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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial

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08/17/2011

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Sections

  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother

THE BOY MECHANIC VOLUME I

Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)

BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I

THE

700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
HOW TO CONSTRUCT
WIRELESS OUTFITS, BOATS, CAMP EQUIPMENT, AERIAL. GLIDERS, KITES, SELF-PROPELLED VEHICLES ENGINES, MOTORS, ELECTRICAL APPARATUS, CAMERAS
AND

HUNDREDS OF OTHER THINGS WHICH DELIGHT EVERY BOY

WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
COPYRIGHTED, 1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO

POPULAR MECHANICS CO.
PUBLISHERS

A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. It is held in this curve until dry.Fig. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. until it is bound as shown in Fig. Ontario. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. Fig. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. 2. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. 2 -. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. 1. A piece of plank 12 in. away. --Contributed by J.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. The pieces are then dressed round. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. apart. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. grasp it and hold the same as a club. long will make six boomerangs. with the hollow side away from you. wide and 2 ft. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. distant. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. Noble. E. 1. 1. Toronto. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. as shown in Fig. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. 2. as shown in Fig. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. To throw a boomerang. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention.

made of 6-in. which makes the building simpler and easier. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. however. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. the block will drop out. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. minus the top. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. If the snow is of the right consistency. A very light. forcing it down closely. blocks . As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. long. dry snow will not pack easily. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. or rather no bottom at all. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. one inside of the circle and the other outside. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. A wall. 6 in. First. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. it is not essential to the support of the walls. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. thick. but about 12 in. and with a movable bottom. and it may be necessary to use a little water.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. high and 4 or 5 in. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle.

C. Fig. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. D. which is about 1 ft. 2. 1. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. Fig. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. 1. Ore. is 6 or 8 in. There is no outward thrust. long and 1 in. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. It also keeps them out. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. and the young architect can imitate them. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. which can be made of wood. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. a. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. Union. or an old safe dial will do. A nail. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. wide. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. 3 -. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. The piece of wood. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. Goodbrod. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. 2. Fig. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. 3. above the ground. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. --Contributed by Geo. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door.

it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. New York. one pair of special hinges. If ordinary butts are used. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. Syracuse. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. Merrill. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. says the Sphinx. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. the box locked . For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts.When taking hot dishes from the stove. as the weight always draws them back to place. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. S. --Contributed by R.

It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. smooth surface. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. 2. as shown in Fig. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. as shown in Fig. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. When the sieve is shaken. on drawing paper. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. All . -Contributed by L. as shown. With the metal shears. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. If the measuring has been done properly. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. 3. allowing each coat time to dry. proceed as follows: First. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. Ga. one for each corner. draw one-half of it. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. Fig. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. Place the piece in a vise. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. Alberta Norrell. Augusta. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. To make a design similar to the one shown. 1. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. If they do not. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. It remains to bend the flaps. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. about 1-32 of an inch. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel.and the performer steps out in view.

This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. as shown at AA. if rolled under the shoe sole. H. is fitted tightly in the third hole. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. causing it to expand. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. Denver. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. The common cork. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. 25 German-silver wire. heats the strip of German-silver wire. A resistance. of No. in passing through the lamp. from the back end. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. The current. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. In boring through rubber corks. If a touch of color is desired. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. should be in the line. about 6 in. B. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. C.the edges should be left smooth. --Contributed by R. Galbreath. When the current is turned off. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. which is about 6 in. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. A piece of porcelain tube. To keep the metal from tarnishing. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. and in the positions shown in the sketch. in diameter. long. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. After this has dried. Colo. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. used for insulation. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. R. 25 gauge German-silver wire.

Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. 3. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. with thin strips of wood. Kansas City. Mo. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. 2. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. --Contributed by David Brown. . 1. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. between them as shown in Fig. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. as shown in Fig.bottom ring. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. Purchase two long book straps. Fig. leaving a space of 4 in.

in diameter. --Contributed by Katharine D. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. and one weighing 25 lb. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. Morse. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. Fig. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. Fig..An ordinary electric bell. and tack smoothly. --Contributed by James M. which is the right weight for family use. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. having a gong 2-1/2 in. The folds are made over the string. just the right weight for a woman to use. 1. Y. Fig. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. N. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. 1. are mounted on the outside of the box. 36 in. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. one weighing 15 lb. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. A. When the aeroplane tips. 3. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. and a pocket battery. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. Syracuse. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. Doylestown. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. 4. These are shown in Fig. to form a handle. 2. The string is then tied. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. Two strips of brass. long. as . B are mounted on the bottom of the box. C. 1.. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. Kane. Pa. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood.

The saw. in diameter. Floral Park. and many fancy knick-knacks. machine screws. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. such as brackets. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. two 1/8 -in. 1. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. N. if once used. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. Y. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. AA. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. Day. four washers and four square nuts. 2. long. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. Frame Made of a Rod . bent as shown in Fig.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. --Contributed by Louis J. 3/32 or 1/4 in. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. 2. which can be purchased at a local hardware store.

be covered the same as the back. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. The buckle is to be purchased. Detroit. of water. it has the correct strength. For etching. In the design shown. Silver is the most desirable but. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid.. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. 1 part nitric acid. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. copper. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. --Contributed by W. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. if copper or brass. 1 part sulphuric acid. A. of water in which dissolve. Scranton. of course. therefore. use them in place of the outside nuts. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. as well as brass and copper. the most expensive. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. Watch Fob For coloring silver. Michigan. or silver. as well as the depth of etching desired. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. treat it with color. An Austrian Top [12] . after breaking up. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. Of the leathers.may be made of either brass. green and browns are the most popular. Rub off the highlights. Drying will cause this to change to purple. If it colors the metal red. allowing each time to dry. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. Apply two coats.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. though almost any color may be obtained. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. using a swab and an old stiff brush. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. File these edges. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium.

5-1/4 in. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft.F. A handle. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. hole in this end for the top. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. The handle is a piece of pine. set the top in the 3/4 -in. thick. in diameter. Tholl. hole. wide and 3/4 in. . starting at the bottom and winding upward. Parts of the Top To spin the top. Ypsilanti. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. Michigan. is formed on one end. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. 3/4 in. pass one end through the 1/16-in. --Contributed by J. 1-1/4 in. long.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. When the shank is covered. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. allowing only 1-1/4 in. long. Bore a 3/4-in. A 1/16-in. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way.

--Contributed by Miss L. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. tarts or similar pastry. A. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. Augusta. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. Mich. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. --A. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. Alberta Norrell. Ga. having no sides. . dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. For black leathers.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. Houghton. Northville. The baking surface.

Mo. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. two turns will remove the jar. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. glass fruit jar. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. then solder cover and socket together. Centralia. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. When you desire to work by white light. the same as shown in the illustration. says Studio Light.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. Stringing Wires [13] A. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt.

Wis. They are fastened. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. 16 Horizontal bars. 1-1/4 in. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. . 4 Braces. as shown in the cross-section sketch. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. 1-1/4 in. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. square by 62 in. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. 4 Vertical pieces.for loading and development. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. Janesville. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. and not tip over. so it can be folded up. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. square by 12 in. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in.

the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. Rosenthal. H. New York. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. Phillipsburg. If the loop is tied at the proper place. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. from scrap material. and a loop made in the end. after filling the pail with water. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. After rounding the ends of the studs. Cincinnati.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. --Contributed by Dr. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. -Contributed by Charles Stem. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. The front can be covered . O. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. C. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. The whole.

the mouth of which rests against a. FIG. you are. In my own practice. If the gate is raised slightly. By using the following method. and. principally mayonnaise dressing. the color will be an undesirable. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. The results will be poor.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. Wehr. by all rules of the game. The . It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. --Contributed by Gilbert A. Develop them into strong prints. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. 1 FIG. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. if you try to tone them afterward. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. thoroughly fix. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. Md. Baltimore. sickly one. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. either for contact printing or enlargements.

. With a little practice. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes. 16 oz. Place the dry print. A good final washing completes the process." Cyanide of potassium .... in size. thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table. stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax. to make it 5 by 5 in. Gray. 5 by 15 in. Iodide of potassium . when it starts to bleach.. as it will appear clean much longer than the white. L.. etc..... in this solution.......... wide and 4 in.. 2 oz...... being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects.. this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain.... --Contributed by T. The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away. but. The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper... An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in.. transfer it to a tray of water.. The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone.. where it will continue to bleach. preferably the colored kind. long to admit the angle support.. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder.. 20 gr... The blotting paper can . It will bleach slowly and evenly. Water .bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison...... When the desired reduction has taken place. without previous wetting.. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper.. Put one on each corner of the blotting paper. Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete. San Francisco..... Cal... 1 and again as in Fig. Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper.. 2. This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print... three times. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig..........

having a width of 2-1/4 in. Wilson Aldred Toronto. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. wide below the . wide. --Contributed by L. Corners complete are shown in Fig. the head of which is 2 in. 3.J. and a length of 5 in. the shaft 1 in.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. Make a design similar to that shown. --Contributed by J. Monahan. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. Canada. Wisconsin. Oshkosh. 20 gauge. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use.

FIG. Do not put the hands in the solution. being held perpendicular to the work. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. which gives the outline of the design Fig. 1. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. using turpentine. freehand. Fig. 1 part nitric acid. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. using a small metal saw. Allow this to dry. 1 Fig. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. . smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. using carbon paper. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. as shown in Fig. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. Pierce a hole with a small drill. For coloring olive green. then coloring. after folding along the center line. but use a swab on a stick. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. After the sawing. Trace the design on the metal. With the metal shears. Apply with a small brush. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. 4. After this has dried. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. 2. The metal must be held firmly. 3. Make one-half of the design. then put on a second coat. then trace the other half in the usual way. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. With files. deep. 1 part sulphuric acid.

thick. Richmond. Ii is an ordinary staple. Cal. Conn. --Contributed by H. New York. Syracuse. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. --Contributed by Katharine D. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. When this is cold. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. Carl Cramer. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. --Contributed by M. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. After the stain has dried. on a chopping board. East Hartford. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. as shown. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. it does the work rapidly. attach brass handles. . then stain it a mahogany color. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. Burnett. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. M.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. Morse.

Fig. or tin. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. L. and several 1/8-in. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. Jaquythe. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. 1/4 in. saucers or pans. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. . --Contributed by Mrs. thick and 4 in. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. one shaft. not over 1/4 in. Richmond. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. holes. Florida. --Contributed by W. 4. about 3/16 in. two enameled. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. in width at the shank. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. some pieces of brass. Cal. as shown in Fig. 1. 53 steel pens. thick. WARNECKE Procure some brass. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. machine screws. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. indicating the depth of the slots. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. brass. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. also locate the drill holes.. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. A. H. as shown at A. square. Kissimmee. Atwell.

Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. into the hole. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. machine screws and nuts. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. with 1/8-in. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. 3. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. The shaft hole may also be filed square. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. in diameter and 1/32 in.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. thick. using two nuts on each screw. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. 5. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. and pins inserted. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. 2. hole is drilled to run off the water. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. thick. long and 5/16 in. a square shaft used. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. If metal dishes. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. 3. wide. long by 3/4 in. about 1/32 in. Fig. hole in the center. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. lead should be run into the segments. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. with a 3/8-in. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. If the shaft is square. Fig. 6. and the ends filed round for the bearings. hole. as shown. brass and bolted to the casing. as shown in Fig. 1. Fig. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. each about 1 in. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. supply pipe. can be procured. as in Fig. These are connected to a 3/8-in. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in.. Bend as shown in Fig. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. machine screws. 2. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. 7. wide and bend as shown in Fig. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. with the face of the disk. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. There should be a space of 1/16 in. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. A 3/4-in. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base .

The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. La Salle. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. --Contributed by S. long.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. When assembling. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. make these seams come between the two back legs. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. The four legs are each 3/4-in. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. we will call the basket. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. Fasten with 3/4-in. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. V. --Contributed by F. Ill. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. Stain the wood before putting in the . arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. Cooke. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. using four to each leg. from the bottom end of the legs. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. or more in diameter. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. Canada. from the top of the box. square and 30-1/2 in. With a string or tape measure. three of which are in the basket. screws. Now you will have the box in two pieces. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. deep over all. to make the bottom. high and 15 in. Hamilton. deep and 1-1/4 in. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. Be sure to have the cover. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. The lower part. 8-1/2 in. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. Smith. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base.

Fig. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. The side. The folded part in the center is pasted together. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. --also the lower edge when necessary. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. -Contributed by Stanley H. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. wide. as shown in the sketch. Sew on to the covered cardboards. 2. 1.2 Fig. When making the display. Packard. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. sewing on the back side. you can. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. Baltimore. If all the parts are well sandpapered. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. Cover them with the cretonne. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. and gather it at that point. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. Boston. Md. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. wide and four strips 10 in. Mass.lining.

it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. When through using the pad. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. N. with slight modifications.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. Gloversville. It is not difficult to . Orlando Taylor. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. Cross Timbers. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. L. saving all the solid part. Fig. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. Y. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. 3. It is cleanly. Crockett. Mo. and. --Contributed by H. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. --Contributed by B.

Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. -Contributed by C. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. S. are shown in the diagram. Bourne. After stirring. and scrape out the rough parts. Mass. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. or if desired. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. Both of these methods are wasteful. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. it should be new and sharp. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. remove the contents. and secure it in place with glue or paste. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. Lowell. El Paso. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. across the face. --Contributed by Edith E. After this is done. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. Texas. If a file is used. Lane.

As these were single-faced disk records. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. A Postcard Rack [25]. Those having houses .cooking utensil. After several hours' drying. --Contributed by Marion P. Greenleaf. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. Oregon. Des Moines. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. He captured several pounds in a few hours. Canton. --Contributed by Geo. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. Wheeler. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. The process works well and needs no watching. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. --Contributed by Loren Ward. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. Ill. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. circled over the funnel and disappeared. Iowa. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. F. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. Oak Park. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. Ill. Turl. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. The insects came to the light. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other.

One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. boards are preferable. by 2 ft. and the second one for the developing bench. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. 6 in. The single boards can then be fixed. the height to the eaves being 6 ft.. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. 6 in. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. and both exactly alike. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. Conn. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. Glenbrook. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. --Contributed by Wm. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. --Contributed by Thomas E. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. Dobbins. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. Mass. not even with the boards themselves. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. one on each side of what will be the . the bottom being 3/8 in. the best material to use being matched boards. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner.. material. Both sides can be put together in this way. thick.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. Only three pieces are required. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. Lay the floor next. Rosenberg. will do as well. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. and as they are simple in design. Worcester. plane and pocket knife. but for cheapness 3/4 in. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one.

6. and to the outside board of the sides. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig.. 10). thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. 6 and 9. so that it will fit inside the sink. by screwing to the floor. 11. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack.. and should be zinc lined. below which is fixed the sink. The roof boards may next be put on. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. 2 in section. 7. etc. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. 9). The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. 5. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. 3 and 4. of the top of the door for the same reason. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. 8. so that the water will drain off into the sink. as shown in Figs. 6. and the top as at C in the same drawing. hinged to it. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A.doorway. which is fixed on as shown . A shelf for bottles and another for plates. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. brown wrapping paper. It is shown in detail in Fig. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. 9 by 11 in. wide. the closing side as at B. nailing them to each other at the ridge. In hinging the door. and in the middle an opening. and act as a trap for the light. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close.. Fig. is cut. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. The developing bench is 18 in. At the top of the doorway. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs.

Details of the Dark Rook .

20. In use. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. but not the red glass and frame. 1. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. and a 3/8-in. The house will be much strengthened if strips. or the room may be made with a flat roof. after lining with brown paper. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. Fig. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. 2. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. 13. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. as shown in the sections. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. Fig. Erie. or red light as at K. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. these being shown in Fig. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. if desired. For beating up an egg in a glass. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. preferably maple or ash. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. 13. as at I. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. 16. The handle should be at least 12 in. 16.in Fig. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. Fig. it is better than anything on the market. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. as shown in Fig. as in Fig. Pennsylvania. mixing flour and water. 14. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. Karl Hilbrich. screwing them each way into the boards. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. are fastened in the corners inside. A circular piece about 2 in. 19. 18. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. 15. four coats at first is not too many. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. --Contributed by W. hole bored in the center for a handle. 6. and a tank stand on it. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. as at M. 17. though this is hardly advisable. Fig. which makes it possible to have white light.

A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. when put together properly is a puzzle. --Contributed by L. Yonkers. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. To operate. long. Ark. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. Schweiger. G. Kansas City. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. for a handle. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Wm. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. which. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. Smith. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] .copper should be. D. about 3/8 in. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. Mo. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. New York. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. Eureka Springs. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. Mitchell. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. L. -Contributed by E.

The corks in use are shown in Fig. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. 2. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. the box will require a greater height in front. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. as well as improve its appearance. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. If the sill is inclined. Having completed the bare box. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. 3. A number of 1/2-in. especially for filling-in purposes. as shown in Fig. for the moment. as is usually the case. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. the rustic work should be varnished. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. holes should be drilled in the bottom. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. to make it set level. After the box is trimmed. 3. need them. as shown in Fig. Each cork is cut as in Fig. . 1. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. in order to thoroughly preserve it. which binds them together. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. The design shown in Fig.

1. too dangerous. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. share the same fate. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. Each long projection represents a leg. F. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. life in the summer time is a vexation. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. as shown in Fig. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs.. and observe results. being partly eaten into. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. When the corn is gone cucumbers. 3. 4. Traps do no good. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. etc. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. . can't use poison. But I have solved the difficulty. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. 2. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. it's easy. The coiled rod is 3/16 in.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. drilled at right angles. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. cabbages.

cut in 1/2-in. About 9-1/2 ft. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. strips. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. by trial. the coil does not heat sufficiently. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. -. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. The solution can be used over and over again. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. Iowa. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. If. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. of No. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. . and made up and kept in large bottles.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. cut some of it off and try again. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. long.

Knives. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. --Contributed by Katharine D. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. 1) removed. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. is a good size--in this compound. Y. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. Do not wash them. Pa. of gasoline. Syracuse. it falls to stop G. forks. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. --Contributed by James M. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. D. Dallas. C. Stir and mix thoroughly. In cleaning silver. and a strip. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. . Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. coffee pot.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. hot-water pot. Texas. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. Fig 2. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. to cause the door to swing shut. N. Morse. as shown in the sketch. of whiting and 1/2 oz. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. Kane. of oleic acid with 1 gal. Doylestown. but with unsatisfactory results. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening.

La. later fixed and washed as usual. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. which is. negatives. . Ill. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. Waverly. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. but unfixed. --Contributed by Theodore L. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. of course. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. using the paper dry. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. Pa. Fisher. Sprout. New Orleans. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. --Contributed by Oliver S. Harrisburg. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch.

The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. Fig. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. 1. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. metal. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. In this uncertainty lies the charm. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. a harmonograph is a good prescription. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. To obviate this difficulty. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. The harmonograph. then . Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest.

. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. which can be regulated. to prevent any side motion. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] .slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups.. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. or the lines will overlap and blur. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. A weight. Chicago. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. of about 30 or 40 lb. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. A pedestal. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. is about right for a 10-ft. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. one-fifth. Ingham. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. as shown in Fig. makes respectively 3. in diameter. Punch a hole. 1. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. Rosemont. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. as shown in the lower part of Fig. in the center of the circle to be cut. Another weight of about 10 lb. G. such as a shoe buttoner. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. with a nail set or punch. 1. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. Holes up to 3 in. for instance. that is. provides a means of support for the stylus. The length of the short pendulum H. A small weight. Arizona. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. and unless the shorter pendulum is. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. A small table or platform. as long as the other. one-fourth. Gaffney. R. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. --Contributed by James T. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. exactly one-third. J. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. 1-3/4 by 2 in. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. etc. ceiling. --Contributed by Wm. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. A length of 7 ft. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. is attached as shown at H. K. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. what is most important.

1. of course.H. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. a correspondent of . Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. 4. 5. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. Morey. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. --Contributed by J. 2. Cape May City. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. -Contributed by W. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. The two key cards are made alike. The capacity of the vise. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement.J. and proceed as before. N. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. dividing them into quarters. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. 3. Fig. Chicago. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. then 3 as in Fig. distributing them over the whole card. Fig.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal.J. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. and 4 as in Fig. Cruger. 6. one for the sender and one for the receiver. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. then put 2 at the top.

Augusta. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. Wind the successive turns of . Ga. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. 6 gauge wires shown. from the top and bottom. drill 15 holes. respectively. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. the portion of the base under the coil. If constructed of the former. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. Asbestos board is to be preferred. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. 1/4 in. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. citrate of iron and ammonia. After preparing the base and uprights. To assemble. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. After securing the tint desired. 30 gr. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. sheet of well made asbestos paper. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. deep. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. of ferricyanide of potash. 22 gauge German-silver wire. long. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. Cut through the center. of 18-per-cent No. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. says Popular Electricity. --Contributed by L. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. of the uprights. acetic acid and 4 oz. wood-screws. Alberta Norrell. of water. 1/2 oz. remove the prints. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No.

then fasten the upright in place. if one is not a smoker. Ward. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. cut and dressed 1/2 in. which. N. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. 16 gauge copper wire. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. Labels of some kind are needed. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench.. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. --Contributed by Frederick E. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. but these are not necessary. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. Small knobs may be added if desired. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. Ampere. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. etc. as they are usually thrown away when empty. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. 14 gauge. screws. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. Y. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . square. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. rivets. The case may be made of 1/2-in.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No.

Kenosha. California. S. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work.14 oz. especially if a large tub is used. lead. ." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. a piece of solder. of glycerine to 16 oz. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. galvanized iron. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. Heat it until hot (not red hot). --Contributed by A. or has become corroded.. The material can be of any wood. This is considerable annoyance. and rub the point of the copper on it. A. D. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. Jaquythe. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. and one made of poplar finished black. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. B. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. sandpaper or steel wool. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. Larson. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. E and F. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. being careful about the heat. then to the joint to be soldered. --Contributed by W. the pure muriatic acid should be used. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. Copper. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. Ark. as shown in the sketch. --C. C. it must be ground or filed to a point. and labeled "Poison. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. of water. zinc. If the soldering copper is an old one. In soldering galvanized iron. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. tin. Eureka Springs. Richmond. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. G. Wis. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. tinner's acid. brass. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. particularly so when the iron has once been used. The parts are put together with dowel pins.

Fig. brass and silver. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. The covers of the magazines are removed. N. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. I bind my magazines at home evenings. nut. which gives two bound volumes each year. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. Six issues make a well proportioned book. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. W. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. Hankin. such as copper. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. a ring may be made from any metal. in diameter. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. 2. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. The punch A. Take a 3/4-in. The dimensions shown in Fig. B. This will leave a clear hole. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. Brass rings can be plated when finished. with good results. Troy. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. however. thick and 1-1/4 in. C. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. Place the band. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. D. wide. 7/8 in. in diameter. Apart from this. 1. round iron. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. This completes the die. Y. -Contributed by H. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. and drill out the threads. Fig. The disk will come out pan shaped.

is used for the sewing material. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. using . . Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. which is fastened the same as the first. size 16 or larger. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. and a third piece. as shown in Fig. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. If started with the January or the July issue. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. 1. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. Five cuts. 5. and place them against the strings in the frame. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. The string No. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. Start with the front of the book. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. 2. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. Coarse white thread. through the notch on the left side of the string No. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections.4. The sections are then prepared for sewing. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. 1. 1 in Fig. is nailed across the top. of the ends extending on each side. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. 1/8 in. C. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. The covering can be of cloth.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. and then to string No. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. 1. After drawing the thread tightly. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. allowing about 2 in. Place the cardboard covers on the book. threaded double. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. deep. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. then back through the notch on the right side. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. 2. The covering should be cut out 1 in. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. on all edges except the back. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues.

and. Place the cover on the book in the right position. College View. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. Nebr. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. Divine. and mark around each one. round iron.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. on which to hook the blade. For the blade an old talking-machine . bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. Encanto. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. Tinplate. at opposite sides to each other. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. Cal. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. --Contributed by Clyde E. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops.

Moorhead. by 4-1/2 in. with a steel sleeve. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. and file in the teeth. bore. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose.. at the same end. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. long. fuse hole at D. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. E. hydraulic pipe. On the upper side. thick. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. and another piece (B) 6 in. Miss. F. B. with 10 teeth to the inch. as it is sometimes called. C. -Contributed by Willard J. Ohio. A. and 1/4 in. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. Make the blade 12 in. thick. Hays. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. by 1 in. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. Then on the board put . and 1/4 in. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. or double extra heavy. Summitville. in order to drill the holes in the ends. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. as shown. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in.. and a long thread plug.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely.

raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. Philadelphia. of rubber-covered wire. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. Connect up as shown. H. Boyd. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . 18 gauge wire for the wiring. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. of wire to each coil. the jars need not be very large. and some No. --Contributed by Chas. some sheet copper or brass for plates. high around this apparatus. about 5 ft. as from batteries. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. 4 jars. If you are going to use a current of low tension. using about 8 in. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. A lid may be added if desired.

will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. 3 in. sheet brass 1 in. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution.. For the front runners these measurements are: A. two pieces 34 in. Put arm of switch on point No. wide and 2 in. wide and 3/4 in. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. direct to wire across jars. long. 3. 1 and so on for No. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. thick. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. The top disk in jar No. 4. Construct the auto front (Fig. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. making them clear those in the front runner. or source of current. The illustration shows how to shape it. 2. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. 30 in. An iron washer. by 5 in. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. by 1 in. by 5 in. 5 on switch. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. thick. C. 2 in. apart. 11 in. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. Use no screws on the running surface. . The sled completed should be 15 ft. are important. 2 is lower down than in No. two pieces 14 in. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. Equip block X with screw eyes. Z. wide by 3/4 in. as they are not substantial enough. See Fig. two pieces 30 in. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X.. 2 and 3. B. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. long. on No. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. No. square by 14 ft. oak boards. At the front 24 or 26 in. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. 3 and No. by 1-1/4 in. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. then apply a coat of thin enamel. 7 in. long.. 1 on switch.. & S. 15-1/2 in. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig.. and for the rear runners: A. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. 1. by 2 in. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. long by 22 in. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. First sandpaper all the wood. The connection between point No. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. by 6 in. A 3/4-in.the way. two for each jar. by 1-1/4 in. B. 16-1/2 in.. above the ground. 4) of 3/4-in. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. as they "snatch" the ice. Use no nails. long. gives full current and full speed. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. beginning at the rear. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. Fig. The stock required for them is oak. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. however. 34 in. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. The current then will flow through the motor. and bolt through. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. wide. Their size also depends on the voltage. is used to reduce friction. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. 27 B. B and C. For the brass trimmings use No. with the cushion about 15 in. 2.. and four pieces 14 in. by 2 in. 4 in. A variation of 1/16 in. To wire the apparatus. steel rod makes a good steering rod. In proportioning them the points A. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. 2. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. C. On the door of the auto front put the . and plane it on all edges. 1 is connected to point No.

and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. or with these for $25. long. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. which is somewhat moist. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . The best way is to get some strong. brass plated. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. to improve the appearance. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. If the expense is greater than one can afford. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. a brake may be added to the sled. lunch. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. overshoes. such as burlap. Then get some upholstery buttons. a number of boys may share in the ownership. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. cutting it out of sheet brass. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. etc. cheap material. by 30 in. parcels. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. such as used on automobiles. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. fasten a cord through the loop. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. by 1/2 in. to the wheel. may be stowed within. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. Fasten a horn. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. If desired. If desired. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates.

Leland. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. --Contributed by Stewart H. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. Ill. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. Lexington. .tree and bring.

Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. Fig. The first tooth may now be cut. so that the center of the blade. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. by drawing diameters. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. A small clearance space. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . E. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. Draw a circle on paper. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. with twenty-four teeth. With no other tools than a hacksaw. the cut will be central on the line.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. CD. 1. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. FC. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. outside diameter and 1/16 in. mild steel or iron. will be over the line FG. from F to G. made from 1/16-in. First take the case of a small gearwheel. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. which. Fig. Fig. The straight-edge. thick. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. a compass. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. sheet metal. though more difficult. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. the same diameter as the wheel. some files. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. 4). say 1 in. This guide should have a beveled edge. The Model Engineer. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. 3. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. London. when flat against it. 2. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle.

B. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. hold in one hand. If there is no faucet in the house. either the pencils for arc lamps. Focus the camera in the usual manner. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. B. A bright. each in the center. as shown in Fig. some wire and some carbons. and the other outlet wire. ground it with a large piece of zinc. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. No shock will be perceptible. 2. or several pieces bound tightly together. transmitter. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. as shown in Fig. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. R. Then take one outlet wire. . 1. Make a hole in the other. 1. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. electric lamp. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch.Four Photos on One Plate of them. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. as shown in Fig.

leaving about 10 in. Slattery. One like a loaf of bread. at each end for terminals. are also needed. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. and again wind the wire around it. Ashland. of course. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. B. They have screw ends. Ohio. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. Dry batteries are most convenient. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. and about that size. as indicated by E E.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. 36 wire around it. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. Then set the whole core away to dry. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. Emsworth. Pa. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. --Contributed by Geo. as shown. D D are binding posts for electric wires. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. serves admirably. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. by 1 in. If desired. Wrenn. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. by 12 in. Several battery cells. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. and will then burn the string C. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. one at the receiver can hear what is said. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. or more of the latter has been used. A is a wooden block. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. under the gable. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. a transmitter which induces no current is used. But in this experiment. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. J. For a base use a pine board 10 in. even though there are no batteries in the circuit.

connecting lamp receptacles. and the lamps. in parallel. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. E. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. for the . The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. 2. The apparatus is now ready for operation. in series with bindingpost. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. and switch. 14 wire. Jr. The coil will commence to become warm. Fig. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. D. C. until the hand points to zero on the scale. Newark. Connect these three to switch. B B.. At one side secure two receptacles. the terminal of the coil. Turn on switch. The oven is now ready to be connected. D. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. while C is open. First make a support. Fig. run a No. These should have hollow ends. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. Place 16-cp. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. From the other set of binding-posts. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. C. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. and one single post switch. B B. 12 or No.wire. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. F. as shown. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. 1. Ohio. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. as shown. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp.

1. Mine is wound with two layers of No. until the scale is full. The box is 5-1/2 in. 2. deep. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. To make one. a battery.or 4-way valve or cock. to prevent it turning on the axle. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. is made of iron. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. long. long and make a loop. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. 4 in. The core. 4.. 3. D. from the lower end.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. A wooden box. wide and 1/8 in. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. etc. where A is the homemade ammeter. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. high. 14 wire. 5. C. a standard ammeter. and D. thick. although copper or steel will do. Fig. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. wide and 1-3/4 in. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. --Contributed by J. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. drill through the entire case and valve. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. B. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. 3 amperes. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . a variable resistance. inside measurements. but if for a 4way. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. This may be made of wood. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. At a point a little above the center.E. Fig. D. 4 amperes. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. wind with plenty of No. 1. After drilling. remove the valve. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. 14. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. Montreal. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. Dussault. is then made and provided with a glass front. 1/4 in.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. 7. Fig. This is slipped on the pivot. The pointer or hand. If for 3-way. 1/2 in. 10 turns to each layer. drill in only to the opening already through. It is 1 in. Fig. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. is made of wire. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. 5. as shown in the cut. E. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. long. drill a hole as shown at H. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. 6. 36 magnet wire instead of No. although brass is better.

It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. making two holes about 1/4 in. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. high. provided with a rubber stopper. in thickness . and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. as shown. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. A. F. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. and the other connects with the water rheostat. and a metal rod. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. which is used for reducing the current.performing electrical experiments. To start the light. One wire runs to the switch. B. in diameter. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. and the arc light. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. D. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. By connecting the motor. E. This stopper should be pierced.

A piece of wood.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. Turn on the current and press the button. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. 1. Fig. as shown in C. Fig. Having finished the interrupter. 1. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. as shown in B. Fig. If the interrupter does not work at first. A. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. As there shown. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. Jones. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. To insert the lead plate. Carthage. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. B. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. If all adjustments are correct. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. Fig. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. --Contributed by Harold L. Having fixed the lead plate in position. long. where he is placed in an upright open . 2. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. N. 1. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. Y. 2. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in.

but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. high. All . The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. which can be run by three dry cells. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. is constructed as shown in the drawings. The model. The lights. especially L. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. giving a limp. could expect from a skeleton. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. with the exception of the glass. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. especially the joints and background near A. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. The glass should be the clearest possible. the illusion will be spoiled. loosejointed effect. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. by 7 in. figures and lights. They need to give a fairly strong light. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. A. A white shroud is thrown over his body. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. inside dimensions. L and M. Its edges should nowhere be visible. should be colored a dull black. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. should be miniature electric lamps. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. within the limits of an ordinary room. If it is desired to place the box lower down. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. If everything is not black. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. The skeleton is made of papier maché. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. light-colored garments. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. from which the gong has been removed. dressed in brilliant. and can be bought at Japanese stores. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. by 7-1/2 in. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again.. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. and must be thoroughly cleansed. until it is dark there.coffin. as the entire interior. and wave his arms up and down. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. to aid the illusion. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass.

Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. If a gradual transformation is desired. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. Cal. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . square block. San Jose. as shown in the sketch. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. fat spark. W. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. Fry. after which it assumes its normal color. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. placed about a foot apart. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. Two finishing nails were driven in. --Contributed by Geo. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype.that is necessary is a two-point switch. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy.

If a lighted match . B and C. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. New York. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. to make it airtight. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. and should be separated about 1/8 in. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. by small pieces of wood. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. hydrogen gas is generated. or a solution of sal soda. with two tubes. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. In Fig. the remaining space will be filled with air. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. A (see sketch). The plates are separated 6 in. F. soldered in the top.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. 1. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. In Fig. into the receiver G. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. This is a wide-mouth bottle. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. -Contributed by Dudley H. One of these plates is connected to metal top. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. as shown. Cohen.

The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. says the Model Engineer. which forms the vaporizing coil. 36 insulated wire. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. and the ends of the tube. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. which is plugged up at both ends. London. long. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. Fig. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . 2 shows the end view. The distance between the nipple. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. A 1/64-in. Fig. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. long. 1/2 in. copper pipe. 1-5/16 in. P. should be only 5/16 of an inch. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. is made by drilling a 1/8in.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. A piece of 1/8-in. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. A. in diameter and 6 in. by means of the clips. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. A nipple. N. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. then a suitable burner is necessary. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. as is shown in the illustration. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. N. C C. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. 1. is then coiled around the brass tube. A. copper pipe. A. from the bottom. or by direct contact with another magnet. of No. A. either by passing a current of electricity around it. If desired. B. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. One row is drilled to come directly on top. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base.

How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. about 8 or 10 in. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. 2). Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. trim both ends and the front edge. with a fine saw. larger all around than the book. this makes a much nicer book. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. at the front and back for fly leaves. Cut four pieces of cardboard. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. Fig. boards and all. Take two strips of stout cloth. 1. smoothly. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. Fig. should be cut to the diameter of the can. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. 3. leaving the folded edge uncut. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. taking care not to bend the iron. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype).lamp cord. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. A disk of thin sheet-iron. Fig. 1/4 in. fold and cut it 1 in. Turn the book over and paste the other side. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. duck or linen. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. longer and 1/4 in. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. cut to the size of the pages. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. but if the paper knife cannot be used.

but its diameter is a little smaller. In the bottom. pasting them down (Fig. and a little can. Noble. --Contributed by James E. --Contributed by Joseph N. which will just slip inside the little can. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. Another can. Another tank. the joint will be gas tight. Bedford City. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. This will cause some air to be enclosed. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. is perforated with a number of holes. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. without a head. is fitted in it and soldered. D. or rather the top now. E. is made the same depth as B. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. C. in diameter and 30 in. Parker. A. Ont. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. H. Va. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. A gas cock. 4). is soldered onto tank A. as shown in the sketch. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. of tank A is cut a hole. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. . is turned on it. Toronto. B. as shown. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. 18 in. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. deep.

a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. which moves to either right or left. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. The longitudinal corner spines. If the pushbutton A is closed. making the width. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. 2. B. basswood or white pine. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. Fig. A A. J. If the back armature. as shown at C. The bridle knots. Fig. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. Beverly. and sewed double to give extra strength. fastened in the bottom. which may be either spruce. B. should be cut a little too long. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. S. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. The armature. should be 3/8 in. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. The diagonal struts. should be 1/4 in. when finished. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. Bott. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. and the four diagonal struts. N. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. are shown in detail at H and J. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. D. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. square by 42 in. thus adjusting the . C. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. long. The small guards. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. exactly 12 in. E. tacks. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. and about 26 in. D. H is a square knot. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. shows how the connections are to be made.. B. The wiring diagram. 1. long. A. to prevent splitting. -Contributed by H. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. with an electric-bell magnet. by 1/2 in.

Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. for producing electricity direct from heat. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. D. If the kite is used in a light wind. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. as shown. the batteries do not run down for a long time. and if a strong wind is blowing. Kan. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. --Contributed by A. however. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. A bowline knot should be tied at J. and. thus shortening G and lengthening F. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. Harbert. Chicago. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. Clay Center. --Contributed by Edw. can be made of a wooden . In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. Closing either key will operate both sounders. with gratifying results. Stoddard. to prevent slipping. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. shift toward F.lengths of F and G. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. that refuse to slide easily. E.

B. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. or parallel with the compass needle. A and B. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. 14 or No. C. spark. A.frame. Then. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. to the cannon.. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. in position. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. The wood screw. with a number of nails. 16 single-covered wire. E. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. C. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . A. When the cannon is loaded. which conducts the current into the cannon. F. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. and the current may then be detected by means. and also holds the pieces of wood. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. placed on top. with a pocket compass. D. --Contributed by A. Fasten a piece of wood. Chicago. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. C. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. by means of machine screws or. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. E. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. A. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle.

square and 3/8 in. . press the button. with the long arm at L'. where there is a staple. when in position at A'. 1. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. Ohio. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. Fig. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. to receive the screw in the center. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. L. now at A' and S'. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. but no weights or strings. --Contributed by Joseph B. A and S.the current is shut off. Mich. Connect as shown in the illustration. To lock the door. 1. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. Keil. screw is bored in the block. A hole for a 1/2 in. To reverse. A. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. B. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. A and S. --Contributed by Henry Peck. within the reach of the magnet. H. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. Marion. Bend the strips BB (Fig. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. Big Rapids. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. in this position the door is locked. In Fig. requiring a strong magnet. Fig. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. 1. To unlock the door. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. Chicago.

--Contributed by C. Thread the other end of the pipe. hole. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. gas-pipe. if enameled white on the concave side. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. When ready for use. about 18 in. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. put in the handle. and may be made at very slight expense. The standard and base. long. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. Mass. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. and C is a dumbbell. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. West Somerville. J. Rand. pipe with 1-2-in. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. When the holes are finished and your lines set. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. are enameled a jet black. and if desired the handles may . In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. or for microscopic work.

it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. across. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. North Easton. Fig. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. Warren. D. high by 1 ft. as shown at A in the sketch. which shall project at least 2 in. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. Mass. 1. A. 8 in. Fig. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. inside the pail. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end.. This peculiar property is also found in ice. 1. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. Make a cylindrical core of wood. across. with a cover. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. long and 8 in. M.be covered with leather. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . --Contributed by C. E. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. B.

While these are drying you may be making a muffle. pipe. but it will burn a great deal of gas. C. such . take out the plugs in the top and bottom. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. Set aside for a few days until well dried. 25%. the point of the blue flame. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. Whatever burner is used. let this dry thoroughly. pack this space-top. projecting from each end (Fig. cutting the hole a little smaller. 1). Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. 3) with false top and bottom. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. L. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. and varnish. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. and cut it 3-1/2 in. and 3/8 in. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. of fine wire. as dictated by fancy and expense. When lighted. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. C. carefully centering it. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. passing wire nails through and clinching them. After finishing the core. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end.. about 1 in. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. Cover with paper and shellac as before. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. if you have the materials. long over the lid hole as a chimney. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. Fit all the parts together snugly. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. full length of iron core. E. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. 1390°-1410°. Fig. if there is to be any glazing done. which is the hottest part. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. and with especial caution the first time. and your kiln is ready for business. in diameter. 1330°. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. sand. Line the pail. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. and 3/4 in. and on it set the paper wrapped core. thick. the firing should be gradual. 2. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. W. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. or make one yourself. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in.-G.. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. as is shown in the sketch. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. pipe 2-ft. 15%. 2 in. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. long. C. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. 1). At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. thick. After removing all the paper. say 1/4 in. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. make two wood ends. hard porcelain. strip of sheet iron.. to hold the clay mixture. diameter. hotel china. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. This done. and graphite. in diameter. Wind about 1/8 in. The 2 in. It is placed inside the kiln. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. bottom and sides. layer of the clay mixture. If the cover of the pail has no rim.mixture of clay. wider than the kiln. but will be cheaper in operation. 60%. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back.

the next black.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. C. A. as shown in the sketch herewith. 8 in. around the coil. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. diameter. about 1/16 in. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. square them up. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. bind tightly with black silk. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. 1. Of course. 2. --Contributed by J. and discharges into the tube. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. procure a new deck. with a plane. T. 2). a regulator must be had for the vibrator. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. square them up and place in a vise. and so on. C. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. . C.53 in. R. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. Then take the black cards. leaving long terminals. Take the red cards. The funnel. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. length of . all cards facing the same way. as in Fig. red and black. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. Chicago. B. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. and plane off about 1/16 in. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. D. taking care to have the first card red. Next restore all the cards to one pack. and divide it into two piles. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner.. Washington. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. as in Fig. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. 2. Then. You can display either color called for. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. every alternate card being the same color. overlaps and rests on the body.

B. so that when they are assembled. The cement. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in.C. to form a dovetail joint as shown. Fig. through the holes already drilled. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. Long Branch. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. B. of the frame. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. A. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. All the horizontal pieces. N. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. and this is inexpensive to build. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. and then the frame is ready to assemble. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. The bottom glass should be a good fit. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. To find the fall of snow. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. stove bolts. angle iron for the frame. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. E. about 20 in. When the glass is put in the frame a space. should be countersunk as shown in the detail.J. E. A.. D. Let . as the difficulties increase with the size. 1 gill of litharge. Drill all the horizontal pieces. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. 1 gill of fine white sand. stove bolts. 1. the same ends will come together again. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. The upright pieces. thus making all the holes coincide. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. It should be placed in an exposed location. F. B. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. C. the first thing to decide on is the size.

and. a centerpiece (A. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. D. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. on the door by means of a metal plate. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. to the door knob. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . having a swinging connection at C. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. Fig. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. if desired. Fasten the lever. B. Aquarium Finished If desired.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. A. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown.

long. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. 1 . D. 2 ft. 1. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. 3 shows one of the paddles. to keep the frame from spreading. C. Cut two pieces 30 in. PAUL S. 1. F. 2 at GG. from the outside top of the frame.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. for the top. with a water pressure of 70 lb. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. long. To make the frame. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. wide by 1 in. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. long. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. which is 15 in. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. another. soldered to the end of the cylinder. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. to form the main supports of the frame. A small piece of spring brass. several lengths of scantling 3 in. Fig. another. Fig. Cut two of them 4 ft. Fig. Y. as at E. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. thus doing away with the spring. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. approximately 1 ft. N. E.. 2 is an end view. and Fig. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. AA. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. wide . hoping it may solve the same question for them. --Contributed by Orton E. screwed to the door frame. Fig. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. and another. long. according to the slant given C. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. to form the slanting part. 26 in. will open the door about 1/2 in. Fig. 6 in. Fig. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. They are shown in Fig. Do not fasten these boards now. showing the paddle-wheel in position. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. B. 1 is the motor with one side removed. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. Buffalo. Two short boards 1 in. I referred this question to my husband. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. but mark their position on the frame. White.

Take the side pieces. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. thick. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. holes. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. 2) form a substantial base. iron 3 by 4 in. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). 24 in. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. take down the crosspieces. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. Fig. 1. Fig. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. thick (HH. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. and a 1/4 -in. long and filling it with babbitt metal. hole through its center. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. from one end by means of a key. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. with the wheel and shaft in place. When it has cooled. 2) with a 5/8-in. hole to form the bearings. Now block the wheel. remove the cardboard. 4. then drill a 3/16-in. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. tapering from 3/16 in. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. to a full 1/2 in. hole through the exact center of the wheel. as shown in Fig. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel.along the edges under the zinc to form . Tack one side on. Make this hole conical.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. iron. 2) and another 1 in. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK.burlap will do -. long to the wheel about 8 in. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. that is. and drill a 1-in. by 1-1/2 in. (I. These are the paddles. hole through their sides centrally. Next secure a 5/8-in. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. Drill 1/8-in. in diameter. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. hole through them. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. Fasten them in their proper position. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. and drill a 1/8-in. Fig. pipe. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. hole from the tops to the 1-in. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. GG. after which drill a 5/8 in. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. steel shaft 12 in.

Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. of course. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. but now I put them in the machine.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. It is obvious that. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. as this makes long exposure necessary. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. shutting out all light from above and the sides. or what is called a process plate. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. it would be more durable. Do not stop down the lens. . Darken the rest of the window. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. says the Photographic Times. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. and leave them for an hour or so. and the subject may move. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. If the bearings are now oiled. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. place the outlet over a drain. Drill a hole through the zinc. The best plate to use is a very slow one. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. sewing machine. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry.a water-tight joint. drill press. on the lens. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. as shown in the sketch at B. remove any white curtains there may be. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. start the motor. Correct exposure depends. ice-cream freezer. Focus the camera carefully. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. If sheet-iron is used. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. light and the plate. Raise the window shade half way. but as it would have cost several times as much. any window will do. and as near to it as possible. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end.

The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. as shown in Fig. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. a core. full of water. The core C. as a slight current will answer. with binding posts as shown. and without fog. With a piece of black paper. and a base. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. or can be taken from an old magnet. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. On completing . The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. B. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. hard rubber. by twisting. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. The current required is very small. C. or wood. an empty pill bottle may be used. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. 2. which is made of iron and cork. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. The glass tube may be a test tube.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. 2. or an empty developer tube. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. a glass tube. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. the core is drawn down out of sight. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. D. without detail in the face. until the core slowly rises. A.

1 pt. and one not easy to explain. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. white lead. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. This is a mysterious looking instrument. and are changed by reversing the rotation. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. whale oil. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. finest graphite. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. water and 3 oz. is Benham's color top. The colors appear different to different people. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. 1 lb. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. according to his control of the current. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. and make a pinhole in the center. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. 1.

bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. especially if the deck is a new one. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. when the action ceases. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. fan-like.B. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. In prize games. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. B. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. C. thus partly filling bottles A and C. A.. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. As this device is easily upset. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant.L. Chicago. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. or three spot. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. In making hydrogen. -Contributed by D. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. before cutting. nearly every time. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. deuce. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose.

S. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. 1. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. long and 3 in. that will fit loosely in the tube A. as shown in Fig. 10 in. 9 in. 4. long. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. --Contributed by C. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. Detail of Phonograph Horn . Huron. Fig. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. 12 in. in length and 3 in. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. Detroit. Jr. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. Form a cone of heavy paper. W. 3). Bently. --Contributed by F. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft.. Make a 10-sided stick. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. Dak. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. S. 2.. (Fig. in diameter. Fig. J. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. . making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together.

The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. Fortunately. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. --Contributed by Reader. on one side and the top.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. allowing 1 in. and walk in. Remove the form. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. it is equally easy to block that trick. Cut out paper sections (Fig. with a pin driven in each end. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. A second piece of silk thread. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. push back the bolt. A. 6. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. Fig. long. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. Denver. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. about the size of a leadpencil. A piece of tin. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. making it three-ply thick. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. will cause an increased movement of C. E. C. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . Fasten the sections all around in like manner. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. but bends toward D. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. bend it at right angles throughout its length. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood.

West St. R. will last for several years. S. or left to right. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. The 2 by 4-in. are made 2 by 4 in.strip.. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. The reverse switch. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base.. Jr. put together as shown in the sketch. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. W. S S. The upper switch. 4 ft. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. as shown. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . is connected each point to a battery. and rest on a brick placed under each end. Two wood-base switches. B. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. By this arrangement one. Paul. are 7 ft. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. The feet. long. A. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. long. while the lower switch. Fremont Hilscher. S. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. Minn. --Contributed by J. B. posts.

The base is made of wood. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. which is made of tin. pulley wheel. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. Fig. 3/8 in. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. which will be described later. thick.every house. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. and a cylindrical . and in Fig. In Fig. is an old bicycle pump. 2. The valve motion is shown in Figs. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. and valve crank S. The piston is made of a stove bolt. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. and the crank bearing C. E. H and K. cut in half. the other parts being used for the bearing B. FF. The steam chest D. either an old sewing-machine wheel. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. and has two wood blocks. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. Fig. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. The hose E connects to the boiler. with two washers. or anything available. 1. the size of the hole in the bearing B. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. 2 and 3.

or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. Fry. as it is merely a trick of photography. of Cuba. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. San Jose. and the desired result is obtained. Schuh and A. This is wound with soft string. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. --Contributed by Geo. is cut out of tin. at that. W. . Eustice. G. or galvanized iron. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. First. G. Wis. 3. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. C. The boiler. as shown in Fig. and saturated with thick oil. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. Fig. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. The valve crank S.piece of hard wood. powder can. can be an old oil can. 4. to receive the connecting rod H. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. Fig. This engine was built by W. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. and a very amusing trick. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. 1. Cal. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. J. using the positive wire as a pen. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then.

1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. 1 by covering up Figs. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. diameter. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. C. 1 will be seen to rotate. as shown at AA. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. Fig. and Fig. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. and pass ropes around . B. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. as shown. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. When turning. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. The smaller wheel. B. They may be of any size. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. to cross in the center. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. Fig. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. Fig. and place a bell on the four ends. Cut half circles out of each stave.

and enlarge the bore a little at one end. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. but not on all. as shown in the illustration. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. such as clothes lines. long. W. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. from the transmitter. From a piece of thin . and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter.M. produces a higher magnifying power). which allows the use of small sized ropes. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two.. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. This in turn will act on the transmitter.G. To make this lensless microscope. St. Mo. A (a short spool. procure a wooden spool. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. Louis. --Contributed by H. which accounts for the sound.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer.

The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. is made of iron. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. B. otherwise the image will be blurred. which costs little or nothing to make. Fig. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. cut out a small disk. fastened to a wooden base. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. darting across the field in every direction. A. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. if the distance is reduced to one-half. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. as in all microscopes of any power. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. Viewed through this microscope. C. (The area would appear 64 times as large.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. i. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. . D. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. To use this microscope. H. E. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. or 64 times. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. which are pieces of hard wood. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. the object should be of a transparent nature. is fastened at each end by pins. C. D. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. and look through the hole D. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. and so on. in which hay has been soaking for several days.. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. place a small object on the transparent disk. The lever. The spring. e. and at the center. 2. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. if the distance is reduced to one-third. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed.. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature.) But an object 3/4-in. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. bent as shown. An innocent-looking drop of water. B. can be made of brass and the armature. by means of brads. held at arm's length. the diameter will appear three times as large. The pivot. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. 3. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. 1. the diameter will appear twice as large.

binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. Fig. long by 16 in. F. and are connected to the contacts. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. in length and 16 in. nail soldered on A. C. coils wound with No. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. wide. wide. 1. D. . soft iron. brass: E. D. wide and set in between sides AA. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. brass. K. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. AA. A switch. similar to the one used in the sounder. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. binding posts: H spring The stop. wood: F. 16 in. The base of the key. 2. A. Cut the top. KEY-A. brass or iron soldered to nail. Fig. B. wood. between the armature and the magnet. B. DD. 16 in. should be about 22 in. 26 wire: E. is cut from a board about 36 in. E. thick. long. The binding posts. Each side. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. wide. FF. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. wood: C. connection of D to nail. wide and about 20 in. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. HH. long and 14-1/2 in. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. The door. The back. fastened near the end. wide. brass: B. can be made panel as shown. C. or a single piece. or taken from a small one-point switch. which are made to receive a pivot. K. D.SOUNDER-A. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in.

cut in them. Make 12 cleats. as shown. brads. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. In operation. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. AA. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. 13-1/2 in. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. Garfield. E. long. 2 and made from 1/4-in. When the electrical waves strike the needle. as shown in the sketch. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. material. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch.. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. the only materials necessary being a glass tube.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. with 3/4-in. Ill. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire .

and thus decreases the resistance. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. through which a piece of wire is passed. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. J. The cord is also fastened to a lever. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. the magnet. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. A. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . Fairport. Ridgewood. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. Pushing the wire. filled with water. Y. F. B. When the pipe is used. Brown. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. in order to increase the surface. --Contributed by John Koehler. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. E. C. A. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. will give a greater speed.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. N. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. N. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. A (see sketch). pulls down the armature. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. and. --Contributed by R. down into the water increases the surface in contact. when used with a motor. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. A fairly stiff spring. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil.

even those who read this description. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. Gachville. Borden. N. Of course. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. B. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. if desired. --Contributed by Perry A.for the secret contact. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated.

thick and 12-in. records and 5-5/8 in. in a semicircle 2 in. Nails for stops are placed at DD. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. long and full 12-in. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. long and 5 in. for 10in. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. H. as shown in Fig. J.whenever the bell rings. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. where the other end of wire is fastened. Compton. N. Two drawers are fitted in this space. for 6-in. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. The top board is made 28-in. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. A. from the bottom. East Orange. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. and on both sides of the middle shelf. 2. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. wide. as shown in Fig. wide. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. C. --Contributed by Dr. 1. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. apart. The three shelves are cut 25-in. Cal. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. wide. records. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. Connect switch to post B. Washington.. D. --Contributed by H. wide. . C. E. With about 9 ft. Mangold. From a piece of brass a switch. deep and 3/4 in. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. Jr. Dobson. wide.

When the cord is passed over pulley C.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. B. A. to which is fastened a cord. Va. Roanoke. E. as shown by the dotted lines. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. 1. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. which in operation is bent. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. closed. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. as shown in Fig.

wide. Figs. through one of these holes. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. Now put all these parts together. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. 5) when they are placed. Notice the break (S) in the track. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. thick. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. In the sides (Fig. which should be about 1/2 in. Do not fasten the sides too . 4 shows the wheel-holder. in diameter. 1 in. E. These wheels should be 3/4 in. to turn on pins of stout wire. it too loose. in diameter. as shown in the illustration. The crankpin should fit tightly. excepting the crank and tubing. in diameter. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. one in each end. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. is compressed by wheels. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. CC. Figs. Put the rubber tube. in diameter. Fig. Fig. they will bind. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. long. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. Cut two grooves. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. holes (HH. 3). 3. D. thick (A. deep and 1/2 in. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. Bore two 1/4 in.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. E. but a larger one could be built in proportion. apart. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. deep. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. 1 in. wide. they will let the air through. square and 7/8 in. Fig. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. If the wheels fit too tightly. B. against which the rubber tubing. In these grooves place wheels. 1.

and 3-1/2 in. 2. A in Fig. long. --Contributed by Dan H. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. Hubbard. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. mark again. Two feet of 1/4-in. The three legs marked BBB. from each end. 1. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. AA. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. AA. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. beyond each of these two. 1. In the two cross bars 1 in. Fig. a platform should be added. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. 2. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. Take the center of the bar. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. mark for hole and 3 in. Fig. 15 in. from that mark the next hole. of material. If the motion of the wheels is regular. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. To use the pump. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. Fig. Kan. 1. iron. B. from the bottom and 2 in. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. costing 10 cents. 17-1/2 in. Fig. Then turn the crank from left to right. from each end. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. 1. 1. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. Idana. from each end. stands 20 in. Cut six pieces. tubing. For ease in handling the pump. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. because he can . the pump will give a steady stream. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. though a small iron wheel is better. the other wheel has reached the bottom. as shown in Fig. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. and are 30 in. and mark for a hole. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. The screen which is shown in Fig. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. as it gives steadiness to the motion. is all the expense necessary. The animal does not fear to enter the box.

it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. add slowly. stirring constantly. or. When through using the battery. The mercury will adhere. C. . When the bichromate has all dissolved. of water dissolve 4 oz. there is too much liquid in the jar. Place the carbon in the jar. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. silvery appearance. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. If the solution touches the zinc. long having two thumb screws. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. and touches the bait the lid is released and. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. until it is within 3 in. It is useful for running induction coils. but if one casts his own zinc. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. --Contributed by H. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. Philadelphia. Meyer. sulphuric acid. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. 14 copper wire. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. of the top. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. some of it should be poured out. 4 oz. dropping. and the solution (Fig. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. rub the zinc well. To cause a flow of electricity. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. acid 1 part). The truncated. The battery is now ready for use. shuts him in. however. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. giving it a bright. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. The battery is now complete. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. If the battery has been used before. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No.see through it: when he enters. or small electric motors. 2). lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. potassium bichromate. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. If it is wet. 1) must be prepared.

pressing the pedal closes the door. which opens the door. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. If. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. with slight changes.Fig. while the coal door is being opened. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. e. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. The price of the coil depends upon its size. however.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. Wis.. the battery circuit. i. Madison. the jump-spark coil . and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. After putting in the coal.

by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". in a straight line from top to bottom. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. and closer for longer distances. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. This coil. Now for the receiving apparatus. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. as shown in Fig. This will make an excellent receiver.7. while a 12-in. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. 7. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. which is made of light copper wire. After winding. 5. as shown in Fig. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. W W. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. 6. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. being a 1-in. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. the full length of the coil. . coil. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. Fig. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. made of No. apart. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. diameter. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. Change the coil described. 7). will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. W W. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. in a partial vacuum. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig.described elsewhere in this book. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. 6. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. 7. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil.

after all. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. Run a wire from the other binding post. at any point to any metal which is grounded. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. The writer does not claim to be the originator. Figs. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. 90°. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. as it matches the color well. For an illustration. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. . above the ground. using an electric motor and countershaft. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. in the air. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. are analogous to the flow of induction. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. 1 to 4. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. but it could be run by foot power if desired. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. wireless is very simple when it is once understood.6 stranded. being vertical. A. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. These circles. being at right angles. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. and hence the aerial line. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. to the direction of the current. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. 90°. 1). may be easily made at very little expense. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). No. I run my lathe by power. which will be described later.The aerial line. where A is the headstock. A large cone pulley would then be required. only. but simply illustrates the above to show that. B the bed and C the tailstock. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire.

so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. To make these bearings. The bearing is then ready to be poured. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. 4. and Fig. The headstock. After pouring. steel tubing about 1/8 in. too. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. and runs in babbitt bearings. Fig. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. Fig. 6. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. 6 Headstock Details D. If the bearing has been properly made. on the under side of the bed. Fig. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. pitch and 1/8 in. which pass through a piece of wood. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. 5. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. just touching the shaft. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. 5. thick. deep. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. Heat the babbitt well. which are let into holes FIG. and it is well to have the shaft hot. tapered wooden pin. 4. The bolts B (Fig. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. one of which is shown in Fig. Fig. A. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. 2 and 3. but not hot enough to burn it. hardwood being preferable for this purpose.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. B.

I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. the alarm is easy to fix up. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. This prevents corrosion.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. If not perfectly true. so I had to buy one. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. they may be turned up after assembling. and a 1/2-in. If one has a wooden walk. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. lock nut. Take up about 5 ft. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. Newark. embedded in the wood. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. FIG.other machines. The tail stock (Fig. N. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. of the walk . Ill.J. A. Oak Park. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. B. --Contributed by Donald Reeves.

and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. Connect up an electric bell. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. water. --Contributed by R. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. (A. to roughen the surface slightly. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. Fig. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. Finally. Minneapolis. save when a weight is on the trap. 2). Then make the solution . so that they will not touch. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. Minn. of water. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. To avoid touching it. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. add potassium cyanide again. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. Do not touch the work with the hands again. Jackson. silver or other metal. leaving a clear solution. clean the articles thoroughly. hang the articles on the wires. S. and the alarm is complete. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. before dipping them in the potash solution. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. to remove all traces of grease.

To provide the keyhole. Make a somewhat larger block (E. If accumulators are used. pewter. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. long. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. 1). On brass. Take quick. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. will serve for the key. which . of clothesline rope and some No. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. A 1/4 in. from the lower end. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. shaking. use 2 volts for large articles. B should be of the same wood. Repeat six times. hole in its center. Can be made of a 2-in. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. thick by 3 in. square. zinc. German silver. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. When all this is set up. 3. with water. If more solution is required. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. if one does not possess a buffing machine. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. Fig. which is advised. Fig. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. Where Bunsen cells are used. saw a piece of wood. as shown in Fig. 10 in. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. 1 not only unlocks. The wooden block C. make a key and keyhole. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. an old electric bell or buzzer. Having finished washing the precipitate. 1 in. --Model Engineer. In rigging it to a sliding door. and the larger part (F. copper. Fig. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. nickel and such metals. which is held by catch B. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. a hand scratch brush is good. with water. Then. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. 3) directly over the hole. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. such metals as iron. 18 wire. of water. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. A (Fig. I. long. lead. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. silver can be plated direct. but opens the door. 1. With an electric pressure of 3. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. must be about 1 in. Fig. light strokes. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. Before silver plating. Screw the two blocks together. The wooden catch. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. about 25 ft. piece of broomstick. with the pivot 2 in. also. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig.5 to 4 volts. a circuit is completed. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. 3) strikes the bent wire L. 1). as at F. and then treated as copper. and 4 volts for very small ones. This solution. when the point of the key touches the tin. it is only necessary to double all given quantities.up to 2 qt.

he points with one finger to the box. top. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. Thus. so much the better. 1. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. some black cloth.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. no painting inside is required. To prepare such a magic cave. such as forks. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. he tosses it into the cave. On either side of the box. one-third of the length from the remaining end. the illumination in front must be arranged. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. The box must be altered first. is the cut through which the rope runs. which unlocks the door. --Contributed by E. although a little more trouble. Fig. H. or cave. and black art reigns supreme. cut in one side. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. the requisites are a large soap box. and plenty of candles. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. In front of you. in his shirt sleeves. enlarged. H. floor. and finally lined inside with black cloth. . and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. 2. between the parlor and the room back of it. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. with a switch as in Fig. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. half way from open end to closed end. Fig. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. 0. 3. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. 2. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. heighten the illusion. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. and a slit. Fig. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. New Jersey. He removes the bowl from the black box. H. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. Next. 116 Prospect St. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. should be cut a hole. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. East Orange. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. some black paint. One end is removed. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. The interior must be a dead black. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. 1. a few simple tools. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. Next. B. with the lights turned low. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. and hands its contents round to the audience. sides and end. shows catch B. where immediately appears a small white china bowl.. Klipstein. surrounding a perfectly black space. The magician stands in front of this. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. to throw the light toward the audience. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. the box should be painted black both inside and out. One thing changes to another and back again. Receiving the bowl again. spoons and jackknives. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. Heavy metal objects. Fig. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. Objects appear and disappear. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well.

the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. The exhibitor should be . which are let down through the slit in the top. into the eyes of him who looks. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. had a big stage. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. The audience room should have only low lights. if. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. one on each side of the box. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. of course. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. the room where the cave is should be dark. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. of course. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. and pours them from the bag into a dish. and several black drop curtains. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. in which are oranges and apples. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. which can be made to dance either by strings. But illusions suggest themselves. you must have an assistant. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. and if portieres are impossible. only he. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. was identical with this. as presented by Hermann. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. Consequently. his confederate behind inserts his hand. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. a screen must be used. is on a table) so much the better.Finally. The illusion.

e1 and e2. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. A represents a pine board 4 in. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. Fig. making contact with them. Finally. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. as shown in Fig. respectively. with three brass strips. 1. held down on it by two terminals. their one end just slips under the strips b1. Then. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. vice versa. if you turn handle K to the right. and c4 + electricity. 2. and c1 – electricity. when handle K is turned to one side. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. at L. 2). b2. c3. held down by another disk F (Fig. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. by means of two wood screws. making contact with them as shown at y. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. or binding posts. 1. b2. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. c4. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. terminal c3 will show +. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. d. f2. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. About the center piece H moves a disk. c1. A. FIG. b3. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. c2. b3.. respectively. respectively. is shown in the diagram. 2.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. or b2. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. and c2 to the zinc. square. so arranged that.a boy who can talk. b1. and a common screw. terminal c3 will show . On the disk G are two brass strips. by 4 in.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. held down on disk F by two other terminals.

1. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. Tuttle. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. When switch B is closed and A is on No. 5. when on No. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . when on No. B is a onepoint switch. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. Ohio. --Contributed by Eugene F. -Contributed by A. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. and when on No. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. 4.. and C and C1 are binding posts. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. and then hold the receiver to your ear. Joerin.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. Newark. from three batteries. . when A is on No. from four batteries. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. 3. from five batteries. you have the current of one battery. Jr. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. jump spark coil. E. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). thus making the message audible in the receiver.

rule. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. traveled by the thread. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. which may be a button or other small object. A.. mark. so one can see the time. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. A. and placed on the windowsill of the car. New Orleans. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. mark. of Burlington. Wis. P. is the device of H. over the bent portion of the rule. A.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. La. Thus. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. Redmond. When you do not have a graduate at hand. Handy Electric Alarm . The device thus arranged. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. and supporting the small weight. per second for each second. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. E. per second. as shown in the sketch. B. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft.

B. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. soldered to the alarm winder. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. Lane. Crafton. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. and with the same result. --Contributed by Gordon T. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. S. Instead. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. wrapping the wire around the can several times. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. C. Then if a mishap comes. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. When the alarm goes off. Pa. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. for a wetting is the inevitable result. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. .which has a piece of metal. but may be closed at F any time desired. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. which illuminates the face of the clock. --C.

1 . If there is no foundry Fig. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. small machinery parts. A. AA. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. engines. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. L. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. whence it is soon tracked into the house. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. cannons. and many other interesting and useful articles. bearings. Macey. --Contributed by A. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. but it is a mistake to try to do this. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. models and miniature objects. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. Two cleats. ornaments of various kinds. as shown in Fig.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. BE. when it is being prepared. 1. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. C. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. as shown. which may. It is possible to make molds without a bench. and duplicates of all these. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. binding posts. New York City. battery zincs. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. The first thing to make is a molding bench. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. With the easily made devices about to be described.

but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. G. is made of wood. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. A A. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal." or lower part. CC. DD. D. It is made of wood and is in two halves. 2 .How to Make a Mold [96] . as shown. by 8 in. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. the "cope. which should be nailed in. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. The dowels. If desired the sieve may be homemade. previous to sawing. a little larger than the outside of the flask. and saw it in half longitudinally. An old teaspoon. CC. The cloth bag." or upper half. F. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. is about the right mesh. II . Fig. is filled with coal dust. makes a very good sieve. by 6 in. H. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. A slight shake of the bag Fig. but this operation will be described more fully later on. The rammer. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. white metal. A wedge-shaped piece. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. 1.near at hand. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. and this. say 12 in. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. will be required. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. which can be made of a knitted stocking. E. 2. If the box is not very strong. high. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. The flask. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. J. which can be either aluminum. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. 1. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. Fig. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. as shown. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. and the "drag. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. and the lower pieces. is shown more clearly in Fig. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. is nailed to each end of the cope. try using sand from other sources. and a sieve. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed.

An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. After ramming. where they can watch the molders at work. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. or "drag. and by grasping with both hands. and scatter about 1/16 in. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. as shown at C.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. as shown at E. and if water is added. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. the surface of the sand at . A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. turn the drag other side up. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer." in position. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. Place another cover board on top. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. The sand is then ready for molding. as described. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. as it is much easier to learn by observation. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. and thus judge for himself. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. In finishing the ramming." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. as shown. as shown at D. and then more sand is added until Fig. in order to remove the lumps. It is then rammed again as before. or "cope. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. it has a sufficient amount of moisture.

as shown in the sketch. as shown at F. The "sprue. and then pour. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. After drawing the pattern. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. Fig.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. thus holding the crucible securely. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. This is done with a spoon. as shown at G. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. as shown at J. as shown at H. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. The pattern is then drawn from the mold.E should be covered with coal-dust. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. thus making a dirty casting. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. to give the air a chance to escape. deep. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. it shows that the sand is too wet. as shown at H. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. wide and about 1/4 in. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. . made out of steel rod. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. III. in order to prevent overheating. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick." or pouring-hole. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. place the cope back on the drag. after being poured. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. Place a brick or other flat. in diameter. is next cut. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used.

babbitt. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. although somewhat expensive. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. Morton. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. but any reasonable number may be used. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. and the casting is then ready for finishing. If a good furnace is available. Minneapolis. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. 15% lead. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. Although the effect in the illustration . Referring to the figure. white metal and other scrap available. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. is very desirable. or from any adjacent pair of cells. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. may be used in either direction. --Contributed by Harold S. battery zincs. and. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. the following device will be found most convenient. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. In my own case I used four batteries. used only for zinc.

to prevent them from rubbing the hands. backward. By replacing the oars with paddles. The bearings. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. Put a sharp needle point. Make one of these pieces for each arm. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. --Contributed by Draughtsman. Chicago. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. connected by cords to the rudder. 3/4 in. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. Fig. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. as shown in the illustration. outward. Then replace the table. as shown at A. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. 2. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. If desired. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. may be made of hardwood. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. which will be sufficient to hold it. The brass rings also appear distorted. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. A. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . To make it take a sheet-iron band. B. shaft made. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. B. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. Then walk down among the audience. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent.

Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. W. It may seem strange that ice . being simply finely divided ice. Snow. C. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. and a weight. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. In the same way. A block of ice.melted babbitt. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. 3. as shown in Fig. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. 2 and 3. The covers. as shown in Fig. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. If babbitt is used. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. D. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. should be made of wood. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. spoiling its appearance. 1. If galvanized iron is used. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. The hubs. or the paint will come off. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. 1. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. Fig. 2. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. E. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. but when in motion. or under pressure. when it will again return to its original state. 1. A.

. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. thus giving a high resistance contact. or supporting it in some similar way. Lane. no matter how slow the motion may be. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. by 5 in. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. --Contributed by Gordon T. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. whenever there is any connection made at all. by 1/4. P.should flow like water. but. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. Pressing either push button. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. by 2 in. square. Crafton. as shown on page 65. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. B. but by placing it between books. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. Pa. in. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. which resembles ice in this respect. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. The rate of flow is often very slow. sometimes only one or two feet a day. brass. and assume the shape shown at B. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. it will gradually change from the original shape A. as per sketch. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . by 1/2 in.

K . alarm clock. vertical lever. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. as shown. about the size used for automobiles. G. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. B. H. Ward. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. the battery. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. pulleys. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. and five dry batteries. The parts are: A. In the wiring diagram. Pa. draft. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. The success depends upon a slow current. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. wooden supports. draft chain. and C. The transmitter consists of an induction coil.thumb screws. C. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. F. D. --Contributed by A. cord. Wilkinsburg. weight. the induction coil.000 ft. I. E. A is the circuit breaker. Indianapolis. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. B. J. furnace. as shown. G. horizontal lever. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch.

is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. 2 are dressed to the right angle. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. The frame (Fig. material framed together as shown in Fig. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. as well as the bottom. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. Mich. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. 3. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . will fit nicely in them. Artistic Window Boxes The top. where house plants are kept in the home. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. Kalamazoo. which will provide a fine place for the plants. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. such as used for a storm window.

Thus. --Contributed by Wm. since a battery is the most popular source of power. e. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. as if drawn upon for its total output. as indicated by Fig. However. However. A certain number of these. after a rest. and cost 27 cents FIG. one can regulate the batteries as required. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. S. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. this must be done with very great caution. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. in any system of lamps. multiples of series of three. in this connection. The 1/2-cp. for some time very satisfactorily. can be connected up in series. 1 cp. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes.. N. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. Push the needle into the cork. by connecting them in series. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. in diameter. i.. and the instrument will then be complete. This is more economical than dry cells. is something that will interest the average American boy. It must be remembered. which sells for 25 cents. 1 each complete with base. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. a cork and a needle. and will give the . it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. Halifax. Grant. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow.. so as to increase the current. 1. Canada. where they are glad to have them taken away. W. and a suitable source of power. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. but maintain the voltage constant. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in.

The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. If wound for 10 volts. 11 series. or 22 lights. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. or 1-1/4 cents per hour.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. if wound for 6 volts. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. However. In conclusion. and for Christmas trees. 18 B & S. lamps. lamp. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. each. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. as in Fig. especially those of low internal resistance. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. and diffused light in a room. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. 2 shows the scheme. So. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. 3.. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. and running the series in parallel. generates the power for the lights. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. Fig. we simply turn on the water. which is the same as that of one battery. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. lamps. 1-cp. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. double insulated wire wherever needed. to secure light by this method. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. and then lead No. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. for display of show cases. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. Thus. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. although the first cost is greater. according to the water pressure obtainable.proper voltage. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. where the water pressure is the greatest. . and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. by the proper combination of these. Thus. These will give 3 cp. FIG. making. Chicago.

The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. outside points of switch. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. B. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. are cut just alike. and C. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. brushes of motor. DD. A indicates the ground. Cal.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. bars of pole-changing switch. Santa Clara. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. After I connected up my induction coil. field of motor. the letters indicate as follows: FF. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. CC. or from one pattern. Parker. we were not bothered with them. Ind. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. and the sides. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. AA. . To reverse the motor. as shown in the sketch. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. Emig. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. Plymouth. switch. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. a bait of meat. thus reversing the machine. B. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. BB. simply change the switch. --Contributed by F. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. --Contributed by Leonard E. center points of switch. A. or a tempting bone.

tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. -Contributed by Claude B. one cell being sufficient. A. Fry. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity.. Melchior. a piece of string. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. and a table or bench. San Jose. 903 Vine St. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. merely push the button E. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. To unlock the door. thus locking the door. which is in the door. If it is not. or would remain locked. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. W. attached to the end of the armature B. When the circuit is broken a weight. The button can be hidden.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. Hutchinson. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. as it is the key to the lock. Minn. Cal. a hammer. The experiment works best .

P. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. as shown in Fig. . Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. -. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. the current flows with the small arrows. 1). 4). W. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. Porto Rico. Crawford Curry. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. Brockville. run through a pulley. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. Wis. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. which pulls the draft open. releasing the weight. 2. A. the stick falls away.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. where it will remain suspended as shown. attached at the other end. Schmidt. Culebra.Contributed by F. Madison. I. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. When the alarm rings in the early morning. in the ceiling and has a window weight. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table.. C. Canada. 3. On another block of wood fasten two wires. 3. Tie the ends of the string together. Ontario. --Contributed by Geo. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. the key turns. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. forming a loop. D. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. 18 Gorham St.

which fasten to the horn. The cut shows the arrangement. J. First. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. 6 in. and then to the receiver. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. D. S. N. Farley. and break the corners off to make them round. made with his own hands. or tree. including the mouthpiece. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. get two pieces of plate glass.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. or from a bed of flowers. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. Connect two wires to the transmitter. and the other to the battery. Use a barrel to work on. Jr. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. thick. and . thence to a switch. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. --Contributed by Wm. R. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. square and 1 in. running one direct to the receiver.. Camden. J.

block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. using straight strokes 2 in. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. Have ready six large dishes. the coarse grinding must be continued. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. wet till soft like paint. and is ready for polishing. with 1/4-in. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. or it will not polish evenly. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. spaces. 2. wide around the convex glass or tool. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. then 8 minutes. so the light . then take 2 lb. while walking around the barrel.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. also rotate the glass. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel.. twice the focal length away. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. In a dark room. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. 1.. set the speculum against the wall. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. of water. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. Then warm and press again with the speculum. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. L. 2. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. A. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. by the side of the lamp. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. and a large lamp. or less. When polishing the speculum. Fig. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. and spread on the glass. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. a round 4-in. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. Fasten. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. When done the glass should be semitransparent. and label. as in Fig. When dry. unless a longer focal length is wanted. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. Fig. melt 1 lb. Use a binger to spread it on with. and the under glass or tool convex. with pitch. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. in length. wetting it to the consistency of cream. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. Place a large sheet of pasteboard.

the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. face down. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. in the bath and leave until the silver rises.. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. 25 gr. 100 gr. from the lamp. the speculum is ready to be silvered. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. Solution D: Sugar loaf . Fig. When dry. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency.100 gr. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole.. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way.. Then add 1 oz. long to the back of the speculum. shorter strokes should be used in polishing.. Now add enough of the solution A. Place the speculum S. fill the dish with distilled water. longer strokes. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears.. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center.. 39 gr. The knife should not be more than 6 in. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. must be procured. deep. The polishing and testing done. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. touched with rouge. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. 2. cement a strip of board 8 in.. 2. Two glass or earthenware dishes. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. as in K.. 4 oz. or hills. Silver nitrate …………………………….. Fig. Nitric acid . Then add solution B. If not. with distilled water. if a hill in the center.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass.……………………………. When the focus is found. also how the rays R from a star . the speculum will show some dark rings. and pour the rest into the empty dish. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube..………………………………. Fig. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. that was set aside. 840 gr. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. then ammonia until bath is clear. add the ammonia solution drop by drop. Place the speculum. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. With pitch. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. 4 oz. Alcohol (Pure) ……………. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water.…………….

which proves to be easy of execution.. Mellish. slightly wider than the lens mount. is a satisfactory angle. long and cost me just $15. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. Place over lens.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. stop down well after focusing.John E. using strawboard and black paper. telescope can be made at home. About 20. Then I made the one described. two glass prisms. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. with an outlay of only a few dollars. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. cover with paper and cloth. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. My telescope is 64 in. . deg. Thus an excellent 6-in. and proceed as for any picture. The flatter they are the less they will distort. Make the tube I of sheet iron. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch.

as shown in Fig. or powdered alum. 2. then add a little sulphate of potash. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. Fig. add the plaster gradually to the water. To unlock. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. through the lens of the camera and on the board. Do not stir it. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. A. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. The rays of the clear. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. . which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. and reflect through the negative. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. says the Master Painter. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. unobstructed light strike the mirror. The paper is exposed. Ill. 1. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. D. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. B. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. -Contributed by A. instead of the contrary. complete the arrangement. push the button D. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. Zimmerman. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. Boody. but will not preserve its hardening.

as in Fig. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. as at A and B. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. 2. Then blow through the spool. so that it can rotate about these points. use a string. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. To reverse. but will remain suspended without any visible support. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. as shown in the sketch. Fig. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. 2. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. 3. 1). Fasten on the switch lever. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. throw . also provide them with a handle.

In the sketch. rinse in alcohol. C C. . a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. Take out. Tex. D. A is the electricbell magnet. Levy. and E E. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. --Contributed by R. as shown in the sketch. B. the armature. although this is not necessary. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. carbon sockets. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. -Contributed by Morris L. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. carbons. North Bend. Thomas. and rub dry with linen cloth. L. San Antonio. wash in running water. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. --Contributed by Geo. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. Tex. binding posts. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. Push one end of the tire into the hole. Go McVicker. San Marcos.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. Neb.

wound evenly about this core. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. 16 magnet wire. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. By means of two or more layers of No. 14 or No. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . Divested of nearly all technical phrases. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. long or more. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. Brooklyn. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. Bell. --Contributed by Joseph B. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. 36 magnet wire.

The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. at a time. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. hole is bored in the center of one end. The primary is made of fine annealed No. long and 2-5/8 in. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. the entire core may be purchased readymade. The condenser is next wrapped . 2 yd. 1. The following method of completing a 1-in. 4. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. or 8 in. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. and the results are often unsatisfactory. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. as the maker prefers. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. and finally the fourth strip of paper. which is desirable. then the strip of tin-foil. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. about 6 in. but if it is not convenient to do this work. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. When cut and laid in one continuous length. This makes a condenser which may be folded. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. with room also for a small condenser. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. a box like that shown in Fig. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. which is an important factor of the coil. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. No. making two layers. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. A 7/8-in. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. in diameter. diameter. in length. long and 5 in. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. one piece of the paper is laid down. coil illustrates the general details of the work. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. After the core wires are bundled.which would be better to buy ready-made. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. as shown in Fig. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. Beginning half an inch from one end. In shaping the condenser. wide. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned.

go. B. long to key. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. shows how the connections are made. switch. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit.) The wiring diagram. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. long and 12 in. the letters indicate as follows: A. open switch C.securely with bands of paper or tape. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. whole length. B. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. forms the other pole or terminal. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. to the door. by 12 in. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. 4 in. F. and one from battery. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. The alarm key will turn and drop down. 3. flange turned on one side. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. one from bell. I. spark. battery . This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. D. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. bell. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. wide. ready for assembling. which is insulated from the first. round so that the inside . but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts.. C. Fig. A. V-shaped copper strip. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. G. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. E. which allows wiring at the back. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. and the other sheet. copper lever with 1-in. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. lines H. shelf for clock.

but add 5 or 6 oz. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. That is what they are for. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. This is for blowing. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. and the battery is ready for use. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. says the Model Engineer. instead of close to it. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. of blue stone. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. of zinc sulphate. Short-circuit for three hours. Line the furnace. but with the circuit. If desired for use immediately. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. Use a glass or metal shade. The circuit should also have a high resistance. 2 in. London. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. from the bottom. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side.diameter is 7 in. do not shortcircuit. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results.. . and then rivet the seam.

Make a hole through the center or this one arm. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. herein I describe a much better trick. If too low. long.9 of a volt. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. Try it and see. Outside of the scientific side involved. imparting to them a violet tinge." which created much merriment. for others the opposite way. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. and therein is the trick.. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. Enlarge the hole slightly. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. and then. oxygen to ozone. grip the stick firmly in one hand. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. or think they can do the same let them try it. square and about 9 in. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. If any or your audience presume to dispute. 1. below the bottom of the zinc. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. To operate the trick. thus producing two different vibrations. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. the second finger along the side. but the thing would not move at all. 2. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. g. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. changes white phosphorus to yellow. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. as in the other movement. while for others it will not revolve at all. At least it is amusing. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. for some it will turn one way. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. porcelain and paper. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. Ohio. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. This type of battery will give about 0. affects .

an old tripod screw. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. if possible.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. however. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. and. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. but this is less satisfactory. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. To the front board is attached a box. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. but small flowers. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. and one of them is photomicrography. says the Photographic Times. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. a short-focus lens. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. earth. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. but not essential. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. chemicals. a means for holding it vertical.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. insects.

then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. AB. 381 24 lb. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. or 31 ft. 5 in. Mass. 697 44 lb. in Cu. Divide one-quarter of the circle . How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. 7-1/2 in.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. or 3 ft. 1.--Contributed by George C. wide from which to cut a pattern. Boston. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. 7 ft. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. 179 11 lb. 10 ft 523 33 lb. 7-1/2 in. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. 268 17 lb. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. 12 ft. The following table will give the size. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. while it is not so with the quill. 6 ft. Ft Lifting Power. balloon. 905 57 lb. If the balloon is 10 ft. Fig. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. which is 15 ft. Madison. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. CD. 11 ft. and a line. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. 65 4 lb. A line. 113 7 lb. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. 8 ft. Cap. 5 ft. in diameter. long and 3 ft. 9 ft.

2. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. This test will show if the bag is airtight. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. The amounts necessary for a 10- . Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. 70 thread. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. The cloth segments are sewed together. Procure 1 gal. and so on. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. on the curved line from B to C. Repeat this operation four times. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. of beeswax and boil well together. 4. 3. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. making a double seam as shown in Fig. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. of the very best heavy body. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. cutting all four quarters at the same time. keeping the marked part on the outside. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. using a fine needle and No. The pattern is now cut.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts.

let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. which may sound rather absurd. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. 5. 5 . pipe extending down into the cooling tank. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. A. with water 2 in.Green Iron ammonium citrate . of iron. of iron borings and 125 lb. should not enter into the water over 8 in. of gas in one hour. ft. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. balloon are 125 lb. About 15 lb. In the barrel. When the clock has dried. with the iron borings. with 3/4in. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. pipe. leaving the hand quite clean. The outlet. or dusting with a dry brush. as shown in Fig. but if any grease remains on the hand. 1 lb. of sulphuric acid. or a fan. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. if it is good it will dry off. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. . The benzine should be clean and free from oil. 150 gr. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. this should be repeated frequently. capacity and connect them. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. A. All FIG. oil the spindle holes carefully.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris.ft. B. a clean white rag. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. B. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. A. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. B. Water 1 oz. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. Vegetable oils should never be used. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. ]. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. to the bag. it is not fit to use. After washing a part. C. .. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. above the level of the water in barrel A. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. The 3/4-in. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. Fill the other barrel. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. C. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. 1 lb. until no more dirt is seen. by fixing. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. using a fine brush. of water will make 4 cu.

at the time of employment. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1.000 ft. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. or battery. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. fix in hypo. says the Moving Picture World.. A longer exposure will be necessary. or zinc. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. Exposure. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. and keep in the dark until used. toning first if desired. Sliver nitrate 50 gr.Water 1 oz. Dry in the dark. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. or carbon. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. Printing is done in the sun. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. Port Melbourne. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. dry atmosphere will give best results. A cold. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. The positive pole. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. The miniature 16 cp. and a vigorous negative must be used. . Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. The negative pole. to avoid blackened skin. 20 to 30 minutes. Dry the plates in the dark. keeping the fingers out of the solution. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. of any make. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. . of the cell is connected to the aerial line. This aerial collector can be made in .

How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. long. lay a needle. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. when left exposed to the air. holes . In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle.various ways. the resistance is less. as described below. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. forming a cup of the pipe. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. As the telephone offers a high resistance. in diameter. The storage cell. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. making a ground with one wire. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. This will complete the receiving station. both positive and negative. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. If the wave ceases. and have the other connected with another aerial line. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. and as less current will flow the short way. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. 5 in. lead pipe. will soon become dry and useless. a positive and a negative. If the waves strike across the needle. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell.

The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. When mixing the acid and water. This box can be square. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. on each end. a round one. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. D. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. except for about 1 in. does not need to be watertight. The other plate is connected to the zinc. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. of course. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. one to the positive.as possible. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. or tube C. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. or tube B. an oblong one and a triangular one. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. and the other to the negative. by soldering the joint. This. This support or block. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. Two binding-posts should be attached. namely: a square hole. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. B. says the Pathfinder.

1. Chicago. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. were fitted by this one plug. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. thick cut two pieces alike. C. 3. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. and match them together. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. A and B. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. wide. as it is not readily overturned. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. Only galvanized nails should be used. Ill. all around the edge. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. deep and 4 ft.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. . The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. in place on the wood. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. The third piece of brass. is built 15 ft. This punt. long. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. C. as shown in Fig. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. leaving about 1/16 in. and has plenty of good seating capacity. 2. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. 1. about 20 in. 2. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. as shown in Fig. wide. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. back and under.

The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. is cut 1 in. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. Tacoma. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. gas pipe. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. In Fig. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. A piece of 1/4-in. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. Wash.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. A. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . thick and 3-1/2 in. square (Fig 2). B.

which the writer has made. H. without auxiliary phase. or "rotor. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. which can be developed in the usual manner. it had to be borne in mind that.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. no special materials could be obtained. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate." has no connection with the outside circuit. and to consume. Wagner. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. In designing.--Contributed by Charles H. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. lamp. says the Model Engineer. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. if possible. The winding of the armature. with the exception of insulated wire. may be of interest to some of our readers. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. no more current than a 16-cp. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens.

They are not particularly accurate as it is. 4. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. in diameter were drilled in the corners. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. being used. wrought iron. The stator is wound full with No. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. After assembling a second time. or "stator. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. and all sparking is avoided.the field-magnet. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. no steel being obtainable. bolts put in and tightened up. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. 3. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. this little machine is not self-starting. 5. Holes 5-32 in. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. as shown in Fig. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. holes. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. with the dotted line." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. Unfortunately. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. and filled with rivets. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. to be filed out after they are placed together. while the beginnings . were then drilled and 1/4-in. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. 2. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. about 2-1/2 lb. thick. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. B. as shown in Fig. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. also varnished before they were put in. C. A. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. 1.

A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. and the other by reduction in the camera. it would be very simple to build. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. as a means of illustrating songs. No starting resistance is needed. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. as shown in Fig. as before stated. 2. and would not easily get out of order. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. E. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. N. Jr. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. if applied immediately. having no commutator or brushes. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. If too late for alcohol to be of use. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig.. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. The rotor is wound with No. and as each layer of wire was wound. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. This type of motor has drawbacks. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. J. The image should . McKinney. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. In making slides by contact. One is by contact. and especially of colored ones. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. 3-Contributed by C. and all wound in the same direction. Newark. The lantern slide is a glass plate.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. and as the motor runs at constant speed. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. film to film. 1. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. a regulating resistance is not needed.

The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. Draw lines with a pencil. 2. they are much used by travelers. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. about a minute. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. and development should be over in three or four minutes. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. 5. if possible. 1. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. Select a room with one window. as shown in Fig. If the exposure has been correct. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. the formulas being found in each package of plates. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. except that the binding is different. C. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. Being unbreakable. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. as shown in Fig. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. Fig.appear in. a little extra work will be necessary. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. It is best. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. D. over the mat. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. A. B. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. 3. also. and then a plain glass. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. 4. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. These can be purchased from any photo material store. to use a plain fixing bath.

2. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. These longer pieces can be made square. or other stout cloth.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. from the ends. as shown in Fig. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. long. as shown at B. Fig. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. is to be used for the seat. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. If the star is in front of the left eye. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. 1. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. from the end piece of the chair. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. Vt. wide and 50 in. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. Corinth. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . as shown at A. Fig. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. while the dot will be in front of the other. Hastings. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. known as rods and cones. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. long. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. 16 in. from the center of this dot draw a star. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. long. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. 1. in diameter and 20 in. holes bored in the end pieces. in diameter and 40 in. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. A piece of canvas.

Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. Cal. 1. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. made from an ordinary sash cord. 2. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. A disk 1 in. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. . in thickness and 10 in. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. per square inch. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. A belt. as well as to operate other household machines. J. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. Auburn. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. as shown in Fig. O'Gara. as shown in Fig. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely.-Contributed by P.

3/4 in. with as fine a thread as possible. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. leaving it shaped like a bench. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. A simple. or inconvenient to measure. screwing it through the nut. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. fairly accurate. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. Cut out a piece from the block combination. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. direction. wide. and the construction is complete. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. Bore a 1/4-in. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. divided by the number of threads to the inch. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. Put the bolt in the hole. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. long. The part of a rotation of the bolt. square for a support. thick and 2-1/2 in. says the Scientific American. to the top of the bench. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. . and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. will be the thickness of the object. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. it serves a very useful purpose. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. then removing the object. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added.

A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. bolt in each hole. globe that has been thrown away as useless. long is used for the center pole. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. Oal. material 12 ft. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. Bore a 3/4-in. which show up fine at night. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. beyond the end of the wood. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. Santa Maria. Place a 3/4-in. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. piece of wood 12 ft. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. The wheel should be open . long.

Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. Fort Worth. which should be 1/4 in. is soldered. wide and 1/8 in. C. H and J. A. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. wide and 1/8 in.Side and Top View or have spokes. A piece of brass 2 in. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. Graham. in diameter. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. A cross bar. from the ends. and the lower part 61/2 in. P. thick. square and 3 or 4 in. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. at the top and 4 in. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. pieces used for the spokes. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. from the top end. long. at the bottom. to be operated by the magnet coil. made of the same material. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. The spool . long. 1/2 in. O. and on its lower end a socket. thick. The boards may be nailed or bolted. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. thick is used for the armature. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. of the ends with boards. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. long. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. Tex. C. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. L. long. The coil. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. B.-Contributed by A. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in.

long. This tie can be used on grain sacks. then with a firm. --Contributed by Arthur D. or a water rheostat heretofore described. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. 2. A soft piece of iron. S. C. D and E. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. A. When you slide the pencil along the casing. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. The armature. Randolph.--A. is drilled. for insulating the brass ferrule. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. At the bottom end of the frame. 2 the hat hanging on it.J. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. R. do it without any apparent effort. one without either rubber or metal end. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. F. B.is about 2-1/2 in. by soldering. Bradlev. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. 1. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection.000. . This is a very neat trick if performed right. Mass. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. and place it against a door or window casing. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. S. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. that holds the lower carbon. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S.000 for irrigation work. and directly centering the holes H and J. which may be had by using German silver wire. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil.E. and in numerous other like instances.

so the coils of wire will hold them in place. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. About 70 turns of No. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. B. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. for the secondary. Fig. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. Fig. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. F. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. The switch. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. in diameter. is constructed in the usual manner. The coil ends are made from cardboard. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. about 1 in. from the core and directly opposite. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. in diameter and 1/16 in. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. The vibrator B. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. The vibrator. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. long. thick. leaving the projections as shown. and then 1. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. wide. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. mixed with water to form a paste. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. about 3/16 in.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. in diameter and 2 in. The core of the coil. Experiment with Heat [134] . The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. with a 3/16-in. D. long and 1 in. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. may be made from a 3/8-in. is connected to a flash lamp battery. 1. S. hole in the center. for adjustment. A. for the primary. 2. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. S. about 1/8 in. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. C. in diameter. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core.500 turns of No. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. 1. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary.

The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. and then well clinched. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. which seemed to be insufficient. 1. thick on the inside. was to be secured by only three brass screws. in an ordinary water glass. . A leather shield may be used for this purpose. The hasp. The lock. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. lighted. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. brass plate. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. 2 to fit the two holes. The three screws were then put in the hasp. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. which is only 3/8-in.Place a small piece of paper. with which to operate the dial. wide. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. it laps down about 8 in. 1. between the boards. long and when placed over the board. and the same distance inside of the new board. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. The knob on the dial extends out too far. The tin is 4 in. board. Fig. 16 in. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. as shown. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. as shown in the sketch. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. which is cut with two holes.

and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. but when the front part is illuminated. When making of wood. clear glass as shown. When the rear part is illuminated. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. square and 8-1/2 in. one in each division. or in the larger size mentioned. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. and the back left dark. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. black color. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. high for use in window displays. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. not shiny. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. any article placed therein will be reflected in. square and 10-1/2 in. If the box is made large enough. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. which completely divides the box into two parts. the glass. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear.

or a piece of this width put on the bottom. as it appears.. When using as a window display. wide will be about the right size. as shown in the sketch.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. alternately. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. above the top of the tank. and with the proper illumination one is changed. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. as shown at A in the sketch. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. long and 1 ft. . place the goods in one part and the price in the other. a tank 2 ft. When there is no electric current available. into the other.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

hole. two pieces 1-1/8 in. using a 3/4-in. 6 in. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. Columbus. The pieces can then be taken out. Shape the under sides first. under sides together. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. square and 40 in. high. and a door in front. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. hole bored the full length through the center. or ferrous sulphate. The 13-in. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. then use a red-hot iron to finish. and a solution of iron sulphate added. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. wide. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. and boring two holes with a 1-in. bit. bore from each end. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. If a planing mill is near. long. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. however. square. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. long. but with a length of 12 in. 5 ft. This precipitate is then washed. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. lines gauged on each side of each. with a length of 13 in. one for each side. each. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. from the ground. is the green vitriol. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. and 6 ft. 1 in. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. O. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. A small platform. wide. This hole must be continued . The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. Three windows are provided. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. dried and mixed with linseed oil. radius. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. Iron sulphate. as shown. thick and 3 in. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. 2 ft. is built on the front. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. gauge for depth.

is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. The sketch shows one method of attaching. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. three or four may be attached as shown. square and drawing a diagonal on each. Directions will be found on the filler cans. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. A better way. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. hole in each block. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. When the filler has hardened. Saw the two blocks apart. When this is dry. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. if shade is purchased. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together.through the pieces forming the base. Electric globes--two. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. apply two coats of wax. For art-glass the metal panels are . If the parts are to be riveted. thick and 3 in.

and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal. as brass.Construction of Shade .The Completed Lamp cut out. such as copper. METAL SHADE .

The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. the object and the background.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. and Fig. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. Figure 1 shows the side. as shown in the sketch. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. The arms holding the glass. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. one way and 1/2 in. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. 2 the front view of this stand. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. the other. as in ordinary devices. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows.

An ordinary pocket compass. and swinging freely. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. uncork and recork again. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. Cut another circular piece 11 in. channel in the circumference of the ring. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. thus forming a 1/4-in. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. as shown in the cut. pointing north and south. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. in diameter for a base. and an inside diameter of 9 in. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. Put the ring in place on the base. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. as shown in the sketch. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. in diameter. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. about 1-1/4 in. outside diameter. If the light becomes dim.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. long. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. Before mounting the ring on the base. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. thick 5/8-in. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. wide and 11 in. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. as it is very poisonous. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. wide and 6-5/16 in. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely.

3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. of the top.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. and mirrors. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. into these cylinders. Corresponding mirrors.600 . CC. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. 1 oz. Place on top the so- . from the second to the third. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes .865 1. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. The results given should be multiplied by 1.715 .182 . are mounted on a base. and north of the Ohio river. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders.500 . EE. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. AA. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. black oxide of copper.289 . to which a wire has been soldered for connections. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders.088 . B. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere.420 . Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. in diameter and 8 in. above the half can.

of pulverized nitrate of potassium. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . In Fig. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. the wheel will revolve in one direction. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. which otherwise remains clear. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. University Park. slender bottle. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. When renewing. says Metal Worker. then they will not rust fast. alcohol. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. Put the solution in a long. always remove the oil with a siphon. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. Colo. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. of pulverized campor. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. little crystals forming in the liquid. 31 gr. 62 gr. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole.

they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. Solder in the side of the box . The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. on the under side of the cork. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. floating on a solution. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. If zinc and copper are used. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. If two of them are floating on the same solution. A paper-fastener box. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. This is used in place of the spoon. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. If zinc and carbon are used. --Contributed by C. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. about 1-1/4 in. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. Lloyd Enos. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. will allow the magnet to point north and south. Attach to the wires.

can be made of oak. F. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. hole. A. . long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. 14 wire will do. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. A. 3 in. thick. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. Put ends. of wire on each end extending from the coil. B. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. away. The spring should be about 1 in. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. D. 1/2. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. long that has about 1/4-in. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. Thos. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. H. or made with a little black paint. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in.in. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. 10 wire about 10 in. Rhamstine. C. long. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. as shown in Fig. wide and 2-1/2 in. long. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. 1-1/4 in. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. and on the other around the glass tube. D.Contributed by J. E.in. stained and varnished. Use a board 1/2. A circular piece of cardboard. B. E. C. brass tubing. The standard. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. The bottom of the box. To this standard solder the supporting wire. glass tubing . Secure a piece of 1/4-in. Take a small piece of soft iron. Wind evenly about 2 oz. one on each side of the board. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. D. of No. to it. and then solder on the cover.not shorter than 18 in.1-in. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. C. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. The base. G--No. 1. piece of 1/4-in. Bore holes for binding-posts. is made from a piece of No. If the hose is not a tight fit. wide and 6 in. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire.

30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. long. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. Wis.--Contributed by R. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. 3. of mercury will be sufficient. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. J. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. long. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. four hinges. 2. When the glass becomes soft. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. long. 3-in.of the coil. in diameter. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. 1. as shown in Fig. Smith. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. about 1 in. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. . long are used for the legs. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. About 1-1/2 lb. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. is drawn nearer to the coil. Cuba. from the right hand.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. of No. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. Milwaukee. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. of platinum wire in one end of the tube.--Contributed by Edward M. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. canvas. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. 5. N. The iron plunger. 3 in. of 8-oz. Teasdale. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. long. D. making a support as shown in Fig. E. long. two pieces 2 ft. Y. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft.

The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. expelling all the air. Break off the piece of glass. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. 6. Take 1/2 in. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. holding in the left hand. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. long. 5. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. Fig. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. 2. Keys.. thus leaving a. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. The tube now must be filled completely. --Contributed by David A. Can. of vacuum at the top. Toronto. 3. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. Measure 8 in. This tube as described will be 8 in. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. small aperture in the long tube. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread.. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. 4. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. leaving 8 in. although nearly any size could be made in the same way.

thick. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. as shown in Fig. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. These are bent and nailed. in diameter.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. long. 3 in. wide and 5 ft.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. 9 in. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. Fig. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. as in Fig.6 -. This forms a slot. 1 in. cut in the shape shown in Fig. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. 1 in. but yellow pine is the best. The large pulley is about 14 in. wide and 5 ft. thick. wide and 3 in. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. wood screws. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . wide and 5 ft. 5. Four blocks 1/4 in. long. and 1/4 in. thick. joint be accurately put together. 2. FIG. wide and 12 in. 1. from the end of same. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. 4 in. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. long. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. 6. material 2 in. thick. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. A crosspiece 3/4-in. with each projection 3-in. and the single projection 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. long. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. 3 in. 4. 3. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. thick. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. 7. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in.

by 1-in. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. above the runner level. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. Water 1 oz. --Contributed by C. attach runners and use it on the ice. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. Kan.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. Manhattan. first removing the crank. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. says Photography. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. R. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. . Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. Welsh. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim.

from an ordinary clamp skate. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. Treasdale. 1. Mass. 2. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. as shown in Fig. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. also. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. --Contributed by Wallace C. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. The print is washed. and very much cheaper. Leominster. --Contributed by Edward M. Newton.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. 3. 1 oz. of water. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. Printing is carried rather far. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. This is done with a camel's hair brush. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. . fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. as shown in Fig. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper.

wide and 4 in. 1 ft. The swing door B. 1. about 10 in. Fig. and to the bottom. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. F. from one end. high. 1. and bend them as shown in the sketch. as shown in the sketch. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. extending the width of the box. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. wide. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. which represents the back side of the door. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. Church. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. The thread is broken off at the . also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. high for rabbits. A. Va. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. 1-1/2 ft.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. Place a 10-in. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. Alexandria. with about 1/8-in. --Contributed by H. and 3 ft. Fig. too. 2. square piece. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. causing the door to swing back and up. fasten a 2-in. hole. Then. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. long. say. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. Take two glass tubes. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them.

Fig. from the edge on each side of these openings. 1 in. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. high and 12 in. Cut an opening in the other piece. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. 1. wide and 5 in. wide. say 8 in. plates. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. says Camera Craft. long. inside of the opening.by 5-in. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. to be used as a driving pulley.proper place to make a small hole. C. in size. Fig. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. A and B. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. 10 in. Jr. -Contributed by William M. Out two rectangular holes. . shorter. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. automobiles. 2. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. Chicago. horses and dogs. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. Paste a piece of strong black paper. being 1/8 in. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater.. in size. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. D. and go in the holder in the same way. shorter at each end. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. long. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. B. 3. black surfaced if possible. Take two pieces of pasteboard. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. This opening.by 7-in. trolley cars. as shown in Fig. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. but cut it 1/4 in. and exactly 5 by 7 in. camera and wish to use some 4. Crilly. wide. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used.

A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. if it has previously been magnetized. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. A cell of this kind can easily be made. into which the dog is harnessed. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles.. long and 6 in. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. making a . wide will be required. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon.in. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. The needle will then point north and south." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. in diameter.

when the paraffin is melted. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. in diameter and 6 in. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. of the plate at one end. 1 lb. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. in which P is the pan. and a notch between the base and the pan. says Electrician and Mechanic. This makes the wire smooth. 1/4 lb. Pack the paste in. under the spool in the paraffin. of water. F is a spool. sal ammoniac. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. only the joints. beeswax melted together. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. pull out the wire as needed. of the top.in. pine. 3/4 lb. . leaving about 1/2-in. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. long which are copper plated. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. File the rods to remove the copper plate. filter. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. Form a 1/2-in. A is a block of l-in. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. of rosin and 2 oz. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. with narrow flanges. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. fuel and packing purposes.watertight receptacle. for a connection. Place the pan on the stove. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. B is a base of 1 in. zinc oxide. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. one that will hold about 1 qt. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. Do not paint any surface. plaster of paris. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. short time. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. fodder. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only.

One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. Toledo. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. and therein is the trick. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. Try it and see. from vexation. as in the other movement." which created much merriment. g. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. Enlarge the hole slightly. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. 2. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. thus producing two different vibrations. while for others it will not revolve at all. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. and he finally. At least it is amusing.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. by the Hindoos in India. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. but the thing would not move at all. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. Ohio. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. long. If any of your audience presume to dispute. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. square and about 9 in. or think they can do the same. and one friend tells me that they were .. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. for some it will turn one way. and then. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. grip the stick firmly in one hand. for others the opposite way. let them try it. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body.

with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. rotation was obtained. m. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. A square stick with notches on edge is best. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. and. 6. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. 3. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. the rotation may be obtained. If the pressure was upon an edge. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. gave the best results. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. Thus a circular or . although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. by means of a center punch. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. 5. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. Speeds between 700 and 1. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. The experiments were as follows: 1. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face.100 r. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. 2. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. 7. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. secondly. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. 4. To operate. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. no rotation resulted. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. p. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. and I think the results may be of interest. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape.

while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). is proved by experiments 3 and 4. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. unwetted by the liquid. the upper portion is. Sloan. . a piece of wire and a candle. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. and the resultant "basket splash. --Contributed by M. A wire is tied around the can. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. as shown. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. --Contributed by G. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can.. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. or greasy.. if the pressure is from the left. it will be clockwise. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. Minn. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use.D. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. D. C. Lloyd. Washington. forming a handle for carrying. A. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. Duluth. is driven violently away. so far as can be seen from the photographs. at first. and the height of the fall about 6 in. G. Ph.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. as shown in Fig. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. in diameter. hole drilled in the center. thick and 1 in. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. as shown. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. Each wheel is 1/4 in. axle. about 2-5/8 in. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. flange and a 1/4-in. with a 1/16-in. long. 1. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin.

is made from brass. 3. are shown in Fig. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. 3/4 in. 3. A trolley. 6. long. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. and the locomotive is ready for running. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . Fig. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration.50. The first piece. wide and 16 in. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. The parts. 2. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. holes 1 in. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. If the ends are to be soldered. 1 from 1/4-in. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. of No. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. bent as shown. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. as shown in Fig. put together complete. 2. each in its proper place. Fuller. Fig. as shown in Fig. The motor is now bolted. wood. bottom side up. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. Texas. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. --Contributed by Maurice E. 4. or main part of the frame. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. which must be 110 volt alternating current.brass. These ends are fastened together. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. is made from a piece of clock spring. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. 5. The current. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. with cardboard 3 in. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. San Antonio. This will save buying a track. lamp in series with the coil. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles.

Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. as shown in Fig. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. 1. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. Cincinnati. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. 3. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. and holes drilled in them. as shown in Fig. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. 2. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. Fig 1. then continue to tighten much more. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. O. but do not heat the center. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. Fig. When cold treat the other end in the same way.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. The quarter will not go all the way down. the length of a paper clip. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. and as this end . Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief.

The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. or should the lathe head be raised. In the sketch. 2 and 1 respectively. When the trick is to be performed. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. and adjusted . The frame is made from a 1/2 in. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. A pair of centers are fitted.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. When the cutter A. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. or apparent security of the knot. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. has finished a cut for a tooth. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel.

) Make on paper the design wanted. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. twisted around itself and soldered. if but two parts. (4. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within).) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. When connecting to batteries. draw center lines across the required space. N. coin purse. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. holding it in place with the left hand.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. Fig. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. Brooklyn. tea cosey.) Place the paper design on the leather and. Bott. Y. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin.to run true. Second row: -Two book marks. gentleman's card case or bill book. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. watch fob ready for fastenings. --Contributed by Samuel C. dividing it into as many parts as desired. Fold over along these center lines. such as brass or marble. (6.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. The frame holding the mandrel. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. (2. at the same time striking light. An ordinary machine will do. and a nut pick. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. swing lathe. lady's card case. lady's belt bag. above the surface. (1. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. blotter back. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. about 1-1/2 in. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. 2. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. Bunker. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. book mark. if four parts are to be alike. --Contributed by Howard S. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. In this manner gears 3 in. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. tea cosey. 1. note book. (5. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. or one-half of the design. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . (3. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. trace the outline. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. long.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material.

some heavy rubber hose. Secure .How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. and an ordinary bottle.

. If the needle is not horizontal.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. and push it through a cork. A. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. and bore a hole through the center. The electrodes are made . B. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites.C. from Key West. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. C. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. into which fit a small piece of tube. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. where it condenses. Florida. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. D. a distance of 900 miles. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. Thrust a pin. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle.

beyond the rear edges of the main frames. Washington. --Contributed by Edwin L. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. as shown in Fig. by 3/4 in. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. and also to keep it steady in its flight. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. wide and 3 ft. use 10-ft. long. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. 1. wide and 4 ft. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. thick. as shown in Fig. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth.in. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. take the glider to the top of a hill. long. free from knots. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. lumber cannot be procured. All wiring is done with No. Connect as shown in the illustration. thick. lengths and splice them. 1/2. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. long for the body of the operator. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. 2. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. 2. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. several strips 1/2 in. 1-1/2 in. The operator can then land safely and . stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. or flying-machine. wide and 4 ft long. If 20-ft. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. apart and extend 1 ft. C. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. both laterally and longitudinally. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. as shown in Fig. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. 16 piano wire. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. 12 uprights 1/2 in. Four long beams 3/4 in. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. which is tacked to the front edge. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. 3. 2 arm sticks 1 in. To make a glide. 1. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. wide and 4 ft. thick. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. square and 8 ft long. thick. using a high resistance receiver. wide and 20 ft. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. 1-1/4 in. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. long. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. thick. long. D. 2 in. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. 3/4 in. wide and 3 ft. Powell. long. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. slacken speed and settle. 1. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other.

The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. Of course. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. but this must be found by experience. Glides are always made against the wind. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. Great care should be .gently on his feet. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes.

shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. When heated a little. 2. M. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. as shown in Fig.exercised in making landings. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. which causes the dip in the line. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. --Contributed by L. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. 1. Olson. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. a creature of Greek mythology. Bellingham. half man and half horse. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop.

a piece of brass or steel wire. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. 14 in. at the other.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. about the size of stove pipe wire. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. While at the drug store get 3 ft. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. square. long and about 3/8 in. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. in diameter. long. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. making it 2-1/2 in. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. The light from the . Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. this will cost about 15 cents. will complete the material list. about the size of door screen wire. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. of small rubber tubing. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. outside the box. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator.

while others will fail time after time. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. 1. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. . Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. Hunting. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. If done properly the card will flyaway.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. Dayton. This is very simple when you know how. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. as shown in the sketch. as shown in Fig. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. 2. M. --Photo by M. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. O. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. as shown in Fig.

Cool in water and dry. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen." or the Chinese students' favorite game. as described. closing both hands quickly. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. place the other two. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . When the desired shape has been obtained. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. as shown. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. hold the lump over the flame. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. This game is played by five persons. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. as before. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. If a certain color is to be more prominent. then put it on the hatpin head. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick.

Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. these sectors. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. distribute electric charges . using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. or more in width. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. passing through neutralizing brushes. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held.

and this should be done before cutting the circle. and of a uniform thickness. Fig. 1-1/2 in. at the other. in diameter. long and the standards 3 in. 1. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. the side pieces being 24 in. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. GG. and the outer end 11/2 in. free from wrinkles. long. Two pieces of 1-in. wide. EE. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. long and the shank 4 in. as shown in Fig. 3/4 in. and 4 in. and pins inserted and soldered. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. in diameter. The collectors are made. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. long. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. are made from solid. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. The plates. in diameter. The fork part is 6 in. brass tubing and the discharging rods. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. Fig. in diameter and 15 in. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. The two pieces. after they are mounted. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. The drive wheels. wide at one end. C C. 2. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. These pins. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. The plates are trued up. material 7 in. RR. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. 3. or teeth.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. D. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. Two solid glass rods. to which insulating handles . should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. are made from 7/8-in. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. as shown in Fig. in diameter. 1 in. in diameter. from about 1/4-in. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. 3. 4. in diameter. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. turned wood pieces.

long. KK. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. ball and the other one 3/4 in. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. 12 ft. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . Colorado City. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement.are attached. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. in diameter. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. D.. and the work was done by themselves. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. Lloyd Enos. Colo. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. --Contributed by C. one having a 2-in. which are bent as shown. wide and 22 ft.

using a 1-in. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. string together. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. bit. and bore a hole 1/2 in. pens . Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall.is a good one. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. as at A. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. yet such a thing can be done. The key will drop from the string. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. deep. They can be used to keep pins and needles. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up.

sharp division between background and design. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. they make attractive little pieces to have about. inside the first on all. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. then the other side. When the stamping is completed. 9. 6. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. 8. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. 23 gauge. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. extra metal on each of the four sides. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. or cigar ashes. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. very rapid progress can be made. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. 2. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. file. unless it would be the metal shears. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. above the metal. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. Use . Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. 4.. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined.. inside the second on all. and the third one 1/4 in. This is to make a clean. 5. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. The second oblong was 3/4 in. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. They are easily made.and pencils. 3. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. about 3/4-in. Having determined the size of the tray. flat and round-nosed pliers. Raise the ends. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. etc. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. Proceed as follows: 1. stamp the background promiscuously. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. Inside this oblong. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. Draw one-half the design free hand. slim screw. using a nail filed to chisel edge. etc. two spikes. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. also trace the decorative design. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. 7. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. above the work and striking it with the hammer.

and the effect will be most pleasing. and fourth fingers. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. 8. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . second fingers. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. third fingers. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. 9. 6. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. In the first numbering. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. 10. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. 7. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. The eyes. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. first fingers. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72.

2 times 2 equals 4. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. thumbs. etc. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. 25 times 25. Still. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. 11. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. renumber your fingers. Put your thumbs together. etc. above 15 times 15 it is 200. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing.. or the product of 6 times 6. first fingers. but being simple it saves time and trouble. there are no fingers above. In the second numbering. 400. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. or the product of 8 times 9. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. 12. etc. or 60. as high as you want to go. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. which would be 70. and the six lower fingers as six tens. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. the product of 12 times 12. . The addition of 100 is arbitrary. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. Let us multiply 12 by 12. 600. or 80. if we wish. At a glance you see four tens or 40.. which tens are added. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. above 20 times 20. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. which would be 16. viz. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. Two times one are two.. or numbers above 10.

This system can be carried as high as you want to go. The inversion and reversion did not take place. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. thumbs. It takes place also. forties. lastly. and. the inversion takes place against his will. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. or what. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. 3. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. in the case of a nearsighted person. 75 and 85. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. And the lump sum to add. whether the one described in second or third numbering. . 7. the value of the upper fingers being 20. the revolution seems to reverse. about a vertical axis. being 80). 21. 2. etc. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. as one might suppose. further. the lump sum to add. adding 400 instead of 100. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. and so on. Proceed as in the second lumbering. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. at the will of the observer. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. thirties. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. first finger 17. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. Take For example 18 times 18. when he removes his spectacles. not rotation. first fingers 22. any two figures between 45 and 55. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. For example. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. but was compulsory and followed regular rules.. or from above or from below. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. twenties. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. beginning the thumbs with 16. 8.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. For figures ending in 6. which is the half-way point between the two fives. the value which the upper fingers have. however.

The ports were not easy to make. tee. A flat slide valve was used. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. as . sometimes the point towards him. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. the other appearance asserts itself. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. when he knows which direction is right. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. and putting a cork on the point. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. Looking at it in semidarkness.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls.

and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. pipe. Springfield. If nothing better is at hand. H. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. saw off a section of a broom handle. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. While this engine does not give much power. such as is shown in the illustration. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. pipe 10 in.. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. -Contributed by W. deep. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. Kutscher. Ill. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. Next take a block of wood. as in a vise. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. The eccentric is constructed of washers. The tools are simple and can be made easily. . These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. across and 1/2 in. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. The steam chest is round. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. Fasten the block solidly. apart. across the head. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. inexpensive. it is easily built. about 2 in. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. in diameter. and make in one end a hollow. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. Beating copper tends to harden it and. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. if continued too long without proper treatment. secure a piece of No. bottom side up. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in.

as it softens the metal. Vinegar. S. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. O. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. This process is called annealing. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. and. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil.will cause the metal to break. To overcome this hardness. To produce color effects on copper. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. Camden. especially when the object is near to the observer. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. C. the other to the left. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. Hay. --Contributed by W. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat.

Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced.stereoscope. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. the further from the card will the composite image appear. orange. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. The further apart the pictures are. because. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. It is just as though they were not there." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. although they pass through the screen. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. and lies to the right on the picture. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. would serve the same purpose. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. that for the right. and without any picture. the left eye sees through a blue screen. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. with the stereograph. only the orange rays may pass through. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. diameter. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. they must be a very trifle apart. as for instance red and green. while both eyes together see a white background. the one for the left eye being blue. however. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. In order to make them appear before the card. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. . Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. The red portions of the picture are not seen. it. disappears fully. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. not two mounted side by side. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. So with the stereograph. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. But they seem black. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. from the stereograph. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. in the proper choice of colors. because of the rays coming from them. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye.

How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. Cal. thick. in diameter. Place a NO. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. long and a hole drilled in each end. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. The weight of the air in round . etc. in the shape of a crank. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. San Francisco. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. 12 gauge wire. A No. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. This should only be bored about half way through the block.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. or the middle of the bottle. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. wireless. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. wide and 1 in. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. 1/4 in. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke.

so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. square. pine 3 in. high. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. long. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. square. and a slow fall. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. wide and 40 in. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. high. 34 ft. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. . have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. if you choose. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. will calibrate itself. the contrary. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. 30 in.. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. or a column of mercury (density 13.numbers is 15 lb. or. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. The 4 in. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. a bottle 1 in. long. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. internal diameter and about 34 in. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. wide and 4 in. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. high. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. Before fastening the scale. but before attempting to put in the mercury. But if a standard barometer is not available. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. the instrument.6) 1 in. In general. thick. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. long. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. inside diameter and 2 in. a glass tube 1/8 in. if accurately constructed. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. Only redistilled mercury should be used. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in.

3. the size of the outside of the bottle. Number the pieces 1. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. Mark out seven 1-in. Procure a metal can cover. 1. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. wide and 10 in. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. long. thick. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. a cover from a baking powder can will do. 2. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. 6 and 7.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. 5. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . and place them as shown in Fig. which is slipped quickly over the end. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed.

l over No. 3 to the center. long and 2 ft. Cape May Point. Move 6-Move No. N. Move 13-Move No.J. To make such a tent. 5's place. L. 6 in. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. which is the very best material for the purpose. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. 2. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. 2 over No. Woolson. Move 2-Jump No. 6 into No. 3. 3. 6 to No. 3 over No. 5's place. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. 2. each 10 ft. in diameter. 2's place. as shown in Fig. Move 9-Jump No. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. 3. 1. 3 into No. 1 to No. Move ll-Jump No. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. 2 over No. shaped like Fig.-Contributed by W. 1. Move 15-Move No. 7. procure unbleached tent duck. 5. 7's place. 7 over No. Move 4-Jump No. 6 over No. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. 7 over No. Move 8-Jump No. 1 into No. 2 . 6. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. Make 22 sections. Move 14-Jump No. Move 5-Jump No. Move 12-Jump No.Position of the Men move only one at a time. using checkers for men. Move 10-Move No. Move 3-Move No. 5 over No. This can be done on a checker board. Move 7-Jump No. 2's place. 6. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. 5 over No.

Fig. from the top. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. Have the tent pole 3 in. wide at the bottom. 9 by 12 in. wide by 12 in. wide at the bottom. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. 2 in. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. Fig. round galvanized iron. high. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. as in Fig. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised.in. added. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. to a smooth board of soft wood. made in two sections. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. Tress. long.J. As shown in the sketch. will do. In raising the tent. Nail a thin sheet of brass. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. Use blocks. Pa. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. After transferring the design to the brass. 3 in. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. These are ventilators. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. diameter. about 9 in. 6. leaving the rest for an opening. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. long and 4 in. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. 6-in. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. Punch holes in the brass in . 5. in diameter. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. Emsworth. --Contributed by G. 5) stuck in the ground. fill with canvas edging.. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. 2. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing.

then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. Corr. When the edges are brought together by bending. cut out the brass on the outside lines. It will not. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. apart. The pattern is traced as before. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. but before punching the holes. . the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. Chicago.the spaces around the outlined figures. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. bend into shape. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. around the outside of the pattern. When all the holes are punched. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. excepting the 1/4-in. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder.

better still. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. or center on which the frame swings. --Contributed by H. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. Badger.however. or less. or. Mayger. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. Dunham. E. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. Oregon. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making.. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. Que. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. These pipes are . The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. G. pipe is used for the hub. allowing 2 ft. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. between which is placed the fruit jar. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. A cast-iron ring. --Contributed by Geo. pipe. If a wheel is selected. Stevens. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. partially filled with cream. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. A 6-in.

pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. pipe. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . pipe clamps. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. bent to the desired circle. Four braces made from 1/2-in. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. An extra wheel 18 in. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse.

A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. as shown in Fig. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. 1. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. The performer. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. while doing this. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. 3. and dropped on the table. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. and the guide withdrawn.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. which was placed in an upright position. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes.

the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. Mo. in diameter on another piece of tin. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. 1. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. in a half circle. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. -Contributed by C. it requires no expensive condensing lens. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. and second. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. first. Harkins. Denver. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. --Contributed by H.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. D. St. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. Louis. White. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. F. 2. The box can be made of selected oak or . Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. Colo.

This will be 3/4 in. wide. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. 1. 5-1/2 in. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. represented by the dotted line in Fig. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. long and should be placed vertically. wide and 6-1/2 in. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. wide by 5 in. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. AA. The door covering this hole in the back. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. long. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. as shown in Fig. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. long. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. and 2 in. If a camera lens is used. 3-1/2 in. from each end of the outside of the box. focal length. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in.mahogany. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. from each end. wide and 6-1/2 in. Two or three holes about 1 in. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. An open space 4 in. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. 2. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. wide and 5 in. high and 11 in. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. fit into the runners. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. but not tight. and. high and must . The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig.

as it requires an airtight case. the article may be propped up . but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps." etc. and extending the whole height of the lantern. and so on. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. C. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. April. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. Ohio. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. Bradley. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. June and November. --Contributed by Chas. provided it is airtight.. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. then the second knuckle will be March. West Toledo. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. This process is rather a difficult one. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. calling this February. 1. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. calling that knuckle January. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture.

but waxed. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. or suspended by a string. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. Y. Crawford. taking care to have all the edges closed. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. The top of a table will do. Schenectady. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. 1. in. . in. --Contributed by J. In both Fig. the lid or cover closed. giving it an occasional stir. 1 and 2. one of lead and one of aluminum. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. 2. and set aside for half a day.with small sticks. running small motors and lighting small lamps. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. N. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. H. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. fruit jars are required. and the lead 24 sq. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. In each place two electrodes. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. Pour in a little turpentine. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries.

This trick is very simple..A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. You have an understanding with some one in the company. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. O. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. After a few seconds' time. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . which you warm with your hands. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. as well as others. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. He. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. Cleveland. he throws the other. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. you remove the glass. as you have held it all the time.

How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. but by being careful at shores. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. if any snags are encountered. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. Crocker. on a table. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. Be sure that this is the right one. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. near a partition or curtain. J. Colo. Victor. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole.-Contributed by E. but in making one. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. in diameter in the center. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. put it under the glass. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint.take the handiest one. Pull the ends quickly. . wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief.

3 in. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. 11 yd. 9 ft. from the stern. by 8 in. the smaller is placed 3 ft. long. 4 outwales. by 16 ft. 3 and 4. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . 3 in. are as follows: 1 keelson. for the stern piece. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. square by 16 ft. selected pine. for the bow. wide and 12 ft. as illustrated in the engraving. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. for center deck braces. and is removed after the ribs are in place. by 15 ft. ducking. one 6 in. 1/8 in. 1/4 in. wide 12-oz. 8 in. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. 1. 50 ft. 14 rib bands. long.. 8 yd. is 14 ft. Fig. by 10 ft. 2 in. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. 1 mast. The keelson. 1 piece. thick and 3/4 in. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. screws and cleats. and. apart. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. wide unbleached muslin. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. from the bow and the large one. and the other 12 in. at the ends. by 12 in. 1 in. of 1-1/2-yd. and fastened with screws. Both ends are mortised. 2 and braced with an iron band. 2 gunwales. 1 in. by 2 in. 7 ft. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. by 16 ft. wide. for cockpit frame. wide and 12 ft.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. Paint. 1 piece. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. 1 in. drilled and fastened with screws. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. clear pine. of 1-yd. by 2 in.. 1 in. long. long. from each end to 1 in. of rope. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown.

wide and 24 in. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. a piece 1/4 in. long is well soaked in water. and fastened to them with bolts. wood screws. These are put in 6 in. thick and 12 in. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. Figs. screws. 1 in. also. thick. 1 in. from the bow. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. doubled. 6 in. A 6-in. thick 1-1/2 in. 6 and 7. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. Before making the deck. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. They are 1 in. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. wide. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. wide and 3 ft. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. long. wide. thick and 1/2 in. 3-1/2 ft. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. is cut to fit under the top boards. 9. The block is fastened to the keelson.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. 7 and 8. Braces. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. The trimming is wood. long. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. length of canvas is cut in the center. wide and 14 in. A seam should be made along the center piece. thick. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. 4 in. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. This block. A piece of oak. corner braces. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. long. 6. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. The 11-yd. in diameter through the block. 1/4 in. . Fig. gunwales and keelson. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. A block of pine. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. The deck is not so hard to do. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. Fig. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. apart. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. is a cube having sides 6 in. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. 5.

With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. The house will accommodate 20 families. 12. E. in diameter and 10 ft. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. --Contributed by O. Tronnes. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. The keel. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. The mast has two side and one front stay. A strip 1 in. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. 11. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. wide. The sail is a triangle. apart in the muslin. wide at one end and 12 in. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. 10 with a movable handle. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. are used for the boom and gaff. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. Wilmette. each 1 in. at the other. Fig. thick by 2 in. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. Ill. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. is 6 in. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. long.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. long. .

thick. 2-1/2 in. and the other 18 in. Bevel both sides of the pieces. wide and 2 ft. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. 2-1/2 in. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. Cut the maple. long. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. 3. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. 4. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one.into two 14-in. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. flat headed screws. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. 5. wide and 30 in. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. 1 yd. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. about 5/16 in. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. E. Fig. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. five 1/2-in. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. as shown in Fig. Take this and fold it over . 2. flat-headed screws. long. square. --Contributed by O. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. 2 in. Ill. 1. and 3 ft. wide. long and five 1/2-in. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. long. one 11-1/2 in. thick. wide. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. Tronnes. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. Wilmette. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. with the ends and the other side rounding. thick. flat on one side.

about 3/8 in. A. 3/8 in. B. thick. --Contributed by W. long. wide and 3 ft. The bag is then turned inside out. are rounded. long. the mechanical parts can be put together. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. 3-1/4 in. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. square. 6-1/2 in. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. forming an eye for a screw. thick and 3 in. square. Wind three layers of about No. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. wide and 4-1/2 in. Make a double stitch all around the edge. Figs. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. thick. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. long. 1. the top and bottom. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. wide and 5 in. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. then centered. 1-1/4 in. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. The front. The sides are 3-1/4 in. this square box is well sandpapered. A. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. of each end unwound for connections. wide and 6-1/2 in. About 1/2 in. F. 5 from 1/16-in. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. 3 in. Fig. soaked with water and blown up. Cut another piece of board. leaving a small opening at one corner. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. but can be governed by circumstances. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. C. pieces 2-5/8 in. as well as the edges around the opening. long. E. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. St. C. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. and the four outside edges. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. If carefully and neatly made.once. long. wide and 2-1/2 in. long. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. wide and 6-3/4 in. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. long. Mo. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. D. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. Glue a three cornered piece. Louis. and make a turn in each end of the wires. Another piece. and take care that the pieces are all square. When the glue is set. After the glue. long. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. 2 and 3. is set. wide . Bliss. wide and 2-3/4 in. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in.

level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . F. from one end. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. so it will just clear the tin. Place the tin. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. and as the part Fig. the same size as the first. The resistance is now adjusted to show . The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. 1/16 in. 4. 4. --Contributed by George Heimroth. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. Like poles repel each other. A pointer 12 in. and fasten in place.and 2-5/8 in. The stronger the current. that has the end turned with a shoulder. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes.R. hole is fastened to the pointer. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. 5-1/2 in. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. 1/4 in. R. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. long. wide and 9 in. thick. Fig. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. The end of the polar axis B. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. G. When the current flows through the coil. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. C.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. 5. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. The base is a board 5 in. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. and the farther apart they will be forced. the part carrying the pointer moves away. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. These wires should be about 1 in. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle.S. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. long. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. Austwick Hall.A. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. Chapman. showing a greater defection of the pointer. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. long. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. Fig. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. Yorkshire. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. W. I. wide and 2-1/2 in. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. 4 is not movable. Richmond Hill. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. bored in the back. board. Another strip of tin. L. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. in diameter. from the spindle.

and vice . M. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. A. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. at 9 hr. shows mean siderial. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. 1881. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. The following formula will show how this may be found. 10 min. thus: 9 hr. 30 min. 10 min. say Venus at the date of observation.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line.

How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. owing to the low internal resistance. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. . The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. and then verify its correctness by measurement. --Contributed by Robert W. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. New Haven. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. Conn. Hall.f. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. if one of these cannot be had. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. or.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. get a glazed vessel of similar construction.m.

Then. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. long. leaves or bark. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. of alum and 4 oz. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. fresh grass. When the follower is screwed down. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. Wet paper will answer. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. cover up with the same. arsenic to every 20 lb. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. 1. The boring bar. inside diameter and about 5 in. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. and heap the glowing coals on top. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. as shown in the accompanying picture. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. especially for cooking fish. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. 1-3/4 in. Fig. 3/8 in. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . put the fish among the ashes. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. thick.

when they were turned in. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. fastened with a pin.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. and threaded on both ends. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. thick. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. about 1/2 in. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. pipe. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. pipe. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in.

The rough frame. 4. the float is too high. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. 5. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. thick and 3 in. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. and which gave such satisfactory results. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. A 1-in. wide. a jump spark would be much better. however. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. Fig. 3. bent in the shape of a U. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. long. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. It . A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. Fig. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. Fig. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. then it should be ground to a fit. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. as the one illustrated herewith. Iowa. but never one which required so little material. Clermont. was then finished on an emery wheel. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. 2. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. If the valve keeps dripping. labor and time. This plate also supports the rocker arms. 30 in.valve stems. square iron.

This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. It looks like a toy. 12 ft. long. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. long is the pivot. in fact. long. W. As there is no bracing. 3/4 in. and a little junk. with no trees or buildings in the way. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. If it is to be used for adults. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. hole bored in the post. butting against short stakes. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. from the center. --Contributed by C. no matter what your age or size may be. in the ground with 8 ft. The crosspiece is 2 in. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. square and 2 ft. from all over the neighborhood. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . for the "motive power" to grasp. A 3/4 -in. strong clear material only should be employed." little and big. completes the merry-go-round. being held in position by spikes as shown. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. square. timber. in diameter and 15 in. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. Use a heavy washer at the head. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. Nieman. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. and. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. The illustration largely explains itself. square and 5 ft. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. set 3 ft. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. so it must be strong enough. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. extending above. This makes an easy adjustment. strengthened by a piece 4 in. rope is not too heavy. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. long. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. A malleable iron bolt. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. The seats are regular swing boards.

This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. A reel is next made. light and strong.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. The bow is now bent. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. if nothing better is at hand. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. These ends are placed about 14 in. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. Both have large reels full of . The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. 1. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. square. as shown in Fig. 4. and 18 in. The backbone is flat. 1/4 by 3/32 in. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. 2. To wind the string upon the reel. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. Having placed the backbone in position. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line.2 emery. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. one for the backbone and one for the bow. then it is securely fastened. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle.the fingers. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. away. and sent to earth. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. a wreck. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. long. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig.

Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle.-Contributed by S. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. common packing thread. The handle end is held down with a staple. Newburyport. Moody. the balance. or glass-covered string. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. First. Bunker. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. often several hundred yards of it. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. C. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. Brooklyn. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. If the second kite is close enough. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. Y. --Contributed' by Harry S.string. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. Mass. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. N. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. he pays out a large amount of string.

each the size of half the table top. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. then a dust protector. Vt. such as mill men use. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. If the table is round. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. square (Fig. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. cutting the circular piece into quarters. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. make the pad as shown in the illustration. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . --Contributed by Earl R. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. must be attached to a 3-ft. lengths (Fig. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. Corinth. then draw the string up tight. length of 2-in. Hastings. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine.

non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. 17-1/2 in. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. Oakland. Use a smooth. 2-1/4 in.. Make the other half circular disk in the same way..-Contributed by H. and E to G. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. G to H. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. Moisten the . How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. trace the design carefully on the leather. . trace this or some other appropriate design on it.9-1/4 in. from C to D. hard pencil. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. E. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. Calif. which spoils the leather effect. from E to F.. Wharton. 6-1/4 in. 16-1/4 in.

lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. if not more than 1 in. and lace through the holes. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. apart. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. H-B. about 1/8 in. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. Cut it the same size as the bag. also lines A-G. Trace the openings for the handles. and E-G. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. place both together and with a leather punch. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. G-J. To complete the bag. with the rounded sides of the tools. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. get something with which to make a lining. I made this motor .leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. is taken off at a time. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. and corresponding lines on the other side. Now cut narrow thongs. wide.

which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. long. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. --Contributed by J. 2-1/4 in. Shannon. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. 1. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. 24 gauge magnet wire. iron. in length. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. Calif. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. 2. B. as shown in Fig. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. D. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. 1. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws.M. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. Pasadena. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. of No. . each being a half circle. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth.

This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. pasted in alternately. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. near the center. 1.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. The gores for a 6-ft. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. high. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. are the best kind to make. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. and the gores cut from these. from the bottom end. balloon should be about 8 ft.

Fig. After washing. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . in diameter. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. leaving the solution on over night. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. These are to hold the wick ball. 5. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. somewhat larger in size. 4. 2. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. saturating it thoroughly. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. The steam. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. In removing grease from wood. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. 1. B. In starting the balloon on its flight. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. leaving a long wake behind. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. As the boat is driven forward by this force. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. E. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. The boat soon attains considerable speed. after which the paint will adhere permanently. --Contributed by R. using about 1/2-in. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon.widest point. coming through the small pipe A. lap on the edges. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. If the gores have been put together right. so it will hang as shown in Fig. A. 3. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. Staunton.

The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. as is shown in Fig. wide by 6 in. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. apart on these lines. long. There are three ways of doing this: First. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. long and each provided with a handle. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. In using either of the two methods described. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . if you have several copies of the photograph. Second. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. in bowling form. high and 8 in. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. Third. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. The blocks are about 6 in. 1. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print.

Hellwig. not pointed down at the road at an angle. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. --Contributed by John A. Fig. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. Albany. 2. Rinse the plate in cold water. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured.Fig. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. thick. Y. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. being careful not to dent the metal. N.

and. A. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. 6 in. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. These corner irons are also screwed to. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. --Contributed by R. in diameter. are screwed to the circular piece. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. With this device. thick. wide and 8 in. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. CC. and Fig. wide and of any desired height.upon any particular object. with a set screw. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. which is 4 in. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . through which passes the set screw S. S. A. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. Corner irons. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. is fastened to a common camera tripod. A circular piece of wood. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. and not produce the right sound. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. Paine. 5 in. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. 2 the front view. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. In Fig. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. B. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. 1 Fig. Break off the frame. Richmond. Va. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. long for the base. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith.

. -1. I made a wheel 26 in. thus producing sound waves. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. R. in diameter of some 1-in.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. Kidder. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. S. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. This will make a very compact electric horn. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. This horn.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. Ill. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. Lake Preston. D. La Salle. pine boards. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. as only the can is visible. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on.

1. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. The frame is made of a heavy card. 2. --Contributed by C. --Contributed by James R. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . square. Fig. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. If there is a large collection of coins. Doylestown. O. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. the same thickness as the coins. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. A. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. Feet may be added to the base if desired. If the collection consists of only a few coins. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. 1. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. B. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. Purdy. Ghent.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. thick and 12 in. Kane. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose.

Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. and then glued together as indicated. --Contributed by August T. If desired. A lead pencil. --Contributed by J. several large nails. Neyer. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide.E. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. a hammer or mallet. for after the slides have been shown a few times. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. cut and grooved. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. melted and applied with a brush. plus a 3/8-in. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. Canada. border all around. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. The more coats applied the darker the color will be.J. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. Cal. though not absolutely necessary. One Cloud. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. Milwaukee. The material required is a sheet of No. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. they become uninteresting. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. Smith. Toronto. --Contributed by R. Wis. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. Noble. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. thick. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. of developer. It will hold 4 oz. into which to place the screws . A rivet punch is desirable. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much.

The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. There are several ways of working up the design. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. draw one part. like the one shown. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. Remove the screws. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. and file it to a chisel edge. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. both outline and decoration. Take the nail. never upon the metal directly. using 1/2-in. screws placed about 1 in. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block.

The pedal. for the top. each 1 in. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. Provide four lengths for the legs. 2. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. and two lengths. About 1/2 yd. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. l-1/8 in. long. square and 181/2 in. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. up from the lower end. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. two lengths. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. Rivet the band to the holder. 3/4 in. long. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. of 11-in. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. for the lower rails. . Do not bend it over or flatten it. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. in the other. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail.wall. 1. being ball bearing. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. long. square and 11 in. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. as shown in Fig. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. using a 1/2in. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. square. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. 3. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor.

--Contributed by W. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. --Contributed by John Shahan. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. New York City. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . F. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. Attalla. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. having quite a length of threads.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. Ala. Quackenbush. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size.

college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. Mich. college or lodge colors.. and two holes in the other. initial. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. D. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. from the end. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. in depth. using class. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . long. wide and 8-1/4 in. Two pieces of felt. stitched on both edges for appearance. the end of the other piece is folded over. Ironwood. Assemble as shown in the sketch. long. --Contributed by C. wide and 4-1/4 in. The desired emblem. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. Purchase a 1/2-in. making a lap of about 1 in. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. and 3/8 in.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. long. something that is carbonated. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. from one end. Luther. one about 1 in. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. each 1-1/4 in. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. and the other 2-3/4 in.

is cut in the shape shown in Fig. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. This method allows a wide range of designs. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. as shown in the sketch.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. --Contributed by John H. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. which can be procured from a plumber. A piece of lead. in the cover and the bottom. 2. from the center and opposite each other. Ind. 1. Schatz. 1/4 in. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. Fig. about 2 in. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. or more in height. if desired by the operator. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. in diameter and 2 in. Indianapolis. or a pasteboard box. as shown at B. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . and the cork will be driven out. Punch two holes A. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé.

made of paper strips pasted on the tin. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. putting in the design. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. metal. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. allowing the two ends to be free. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. Columbus. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. 1. The pieces of tin between the holes A. A piece of thick glass. so that it will indent without cutting the leather.Rolling Can Toy lead. and the ends of the bands looped over them. or marble will serve. 3. as shown in Fig. O. are turned up as in Fig. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. Fig. 4. . 5. When the can is rolled away from you. it winds up the rubber band. on both top and bottom. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it.

A pencil may be used the first time over. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. 1 in. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. 3 in. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . hole through it. or more thick on each side. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. and. I secured a board 3/4 in. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. If it is desired to "line" the inside. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. long and bored a 1/2-in. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. thicker than the pinion. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. wide and 20 in. deep in its face.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. thick. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. The edges should be about 1/8 in. from each end. New York City. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. face up. After this has been done. Next place the leather on the glass. mark over the design. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute.

1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. 3 by 3 by 20 in. Brooklyn. 1 piece for clamp. in diameter. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. 2 by 2 by 18 in. 3 by 3 by 6 in. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. countersinking the heads of the vise end. and fit it in place for the side vise. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. thick top board. lag screws as shown. pieces for the vise slides. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. 1 by 9 by 80 in. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. 1 piece for clamp. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. Make the lower frame first. 2 by 12 by 77 in. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. 1 top board. New York. 2 side rails. Rice. 1 back board. 2 crosspieces. Y. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. M.in the board into the bench top. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. Cut the 2-in. 1 screw block. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. Syracuse. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. N. much of the hard labor will be saved. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. 1. 4 guides. 2. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. Fig. 1 piece. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. Now fit up the two clamps. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. 3 by 3 by 36. 1 top board. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. 1 by 12 by 77 in. --Contributed by A. 2 end rails.

2 screwdrivers.screws. 1 countersink. 1 pair dividers. 1 compass saw. They can be purchased at a hardware store. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. If each tool is kept in a certain place.. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in.. 1 pair pliers. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. in diameter. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. 24 in. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. The bench is now complete. 1 jack plane or smoother. The amateur workman. 1 bench plane or jointer. 3 and 6 in. 24 in. 1 pocket level. 1 nail set. Only the long run. . This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. it can be easily found when wanted. 1 claw hammer.. 1 cross cut saw. rule. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. as well as the pattern maker. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. 1 2-ft. 1 marking gauge. 1 set chisels. 1 set gimlets. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. 1 wood scraper. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. 1 rip saw. 1 monkey wrench. 1 brace and set of bits.

How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. after constant use. 3. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. ---Contributed by James M. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. 2 and 00 sandpaper. Fig. Doylestown. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. becomes like A. Fig. No.1.1 6-in. 1 oilstone. will sink into the handle as shown at D. Fig. Kane. being softer. try square. but will not make . Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. 2. 1. Pa. the projecting point A. will be easier to work. Fig. 1. The calf skin. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C.

It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. Having prepared the two sides. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. water or heat will not affect. secure a piece of modeling calf. such as copper or brass. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. . Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. but a V-shaped nut pick. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. If cow hide is preferred. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. and the length 6-5/8 in. will do just as well. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. -Contributed by Julia A. then prepare the leather. lay the design on the face. Two pieces will be required of this size. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. First draw the design on paper. The form can be made of a stick of wood. Turn the leather. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. New York City. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. After the outlines are traced. If calf skin is to be used. cover it completely with water enamel and.as rigid a case as the cow skin. the same method of treatment is used. White. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. which steam. when dry.

it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. A. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. Richmond. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. --Contributed by Chester L. and an adjustable friction-held loop. Portland. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. Herrman. Cobb. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. --Contributed by W. --Contributed by Chas. Jaquythe. C. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. Maine. as shown in the sketch. . New York City.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. Cal.

Conn. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. an inverted stewpan. --Contributed by Geo. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. Roberts. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg.. Middletown. A thick piece of tin. Wright. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. Mass. B. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. for instance. This was very difficult. Cambridge. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. --Contributed by Wm. . was marked out as shown. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface.

and the grease will disappear. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. well calcined and powdered. used as part of furniture. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. but only an odor which soon vanished. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. Herbert.. face down. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. Chicago. Illinois. Bone. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. as shown. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. on a clear piece of glass. There was no quicklime to be had. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. F. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. which has been tried out several times with success. and quite new. When dry. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. --Contributed by C. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. of boiling water. but not running over. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. Ind. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. apply powdered calcined magnesia. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. A beautifully bound book. so some bones were quickly calcined. L. --Contributed by Paul Keller. If the article is highly polished. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. If any traces of the grease are left. . Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. such as chair seats. Indianapolis. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. The next morning there was no trace of oil. pulverized and applied.

Tarrytown.. wide and 12 in. says Scientific American. 2 in. This coaster is simple and easy to make. set and thumbscrews. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. the pieces .Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. thick. --Contributed by Geo. soft steel with the opening 6 in. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. high and are bolted to a block of wood. A. long.. Howe. 6 in. If properly adjusted. deep and 5 in. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. New York. The pieces marked S are single. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in.

which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. they will look remarkably uniform. The seat is a board. Their size depends on the plate used. albums and the like. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . for sending to friends. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. A sharp knife. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. to the underside of which is a block. If the letters are all cut the same height. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. E. says Camera Craft. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. no doubt.

A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. and. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. for example. In cutting out an 0. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. So arranged. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. after. The puzzle is to get . The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. pasting the prints on some thin card. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. using care to get it in the right position. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. photographing them down to the desired size. mount them on short pieces of corks. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. So made. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before.

when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. says the American Thresherman. of its top. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . He smells the bait. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. A hole 6 or 7 in. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. Old-Time Magic . jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. snow or anything to hide it. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. long that will just fit are set in. hung on pivots. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. so they will lie horizontal. with the longest end outside. Bayley. Cape May Point. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in.J. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. squeezes along past the center of the tube. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals.-Contributed by I. G. N. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes.

--Contributed by L. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. Szerlip. Pocatello. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. or rub the hands a little before doing so. Pawtucket. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. --Contributed by L.faced up. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. then expose again. Idaho. Y. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. Parker. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . Press the hands together. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. N. then spread the string. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. --Contributed by Charles Graham. Brooklyn. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. Rhode Island. E.

The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. whether he requires a single sword only. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. 4 on the blade. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. or a complete suit of armor. and if carefully made. end of the blade. says the English Mechanic. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. full size. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. narrower.Genuine antique swords and armor.. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. thick. When the glue is thoroughly dry. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. near the point end. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. wide and 2 in. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. 3 Fig. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. wipe the blade . put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. or green oil paint. using a straightedge and a pencil. 1. if any. they will look very much like the genuine article. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. in width. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. 1 Fig. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. long. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. 2 Fig. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. in building up his work from the illustrations. Glue the other side of the blade. When the whole is quite dry. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands.. The handle is next made. dark red. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. The blade should be about 27 in. The pieces.

4. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. as it is . In making. 1. 2. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. In making this scimitar. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. In the finished piece. long. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle.. 1. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. 3. 1/8 in. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. of course. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. 3. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. about 1-1/2 in. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig.with light strokes up and down several times. allowing for a good hold with both hands. square and of any length desired. 1. should be about 9 in. in the widest part at the lower end. the other is flat or half-round. the other is flat or halfround. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. follow the directions as for Fig. The length of the handle. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. shows only two sides. This sword is about 68 in. thick and 5 in. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. in diameter. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. the other two are identical. and 3 in. take two pieces of wood. preferably of contrasting colors.. the length of the blade 28 in. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. not for use only in cases of tableaux. the illustration. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. 1. Fig. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. 2. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. Both edges of the blade are sharp. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig.

Both can be made easily. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. piping and jackets by hard water. Syracuse. It is made of a plank. and if so. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. --Contributed by Katharine D. each about 1 ft. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. N. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. Franklin. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. Y. A piece of mild steel. The thinness of the plank. square. in an attempt to remove it. as can the pitch bed or block. A cold . Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. Doctors probed for the button without success. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. On each edge of the board. Mass. or an insecure fastening. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. and. as there was some at hand. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. --Contributed by John Blake. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. at the lower end. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. 2 in. Morse. about 3/8 in.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. long. as shown in the sketch. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. however.

5 lb. When the desired form has been obtained. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. plaster of Paris. 18 gauge. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow.. tallow. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. design down. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. 5 lb. secure a piece of brass of about No. To put it in another way. using a small metal saw. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. Trim up the edges and file them . The metal will probably be warped somewhat. on the pitch. a file to reduce the ends to shape. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. When this has been done.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length.. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. To remedy this.

Fig. or 550 ft. and still revolve. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. Clean the metal thoroughly. in one minute or 550 lb. to keep it from floating. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. 1 ft. in diameter (Fig. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. lb.smooth. and hang a bird swing. That is lifting 33. 30 ft.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower.000 lb. in the center. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. but not to stop it. space between the vessels with water. make an unusual show window attraction. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. in one second. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. per second. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. living together in what seems like one receptacle. or fraction of a horsepower.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. The smaller is placed within the larger. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. Cutter. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. A. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright.000 ft. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. 3. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. one 18 in. This in turn divided by 33. 1) and the other 12 in. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. Before giving the description. in diameter (Fig. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. per minute. Fill the 3-in. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. using powdered pumice with lye. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. 1 ft. --Contributed by Harold H. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. lb. 2). A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. it may be well to know what horsepower means. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. over the smaller vessel. .

To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. Y. Somerville. Mass. by L. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. Diameter 12 in. F. N.3 Fig.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. Diameter Fig. or on a pedestal. Brooklyn. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . --Contributed. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. --Contributed by J.18 in. The effect is surprising. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. Campbell. Szerlip. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes.

and cut out the shape with the shears. This compound is impervious to water. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. unsatisfactory. and then. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. keeping the center high. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. which may be of wood or tin. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. after which it is ready for use. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. Do not be content merely to bend them over. Rivet the cup to the base. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. is. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. and the clay . the same as removing writing from a slate. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. In riveting. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. then by drawing a straightedge over it. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. with other defects. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. away from the edge.copper of No. to keep the metal from tarnishing. often render it useless after a few months service. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. using any of the common metal polishes. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. Polish both of these pieces. with the pliers. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. as a rule. which. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed.

the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. It is made of a glass tube. The siphon is made of glass tubes. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. Mich. the device will work for an indefinite time. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. Mich. 1. Grand Rapids. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. --Contributed by A. Northville. DeLoof. . A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. long. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. Houghton. --Contributed by John T. Shettleston. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. in diameter and 5 in.can be pressed back and leveled. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. 2. -Contributed by Thos. Scotland. 3/4 in. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. Dunlop. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. as shown in Fig. A.

1 FIG. stilettos and battle-axes. 1. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. put up as ornaments. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. This sword is 4 ft. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. long with the crossguard and blade of steel. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. London. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade.FIG. As the handle is to . allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. in width and 2 in. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. long.

with wire or string' bound handle. 11 were used. string. paint it a dark brown or black. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. The lower half of the handle is of wood. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. sometimes called cuirass breakers.represent copper. narrower. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. in length. studded with brass or steel nails. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. very broad. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. sharp edges on both sides. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. When the glue is thoroughly dry. wood with a keyhole saw. In Fig. glue and put it in place. 9. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. A German poniard is shown in Fig. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. The sword shown in Fig. the axe is of steel. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. then glued on the blade as shown. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. one about 1/2 in. The crossbar and blade are steel. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. 20 spike. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. In Fig. long. with both edges of the blade sharp. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. 4. 5. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. 7. with both edges sharp. A German stiletto. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. 3 is shown a claymore. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. In Fig. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. This stiletto has a wood handle. The handle is of wood. in length. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. 8. This weapon is also about 1 ft. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. small rope and round-headed nails. the same as used on the end of the handle. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. Both handle and axe are of steel. Cut two strips of tinfoil. is shown in Fig. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. This axe is made similar to the one . 6. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. firmly glued on. When dry. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. The ball is made as described in Fig. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. Three large. the upper part iron or steel. long with a dark handle of wood. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. which is about 2-1/2 ft. These must be cut from pieces of wood. This weapon is about 1 ft. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. This sword is about 4 ft. in width. When the whole is quite dry.

When wrapped all the way around. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. . the ends are tied and cut off. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. so the contents cannot be seen. W. Chicago. such as braided fishline. 10. will pull where other belts slip. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. This will make a very good flexible belt. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. together as shown in Fig.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. --Contributed by E. high. Davis.described in Fig. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. Old-Time Magic . 2.

four glass tumblers. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. As zinc is much lighter than iron. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies.J. an acid. The dotted lines in Fig. causing the flowers to grow. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. filled with water. To make the flowers grow in an instant. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. S. N. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. some of the liquid. in a few seconds' time. held in the right hand. --Contributed by A. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. or using small wedges of wood. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. Bridgeton. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. Before the performance. Oakland. about one-third the way down from the top. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. 2. apparently. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. Macdonald. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. There will be no change in color. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. Calif. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. These wires are put in the jar. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. 1 and put together as in Fig. with the circle centrally located.

when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. not only because of the fact just mentioned. and kept ready for use at any time. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. Richmond. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. practical and costs nothing. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. If the size wanted is No. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . says a correspondent of Photo Era. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. This outlines the desired opening. A. Cal. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. Jaquythe. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. When many slides are to be masked. 2 for height. unless some special device is used. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. which are numbered for convenience in working. 4 for width and No. --Contributed by W. and equally worthy of individual treatment. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print.

With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. This done. but they can be easily revived. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. 16 gauge. not the water into the acid. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. When etched to the desired depth. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. and do not inhale the fumes. Draw a design. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. a little less acid than water. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. about half and half. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. The one shown is merely suggestive. paint the design. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. The decoration. and the extreme length 7 in. which is dangerous. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. or. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. too. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. the margin and the entire back of the metal. or a pair of old tongs. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. Secure a sheet of No. With a stick. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. possibly. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. using the carbon paper. is about right for the No. the paper is folded along the center line. may be changed. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water.

They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. . Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. through it. Fig. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. Cut out a piece of tin. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. 4. as shown in the illustration. 0 indicates the batteries. Fig. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. C and D. and about 2-1/2 ft. long. with the wires underneath. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. 3/8 in. 5. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. J is another wire attached in the same way. 2. high. in diameter and 1/4 in.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. Fig. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. as shown in Fig. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. Then get two posts. or more wide. about 1 in. Paint the table any color desired. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. The connections are simple: I. repeat as many times as is necessary. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. as in Fig. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. wide. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. and bore two holes. A. thick. the bell will ring. attached to a post at each end. about 2-1/2 in. about 3 ft. to the table. Nail a board. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. wide and of the same length as the table. so that when it is pressed down. as at H. Fig. 5. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. When the button S is pressed. about 8 in. 3. 1. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. 2. 2. long and 1 ft. it will touch post F. It may be either nailed or screwed down. 24 parts water. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. Fig.

Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. long. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. says the English Mechanic. thick. The entire weapon. 2. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. A wood peg about 2 in. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. After the glue is dry. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. such as . The imitation articles are made of wood. The circle is marked out with a compass. long serves as the dowel.Imitation Arms and Armor . It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. the wood peg inserted in one of them. but they are somewhat difficult to make. 1. These rings can be carved out. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. handle and all. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks.. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. This weapon is about 22 in. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. is to appear as steel.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings.

All of these axes are about the same length. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. . Its length is about 3 ft. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. is shown in Fig. 8. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. as described in Fig. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. the hammer and spike. with a sharp carving tool. covered with red velvet. 6. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The entire handle should be made of one piece. etc. flowers. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. The handle is of steel imitation. The axe is shown in steel. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. long. as shown. This weapon is about 22 in.ornamental scrolls. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. 2. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. The upper half of the handle is steel. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. The spikes are cut out of wood. 5. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. studded with large brass or steel nails. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. If such a tool is not at hand. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. or the amateur cannot use it well. The lower half of the handle is wood. The handle is of wood. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. used at the end of the fifteenth century. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. 3. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. leaves. also. as before mentioned. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued.

1. then the other plays. a three-base hit. 6. 3. as in Fig. 4). The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. Fig. . the knife resting on its back. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. 5. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. 7) calls for one out. as shown in Fig. calls for a home run. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. and so on for nine innings. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. Chicago. Each person plays until three outs have been made. 2. The knife falling on its side (Fig.

3. of the rope and holds it. Mass. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. with the rope laced in the cloth. This he does. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. hypo to 1 pt. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. F.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. one of them burning .-Contributed by J. of water for an hour or two. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. Somerville. while the committee is tying him up. It may be found that the negative is not colored. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. 2. 1. as shown in Fig. Old-Time Magic . Campbell. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. as shown in Fig. If it is spotted at all. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make.

thick. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. . etc. Ky. The magician walks over to the burning candle. the other without a light. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. Evans. 3/4 in. Ky. invisible to them (the audience). He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. Drill Gauge screw. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart.Contributed by Andrew G. of sugar. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. 4 oz. bolt. --Contributed by C. and. Brown. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. Lebanon. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. of water and 1 oz. He then walks over to the other candle. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. B. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. thus causing it to light. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. shades the light for a few seconds. showing that there is nothing between them. 4 oz. Thome. New York City. with which he is going to light the other candle. of plumbago. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. of turpentine. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. --Contributed by L.brightly. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole.. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. Louisville.

running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. --Contributed by C. long. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. which will give a strong. Do not add water to the acid. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. Pulteney. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. N. or blotting paper. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. In making up the solution. To make the porous cell. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. Y. for the material. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. but is not so good. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. into a tube of several thicknesses. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. H. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . Its current strength is about one volt. steady current. about 5 in. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. thick. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. 5 in. Denniston. diameter. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use.

The . It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. a positive adjustment was provided. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. but somewhat lighter. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. After much experimentation with bearings. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. As to thickness. long with a bearing at each end. one drawing them together.station. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. Finally. To insure this. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. steel. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. carrying the hour circle at one end. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. the other holding them apart. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. steel. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. while the other end is attached by two screws. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. One hole was bored as well as possible. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. steel. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in.) may be obtained. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in.

." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. Cassiopiae. 45 min. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so." When this is done." Only a rough setting is necessary. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. turn the pointer to the star. If the result is more than 24 hours. excepting those on the declination axis. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. need not be changed. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. save the one in the pipe. To find a star in the heavens. are tightened. and if it is not again directed to the same point. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. The pole is 1 deg. To locate a known star on the map. When properly set it will describe a great circle. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. subtract 24. The pointer is directed to Alpha. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. Set the declination circle to its reading. in each direction from two points 180 deg. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. once carefully made. apart. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. is provided with this adjustment. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. Point it approximately to the north star. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. The aperture should be 1/4 in. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. and 15 min. Each shaft. Declination is read directly. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. All set screws. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood.. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. It is. Instead. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. All these adjustments.

the others . as shown in the sketch. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. a great effect will be produced. 3 or 4 in. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. add a little more benzole. Plain City. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. La. of ether. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. is the real cannon ball. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. of gum sandarac and 4 gr.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. cannon balls. The dance will begin. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. -Contributed by Ray E. is folded several times. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination.. The ball is found to be the genuine article. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. benzole. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. which is the one examined. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. Strosnider. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. If this will be too transparent. In reality the first ball. taking care not to add too much. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. long. Ohio. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. then add 1 2-3 dr. New Orleans.

small brooches. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. 1). --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. Somerville. taps. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. as shown in the illustration. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . F. Cal. without taking up any great amount of space. San Francisco. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. --Contributed by J. 2. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. In boxes having a sliding cover. Wis. etc. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. Return the card to the pack. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. Mass. Campbell. Fig.. Milwaukee. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them.

This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. slides and extra brushes. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. as shown in the illustration. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. Connecticut. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. from the bottom of the box. This box has done good service.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. Hartford. thus giving ample store room for colors. . At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. round pieces 2-1/4 in. Beller. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. prints. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time.

Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. FIG. When the ends are turned under. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. 2). Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. . Mass. will answer the purpose. about threefourths full. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. West Lynn. Fill the upper tub. 1). holes in the bottom of one. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. O. tacking the gauze well at the corners. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. Darke.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. or placed against a wall. costing 5 cents. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. with well packed horse manure. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. -Contributed by C.

The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. Eifel. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. oil or other fluid. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. they should be knocked out. If the following directions are carried out. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. If plugs are found in any of the holes. M.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. if this is not available. when they are raised from the pan. --Contributed by L. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. cutting the cane between the holes. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. Chicago. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. and each bundle contains . The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. A pair of these shields will always come in handy.

held there by inserting another plug. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. as shown in Fig. 1. put about 3 or 4 in. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. it should be held by a plug. after having been pulled tight. as it must be removed again. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. then across and down. In addition to the cane.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. a square pointed wedge. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. and. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. No plugs .

so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. as it always equals the latitude of the place. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. After completing the second layer. for 2°. called the gnomon. we have 4. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. as shown in Fig.42 in. Detroit. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. -Contributed by E. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. 4. and for lat. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. After finishing this fourth layer of strands.2+. but the most common. 41°-30'. Their difference is .should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. is the horizontal dial.= 4.15+. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. Patrick. The style or gnomon. the height of the line BC.2 in. the height of which is taken from table No. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. using the same holes as for the first layer. Michigan.3 in. 40°. 5 in. is the base (5 in. 1 lat. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time.075 in. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. 5. trim off the surplus rosin. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. or the style. as for example.075 in. lat. It consists of a flat circular table. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. 42° is 4. 1. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. All added to the lesser or 40°. as the height of the line BC for lat. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. There are several different designs of sundials. Even with this lubrication. When cool. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . in this case) times the .15 in. 3. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. --Contributed by M. it is 4. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. 1. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. and for 1° it would be . 3.5 in. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. the next smallest. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. This will make three layers. stretch the third one. R. If you have a table of natural functions. From table No. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. No weaving has been done up to this time. as shown in Fig. 41 °-30'. Fig. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. During the weaving. If handled with a little care. D. and the one we shall describe in this article. 1. W. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. Fig.

55 4.57 3.07 4.49 30 . in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in. if of metal.42 1. using the points A and C as centers. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points. and perpendicular to the base or style. according to the size of the dial.49 3.66 1.03 3.10 6.23 6. For latitudes not given.85 1. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks.77 2.97 5 7 4.68 5-30 6-30 5. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No.55 5. and intersecting the semicircles. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown.82 5. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2. 2 for given latitudes. which will represent the base in length and thickness. 2.93 6. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No.40 34° 3.94 1.64 4 8 3.55 46° 5.19 1.87 4. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight.50 26° 2.66 latitude.99 2.33 . To layout the hour circle.37 54° 6.33 42° 4.88 36° 3. with a radius of 5 in.83 27° 2.46 .29 4-30 7-30 3.44 44° 4.40 1.76 1.55 30° 2. Height of stile in inches for a 5in.00 40° 4. .79 4.11 3.57 1.16 1. A line EF drawn through the points A and C. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style.42 45 . and for this size dial (10 in. Draw the line AD.37 5.38 .81 4.16 40 .46 3.28 . Chords in inches for a 10 in. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial.41 38° 3.89 50° 5.42 . draw two parallel lines AB and CD.12 52° 6.93 2. base. gives the 6 o'clock points.tangent of the degree of latitude.30 1. or if of stone. circle Sundial.30 2. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 .87 1. 1.06 2.85 35 .96 32° 3.82 2. long.91 58° 8.39 . 2.56 .63 56° 7. or more.26 4.66 48° 5.18 28° 2.02 1.82 3. Fig.20 60° 8.27 2. Its thickness. Table NO. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed. an inch or two.59 2. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in.14 5. Draw two semi-circles.32 6.

12 5.37 2.24 5. Sun time to local mean time. E. 3 Corrections in minutes to change.30 2. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time.46 5. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time. it will be faster.49 5. each article can be labelled with the name. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker. London.53 1.79 6. 3.93 6. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality. Mitchell.68 3. adding to each piece interest and value. says the English Mechanic. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached.60 4. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole. An ordinary compass.72 5.49 3.from Sundial lime.08 1.82 3. if west. Each weapon is cut from wood.46 4. 900 Chicago.01 1. 25. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds.means that the dial is faster than the sun. 3. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon.50 .34 5. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen..57 1.54 60 . will enable one to set the dial. Sioux City.10 4.19 2. 2 and Dec. and for the difference between standard and local time. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco. --Contributed by J. The + means that the clock is faster.52 Table No. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3. Sept. and on these dates the dial needs no correction. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No.98 4. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. and the . The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the . Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year. As they are the genuine reproductions. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. April 16. June 15. This correction can be added to the values in table No.89 3. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid. then the watch is slower. Iowa.71 2.14 1.63 1.77 3.add those marked + subtract those Marked . Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York.06 2.21 2. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face.87 6. after allowing for the declination. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west.50 55 .

This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. 1. The spear head is of steel about 15 in.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. 3. When putting on the tinfoil. . long from the point where it is attached to the handle. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. the length of which is about 5 ft. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil.. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. Partisan.

long with a round staff or handle. long. The spear is steel. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. which are a part of the axe. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. used about the seventeenth century. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. This weapon is about 6 ft. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. The extreme length is 9 ft. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd.. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. about 4 in. long. 8. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. in diameter. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century.which is square. the holes being about 1/4 in. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. A gisarm or glaive. The length of this bar is about 5 in. . The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. It is about 6 ft. 5. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. is shown in Fig. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. The edges are sharp. 6 ft. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. 7. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. long with a round wooden handle. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. press it well into the carved depressions. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. sharp on the outer edges. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood.

The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. 2 and 3. The twisted cross cords should . How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. or in holes punched in a leather strap. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. used for spacing and binding the whole together. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. the most durable being bamboo. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends.-Contributed by R. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. apart. 1. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. 4. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. They can be made of various materials. are less durable and will quickly show wear. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. Workman. Substances such as straw. This is important to secure neatness. as shown in Fig. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. 5. the cross cords. In Figs. Loudonville. Ohio.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. B. are put in place. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. Cut all the cords the same length. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. H. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle.

our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. in which was placed a piece of glass. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. La. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. Four V-shaped notches were cut. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. bamboo or rolled paper. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. New Orleans. To remedy this. of the bottom. -Contributed by Geo. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. as shown at B. A slit was cut in the bottom. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. below the top to within 1/4 in. Harrer. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. New York. M. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. Lockport. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. shaped as shown at C. for a length extending from a point 2 in. 3 in. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place.be of such material. This was turned over the top of the other can. The first design shown is for using bamboo. wide.

A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves.tape from sticking to the carpet. --Contributed by Chas. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. Ill. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. --Contributed by Joseph H. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. and two along the side for attaching the staff. H. N. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. Y. do not throw away the gloves. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. Newburgh. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. about 1/16 in. Maywood. Schaffner. --Contributed by W. giving the appearance of hammered brass. This plank. This should be done gradually. After this is finished. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. Cal. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. the brass is loosened from the block. It would be well to polish the brass at first. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. wide. Sanford. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. turned over but not fastened. Shay. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. is shown in the accompanying sketch. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. Pasadena.

the pendulum swings . This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. -Contributed by W.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. Oak Park. Unlike most clocks. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. K. Jaquythe. bent as shown. --E. in diameter. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. Cal. Richmond. A. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. Marshall. Ill. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in.

7-1/2 in. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. The construction is very simple. bar. B. 6 in. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. high. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. in diameter. Secure a board. such as this one. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. wide. Metzech. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. away. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. says the Scientific American. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. thick. Chicago. 5/16 in. only have the opposite side up. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. by 1-5/16 in. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. C. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. A. high. the center one being 2-3/4 in. Now place the board to be joined. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. high and 1/4 in. Two uprights. are secured in the base bar. --Contributed by V.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. long and at each side of this. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. on the board B. to the first one with screws or glue. is an electromagnet. wide that is perfectly flat. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip.. In using this method. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. . and the other two 2-5/8 in. bearing on the latter. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. about 6 in. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. high. 3/4 in. about 12 in. Fasten another board.

It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. Fig. --Contributed by Elmer A. square inside. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. The trigger. square. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. as shown at A. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. 1. from one end. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. 1. Vanderslice. is fastened in the hole A. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. or more. plates should be made 8 in. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. Phoenixville. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. . These can be cut from any old pasteboard box.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. 1. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. 3. wide and 5 in. 4. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. long. wide and 1 in. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. whose dimensions are given in Fig. Pa. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. Fig. 2. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. by driving a pin through the wood.

This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. -Contributed by J. one-half the length of the side pieces. by weight. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite.A. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. if only two bands are put in the . The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. square. as shown in the illustration. Simonis. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. which allows 1/4 in. Ohio. Fostoria. 2 parts of whiting. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. 5 parts of black filler. rubbing varnish and turpentine. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan.

is set at an angle of 45 deg. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. place tracing paper on its surface. -Contributed by Abner B. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. as shown in Fig. says the English Mechanic. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. London. Mass. A mirror. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. and the picture can be drawn as described. No. deep. Shaw. which may be either of ground or plain glass. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. wide and about 1 ft. long. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. A piece of metal. Grand Rapids. keeps the strong light out when sketching. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. 8 in. In constructing helmets. preferably copper. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. II. in the opposite end of the box. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. DeLoof. Dartmouth. 1. It must be kept moist and well .lower strings. Michigan. and it may be made as a model or full sized. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. If a plain glass is used. G. In use. is necessary. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. --Contributed by Thos. A double convex lens.

cut out the shape from a piece of wood. The clay. a few clay-modeling tools. 1. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. 2. shown in Fig. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. and over the crest on top. 3. as in bas-relief. 1. the clay model oiled. on which to place the clay. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. and the deft use of the fingers. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. and left over night to soak. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. take. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. joined closely together. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . Scraps of thin. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. will be necessary. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns.kneaded. as shown in Fig. All being ready. with a keyhole saw. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. or some thin glue. and continue until the clay is completely covered. After the clay model is finished. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. This being done. brown.

and the ear guards in two pieces. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. This contrivance should be made of wood. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. as seen in the other part of the sketch. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. the skullcap. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. then another coating of glue. or. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. They are all covered with tinfoil. The center of the ear guards are perforated. The whole helmet. one for each side. a crest on top. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. In Fig. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. 5. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. Indianapolis. When the helmet is off the model. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. In Fig. When perfectly dry. which should be no difficult matter. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. --Contributed by Paul Keller. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. 9. should be modeled and made in one piece.as possible. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. 7. and so on. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. owing to the clay being oiled. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. a few lines running down. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. Before taking it off the model. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. as shown: in the design. Indiana. The band is decorated with brass studs. When dry. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. the piecing could not be detected. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. will make it look neat. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. 1. square in shape. with the exception of the vizor.

Fig. This will allow the plate. high. Fig. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. Fig. 1. long. AA. If asbestos is used. until it is within 1 in. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. or. 3. 4. FF. long. when they are placed in opposite positions. one glass tube. This will make an open space between the plates. if the measurements are correct. Fig. The plate. Fig. one oblong piece of wood. Fig. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. above the collar. German-silver wire is better. Fig. 1. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. two ordinary binding posts. The two holes. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. 3 in. A round collar of galvanized iron. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. 2. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. 1. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . 4. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. and C. one small switch. Fig. with slits cut for the wires. 4. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. 1. as shown in Fig. are allowed to project about 1 in. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. one fuse block. 4. AA. wide and 15 in. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. JJ. The mineral wool. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. 1 in. The holes B and C are about 3 in. 4. about 1/4 in. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. 1. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. thick.same size. 4. 1. if this cannot be obtained. 22 gauge resistance wire. as it stands a higher temperature. is shown in Fig. 2. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. and two large 3in. Fig. about 1 lb. If a neat appearance is desired. about 80 ft. also the switch B and the fuse block C. as shown in Fig. for connections. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. Fig. screws. the holes leading to the switch. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. thick sheet asbestos. long. and. as shown in Fig. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. Fig. is then packed down inside the collar. 12 in. AA. The reverse side of the base. 2. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. Fig. of No. of the top. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. 4. the fuse block. of fire clay. in diameter and 9 in. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. E and F. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. 4 lb. Fig. should extend about 1/4 in. of mineral wool. which can be bought from a local druggist. each 4-1/2 in. to receive screws for holding it to the base. GG.

shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. Cal. Cover over about 1 in. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. Catherines. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. H. deep. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. If this is the case. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. Can. it leaves a gate for the metal. It should not be left heated in this condition. 4. will slip and come in contact with each other. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. when cool. as the turns of the wires. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. allowing a space between each turn. It should not be set on end. The clay. and pressed into it. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. more wire should be added. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. While the clay is damp. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. Cut a 1/2-in. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. apart. Cnonyn. As these connections cannot be soldered. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. Next. St. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. Fig. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. If it is not thoroughly dry. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. 2. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. causing a short circuit. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. --Contributed by R. Fig. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. then. steam will form when the current is applied. This point marks the proper length to cut it. using care not to get it too wet. KK. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. Jaquythe. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. When this is done. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. --Contributed by W. when heated. above the rim. so that the circuit will not become broken. When the tile is in place. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. This completes the stove. A file can be used to remove any rough places. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. Richmond. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. II. A. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube.

If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. the pie will be damaged. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. Then clip a little off the .Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. square material in any size. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. is large enough. as shown. constructed of 3/4-in. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. Ky. Thorne. says the Photographic Times. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. --Contributed by Andrew G. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. the air can enter from both top and bottom. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. but 12 by 24 in. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. and the frame set near a window. Louisville. and the prints will dry rapidly.

which gives the shaft a half turn. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. 1. which are fastened to the base. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. 1. 22 gauge magnet wire. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. causing a break in the current. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. thick and 3 in. open out. 1. allowing each end to project for connections. Herron. The driving arm D. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. 3. thick. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. each 1 in. Le Mars. Figs. wide and 7 in. The upright B. wide and 3 in. 4 in. W. slip on two cardboard washers. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. high. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. An offset is bent in the center. 2-1/2 in. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. Fig. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. long. long. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. long. thick and 3 in. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. The board can be raised to place . Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. wide. 1/2 in. in diameter and about 4 in. 1/2 in. for the crank. As the shaft revolves. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. Fig. each 1/2 in. The connections are made as shown in Fig. in diameter. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. 1. as shown.Paper Funnel point. at GG. 2. -Contributed by S. Fig. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. long. 1 and 3. Two supports. 14 in. Iowa. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. high. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. thereby saving time and washing. high. The connecting rod E. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. A 1/8-in. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F.

Stecher. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. as shown in the sketch. on a board. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. Mass. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. making a framework suitable for a roost. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. --Contributed by William F. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. in height. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. One or more pots may be used. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. 3 in. In designing the roost. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. bottom side up. . Dorchester. Place the pot.

Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. grills and gratings for doors. Fig. F.. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. that it is heated. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. when combined. as shown in Fig. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. paraffin and paint or varnish. 1. if it is other than straight lines. adopt the method described. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. 1. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. preferably. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. without any corresponding benefit. ordinary glue. Wind the . odd corners. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. The materials required are rope or. F. will produce the pattern desired. windows. and give it time to dry. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. shelves. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. etc. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. The bottom part of the sketch. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required.. in diameter.

Harrer. 2. M. six designs are shown. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. Fig. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig.Fig. -Contributed by Geo. N. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . Y. Lockport. cut and glue them together.

. This piece of horse armor. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. London. when it will be observed that any organic matter. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches.. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. As the . will be retained by the cotton. etc. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. which was used in front of a horse's head. 1. says the English Mechanic. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. and the sides do not cover the jaws. but no farther. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. etc. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work.. chips of iron rust.

This triangularshaped support. but for . This can be made in one piece. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. but the back is not necessary. which can be made in any size. the rougher the better. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. An arrangement is shown in Fig. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The armor is now removed from the model. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. except the thumb and fingers. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. 8. as shown in the sketch. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. This will make the model light and easy to move around. and therefore it is not described. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. with the exception of the thumb shield. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. In Fig. and the clay model oiled. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. and will require less clay. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. which is separate. the same as in Fig. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. All being ready. This being done. 6 and 7.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. 2. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. 4. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. 2. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. as the surface will hold the clay. then another coat of glue.

will be about right. The two pieces of foil. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. 1/2 in. in depth. La Rue. each about 1/4 in. Redondo Beach. --Contributed by John G. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. fastened to the rod. If it does not hold a charge. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. --Contributed by Ralph L. N. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. are better shown in Fig. the top of the rod. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. Fasten a polished brass ball to. Buxton. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. running down the plate. and the instrument is ready for use. but 3-1/2 in. 9. . A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. cut into the shape shown in Fig. wide and 1/2 in. are glued to it. the foils will not move. 2. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. long. A piece of board. two in each jaw. Y. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. the two pieces of foil will draw together. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. Goshen. Calif. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. When locating the place for the screw eyes. two for the jaws and one a wedge. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes.

Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. --Contributed by Mrs. Texas. 2-1/2 in.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. is made of a 1/4-in. At a point 6 in. silvered. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. Bryan. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. as indicated in the . long. M. Corsicana. A. enameled or otherwise decorated. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. The can may be bronzed. as this will cut under the water without splashing. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. hole bored through it. about 15 in. from the smaller end. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. pine board. When a fish is hooked. as shown in the illustration. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines.

wide by 6 in. Any kind of wood will do. or even pine. 3/8 or 1/4 in.Match Holder accompanying sketch. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. Basswood or butternut. long over all. Polish the metal. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. If soft wood. A good size is 5 in. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. using powdered pumice and lye. put a coat or two of wax and polish . Next prepare the metal holder. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. Having completed the drawing. as shown. 22 is plenty heavy enough. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. take a piece of thin wood. using a piece of carbon paper. will do as well as the more expensive woods. thick. punch the holes. When it has dried over night. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. and trace upon it the design and outline. such as basswood or pine was used. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. then with a nail. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use.

This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. long. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. If carving is contemplated. long. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. --Contributed by W. Jaquythe. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. Richmond. If one has some insight in carving. are used for the cores of the magnets. . All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. is used for the base of this instrument. 2 in. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. Cal. the whole being finished in linseed oil. of pure olive oil. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. Two wire nails. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. wide and 5 in. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. 1/2 in. thick. A. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. Instead of the usual two short ropes. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. each 1 in. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. can be made on the same standards. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. It is useful for photographers. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. yet protects the skin from the chemicals.

This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. 1. About 1 in. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. acts as a spring to keep the key open. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. A piece of tin. except that for the legs. London. 3. then covered with red. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. when the key is pushed down. at A. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. cloth or baize to represent the legs. Lynas. the paper covering put on. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. H. . 25 gauge. as shown in Fig. says the English Mechanic. as shown by the dotted lines. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. All of the parts for the armor have been described. in the shape shown in the sketch. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. similar to that used in electric bells. cut in the shape of the letter T. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. leaving about 1/4 in. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. --Contributed by W. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. about No. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. A rubber band.

In one end of the piece. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. holes. or ordinary plaster laths will do. and eight small holes. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. about 1 in. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. 1 and drill a 1/4in. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. So set up. long. Instead of using brass headed nails. can be made in a few minutes' time. completes the equipment. for the sake of lightness. A 1/4-in. says Camera Craft. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. apart. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. not too tight. make the same series of eight small holes and. 3 in. apart. hole in the center. The two pieces are bolted together. 2. Secure two strips of wood. flat headed carriage bolt. Cut them to a length or 40 in. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. Fig. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. Take the piece shown in Fig. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. in the other end. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. By moving the position of the bolt from. 1 in. at each end.. Silver paper will do very well. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. drill six 1/4-in. one to another . These can be purchased at a stationery store.

A is the first string and B is the second. 4. in Fig. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. for instance. but instead of reversing . and lay it over the one to the right. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. Then take B and lay it over A. In this sketch. of the ends remain unwoven. 2. taking the same start as for the square fob. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. the one marked A. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. long. as shown in Fig. as in portraiture and the like. then B over C and the end stuck under A. 2.of the larger holes in the strip. doubled and run through the web of A. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. Fig. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. and the one beneath C. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. Then draw all four ends up snugly. 1. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. lay Cover B and the one under D. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. Start with one end. 2. D over A and C. A round fob is made in a similar way. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. C over D and B.

Monroeville. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. as in making the square fob. 1-1/2 in. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. 3. especially if silk strings are used. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. A loop. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. Other designs can be made in the same manner. is left out at the center before starting on one side. is to be made of leather. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. --Contributed by John P. the design of which is shown herewith. 5. Rupp. always lap one string. as B. long. Ohio. over the one to its right. as at A in Fig. The round fob is shown in Fig.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all.

Any smooth piece of steel. A. When the supply of wax is exhausted. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. Houghton. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. beeswax or paraffin. door facing or door panel. Mich. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. Northville. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. -Contributed by A. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. pressing it against the wood.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. using the reverse side. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. it can be easily renewed. such as a nut pick. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. . Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. filling them with wax.

any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. Enough plaster should. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. New York. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. remaining above the surface of the board. and about 12 in. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. place it face down in the dish.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. although tin ones can be used with good success. says Photographic Times. Y. E and F. Fold together on lines C. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. Thompson. Select the print you wish to mount. those on matte paper will work best. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. it is best to leave a plain white margin. and after wetting. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. Ill. J. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. The tacks should be about 1 in. thick. if blueprints are used. D. . N. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. but any kind that will not stick may be used. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. long. leaving about 1/4 in. --Contributed by O. apart and driven in only part way. Petersburg. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick.

bell flowers. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. violets. filling the same about onehalf full. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. will be rendered perfectly white. etc. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. as shown in the right of the sketch. One of the . The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution.. roses. as shown at the left in the sketch. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. without mixing the solutions. Lower into the test tube a wire.

The tin horn can be easily made. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. about 1/8s in. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. or delicate tints of the egg. made of heavy tin. 3. A rod that will fit the brass tube. long and made of wood. Fig.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. Shabino. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. Millstown. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. When soldering these parts together. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. not too tightly. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. South Dakota. 1-7/8 in. in diameter and 1 in. The diaphragm. turned a little tapering. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. as shown in the sketch. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. as shown. to keep the core from coming off in turning. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. shading. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. should be soldered to the box. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle.. long. and at the larger end. but which will not wobble loose. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. 2. 1. The first point should be ground blunt. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. The sound box. thick. --Contributed by L. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. is about 2-1/2 in. L.

wondering what it was.Contributed by E. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. and weighted it with a heavy stone. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. Chicago. put a board on top. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. E. Colo. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. and. Victor. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. Jr. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . Gold. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. mice in the bottom. says the Iowa Homestead. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. Ill.

Pereira. Ottawa. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. . --Contributed by Lyndwode. Buffalo. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. N. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. Can. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. Y. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter.

Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. Put a small nail 2 in. Mich. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. Richmond. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. Grand Rapids.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. through which several holes have been punched. cut round. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. by means of a flatheaded tack. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. as it can be made quickly in any size. Jaquythe. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. A. longer than the length of the can. This cart has no axle. De Loof. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. --Contributed by Thos. Cal. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. above the end of the dasher. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. as shown. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . --Contributed by W. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. a piece of tin. and at one end of the stick fasten.

New Orleans. A wedge-shaped piece of . thick. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. Fig. 1. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. The candles. 1 ft. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. long. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. I reversed a door gong. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. 1-1/2 in. deep and 3 in. wide.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. of course. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. were below the level of the bullseye. 2. wide and 3 ft. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. Doylestown. screwed it on the inside of a store box. --Contributed by James M. wide and 1/8 in. cut in the center of the rounding edge. Kane. 1/4 in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 2. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. The baseboard and top are separable. Notches 1/8 in. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. apart. 2 in. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. La. Pa.1. board. wide and as long as the box. 2. as shown.

Cover the block with rubber. dressing one surface of each piece. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. will. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. to prevent its scratching the desk top. can be picked up without any trouble. After the glue has dried. Ia. This device is very convenient for invalids. take two pieces of hard wood. A. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. Needles. the shelf could not be put on the window. 3. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. scissors.. the reason being that if both were solid. West Union. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. The block can also be used as a paperweight. Mass. For the handle. After completing the handle. --Contributed by G. wide into each side of the casing. etc. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. 1. When not in use. when placed as in Fig. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. Worcester. as shown in Fig. Wood. it can be removed without marring the casing.Book Back Holders metal. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. the blade is put back into the groove . stone or wood. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. wide rubber bands or felt. by cutting away the ends.

Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. Mass. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. Each one is made of a hardwood block. as shown in Fig. A notch is cut in one side. 2. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. S.and sharpened to a cutting edge. thus carrying the car up the incline. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. Jacobs. square and 4 in. long. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. Ohio. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. . A. -Contributed by W. 1 in. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. 1. Malden. Pa. --Contributed by H. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. Cleveland. --Contributed by Maud McKee. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. Erie. Hutchins. If desired. as shown in Fig. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. is shown in the accompanying sketch. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them.

Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. Cape May Point. One sheet of metal. This will insure having all parts alike. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. and an awl and hammer. will be needed. N. The letters can be put on afterward.. a board on which to work it. 6 by 9-1/2 in. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. If one such as is shown is to be used. .J. Prepare a design for the front. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen.

using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. behind or through the center of a table leg. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. applied by means of a brush. if desired. only the marginal line is to be pierced. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. 3/4 part. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. paste the paper design right on the metal. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. in the waste metal. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. 1/4 part. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. 1 part. but weird and distant. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. placed on a table. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. turpentine. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. as shown. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. On the back. Remove the metal. varnish. The music will not sound natural. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. flat brush. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. or. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. 2 parts white vitriol. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. The stick may be placed by the side of. One coat will do. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. mandolin or guitar. to right angles. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. So impressive are the results. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. a violin. If any polishing is required. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. and add sugar of lead as a dryer.Fasten the metal to the board. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. which is desirable." In all appearance. says Master Painter. . that can be worked in your own parlor.

London. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. Two pairs of feet. 3. each 28 in. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. apart. square bar iron. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. each 6 in. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. long and spread about 8 in. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. it might be difficult. says Work. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. . With proper tools this is easy. are shaped as shown in Fig. is bent square so as to form two uprights. 2. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. thick by 1/2 in. round-head machine screws. wide. across the top. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. long. The longest piece. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. long and measuring 26 in. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. and is easy to construct. without them.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood.

A. the latter being tapped to . on it as shown. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. and the base border. 7. After the joints are soldered. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. better still. C.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. is held by the brads. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. B. 6. 5. While the piece of lead D. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. The design is formed in the lead. using rosin as a flux. 4. Fig. Place the corner piece of glass. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. special flux purchased for this purpose. or. The brads are then removed. as shown in Fig. D. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. lead. After the glass is cut. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. Fig. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. 5. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. The glass. in the grooves of the borders. cut a long piece of lead. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points.

A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. as shown in Fig. rocker bolt. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. then flatten its end on the under side. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. This ring can be made of 1-in. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. bolt. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. Secure a post. one on each side and central with the hole. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. Jr. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. then drill a 3/4-in. long. Fasten the plates to the block B. This . The center pin is 3/4-in. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. Camden. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. and two wood blocks. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. Dreier. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. H. thick and drill 3/4-in. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid.the base of the clip. A and B. plank about 12 ft. and round the corners of one end for a ring.. in diameter and about 9 in. long. square and of the length given in the drawing. holes through their centers. J. rounded at the top as shown. not less than 4 in. Two styles of hand holds are shown. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. Make three washers 3-in. 8. --Contributed by W. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. in diameter and 1/4 in. bolt. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. Bore a 5/8-in. plates. wood screws in each washer. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. N. Bore a 3/4-in. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. long.

1-1/4in. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. 2-1/2 in. 3/4 by 3 in. 9 in. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. 3 in. 1 by 7 in. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. square by 9-1/2 ft. 1. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . 4 filler pieces. 7 in. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. of 1/4-in. long and 1 piece. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. If trees are convenient. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. long. maple. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier.will make an excellent cover for a pot. 4 in. bit. 4 pieces. boards along the side of each from end to end. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. by 3 ft. 1/2 in. 16 screws. can make a first class gymnasium. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. screws. New Orleans. square by 5 ft. 4 pieces. To substitute small. because it will not stand the weather. 2 by 4 in. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. Draw a line on the four 7-in. in diameter and 7 in. from one edge. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. long. and some one can swing an axe. long. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. bolts and rope. chestnut or ash. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. apart for a distance of 3 ft. long. horse and rings. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. 50 ft. hickory. the money outlay will be almost nothing. straight-grained hickory. shanks. La. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. long. long. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. 4 in. by 6-1/2 ft. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. The four 7-in. by 2 ft. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in.

The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. at each end. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. 8 in. Bore a 9/16-in. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. each 3 ft. boards coincide. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. so the 1/2-in. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. from the end. apart.. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. apart. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in.bored. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. piece of wood.. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. 2. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. deep and remove all loose dirt. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar.

it is taken to the edge of the foot. and then passes in a curve across the base. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. which at once gathered. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction.. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. in an endless belt. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. If the tumbler is rotated. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. and ascends the stem. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. not even the tumbler." which skimmed along the distant horizon.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. and materially heightened the illusion. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. the effect is very striking. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. . it follows the edge for about 1 in. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. When the interest of the crowd. W. not much to look at in daytime. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. but most deceptive at dusk. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. just visible against the dark evening sky. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. passing through a screweye at either end. was at its height. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. He stretched the thread between two buildings. disappearing only to reappear again. apart. about 100 ft. And all he used was a black thread. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others.

8 in. long. 2 base pieces. A wire about No. Chisel out two notches 4 in. 4 wood screws. 1. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. long. 2 by 4 in. 4 knee braces. The cork will come out easily. 2 cross braces. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. and turned in a spiral D. deep. 2 side braces. long. La. wide and 1 in. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. long. large spikes. from either side of the center. long. 2 by 4 in. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. by 7 ft. preferably cedar. New Orleans. so the point will be on top. Bevel the ends of . 2 by 4 in. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. long. 6 in. square and 6 ft. by 3 ft. beginning at a point 9 in. 8 in. 2 by 3 in. by 2 ft. long. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 2 in. To make the apparatus. Fig. long and 1 doz. 8 in. square and 51/2 ft. 8 bolts. long. 4 in. 7 in. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. by 10 ft. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. 4 bolts.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. 4 in.

. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. If using mill-cut lumber. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. which face each other. as shown in the diagram. Two endpieces must be made. Richmond. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. so the bolts in both will not meet. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. screws. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. save the bars. additional long. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. A large sized ladle. A. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle.the knee braces. The wood so treated will last for years. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. ( To be Continued. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. After the trenches are dug. and countersinking the heads. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. of 7 ft. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. . --Contributed by W. but even unpainted they are very durable.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. jellies. These will allow the ladle to be turned. leave it undressed. Cal. equipped with a strainer. except the bars. using four of the 7-in bolts. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. Jaquythe. etc. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. leaving the strainer always in position.

partly a barrier for jumps. it is necessary to place a stick. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. . and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. In order to accomplish this experiment. A. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. drill press or planer. milling machine. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. Oil. of sufficient 1ength. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. which seems impossible. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. thus holding the pail as shown. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. or various cutting compounds of oil. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface.

apart. 2 by 4 in. in the ground. 2 adjusting pieces. 4 knee braces. These are well nailed in place. by 3 ft. stud cut rounding on one edge. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. To construct. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. to fasten the knee braces at the top. 4 in. long. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. long. projections and splinters. long. beginning 1-1/2 in. Procure from a saw mill. square by 5-1/2 ft. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . ten 1/2-in.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. and free from knots. square by 5 ft. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. long. wood yard or from the woods. long. long. piece of 2 by 4-in. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. The round part of this log must be planed. 1 in. but 5 ft. from each end. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. These are placed 18 in. long. 2 bases. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in.. 4 in. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. bolts. by 3 ft. is a good length. bolts. by 3 ft. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces.. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. 3 in. 4 in. bolt. Hand holds must be provided next. 7 in. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. bolts. 2 by 4 in. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. apart in a central position on the horse. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. long. in diameter--the larger the better. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. The material required is as follows: Two posts. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. 1 cross brace. 4-1/2 in. two 1/2-in. 2 by 4 in. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars.

but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. Such a hand sled can be made in a . Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union.horse top. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. Jaquythe. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. A. Cal. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. pipe and fittings.--Contributed by W. water. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. it is caused by some obstruction. snow. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. over and around. but nevertheless. etc. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. Richmond. it is caused by an overloaded shell. such as a dent. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. then bending to the shape desired. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. Also. no one is responsible but himself. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. says the Sporting Goods Dealer.

Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. when complete. Ontario. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. 1. Mass. Noble. then run a string over each part. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. Boston. will give the length. Toronto. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. 2. --Contributed by James E. W. These. thick. --Contributed by J. which. are all the tools necessary. when straightened out. in width and 1/32 in. Joerin. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. 1/4 or 3/16 in. --Contributed by Arthur E. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. France. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. The end elevation. . is much better than a wood sled. Paris. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. Vener. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. at E and F.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and.

3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. The method shown in Figs. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. are nailed. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. . It is best to use soft water. 4. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. AA and BB. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. 3. nor that which is partly oxidized. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. and the latter will take on a bright luster.

or unequal widths as in Fig. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. 3. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. 1). 2. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. or various rulings may be made. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. 4. Broad lines can be made. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. 2. . class ice-yacht.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. 8 and 9. Percy Ashley in Rudder. The materials used are: backbone. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. as shown in Fig. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. as shown in Fig. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

out from the collar.Fig. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. The headstock is made of two tees. but if it is made much longer. long. a larger size of pipe should be used. pipe. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. A good and substantial homemade lathe. 1-Details of Lathe sort. It can be made longer or shorter. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. 1. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. about 30 in. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. pins to keep them from turning. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. a tee and a forging. bent and drilled as shown. The point should extend about 11/2 in. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. Both the lower .

tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. as shown in Fig. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. It is about 1 in. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. Held. Man. 1. or a key can be used as well. Laporte. 2. Boissevain. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. . 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. W. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. 2. Indiana. To do this. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. Cal. --Contributed by M. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. as shown in Fig. UpDeGraff. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. 3/4 or 1 in. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. but also their insulating properties. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. Fruitvale. --Contributed by W. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. --Contributed by W. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. thick as desired. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. a straight line should be scratched Fig. M. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. 2. Musgrove. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. a corresponding line made on this. else taper turning will result. and will answer for a great variety of work. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces.

Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. Ark. The handle is of pine about 18 in. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. --Contributed by E. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. Smith. Cline. as shown. long.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. To obviate this. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. Ft. In use. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. J. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side.

by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. the drill does not need the tool. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. centering is just one operation too many. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. --Contributed by Walter W. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. take . Denver. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. La. New Orleans. After being entered. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. White. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. which should be backed out of contact. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. face off the end of the piece. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. if this method is followed: First. and when once in true up to its size. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. This prevents the drill from wobbling. on starting the lathe. Colo.

and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. In doing this. The handkerchief rod. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. and this given to someone to hold.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. After the wand is removed. a long piece of glass tubing. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. the cap is placed over the paper tube. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. It can be used in a great number of tricks. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. all the better. after being shown empty. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. unknown to the spectators. as shown in D. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. by applying caustic soda or . is put into the paper tube A. a bout 1/2 in. The glass tube B. says the Sphinx. and can be varied to suit the performer. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. shorter t h a n the wand. vanishing wand. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. shown at C.

A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. as shown by K. and glue it to the neck at F. thick. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. The sides. across the front and back to strengthen them. 1 Neck. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. 2 Sides. and if care is taken in selecting the material. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. The brace at D is 1 in. Glue the neck to the box. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. with the back side rounding. This dimension and those for the frets . 1/4 in. can be made by the home mechanic. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. cut to any shape desired. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. 3/16. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. Cut a piece of hard wood. preferably hard maple. Glue strips of soft wood. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. 1. As the cement softens. End.potash around the edges of the letters. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. square and 1-7/8 in. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. 1 Bottom. by 14 by 17 in. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. With care and patience. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. long. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. 1 End. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top.

but it is not. 3/16 in. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. thick and about 1 ft. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. -Contributed by J. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. long is used for a keel. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. toward each end. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. A board 1 in. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. O. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. in diameter.should be made accurately. or backbone. Stoddard. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. Six holes. E. Norwalk. H. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. Carbondale. When it is completed you will have a canoe. 1) on which to stretch the paper. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. --Contributed by Chas. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. Frary. and beveled . wide and 11-1/2 ft.Pa.

the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. 3). such as is used for making chairbottoms. a. For the gunwales (a. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. long are required. 3. b. 4. Fig. thick. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. In drying. Fig. two twigs may be used to make one rib. 2).Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. wide by 26 in. Any tough. For the ribs near the middle of the boat.. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. twigs 5 or 6 ft. Green wood is preferable. 1. by means of a string or wire. 3/8 in. and are not fastened. b. the loose strips of ash (b. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. Osiers probably make the best ribs. such as hazel or birch. . so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. or other place. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. in such cases. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. which are easily made of long. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. and. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. Fig. 13 in. two strips of wood (b. when made of green elm. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. 1 and 2. 4). Fig. 2). in thickness and should be cut. thick. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. as before described. and notched at the end to receive them (B. B. procure at a carriage factory. slender switches of osier willow. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. b. will answer nearly as well. but twigs of some other trees. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board.) in notches. C. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. These are better. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. and so. The ribs. The cross-boards (B. are next put in. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. Fig. 2. or similar material. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. apart. buy some split cane or rattan. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. Shape these as shown by A. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. long. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. probably. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. Fig. but before doing this. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. Fig. as shown in Fig. with long stout screws. 3. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. Fig. as they are apt to do. some tight strips of ash. C. 3). Fig. as shown in Fig. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C.

Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. and very tough. and steady in the water. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. after wetting it. Then take some of the split rattan and. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. The paper is then trimmed. and light oars. You may put in . it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. It should be smooth on the surface. however. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. It should be drawn tight along the edges. if it has been properly constructed of good material. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. and as soon as that has soaked in. but with less turpentine. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. If the paper be 1 yd. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. preferably iron. but neither stiff nor very thick. and held in place by means of small clamps. wide. When the paper is dry. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. tacking it to the bottom-board. 5). Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. of very strong wrapping-paper.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. B. If not. When thoroughly dry. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. Being made in long rolls. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. Fig. apply a second coat of the same varnish. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip.

5. and make a movable seat (A. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. 1. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. We procured a box and made a frame. 2. Fig. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. Fig. Drive the lower nail first. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. and if driven as shown in the cut.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. 1 and the end in . and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. they will support very heavy weights. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. Fig. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. fore and aft. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. 5). to fit it easily. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off.

The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat.Fig. and the result is. This is an easy . the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. 5. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. Close the other end with the same operation. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. Pa. 3. This way has its drawbacks. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. 4. this makes the tube airtight. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. Pittsburg. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. and the glass. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. being softer where the flame has been applied. A good way to handle this work. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. --Contributed by Albert Niemann.

with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. above the work and striking it with the hammer. also trace the decorative design. extra metal all around. After the bulb is formed. very rapid progress can be made. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. or six arms. three. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. then reverse. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. metal shears. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. -Contributed by A. rivet punch. third. Give the metal a circular motion. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. thin screw. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. with a piece of carbon paper. file. The candle holders may have two. four. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. 23 gauge. fifth. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . Oswald. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. above the metal. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. Sixth. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. fourth. second. flat and round-nosed pliers. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. Seventh.way to make a thermometer tube.

The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. and holder. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . drip cup. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. Small copper rivets are used. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. Having pierced the bracket. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. Metal polish of any kind will do.

being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. smooth it down and then remove as before. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. sugar 1 part. and it will be ready for future use. Soak 1 oz. I steer with the front wheel. deep. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. and brace and bit were the tools used. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. and add the gelatine. J. Fifty. when it will be ready for use. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. if it has not absorbed too much ink. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. Mother let me have a sheet. Twenty cents was all I spent. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. thus it was utilized. is a broomstick. Heat 6-1/2 oz. The gaff. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. the stick at the bottom of the sail. all the rest I found. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. winding the ends where they came together with wire. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. F. they were like an ice boat with a sail. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. A saw. and water 24 parts. alcohol 2 parts. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. glycerine 4 parts. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. The boom. except they had wheels instead of runners. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. and other things as they were needed. hammer. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. Shiloh. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. and in a week . on a water bath. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. using a steel pen. N. of glycerine to about 200 deg. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail.

Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up. a projecting lens . A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly.Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing.

at a distance of 24 ft. and a projecting lens 2 in. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. 1/2 to 3/4 in. describe a 9-in. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. G. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. long. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. If a small saw is used. and the lens slide. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. provided the material is of metal. 3. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. H. A table. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. above the center. 1. The board is centered both ways. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. are . and the work carefully done. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. slide to about 6 ft. but if such a box is not found. about 2 ft. A and B. 8 in. well seasoned pine. Fig. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. as desired.. or glue. thick. wire brads. focus enlarging a 3-in. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. and. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. high. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. at a point 1 in. This ring is made up from two rings. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. and 14 in. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. DD. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. E. or a lens of 12-in. The slide support. wide and 15 in. wide.

placed on the water. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. Small strips of tin. A sheet . if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. of safe. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. E. Paul.-Contributed by G. the water at once extinguishes the flame. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. To reach the water. apply two coats of shellac varnish. St. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. light burning oil. should the glass happen to upset. The arrangement is quite safe as.constructed to slip easily on the table. B. Minn. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. JJ. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. and when the right position is found for each. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. the strips II serving as guides. but not long enough. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. P.

Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. form a piece of wire in the same shape. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. 1. N.H.. Y. If one of these clips is not at hand. 4. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. Fig. Schenectady. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . Crawford. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. by 12 ft. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. 2. 3 in. I ordered a canvas bag. 3. from a tent company. to cover the mattresses. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. then the corners on one end are doubled over. 3. 12 ft. 9 in. Fig. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. --Contributed by J.

to the coil of small wire for volts. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. drill two 3/16 in. as shown in Fig. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. To calibrate the instrument. Colo. to keep it from unwinding. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. for amperes and the other post. long and 3/16 in. 2. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. so as to form two oblong boxes. White. Warren. 1/2 in. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. 2. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. first mark the binding-post A. A rubber band. wide. Do not use too strong a rubber. D. long. A Film Washing Trough [331] . Pa. 1. 2. Fig.each edge. open on the edges. in the center coil. holes in the edge. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. insulating them from the case with cardboard. 1. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. Denver. --Contributed by Walter W. Fold two strips of light cardboard. Fasten the wire with gummed label. Attach a piece of steel rod. 3 to swing freely on the tack. 3/4 in. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. through which the indicator works. and insert two binding-posts. Teasdale. 3/4 in. C. 1/2 in. Fig. V. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. --Contributed by Edward M. thick. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. apart. An arc is cut in the paper.

as shown. Hunting. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. Dayton. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. --Contributed by M. Cut a 1/4-in. O. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. with the large hole up. Wood Burning [331] . Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. Place this can on one end of the trough. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. M. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut.

When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the .Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. then into this bottle place. mouth downward. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top.

but not very thick. Whitehouse. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. N. Place the small bottle in as before. provided the bottle is wide. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. 2. Upper Troy. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. --Contributed by John Shahan. 3/4 in. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. Auburn. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water.Y. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . wide and 4 in.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. many puzzling effects may be obtained. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. long. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. as shown in the sketch. 1. --Contributed by Fred W. If the cork is adjusted properly. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. Ala. thick. This will make a very pretty ornament. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. If the small bottle used is opaque.

1. 1. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. The shaft C. --Contributed by D. 1. to the shaft. The 21/2-in. which gave considerable power for its size. B. On a 1000-ft. A staple. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. as shown in Fig. Fig. high without the upper half. Its smaller parts. 3. 4. such as blades and pulleys. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. Fig. thick. Both bearings were made in this manner.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. 2 ft. or ordinary telephone transmitters. line. thick. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. 1. iron rod. The wire L was put . The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. The bearing blocks were 3 in. in diameter and 1 in. 1. sugar pine on account of its softness. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. were constructed of 1-in. pulley. was 1/4in. G. thick and 3 in. wide. was keyed to shaft C. Fig. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. by the method shown in Fig. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. even in a light breeze. long. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. pulley F. If a transmitter is used. Fig. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. 1 in. K. I. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. which extended to the ground. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. 2. Fig. W. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. which was nailed to the face plate. Milter. which was 6 in.

5. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. through the latter. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. 1. G. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. There a 1/4-in. To make the key. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. To lessen the friction here. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. strips. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. 2. across the thin edge of a board. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. The smaller one. long. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. 0. R. This fan was made of 1/4-in. 1. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. long and 3 in. wide and 1 in. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. apart in the tower. long. 25 ft. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. Fig. 1. long and bend it as . hole was bored in which shaft G turned. with brass headed furniture tacks. If you have no bell. 6. so that the 1/4-in. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. providing one has a few old materials on hand. long and bend it as shown at A. H. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. with all parts in place. 1) 4 in. 6. 1. a 1/2-in. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. hole was bored for it. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. Fig. Fig. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. cut out another piece of tin (X. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. washers were placed under pulley F. Fig. Fig. 3 in. in diameter. was 2 ft. Two washers were placed on shaft C. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. hole for the shaft G was in the center. when the windmill needed oiling. in the center of the board P. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. This board was 12 in. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. top down also. This completes the receiver or sounder. for instance. square to the board P at the top of the tower. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. The other lid. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. The power was put to various uses. long and 1/2 in. Fig. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. and was cut the shape shown. was tacked. The bed plate D.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. Fig. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. pine 18 by 12 in. as.

as indicated. and. like many another device boys make. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. When tired of this instrument. -Contributed by John R. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. By adjusting the coils. after the manner of bicycle wheels. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. fitted with paddles as at M. at the front. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. Going back to Fig. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. as shown at Water. using cleats to hold the board frame. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. although it can be made with but two. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. Thus a center drive is made. McConnell. causing a buzzing sound. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. leaving the other wire as it is. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. 2. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. The rear barrels are. Before tacking it to the board. consisting of four pieces of board nailed .shown. 1. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. Now. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig.

Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. or even a little houseboat. as shown in Fig. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. 1. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. To propel it. 3. If the journals thus made are well oiled. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. which will give any amount of pleasure. The speed is slow at first. there will not be much friction. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. can be built. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. feet on the pedals.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. There is no danger. copper piping and brass tubing for base.

Fig. Place one brass ring in cylinder. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. Fig. or it may be put to other uses if desired. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. then the glass disc and then the other ring. 2. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions.of pleasure for a little work. Shape small blocks of boxwood. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. and so creating a false circuit. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. D. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. Fig. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. B. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. Then melt out the rosin or lead. If magnifying glass cannot be had. 2. If it is desired to make the light very complete. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. Fig. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . A. 1. C. Turn a small circle of wood. 1. 1. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. 2. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard.

4-1/2 in. brass rod. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. and pulled tight. In placing clock on shelf. bell. wire from light to switch. B. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. F. J. To operate this. which stops bell ringing. To throw on light throw levers to the left. S. --Contributed by C. long. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. by having the switch on the baseboard. set alarm key as shown in diagram. near the bed. shelf. C. after two turns have been made on the key. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. --Contributed by Geo. C. D.. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. 3/8 in. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. H. G. Ogden. When alarm goes off. thick. key of alarm clock. wide and 1/16 in. switch. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. Chatland. contact post. Pa. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. bracket. or 1/4in. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. long. To get the cylinder into its carriage.india rubber tubing. copper tubing. wire from batteries to switch. X. if too small. some glue will secure them. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. wire from bell to switch. 4 in. after setting alarm. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. Swissvale. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. The parts indicated are as follows: A. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. Utah. such as is used for cycle valves. E. brass strip. Throw lever off from the right to center. I. 5-1/4 by 10 in. dry batteries. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . while lying in bed. Brinkerhoff. T. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center.

being careful not to get the sand in it. as at B. Chapman. A flannel bag. 2. about 6 in. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. wide. Fig.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. 1/4 in. A small lamp of about 5 cp. Having finished this. a bed warmer. will do the heating. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. about 3-1/2 in. Make the spindle as in Fig. This is to form the fuse hole. making it as true and smooth as possible. in diameter. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. from one end. 1. Minn. as in Fig. Fig. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. place stick and all in a pail of sand. beyond the end of the spindle. Pull out the nail and stick. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. as at A. long. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. Make a shoulder. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. letting it extend 3/4 in. as . gives the heater a more finished appearance. Lanesboro. 4 in. in diameter. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. which can be made of an old can. Fig. --Contributed by Chas. 1. S. 2. as at A. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. All that is required is a tin covering. for instance. 3. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth.

1. or hickory. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. thick. wide and 3 ft. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. good straight-grained pine will do. spring and arrows. The illustration shows how this is done.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. --Contributed by Arthur E. long. this is to keep the edges from splitting. 5/8 in. A piece of oak. long. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . wide and 6 ft. thick. 6 in. 1 in. thick. but if this wood cannot be procured. 3/8 in. deep. A piece of tin. Joerin. long. The material must be 1-1/2 in. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. wide and 3/8 in. ash. 11/2 in. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. will be sufficient to make the trigger. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow.

throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. When the trigger is pulled. as shown in Fig. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. Fig. 6. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. To shoot the crossbow. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. E. Fig. A spring. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. it lifts the spring up. or through the necessity of. which is 1/4 in. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. having the latter swing quite freely. thick. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. 9. Wilmette. 8. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. 7. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. wide at each end. and one for the trigger 12 in. Fig. Trownes. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. The stick for the bow. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. from the end of the stock. Ill. in diameter. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. as shown in Fig. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. 2. The trigger. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. The bow is not fastened in the stock. --Contributed by O. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. better still. To throw the arrow. 4. from the opposite end. place the arrow in the groove. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. 3. Such a temporary safe light may be .

apart. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. respectively. is used as a door. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. the bark lean-to is a . and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. from the ground. from the ground. says Photo Era. and nail it in position as shown at A. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. since the flame of the candle is above A. Remove the bottom of the box. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. C. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. it is the easiest camp to make. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. The hinged cover E. make the frame of the wigwam.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. This lamp is safe. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. The cut should be about 5 ft. Remove one end. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. Moreover. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. By chopping the trunk almost through. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. and replace as shown at B. or only as a camp on a short excursion. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. making lighting and trimming convenient.

and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. makes a good pair of tongs. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. 3 ft. For a permanent camp. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. and split the tops with an ax. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. nails are necessary to hold it in place. long. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. and cedar. long and 2 or 3 ft. . will dry flat. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. make the best kind of a camp bed. wide and 6 ft. In the early summer. thick. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. For a foot in the middle of the stick. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. selecting a site for a camp. spruce. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. piled 2 or 3 ft. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. deep and covered with blankets. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. Sheets of bark. A piece of elm or hickory. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. and when the camp is pitched. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. wide. are a convenient size for camp construction. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. a 2-in. long and 1-1/2 in. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. 6 ft. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. Where bark is used. Tongs are very useful in camp. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log.

Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. . Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. and affording accommodation for several persons. hinges. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. or even a rough lock for the camp larder. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves.

I drove a small cork. --Contributed by James M. wide. Kane. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. Fig. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. 1. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. B. B. the interior can. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. Pa. changing the water both morning and night. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. to another . deep and 4 in.. and provide a cover or door. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. A. about 4 in. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. Doylestown. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within.

limit. E. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. which project inside and outside of the tube. fused into one side. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. for instance. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. 2. The current is thus compelled. if necessary. 4 and 5). The diagram. a liquid. Fig. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. 2. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter.glass tube. such as ether. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. C. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. until. for instance. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. to pass through an increasing resistance. This makes . 3.

cannot be used so often. 1. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. or pattern. If the thickness is sufficient. is composed of wrought sheet iron. which may be of any thickness so that. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. which will make it uniform in size. they will make a frame 3/4 in. or even 1/16 in. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. Before removing the field from the lathe. mark off a space. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. A. 2.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. thicker. two holes. Alpena. set at 1/8 in. bent at right angles as shown. therefore. After cleaning them with the solution. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. thick. by turning the lathe with the hand. screws. Fig. 3-3/8 in. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. 3. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. After the template is marked out. 4-1/2 in. larger than the dimensions given. thick. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. brass or iron. on a lathe. brass. When the frame is finished so far. but merely discolored. tap. Michigan. assemble and rivet them solidly. making it 1/16 in. in diameter. 3-3/8 in. A 5/8in. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. between centers. hole is . Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. Then the field can be finished to these marks. clamp the template. as shown in the left-hand sketch. in diameter. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. drill the four rivet holes. The bearing studs are now made. when several pieces are placed together. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. as shown in Fig. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. These holes are for the bearing studs. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. to allow for finishing. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. Fig. and for the outside of the frame. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame.

then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. When the bearings are located. soldered into place. and build up the solder well. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . The shaft of the armature. brass rod is inserted. solder them to the supports. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. Fig. file them out to make the proper adjustment. is turned up from machine steel. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. or otherwise finished. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. into which a piece of 5/8-in. 4. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field.

deep and 7/16 in. as shown in Fig. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. to allow for finishing to size. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. holes through them for rivets. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. being formed for the ends. 7. 1-1/8 in. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. thick. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. thick and 1/4 in. When this is accomplished. as shown m Fig. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. The pins are made of brass. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. as shown in Fig. 5. The sides are also faced off and finished. thick are cut like the pattern. Make the core 3/4 in. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. thick. 6.. then drill a 1/8-in. Procure 12 strips of mica. sheet fiber. and then they are soaked in warm water. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. brass rod. wide. by 1-1/2 in. Find the centers of each segment at one end. as shown in Fig. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. 9. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. 8. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. as shown in Fig. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. inside diameter. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. threaded. or segments. wide. hole and tap it for a pin. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. Armature-Ring Core. 1/8 in. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. After they . washers. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. 3. as shown in Fig. and held with a setscrew. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. Rivet them together. 3. After the pieces are cut out. thick. 6. When annealed. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. 3/4 in. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. 3/4 in. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars.

the two ends of the wire. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. after the motor is on the stand. In starting to wind. of the end to protrude. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. being required. Fig. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. The source of current is connected to the terminals. or side. All connections should be securely soldered. until the 12 slots are filled. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. sheet fiber. Fig. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. shown at B. are soldered together. After one coil. 1. of No. yet it shows a series of . which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. To connect the wires. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. which will take 50 ft. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire.have dried. 1. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. 5. of the wire. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. The field is wound with No. by bending the end around one of the projections. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. 6 in. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. The winding is started at A. about 100 ft. The two ends are joined at B. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. and wind on four layers. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. shown at A. they are glued to the core insulation. and bring the end of the wire out at B. This winding is for a series motor. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. wide and 1 in. thick. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. sheet fiber. When the glue is set. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. 8 in. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. long. Run one end of the field wire.

and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. Nine wires run from the timer.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. as in the case of a spiral. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. or. still more simply. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. which serves as the ground wire. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . one from each of the eight contacts. is fastened to the metallic body. A 1/2-in. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. and one.

two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. 45 deg. circle. long. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. Without this attachment. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. 6 in. thus giving 16 different directions. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. of the dial.The Wind Vane. It should be . the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. board. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. Covering these is a thin. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. The pointer end of the needle is painted black.

It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. Buffalo. and about 6 in. will be enough for the two sides." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. N. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. also a piece of new carpet. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. high. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather.about 6 ft. Fill the box with any handy ballast. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. -Contributed by James L. Blackmer. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. will be sufficient. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. making it heavy or light. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. however. according to who is going to use it. Y. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. and securely nail on the top of the box. though a special knife. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. long to give the best results. 14 by 18 in. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. Cut 3-in. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. Place the leather on some level. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. is most satisfactory. To work these outlines. thus making a universal joint. or. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. called a chip carving knife. will answer the purpose just as well. . To make it. Before tacking the fourth side. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. if not too high. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing.

Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. Paste the silk plush to the inner side. A good leather paste will be required. An ordinary sewing-machine .

If a fire breaks out. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. --Contributed by Katharine D. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. or a hip that has been wrenched. N. square and tying a piece of . Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. and tie them together securely at the bottom. a needle and some feathers. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. Syracuse. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. temporary lameness. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. Morse. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. and fasten the feathers inside of it. rather than the smooth side. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness.will do if a good stout needle is used. can be thrown away when no longer needed. of common salt and 10 lb. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. of water. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. Y. as in cases of a sprained ankle. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. away from it. B.

I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. The body of the receiver. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. The strings should be about 15 in. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. and a coil of wire. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. high. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. The end is filed to an edge. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. F. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. the corners being wired. deep. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. Y. Wis. etc. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. Ashland. . E. but not sharp. The coil is 1 in. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. This not only keeps the rats out. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. One end is removed entirely. thus helping the rats to enter. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. cut to the length of the spool. A. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. and tacked it to the boards. Hellwig. and the receiver is ready for use. as shown.J. long. setting traps. which is the essential part of the instrument. There is a 1-in. letting it go at arm's length. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. B. Gordon Dempsey. --Contributed by J. laying poisoned meat and meal. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. Paterson. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. board all around the bottom on the inside. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax.. 1/8 in. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. wound on the head end. --Contributed by John A. N. wide and 1/16 in. long. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. Albany. A small wooden or fiber end. G. made up of four layers of No. The diaphragm C.string to each corner. N. commonly called tintype tin. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. is cut on the wood. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration.

Take a pair of round-nose pliers. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. A single line will be sufficient. The vase is to have three supports. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. gold. To clean small articles. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. and bend each strip in shape. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. wide. begin with the smallest scrolls. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. better still. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. Take a piece of string or. a piece of small wire. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. to . This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. then dry and polish with a linen cloth.

This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. Work down the outside line of the design. from C to D. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. 4-1/4 in. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. 3-1/2 in. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. . Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. About 1 in. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse.. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side.. After taking off the pattern. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. sharp pencil. thus raising it. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. 6-3/8 in. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B.which the supports are fastened with rivets. and does not require coloring. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. using a duller point of the tool.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. wide when stitching up the purse. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. from E to F. Press or model down the leather all around the design. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. as shown in the sketch. through which to slip the fly AGH. Trace also the line around the purse. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. 3-1/4 in. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. from the lines EF on the piece. Fold the leather on the line EF.

and the projections B. and cut it out as shown in Fig. and tack the other piece slightly. When it is finished. This also should be slightly beveled. Now take another piece of wood. with the largest side down. as well as useful. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. Then nail the wheel down firmly. with the open side down. square. then nail it. place it on one of the square pieces of wood.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. deep. following the dotted lines. then place the square piece out of which Fig. around the wheel. long. Fit this to the two . the "open" side. thick. with pins or small nails. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. Make the lug 1/4 in. by 12 ft. leaving the lug a. with a compass saw. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. 2. 1. 3. Cut off six pieces 12 in. as shown in Fig. It is neat and efficient. and. 1 was cut. and cut out a wheel. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. all the way around.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. and which will be very interesting. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. b. being cast in wooden molds. and a model for speed and power. deep. 1/2 in. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. First. It can be made without the use of a lathe.

with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. hole bored through its center. bolts. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. Take the mold apart. Now take another of the 12-in. and bore six 1/4-in. Now put mold No. 1. one of which should have a 3/8-in. place it between two of the 12-in. slightly beveled. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. After it is finished. then bolt it together. hole entirely through at the same place. and clean all the shavings out of it. and boring a 3/8-in. square pieces of wood.pieces just finished. as shown by the black dots in Fig. hole 1/4 in. and cut it out as shown in Fig. holes through it. in the center of it. as shown by the .1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. deep. 4. square pieces of wood. and lay it away to dry.

1.2. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. screw down. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. d. so that it will turn easily. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. Fig. and bore three 1/4-in. and drill it entirely through. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. and 3/8-in. only the one is left-handed. 4. drill in it. from the one end. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. Put this together in mold No. 1. and lay it away to dry. in diameter must now be obtained. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. one in the lug.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. instead of the right-handed piece. take an ordinary brace. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. Pour metal into mold No. After it is fitted in. until it is full. A piece of mild steel 5 in. and connect to the boiler. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. long. see that the bolts are all tight. Using the Brace . long. Commencing 1-1/2 in. This is the same as Fig. B.black dots in Fig. This is for a shaft. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. This will cast a paddle-wheel. one in the projections. and drill them in the same manner. holes. Then bolt the castings together. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. wide and 16 in.1. and the exhaust hole in projection b. fasten a 3/8-in. put the top of the brace through this hole. 6. true it up with a square. place it under the drill. Let it stand for half an hour. the other right-handed. as shown in illustration. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. and run in babbitt metal again. holes at d. Now cut out one of the 12-in. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. as shown by the black dots in Fig. and two 1/4-in. over the defective part. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. and pouring metal in to fill it up. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made.2. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. 6. lay it on a level place. b. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. place the entire machine in a vise. where the casting did not fill out. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. and the other in the base. Now take mold No. and pour babbitt metal into it. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. This is mold No. 5. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings.

At each end of the 6ft. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. turn the wheel to the shape desired. long. and if instructions have been carefully followed. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. Plan of Ice Boat . and with three small screw holes around the edge. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. Then take a knife or a chisel. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. piece and at right angles to it. while it is running at full speed. will do good service. one 6 ft. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. and the other 8 ft. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. and.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam.. with a boss and a set screw.

Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. so much the better will be your boat. at the top. Make your runners as long as possible. in the top before the skate is put on. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. in diameter at the base. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. Fig. 2 by 3 in. long and 2-1/2 in. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. 1. at the end. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. leaving 1 ft. in diameter. bolt the 8-ft. On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. tapering to 1-1/2 in. plank nail 8-in. 3. long. as the runners were fastened. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . distant. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. piece and at right angles to it. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. and about 8 in. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. which may come in handy in heavy winds. Over the middle of the 6-ft. 1. long. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. at the butt and 1 in. Fig. in diameter in the center. in front of the rudder block. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. should be of hardwood.These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used. where they often did considerable damage. boards to make the platform. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. The tiller. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. This fits in the square hole. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. plank. To the under side of the 8-ft. The spar should be 9 ft. Run the seam on a machine. projecting as in Fig. 8 a reef point knot. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in.

R. Its parts are as follows: A. It is quite evident that when a rat put its two fore feet on the edge of the pan in order to eat the mush which it contained. wide. Mechanicsburg. Comstock. that an electrical connection would be made through the body of the rat. Ariz. Phoenix. connect the device in circuit with an electric bell. P. and the alarm bell will ring. binding-posts fastening the springs S S. A good sized induction coil was through connected with these wires and about six dry batteries were used to run the induction coil whenever a push button was manipulated. so that they come in contact at C. The arrangement proved quite too effective. to block B. B. W is a piece of wax crayon just long enough to break the contact at C when inserted as shown in the illustration. Pa.another from the zinc plate through the intervening yard and into the shop. --Contributed by John D. small piece of wood. When these parts have been put together in the manner described. S S. allowing the springs to contact at C. Adams. and when we pushed the button up in the shop the rat would be thrown 2 or 3 ft. but one that will afford any amount of amusement. Simple Fire Alarm When the stove becomes too hot the wax will melt at the ends. Electric Rat Trap How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359] A fire alarm which is both inexpensive and simple in construction is shown in the illustration. for after a week the rats all departed and the boys all regretted that their fun was at an end. block of wood nailed to A. two pieces of sheet brass about 1/4 in. P. in the air and let out a terrific squeak. --Contributed by J. bent into a hook at each end. To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359] This is a very simple device. The . and place it behind a stove.

and make it into a clock to hang on the wall. 6 in. and drill a hole in the center so the shaft for the hands will easily pass through and extend out far enough to replace the two hands. An old wheel is mounted at the top of the pole. and the pole works in the wheel as an axle. dial and works out of the shell and cut some pieces out of the metal so that when the pieces left are turned back it will have the appearance as in Fig. Take the glass. A passenger rides in each seat and the motorman takes his station at the middle. 1. Gild the pan all over. Then get a 10-cent frying pan. 2. Put the works back in the metal shell and solder it to the frying pan by the pieces turned out as in Fig. The seat arms may be any length desired.center post rests in an auger hole bored in an old stump or in a post set in the ground. high. The wheel is anchored out by several guy H