter W. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. and when once in true up to its size. which should be backed out of contact. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips.

vanishing wand. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. It can be used in a great number of tricks. The glass tube B. is put into the paper tube A. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. and this given to someone to hold. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. shown at C. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. after being shown empty. says the Sphinx. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. all the better. After the wand is removed. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. a bout 1/2 in. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. In doing this. as shown in D. a long piece of glass tubing. unknown to the spectators. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. and can be varied to suit the performer. by applying caustic soda or . The handkerchief rod. the cap is placed over the paper tube. shorter t h a n the wand. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other.

Glue strips of soft wood. thick. The sides. 1/4 in. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. by 14 by 17 in. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. 2 Sides. 1 Neck. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. long. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. 3/16. 1 Bottom. cut to any shape desired. Glue the neck to the box. 1 End. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. With care and patience. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. This dimension and those for the frets . every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. preferably hard maple. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. and glue it to the neck at F. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. End.potash around the edges of the letters. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. with the back side rounding. and if care is taken in selecting the material. Cut a piece of hard wood. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. As the cement softens. across the front and back to strengthen them. can be made by the home mechanic. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. The brace at D is 1 in. square and 1-7/8 in. as shown by K. 1.

E. in diameter. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. toward each end. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. Stoddard. long is used for a keel. 1) on which to stretch the paper. O.Pa. -Contributed by J. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. thick and about 1 ft. or backbone. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. H. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. Frary. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. but it is not. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit.should be made accurately. 3/16 in. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. When it is completed you will have a canoe. wide and 11-1/2 ft. Norwalk. Six holes. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. A board 1 in. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. Carbondale. --Contributed by Chas. and beveled .

The ribs. or other place. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. thick. but before doing this. Fig. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. Fig. b. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. 4). probably. 3). Osiers probably make the best ribs. 2).. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. some tight strips of ash. Green wood is preferable. long are required. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. but twigs of some other trees. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. and so. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. apart. wide by 26 in. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. Any tough. C. 13 in. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. Fig. the loose strips of ash (b. as before described. b. Fig. b. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. or similar material. twigs 5 or 6 ft. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. and notched at the end to receive them (B.) in notches. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. slender switches of osier willow. are next put in. C. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. such as is used for making chairbottoms. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. Shape these as shown by A. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. B. Fig. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. Fig. in thickness and should be cut. when made of green elm. and. as shown in Fig. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. These are better. as they are apt to do. by means of a string or wire. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. Fig. such as hazel or birch. 1. 3). light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. two strips of wood (b. which are easily made of long. will answer nearly as well. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. 1 and 2. a. Fig. procure at a carriage factory. 2. two twigs may be used to make one rib. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. thick. 4. 3. Fig. 3. with long stout screws. The cross-boards (B. long. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. . For the gunwales (a. as shown in Fig. buy some split cane or rattan. 3/8 in. and are not fastened. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. In drying. in such cases. 2). and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight.

Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. Then take some of the split rattan and. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. but neither stiff nor very thick. apply a second coat of the same varnish. When thoroughly dry. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. after wetting it. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. preferably iron. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. If not. and as soon as that has soaked in. B. Fig. and held in place by means of small clamps. but with less turpentine. It should be smooth on the surface. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. wide. 5). however. The paper is then trimmed. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. and very tough. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. and light oars. When the paper is dry. Being made in long rolls. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. It should be drawn tight along the edges. If the paper be 1 yd. tacking it to the bottom-board. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. of very strong wrapping-paper. You may put in . and steady in the water. if it has been properly constructed of good material. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered.

Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. 5). and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. to fit it easily.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. they will support very heavy weights. and make a movable seat (A. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. fore and aft. Fig. and if driven as shown in the cut. 1 and the end in . Drive the lower nail first. 2. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. 1. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. We procured a box and made a frame. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. Fig. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. Fig. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. 5.

simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. Close the other end with the same operation. and the glass. This is an easy . will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. this makes the tube airtight. 3. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. This way has its drawbacks. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. being softer where the flame has been applied. Pa.Fig. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. Pittsburg. and the result is. A good way to handle this work. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. 4. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. 5. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed.

at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. flat and round-nosed pliers. or six arms. metal shears. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. above the metal. thin screw. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. second. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. The candle holders may have two. three. file. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. Give the metal a circular motion. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. fourth. extra metal all around. Seventh. rivet punch. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in.way to make a thermometer tube. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. very rapid progress can be made. then reverse. above the work and striking it with the hammer. 23 gauge. Sixth. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. third. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. After the bulb is formed. Oswald. fifth. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. -Contributed by A. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. four. with a piece of carbon paper. also trace the decorative design.

Small copper rivets are used. Metal polish of any kind will do. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. Having pierced the bracket. drip cup.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. and holder. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing.

The gaff. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. they were like an ice boat with a sail. Fifty. if it has not absorbed too much ink. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. and add the gelatine. smooth it down and then remove as before. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. deep. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. except they had wheels instead of runners. sugar 1 part. of glycerine to about 200 deg. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. all the rest I found. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. and water 24 parts. A saw. and it will be ready for future use. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. on a water bath. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. Soak 1 oz. J. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. and in a week . Heat 6-1/2 oz. using a steel pen. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. and other things as they were needed. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. The boom. the stick at the bottom of the sail. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. Twenty cents was all I spent. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. Shiloh. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. F. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. Mother let me have a sheet. I steer with the front wheel. winding the ends where they came together with wire.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. alcohol 2 parts. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. glycerine 4 parts. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. and brace and bit were the tools used. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. when it will be ready for use. thus it was utilized. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. hammer. is a broomstick. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. N.

Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up. A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly. a projecting lens .

and a projecting lens 2 in. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. The board is centered both ways. and the work carefully done. long. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. A and B. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. thick. wide. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. about 2 ft. but if such a box is not found. 8 in. focus enlarging a 3-in. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. describe a 9-in. at a point 1 in. 1/2 to 3/4 in. at a distance of 24 ft. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. This ring is made up from two rings. G. or glue. are . high. Fig. and. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. and 14 in. wide and 15 in. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. DD. E. provided the material is of metal. or a lens of 12-in.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. as desired. and the lens slide. A table. The slide support. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. above the center. H. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. 3. wire brads.. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. 1. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. If a small saw is used. well seasoned pine. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. slide to about 6 ft. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in.

of safe. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. Minn. E.constructed to slip easily on the table. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. Small strips of tin. should the glass happen to upset. but not long enough. the water at once extinguishes the flame. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. A sheet . A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. P. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil.-Contributed by G. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. JJ. To reach the water. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. St. the strips II serving as guides. The arrangement is quite safe as. Paul. apply two coats of shellac varnish. and when the right position is found for each. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. light burning oil. placed on the water. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. B. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts.

to cover the mattresses. form a piece of wire in the same shape. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. 1.H. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. 2. 3. Y. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. 12 ft. 3. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. 4. 3 in. Fig. then the corners on one end are doubled over. --Contributed by J. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. Schenectady. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. N.. 9 in. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. If one of these clips is not at hand. Crawford.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. Fig. by 12 ft. from a tent company. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. I ordered a canvas bag. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart.

apart. insulating them from the case with cardboard. 1. in the center coil. Do not use too strong a rubber. Teasdale. and insert two binding-posts. wide. to keep it from unwinding. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. Fold two strips of light cardboard. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. thick. long. Warren. through which the indicator works. A Film Washing Trough [331] . Pa. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. to the coil of small wire for volts. Attach a piece of steel rod. 3/4 in. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. Fasten the wire with gummed label. --Contributed by Edward M. Fig. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. V. 2. Denver. C.each edge. Fig. 2. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. holes in the edge. D. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. White. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. for amperes and the other post. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. drill two 3/16 in. A rubber band. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. first mark the binding-post A. To calibrate the instrument. 2. --Contributed by Walter W. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. so as to form two oblong boxes. as shown in Fig. open on the edges. long and 3/16 in. 1/2 in. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. 3/4 in. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. Colo. 3 to swing freely on the tack. 1. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. 1/2 in. An arc is cut in the paper.

with the large hole up. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. Place this can on one end of the trough. M. Wood Burning [331] . Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. Hunting. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. --Contributed by M. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. O. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. as shown. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. Dayton. Cut a 1/4-in. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides.

a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat.Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. mouth downward. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. then into this bottle place. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water.

Auburn. Ala. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. 1. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. Whitehouse. If the cork is adjusted properly. thick. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. 2. Upper Troy. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. provided the bottle is wide. If the small bottle used is opaque. but not very thick. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. wide and 4 in. N. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A.Y. as shown in the sketch. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. --Contributed by John Shahan. long. 3/4 in. This will make a very pretty ornament. --Contributed by Fred W. many puzzling effects may be obtained. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . Place the small bottle in as before.

The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. sugar pine on account of its softness. line. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. 1. The shaft C. by the method shown in Fig. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. even in a light breeze. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. A staple. If a transmitter is used. B. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. was keyed to shaft C. 1 in. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. as shown in Fig. The 21/2-in. Fig. The bearing blocks were 3 in. W. thick. The wire L was put . How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. 1. high without the upper half. 2. which gave considerable power for its size. Fig. thick. long. 2 ft. to the shaft. Milter. Both bearings were made in this manner. pulley. On a 1000-ft. G. Fig. which was 6 in. Fig. were constructed of 1-in. which extended to the ground. 4. or ordinary telephone transmitters. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. iron rod. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. 1. I. 1. such as blades and pulleys.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. in diameter and 1 in. wide. which was nailed to the face plate. thick and 3 in. --Contributed by D. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. 1. Its smaller parts. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. Fig. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. pulley F. 3. K. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. was 1/4in.

with all parts in place. Fig. Fig. The bed plate D. Fig. 1. This completes the receiver or sounder. 6. Fig. hole was bored for it. long and 3 in. long and bend it as . A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. a 1/2-in. 1) 4 in. long and bend it as shown at A. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. 1. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. 25 ft. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. If you have no bell. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. To make the key. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. 0. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. 3 in. as. through the latter. G. Two washers were placed on shaft C. long. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. 1. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. The other lid. 1. H. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. square to the board P at the top of the tower. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. long. across the thin edge of a board. Fig. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. in diameter. washers were placed under pulley F. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. strips. long and 1/2 in. was tacked. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. Fig. with brass headed furniture tacks. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. hole was bored in which shaft G turned.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. This board was 12 in. in the center of the board P. top down also. This fan was made of 1/4-in. for instance. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. 5. To lessen the friction here. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. 6. providing one has a few old materials on hand. There a 1/4-in. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. wide and 1 in. apart in the tower. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. 2. The smaller one. so that the 1/4-in. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. The power was put to various uses. cut out another piece of tin (X. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. Fig. was 2 ft. pine 18 by 12 in. and was cut the shape shown. R. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. when the windmill needed oiling. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. hole for the shaft G was in the center. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed.

like many another device boys make. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. The rear barrels are. Thus a center drive is made. and. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. leaving the other wire as it is. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. 1. although it can be made with but two. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. Now. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. By adjusting the coils. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. Before tacking it to the board.shown. Going back to Fig. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. as indicated. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. 2. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. as shown at Water. using cleats to hold the board frame. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. after the manner of bicycle wheels. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . McConnell. at the front. -Contributed by John R. When tired of this instrument. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. causing a buzzing sound. fitted with paddles as at M.

which will give any amount of pleasure. copper piping and brass tubing for base. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. or even a little houseboat. To propel it. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. There is no danger. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. there will not be much friction. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . 3. The speed is slow at first. feet on the pedals. can be built. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. as shown in Fig. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. 1. If the journals thus made are well oiled. thin sheet brass for the cylinder.

In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. 2. 2. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. or it may be put to other uses if desired. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. Fig. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. 1. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. C. 1. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. Fig. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. D. 1. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. Fig. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. Turn a small circle of wood. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. 2. Then melt out the rosin or lead. Place one brass ring in cylinder. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. If magnifying glass cannot be had. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. B. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. then the glass disc and then the other ring. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. If it is desired to make the light very complete.of pleasure for a little work. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. Shape small blocks of boxwood. Fig. A. and so creating a false circuit.

if too small. X. --Contributed by Geo.india rubber tubing. 4-1/2 in. B. set alarm key as shown in diagram. To operate this. H. brass rod. such as is used for cycle valves. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. after setting alarm. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. Swissvale. and pulled tight. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. Utah. near the bed. switch. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. 5-1/4 by 10 in. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . after two turns have been made on the key. I. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. J. G. C. The parts indicated are as follows: A. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. T. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. by having the switch on the baseboard. while lying in bed. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. D. dry batteries. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. wire from bell to switch. key of alarm clock. 4 in. contact post. 3/8 in. wire from batteries to switch. To throw on light throw levers to the left. which stops bell ringing. Chatland. some glue will secure them. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. or 1/4in. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. wire from light to switch. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base.. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. Ogden. brass strip. shelf. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. --Contributed by C. copper tubing. When alarm goes off. In placing clock on shelf. thick. C. long. To get the cylinder into its carriage. long. S. bell. F. Throw lever off from the right to center. wide and 1/16 in. Brinkerhoff. E. bracket. Pa.

3. Make a shoulder. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. as at A. Chapman. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. for instance. Pull out the nail and stick. in diameter. long. about 6 in. All that is required is a tin covering. Fig. 1.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. Lanesboro. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. A flannel bag. A small lamp of about 5 cp. letting it extend 3/4 in. This is to form the fuse hole. will do the heating. 2. as . Fig. Make the spindle as in Fig. gives the heater a more finished appearance. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. which can be made of an old can. --Contributed by Chas. wide. being careful not to get the sand in it. making it as true and smooth as possible. a bed warmer. as at A. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. Having finished this. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. 4 in. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. from one end. 2. in diameter. Fig. as at B. S. beyond the end of the spindle. as in Fig. place stick and all in a pail of sand. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. 1. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. Minn. 1/4 in. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. about 3-1/2 in.

long. or hickory. long. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. The illustration shows how this is done. --Contributed by Arthur E. The material must be 1-1/2 in. thick. wide and 3 ft. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. thick. 1. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. Joerin. deep. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. 1 in. 6 in. thick. A piece of oak. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. 11/2 in. good straight-grained pine will do. wide and 6 ft. 3/8 in. but if this wood cannot be procured. A piece of tin. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. will be sufficient to make the trigger. spring and arrows. this is to keep the edges from splitting. 5/8 in. wide and 3/8 in. ash. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. long.

pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. it lifts the spring up. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. 3. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. thick. The bow is not fastened in the stock. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. from the opposite end. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. wide at each end. place the arrow in the groove. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. E. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. Fig. Fig. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. A spring. 4. in diameter. 7. 8. having the latter swing quite freely. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. which is 1/4 in. 6. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. better still. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. Fig. To throw the arrow. Ill. Wilmette. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. --Contributed by O. 2. from the end of the stock. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. and one for the trigger 12 in. Such a temporary safe light may be . which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. The trigger. Trownes. or through the necessity of. To shoot the crossbow. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. The stick for the bow. as shown in Fig. 9. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. When the trigger is pulled. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. as shown in Fig. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in.

only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. By chopping the trunk almost through. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. or only as a camp on a short excursion. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. The hinged cover E. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. apart. is used as a door. it is the easiest camp to make. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. C. since the flame of the candle is above A. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. This lamp is safe. and replace as shown at B. Moreover. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. The cut should be about 5 ft. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. from the ground. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. and nail it in position as shown at A. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. Remove one end. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. respectively. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. making lighting and trimming convenient. from the ground. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. make the frame of the wigwam. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. says Photo Era. Remove the bottom of the box. the bark lean-to is a . The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft.

running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. long and 1-1/2 in. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. long. will dry flat. a 2-in. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. wide and 6 ft. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. thick. selecting a site for a camp. wide. makes a good pair of tongs. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. Where bark is used. A piece of elm or hickory. and split the tops with an ax. and cedar. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. Tongs are very useful in camp. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. and when the camp is pitched. nails are necessary to hold it in place. 3 ft. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. deep and covered with blankets. Sheets of bark. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. . spruce. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. 6 ft. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. piled 2 or 3 ft. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. long and 2 or 3 ft. make the best kind of a camp bed. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. For a foot in the middle of the stick. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. For a permanent camp. are a convenient size for camp construction. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. In the early summer. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp.

and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. hinges. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. and affording accommodation for several persons. . A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. or even a rough lock for the camp larder.

Doylestown. B. B. changing the water both morning and night.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. --Contributed by James M. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. A. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. Pa. deep and 4 in. and provide a cover or door. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. Fig. the interior can. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. to another . Kane. wide. 1. about 4 in. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. I drove a small cork.. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within.

The current is thus compelled. This makes . The diagram. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. 4 and 5). limit. shows how the connections to the supply current are made.glass tube. to pass through an increasing resistance. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. for instance. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. if necessary. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. which project inside and outside of the tube. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. 3. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. such as ether. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. 2. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. until. a liquid. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. for instance. C. 2. fused into one side. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. Fig. E. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered.

When the frame is finished so far. in diameter. is composed of wrought sheet iron. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. and for the outside of the frame. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. larger than the dimensions given. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. 1. to allow for finishing. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. Fig. 3-3/8 in. Alpena. making it 1/16 in. thicker. A. Before removing the field from the lathe. as shown in the left-hand sketch. set at 1/8 in. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. therefore. as shown in Fig. on a lathe. by turning the lathe with the hand. screws. they will make a frame 3/4 in. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. 3-3/8 in. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. 3. After the template is marked out. After cleaning them with the solution. clamp the template. 2. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. two holes. or even 1/16 in. cannot be used so often. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. assemble and rivet them solidly. tap. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. thick. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. drill the four rivet holes. which will make it uniform in size. hole is . If the thickness is sufficient. Fig. bent at right angles as shown. between centers. A 5/8in. thick. mark off a space. These holes are for the bearing studs. Then the field can be finished to these marks. The bearing studs are now made. which may be of any thickness so that. brass or iron. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. when several pieces are placed together. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. 4-1/2 in. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. Michigan. brass. but merely discolored. in diameter. or pattern.

is turned up from machine steel. or otherwise finished. brass rod is inserted. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. solder them to the supports. 4.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. When the bearings are located. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . Fig. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. soldered into place. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. into which a piece of 5/8-in. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. file them out to make the proper adjustment. and build up the solder well. The shaft of the armature. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line.

are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. When this is accomplished. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. 3. The sides are also faced off and finished. When annealed. as shown m Fig. thick. wide. After the pieces are cut out. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider.. by 1-1/2 in. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. thick are cut like the pattern.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. 1-1/8 in. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. being formed for the ends. to allow for finishing to size. Find the centers of each segment at one end. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. or segments. washers. Armature-Ring Core. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. Make the core 3/4 in. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. hole and tap it for a pin. Rivet them together. as shown in Fig. 6. as shown in Fig. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. deep and 7/16 in. threaded. thick and 1/4 in. holes through them for rivets. 3/4 in. thick. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. then drill a 1/8-in. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. inside diameter. as shown in Fig. 1/8 in. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. brass rod. 9. 7. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. and held with a setscrew. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. Procure 12 strips of mica. 5. and then they are soaked in warm water. 6. 3/4 in. thick. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. The pins are made of brass. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. 8. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. 3. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. wide. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. as shown in Fig. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. sheet fiber. After they .

and wind on four layers. 1. or side. 5. In starting to wind. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. until the 12 slots are filled. The winding is started at A. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. The field is wound with No. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. of the wire. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. by bending the end around one of the projections. When the glue is set. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. All connections should be securely soldered. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. After one coil. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. of No. 6 in. This winding is for a series motor. 8 in. Fig. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. and bring the end of the wire out at B. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. of the end to protrude. about 100 ft. sheet fiber. thick. the two ends of the wire. being required. shown at A. which will take 50 ft. they are glued to the core insulation. yet it shows a series of . shown at B. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. To connect the wires. The source of current is connected to the terminals. sheet fiber. are soldered together. long. after the motor is on the stand. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. Fig. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. Run one end of the field wire. 1. The two ends are joined at B. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire.have dried. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. wide and 1 in. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. but a resistance must be placed in series with it.

you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. and one. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. is fastened to the metallic body. one from each of the eight contacts. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. Nine wires run from the timer. or. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. A 1/2-in. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. which serves as the ground wire. as in the case of a spiral. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. still more simply. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support.

of the dial. thus giving 16 different directions. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. Without this attachment. 6 in. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. long. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. 45 deg.The Wind Vane. circle. Covering these is a thin. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. board. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. It should be . The pointer end of the needle is painted black. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing.

to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. 14 by 18 in. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. and securely nail on the top of the box. and about 6 in. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find.about 6 ft. . The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. long to give the best results. high. also a piece of new carpet. To make it. called a chip carving knife. Y. or. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. however. Buffalo. will answer the purpose just as well. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. Place the leather on some level. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. is most satisfactory. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. according to who is going to use it. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. Cut 3-in. making it heavy or light. To work these outlines. Fill the box with any handy ballast. Before tacking the fourth side. will be enough for the two sides. N. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. thus making a universal joint. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. Blackmer. -Contributed by James L. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. will be sufficient. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. though a special knife. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. if not too high.

An ordinary sewing-machine . being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing. A good leather paste will be required. Paste the silk plush to the inner side.

B. If a fire breaks out. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. temporary lameness. and fasten the feathers inside of it. Syracuse. can be thrown away when no longer needed. as in cases of a sprained ankle. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. of water. of common salt and 10 lb. square and tying a piece of . Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. a needle and some feathers. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. away from it. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. and tie them together securely at the bottom. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. Y. --Contributed by Katharine D. Morse. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. rather than the smooth side. or a hip that has been wrenched. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. N. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in.will do if a good stout needle is used. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used.

thus helping the rats to enter. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. Albany. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. wide and 1/16 in. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. laying poisoned meat and meal. deep. Wis. The diaphragm C. Ashland. cut to the length of the spool. B. The end is filed to an edge. the corners being wired. wound on the head end. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. One end is removed entirely. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. setting traps. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. The strings should be about 15 in. which is the essential part of the instrument.. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. E. made up of four layers of No. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. but not sharp. Hellwig. The body of the receiver. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. long. and the receiver is ready for use. N. The coil is 1 in. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. etc. letting it go at arm's length. A. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. G. A small wooden or fiber end. F. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. --Contributed by John A. Paterson. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. N. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint.J. --Contributed by J. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. There is a 1-in. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. and a coil of wire. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. as shown. . high. is cut on the wood. board all around the bottom on the inside. and tacked it to the boards. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. Y. commonly called tintype tin. long. Gordon Dempsey. This not only keeps the rats out. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. but prevents the chickens from digging holes.string to each corner. 1/8 in.

A single line will be sufficient. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. begin with the smallest scrolls. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. and bend each strip in shape. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. The vase is to have three supports. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. gold. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. wide. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. To clean small articles. a piece of small wire. to . better still. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. Take a piece of string or. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver.

3-1/2 in. through which to slip the fly AGH. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. Work down the outside line of the design. After taking off the pattern. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. and does not require coloring. from C to D. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. Trace also the line around the purse. Fold the leather on the line EF. thus raising it. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. from the lines EF on the piece. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily.. using a duller point of the tool. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. sharp pencil. 4-1/4 in. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. About 1 in.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. . Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. wide when stitching up the purse.. Press or model down the leather all around the design. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. from E to F. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. as shown in the sketch. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. 6-3/8 in.which the supports are fastened with rivets. 3-1/4 in. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct.

cut out one piece as shown in Fig. 1 was cut. 1/2 in. square. and. 2. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. b. Make the lug 1/4 in. and cut it out as shown in Fig. Fit this to the two . It can be made without the use of a lathe. and a model for speed and power. as well as useful. with pins or small nails. then nail it. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. around the wheel. being cast in wooden molds. then place the square piece out of which Fig. deep. and tack the other piece slightly. thick. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. and the projections B.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. and cut out a wheel. It is neat and efficient. This also should be slightly beveled. Now take another piece of wood. following the dotted lines. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. Cut off six pieces 12 in. the "open" side. First. When it is finished. long. as shown in Fig. and which will be very interesting. 1. with the largest side down. with the open side down.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. 3. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. deep. with a compass saw. all the way around. by 12 ft. Then nail the wheel down firmly. leaving the lug a.

holes through it. square pieces of wood.pieces just finished. deep. then bolt it together. square pieces of wood. as shown by the black dots in Fig. hole entirely through at the same place. slightly beveled. Take the mold apart. hole bored through its center. one of which should have a 3/8-in. and boring a 3/8-in. and cut it out as shown in Fig. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. hole 1/4 in. and bore six 1/4-in. place it between two of the 12-in. 4. and clean all the shavings out of it. bolts. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. Now take another of the 12-in. After it is finished. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. and lay it away to dry.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. 1. in the center of it. as shown by the . Now put mold No.

holes at d. the other right-handed. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. and pouring metal in to fill it up. Let it stand for half an hour. so that it will turn easily. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. B. Now take mold No.1. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. Then bolt the castings together. and 3/8-in. and pour babbitt metal into it. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing.1. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. where the casting did not fill out. and the other in the base. screw down.2. see that the bolts are all tight. After it is fitted in. lay it on a level place. in diameter must now be obtained. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. and two 1/4-in. take an ordinary brace. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. place the entire machine in a vise.2. This is mold No. long. place it under the drill. one in the lug. and the exhaust hole in projection b. true it up with a square. 6. wide and 16 in. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. b. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. Pour metal into mold No. 4. as shown by the black dots in Fig. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. Now cut out one of the 12-in. holes. until it is full. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. only the one is left-handed. and drill it entirely through. Fig. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. and lay it away to dry. put the top of the brace through this hole. Using the Brace . The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. long. over the defective part. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. 1. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. and bore three 1/4-in. and drill them in the same manner. d. This is the same as Fig. fasten a 3/8-in. A piece of mild steel 5 in. and run in babbitt metal again. drill in it. This is for a shaft. one in the projections. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. 5. instead of the right-handed piece. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. as shown in illustration. This will cast a paddle-wheel. from the one end. and connect to the boiler. Put this together in mold No. Commencing 1-1/2 in.black dots in Fig. 6.

while it is running at full speed. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. long. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. Plan of Ice Boat . How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular.. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. with a boss and a set screw. and the other 8 ft. and with three small screw holes around the edge. At each end of the 6ft. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. and if instructions have been carefully followed. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. will do good service. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. one 6 ft. turn the wheel to the shape desired. piece and at right angles to it. and. Then take a knife or a chisel.

3. so much the better will be your boat. tapering to 1-1/2 in. On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in. at the top. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. in front of the rudder block. in the top before the skate is put on. long. at the end. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. long. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. projecting as in Fig. This fits in the square hole. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. where they often did considerable damage. as the runners were fastened. in diameter in the center. The spar should be 9 ft. plank. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. plank nail 8-in. 2 by 3 in. 8 a reef point knot. Over the middle of the 6-ft. should be of hardwood. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. at the butt and 1 in. which may come in handy in heavy winds. and about 8 in. in diameter. Make your runners as long as possible. Fig. piece and at right angles to it. distant. Fig. 1. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft.These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used. The tiller. leaving 1 ft. long and 2-1/2 in. in diameter at the base. boards to make the platform. bolt the 8-ft. Run the seam on a machine. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. To the under side of the 8-ft. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. 1.

binding-posts fastening the springs S S. The arrangement proved quite too effective. It is quite evident that when a rat put its two fore feet on the edge of the pan in order to eat the mush which it contained. W is a piece of wax crayon just long enough to break the contact at C when inserted as shown in the illustration. --Contributed by J. B. and place it behind a stove. --Contributed by John D. Adams. that an electrical connection would be made through the body of the rat. R. To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359] This is a very simple device. for after a week the rats all departed and the boys all regretted that their fun was at an end. to block B. When these parts have been put together in the manner described. small piece of wood.another from the zinc plate through the intervening yard and into the shop. P. allowing the springs to contact at C. Phoenix. but one that will afford any amount of amusement. wide. S S. connect the device in circuit with an electric bell. in the air and let out a terrific squeak. and when we pushed the button up in the shop the rat would be thrown 2 or 3 ft. bent into a hook at each end. and the alarm bell will ring. Comstock. Mechanicsburg. so that they come in contact at C. Its parts are as follows: A. Pa. The . A good sized induction coil was through connected with these wires and about six dry batteries were used to run the induction coil whenever a push button was manipulated. P. Electric Rat Trap How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359] A fire alarm which is both inexpensive and simple in construction is shown in the illustration. Simple Fire Alarm When the stove becomes too hot the wax will melt at the ends. block of wood nailed to A. two pieces of sheet brass about 1/4 in. Ariz.

high. in diameter. Then get a 10-cent frying pan. Put the works back in the metal shell and solder it to the frying pan by the pieces turned out as in Fig. The wheel is anchored out by several guy Home-Made Merry-Go-Round wires. 2. The stump makes the best support. 1. A passenger rides in each seat and the motorman takes his station at the middle. The center pole should be 10 ft. The seat arms may be any length desired. and the pole works in the wheel as an axle. dial and works out of the shell and cut some pieces out of the metal so that when the pieces left are turned back it will have the appearance as in Fig.center post rests in an auger hole bored in an old stump or in a post set in the ground. says the American Boy. 6 in. An old wheel is mounted at the top of the pole. and drill a hole in the center so the shaft for the hands will easily pass through and