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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial


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  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother


Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)







A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

Ontario. 2. Toronto. 1. To throw a boomerang. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. wide and 2 ft. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. as shown in Fig. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. long will make six boomerangs. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. away. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. The pieces are then dressed round. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. apart. --Contributed by J. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . It is held in this curve until dry. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. until it is bound as shown in Fig. 1. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. as shown in Fig. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. grasp it and hold the same as a club. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. A piece of plank 12 in. 2. The finished preserver is shown in Fig.Fig.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. 1. E. Noble. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. 2 -. distant. Fig. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. with the hollow side away from you. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work.

dry snow will not pack easily. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. which makes the building simpler and easier. If the snow is of the right consistency. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. minus the top. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. but about 12 in. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. A very light. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. one inside of the circle and the other outside.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. or rather no bottom at all. the block will drop out. made of 6-in. however. blocks . First. and it may be necessary to use a little water. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. long. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. 6 in. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. it is not essential to the support of the walls. A wall. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. thick. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. forcing it down closely. and with a movable bottom. high and 4 or 5 in.

The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. Ore. --Contributed by Geo. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. Union. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. 3 -. C. long and 1 in. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. a. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. is 6 or 8 in. which can be made of wood. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. D. There is no outward thrust. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. which is about 1 ft. or an old safe dial will do. Goodbrod. The piece of wood. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. wide. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. 3. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. 1. It also keeps them out. Fig. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. Fig. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. above the ground. 1. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. and the young architect can imitate them. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. A nail. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. Fig. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. 2. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. 2.

and the other back of the stove and out of the way. Merrill. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. Syracuse. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. If ordinary butts are used. one pair of special hinges. New York. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string.When taking hot dishes from the stove. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. says the Sphinx. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. S. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. the box locked . as the weight always draws them back to place. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. --Contributed by R. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight.

Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. allowing each coat time to dry. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. smooth surface. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. as shown. draw one-half of it. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. Alberta Norrell. 3.and the performer steps out in view. It remains to bend the flaps. Ga. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. about 1-32 of an inch. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. If the measuring has been done properly. -Contributed by L. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. as shown in Fig. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. on drawing paper. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. 2. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. one for each corner. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. as shown in Fig. proceed as follows: First. To make a design similar to the one shown. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. Fig. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. 1. Augusta. When the sieve is shaken. If they do not. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. All . With the metal shears. Place the piece in a vise. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal.

25 gauge German-silver wire. --Contributed by R. long. In boring through rubber corks. To keep the metal from tarnishing. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. The common cork. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. After this has dried. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. used for insulation. of No. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. and in the positions shown in the sketch. 25 German-silver wire. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. should be in the line. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. Galbreath.the edges should be left smooth. if rolled under the shoe sole. Denver. causing it to expand. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. about 6 in. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. The current. is fitted tightly in the third hole. Colo. in passing through the lamp. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. in diameter. R. as shown at AA. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. If a touch of color is desired. heats the strip of German-silver wire. H. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. which is about 6 in. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. A piece of porcelain tube. C. from the back end. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. When the current is turned off. B. A resistance.

This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. 3. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. 2. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. Purchase two long book straps.bottom ring. with thin strips of wood. --Contributed by David Brown. Kansas City. leaving a space of 4 in. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. as shown in Fig. 1. Mo. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. . Fig. between them as shown in Fig.

The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. A. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. just the right weight for a woman to use. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. Kane... 1. The string is then tied. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. 4. are mounted on the outside of the box. N. as . Morse. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. Two strips of brass. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. Syracuse. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. Fig. When the aeroplane tips. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. in diameter. 1. --Contributed by Katharine D.An ordinary electric bell. and one weighing 25 lb. one weighing 15 lb. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. and a pocket battery. Pa. The folds are made over the string. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. Y. having a gong 2-1/2 in. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. and tack smoothly. Fig. which is the right weight for family use. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. Doylestown. These are shown in Fig. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. Fig. 3. 1. 36 in. long. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. --Contributed by James M. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. C. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. to form a handle. 2.

yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. 2. machine screws. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. 3/32 or 1/4 in. N. 1. long. AA. in diameter. --Contributed by Louis J. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. such as brackets. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. if once used. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. bent as shown in Fig. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. Y. Floral Park. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. Day. The saw. and many fancy knick-knacks. four washers and four square nuts. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. 2. two 1/8 -in. Frame Made of a Rod . bookracks and shelves can be made with one.

of water in which dissolve. Scranton. Rub off the highlights.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. green and browns are the most popular. For etching. of water. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. The buckle is to be purchased. An Austrian Top [12] . copper. If it colors the metal red. 1 part sulphuric acid. the most expensive. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. A. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. --Contributed by W. In the design shown. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. Detroit. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. Drying will cause this to change to purple. File these edges. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. it has the correct strength. 1 part nitric acid. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk.. Of the leathers. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. using a swab and an old stiff brush. treat it with color. allowing each time to dry.may be made of either brass. use them in place of the outside nuts. as well as brass and copper. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. of course. Silver is the most desirable but. therefore. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. Apply two coats. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. Watch Fob For coloring silver. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. after breaking up. or silver. if copper or brass. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. though almost any color may be obtained. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. be covered the same as the back. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. Michigan. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. as well as the depth of etching desired.

A 1/16-in. Tholl. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. is formed on one end. Bore a 3/4-in. thick. The handle is a piece of pine. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown.F.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. hole in this end for the top. pass one end through the 1/16-in. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. wide and 3/4 in. 1-1/4 in. set the top in the 3/4 -in. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. long. in diameter. When the shank is covered. . Michigan. hole. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. allowing only 1-1/4 in. starting at the bottom and winding upward. 5-1/4 in. Parts of the Top To spin the top. --Contributed by J. Ypsilanti. long. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. 3/4 in. A handle.

A. For black leathers. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. Mich.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. tarts or similar pastry. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. Northville. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. . --A. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. The baking surface. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. Alberta Norrell. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. Houghton. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. Augusta. having no sides. Ga. --Contributed by Miss L. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith.

break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. the same as shown in the illustration. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. says Studio Light. When you desire to work by white light. then solder cover and socket together. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. glass fruit jar. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. two turns will remove the jar. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. Mo. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. Stringing Wires [13] A. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. Centralia.

. square by 62 in. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. 4 Vertical pieces. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. so it can be folded up. Janesville. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. 4 Braces. Wis. They are fastened. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. 1-1/4 in. and not tip over. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. as shown in the cross-section sketch. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. square by 12 in. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits.for loading and development. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. 1-1/4 in. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. 16 Horizontal bars. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration.

Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. from scrap material. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. and a loop made in the end. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. after filling the pail with water. --Contributed by Dr. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. After rounding the ends of the studs. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. Cincinnati. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. The front can be covered . These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. -Contributed by Charles Stem. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. New York. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. H. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. Phillipsburg. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. O. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. C. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. If the loop is tied at the proper place. The whole. Rosenthal. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically.

the color will be an undesirable.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. Baltimore. you are. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. by all rules of the game. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. The . thoroughly fix. 1 FIG. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. Develop them into strong prints. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. and. principally mayonnaise dressing. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. By using the following method. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. the mouth of which rests against a. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. Wehr. if you try to tone them afterward. In my own practice. The results will be poor. Md. --Contributed by Gilbert A. FIG. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. either for contact printing or enlargements. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. If the gate is raised slightly. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. sickly one.

. stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax.... When the desired reduction has taken place... They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder." Cyanide of potassium .bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison.. Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete......... thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses. San Francisco.. An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in.. in this solution... The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished.. as it will appear clean much longer than the white.. This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print.... Cal.. to make it 5 by 5 in. Iodide of potassium .. Place the dry print. A good final washing completes the process.. Gray. in size.. when it starts to bleach.. Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away. The blotting paper can . 2 oz. transfer it to a tray of water.. wide and 4 in...... three times.. 16 oz. Put one on each corner of the blotting paper.. L. It will bleach slowly and evenly.. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig.. --Contributed by T. 20 gr. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes.. where it will continue to bleach. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table. 1 and again as in Fig. preferably the colored kind. 5 by 15 in.. The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone.. With a little practice... 2... this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain. long to admit the angle support. but.... A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper. The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper.. without previous wetting....... Water . being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects....... etc..

the head of which is 2 in. --Contributed by J. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. --Contributed by L. Wisconsin. the shaft 1 in. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. wide below the . and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. Corners complete are shown in Fig. 20 gauge. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. wide. Oshkosh.J. Wilson Aldred Toronto. Monahan.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. Canada. Make a design similar to that shown. having a width of 2-1/4 in. 3. and a length of 5 in.

using turpentine. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. Make one-half of the design. After the sawing. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. Allow this to dry. using carbon paper. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. 1 part sulphuric acid. deep. then coloring. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. using a small metal saw. but use a swab on a stick. 3. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. Pierce a hole with a small drill. Apply with a small brush. With the metal shears. then trace the other half in the usual way. after folding along the center line. 2. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. 1 part nitric acid. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. 1. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. . The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. After this has dried. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. 4. being held perpendicular to the work. then put on a second coat. With files.FIG. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. 1 Fig. The metal must be held firmly. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. Trace the design on the metal. which gives the outline of the design Fig. as shown in Fig. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. For coloring olive green. Fig. freehand. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. Do not put the hands in the solution.

as shown. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. --Contributed by Katharine D. M. Ii is an ordinary staple. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. attach brass handles. Burnett. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. Syracuse. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. --Contributed by H. Morse. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. Richmond. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. it does the work rapidly. then stain it a mahogany color. the block is split and the pasteboard removed.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. Cal. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. East Hartford. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. thick. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. When this is cold. on a chopping board. Carl Cramer. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. --Contributed by M. After the stain has dried. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. Conn. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. . The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. New York.

A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. --Contributed by W. 53 steel pens. A. also locate the drill holes. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. as shown at A. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. in width at the shank. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. and several 1/8-in. 1/4 in. indicating the depth of the slots. about 3/16 in. Cal. brass.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. Fig. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. L. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. Jaquythe. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. or tin. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. machine screws. H. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. some pieces of brass. thick. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. square. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. . it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. holes. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. two enameled. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. not over 1/4 in. Kissimmee. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. 4. Florida. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines.. --Contributed by Mrs. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. one shaft. Richmond. as shown in Fig. 1. saucers or pans. WARNECKE Procure some brass. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. Atwell.

7. using two nuts on each screw. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. 2. long by 3/4 in. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. Fig. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. hole is drilled to run off the water. wide. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. as in Fig. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . 3. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used.. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. There should be a space of 1/16 in. Bend as shown in Fig. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. Fig. as shown in Fig. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. can be procured. supply pipe. thick. If the shaft is square. as shown. machine screws and nuts. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. thick. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. in diameter and 1/32 in. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. lead should be run into the segments. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. 2. Fig. 5. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. long and 5/16 in. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. 3. brass and bolted to the casing. hole. These are connected to a 3/8-in. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. If metal dishes. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. with 1/8-in. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. The shaft hole may also be filed square. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. into the hole. about 1/32 in. with the face of the disk. hole in the center. 1.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. each about 1 in. and the ends filed round for the bearings. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. a square shaft used. and pins inserted. machine screws. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. wide and bend as shown in Fig. A 3/4-in. 6. with a 3/8-in.

--Contributed by S. three of which are in the basket. Cooke. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. --Contributed by F. or more in diameter. The four legs are each 3/4-in. high and 15 in. deep over all. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. V. from the bottom end of the legs. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. The lower part. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. Stain the wood before putting in the . Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. Hamilton. Fasten with 3/4-in. using four to each leg. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. Now you will have the box in two pieces. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. Be sure to have the cover. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. from the top of the box. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. Canada. Smith. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. screws. 8-1/2 in. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. When assembling. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. With a string or tape measure. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. square and 30-1/2 in. Ill. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. La Salle. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. and the smaller part will be known as the tray.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. we will call the basket. make these seams come between the two back legs. long. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. deep and 1-1/4 in. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. to make the bottom.

The folded part in the center is pasted together. and gather it at that point. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. Baltimore. Cover them with the cretonne. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. as shown in the sketch.lining. wide. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. Md. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. The side. wide and four strips 10 in. Boston. Mass. Sew on to the covered cardboards. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. Fig. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . 2. 1. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound.2 Fig. If all the parts are well sandpapered. --also the lower edge when necessary. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. When making the display. Packard. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. sewing on the back side. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. you can. -Contributed by Stanley H.

When through using the pad. 3. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. Crockett. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. It is cleanly. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. with slight modifications. Gloversville. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. L. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. N. Cross Timbers. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. It is not difficult to . Y.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by H. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. and. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. Fig. --Contributed by B. saving all the solid part. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. Orlando Taylor. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. Mo. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw.

Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. across the face. or if desired. S. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. Mass. --Contributed by Edith E. it should be new and sharp. Lowell. Both of these methods are wasteful. remove the contents. and scrape out the rough parts. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. Bourne. Lane. are shown in the diagram. If a file is used. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. After this is done. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. and secure it in place with glue or paste. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . Texas. El Paso. After stirring. -Contributed by C. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in.

As these were single-faced disk records. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. The illustration shows a rack for postcards.cooking utensil. The process works well and needs no watching. Those having houses . Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. --Contributed by Geo. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. Turl. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. Ill. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. He captured several pounds in a few hours. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. Oak Park. --Contributed by Marion P. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. After several hours' drying. Canton. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. Oregon. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. Greenleaf. --Contributed by Loren Ward. The insects came to the light. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. circled over the funnel and disappeared. Wheeler. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. Iowa. Des Moines. A Postcard Rack [25]. Ill. F. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them.

but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. will do as well. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. --Contributed by Thomas E. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one.. Glenbrook. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. The single boards can then be fixed. 6 in. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. and the second one for the developing bench. plane and pocket knife. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. Both sides can be put together in this way. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. Lay the floor next. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. 6 in. one on each side of what will be the . Mass.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. thick. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. by 2 ft. but for cheapness 3/4 in. the bottom being 3/8 in. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. and as they are simple in design. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. Rosenberg. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. not even with the boards themselves. Dobbins. Worcester. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. boards are preferable. Conn. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used.. the best material to use being matched boards. Only three pieces are required. --Contributed by Wm. and both exactly alike. material.

The developing bench is 18 in. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. nailing them to each other at the ridge. 5. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. and act as a trap for the light. so that the water will drain off into the sink. of the top of the door for the same reason.. wide. brown wrapping paper. Fig. At the top of the doorway. 2 in section. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. etc. which is fixed on as shown . as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. and to the outside board of the sides. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. In hinging the door. and an arrangement of slats (Fig.. 9). hinged to it. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig.doorway. by screwing to the floor. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. 6. 6. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. It is shown in detail in Fig. The roof boards may next be put on. below which is fixed the sink. 7. is cut. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. 8. 10). three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. so that it will fit inside the sink. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. 11. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. 3 and 4. 6) and another as F in the same drawing.. 6 and 9. the closing side as at B. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. and in the middle an opening. and the top as at C in the same drawing. as shown in Figs. 9 by 11 in. and should be zinc lined.

Details of the Dark Rook .

A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. 14. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. as shown in Fig. as at M. screwing them each way into the boards. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. if desired. hole bored in the center for a handle. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. 20. and a 3/8-in. but not the red glass and frame. 17. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. The handle should be at least 12 in. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. these being shown in Fig. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. 2. four coats at first is not too many.in Fig. are fastened in the corners inside. mixing flour and water. preferably maple or ash. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. which makes it possible to have white light. Fig. 18. In use. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. 16. after lining with brown paper. or the room may be made with a flat roof. --Contributed by W. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. Erie. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. 16. For beating up an egg in a glass. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. 13. 6. as at I. Fig. or red light as at K. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. Karl Hilbrich. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. 19. it is better than anything on the market. as in Fig. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. 13. and a tank stand on it. Pennsylvania. Fig. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. A circular piece about 2 in. 1. though this is hardly advisable. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. Fig. as shown in the sections. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. 15. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. The house will be much strengthened if strips.

The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. G. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. for a handle. D. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. Mo. L. when put together properly is a puzzle. Ark. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. Mitchell. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. Schweiger. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. Eureka Springs. as shown in the sketch. New York. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. long. which. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. Kansas City. Yonkers. --Contributed by L. Smith.copper should be. --Contributed by Wm. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . -Contributed by E. To operate. about 3/8 in.

Each cork is cut as in Fig. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. in order to thoroughly preserve it. 1. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. 2. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. to make it set level. as shown in Fig. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. 3. Having completed the bare box. After the box is trimmed. the box will require a greater height in front. If the sill is inclined.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. which binds them together. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. The design shown in Fig. as is usually the case. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. as well as improve its appearance. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. A number of 1/2-in. . the rustic work should be varnished. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. The corks in use are shown in Fig. need them. holes should be drilled in the bottom. as shown in Fig. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. 3. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. for the moment. especially for filling-in purposes.

Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. drilled at right angles. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. it's easy. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. Each long projection represents a leg. 3. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. 2. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. and observe results. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. Traps do no good. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. etc. . The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. But I have solved the difficulty. share the same fate.. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. cabbages. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. When the corn is gone cucumbers. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. F. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. life in the summer time is a vexation. 1. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. being partly eaten into. 4. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. can't use poison. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. too dangerous. as shown in Fig. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron.

Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. If. of No. cut in 1/2-in. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. About 9-1/2 ft. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. cut some of it off and try again. The solution can be used over and over again. long. strips. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. by trial. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. .Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. and made up and kept in large bottles. the coil does not heat sufficiently. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. -. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. Iowa.

. Dallas. as shown in the sketch. of oleic acid with 1 gal. --Contributed by Katharine D. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. Morse. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. and a strip. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. Texas. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. 1) removed. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. Pa. In cleaning silver. Do not wash them. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. Fig 2. to cause the door to swing shut. --Contributed by James M. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. Syracuse. Kane. Y. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. hot-water pot.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. N. but with unsatisfactory results. Knives. of whiting and 1/2 oz. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. it falls to stop G. is a good size--in this compound. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. Stir and mix thoroughly. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. forks. Doylestown. coffee pot. C. D. of gasoline. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used.

Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. using the paper dry. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . New Orleans. Sprout. but unfixed. Fisher. later fixed and washed as usual. La. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. --Contributed by Theodore L. --Contributed by Oliver S. Ill. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. Waverly. which is. negatives. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. . Pa. of course. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. Harrisburg. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed.

graceful sweep of the long pendulum. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. then . The harmonograph. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. a harmonograph is a good prescription. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. metal. 1. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. Fig. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. In this uncertainty lies the charm. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. To obviate this difficulty. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings.

--Contributed by Wm. is attached as shown at H. J. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. R. --Contributed by James T. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. Holes up to 3 in. K. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. 1. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. in diameter. of about 30 or 40 lb. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. exactly one-third. Arizona. as shown in the lower part of Fig. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. provides a means of support for the stylus. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. one-fifth. A length of 7 ft. is about right for a 10-ft. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. or the lines will overlap and blur. with a nail set or punch. as shown in Fig. A pedestal. Rosemont. to prevent any side motion.. 1. A small weight. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. etc. in the center of the circle to be cut. what is most important. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. The length of the short pendulum H. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. for instance. A weight. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. ceiling. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. and unless the shorter pendulum is. as long as the other. that is. Gaffney. one-fourth. which can be regulated. makes respectively 3. G. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. Another weight of about 10 lb.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. such as a shoe buttoner. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. A small table or platform. 1-3/4 by 2 in. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. Chicago. Ingham. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then.. Punch a hole.

-Contributed by W. dividing them into quarters.J. 4. then put 2 at the top.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. Fig. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. and proceed as before. The capacity of the vise. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. 5. of course. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. 2.H. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. a correspondent of . Fig. Cruger. N. then 3 as in Fig.J. and 4 as in Fig. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. Chicago. 6. The two key cards are made alike. Morey. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. Cape May City. one for the sender and one for the receiver. distributing them over the whole card. --Contributed by J. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. 3. 1. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter.

Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. of the uprights. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. 1/2 oz. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. 1/4 in. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. Ga. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. Wind the successive turns of . Alberta Norrell. wood-screws. 22 gauge German-silver wire. long. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. --Contributed by L. of water. remove the prints. citrate of iron and ammonia. sheet of well made asbestos paper. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. respectively. After preparing the base and uprights. says Popular Electricity. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. Asbestos board is to be preferred. Cut through the center. 30 gr. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. of 18-per-cent No. from the top and bottom. If constructed of the former. 6 gauge wires shown. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. After securing the tint desired. Augusta. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. the portion of the base under the coil. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. of ferricyanide of potash. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. drill 15 holes. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. acetic acid and 4 oz. deep. To assemble. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board.

cut and dressed 1/2 in. square. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. --Contributed by Frederick E. etc. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. Ampere. 16 gauge copper wire. Y. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. The case may be made of 1/2-in. if one is not a smoker.. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. Labels of some kind are needed. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. as they are usually thrown away when empty.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. 14 gauge. then fasten the upright in place. N. but these are not necessary. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. rivets. Ward. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. which. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. screws. Small knobs may be added if desired. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit.

or has become corroded. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. Eureka Springs. as shown in the sketch. California.. and rub the point of the copper on it. lead. Larson." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. The parts are put together with dowel pins. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. --Contributed by W. tin. Ark. Copper. brass. being careful about the heat. especially if a large tub is used. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. Jaquythe. Richmond. and one made of poplar finished black. tinner's acid. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. If the soldering copper is an old one.14 oz. the pure muriatic acid should be used. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. Heat it until hot (not red hot). a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. The material can be of any wood. particularly so when the iron has once been used. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. In soldering galvanized iron. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. a piece of solder. zinc. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. C. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. S. B. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. Kenosha. and labeled "Poison. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. of glycerine to 16 oz. D. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. Wis. A. galvanized iron. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. of water. sandpaper or steel wool. E and F. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. G. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. . This is considerable annoyance. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. then to the joint to be soldered. it must be ground or filed to a point. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. --C. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. --Contributed by A.

if such metals are in plate or sheet form. B. a ring may be made from any metal. Troy. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. which gives two bound volumes each year. This completes the die. with good results. 7/8 in. Apart from this. Place the band. D. I bind my magazines at home evenings. -Contributed by H. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. nut. in diameter. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. The punch A. such as copper. in diameter. and drill out the threads. thick and 1-1/4 in. Brass rings can be plated when finished. Take a 3/4-in. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. This will leave a clear hole. brass and silver. wide. 2. The covers of the magazines are removed. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. however. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. W.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. The dimensions shown in Fig. N. Y. round iron. C. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. Hankin. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. Fig. The disk will come out pan shaped. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. Six issues make a well proportioned book. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. Fig. 1. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish.

making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. Place the cardboard covers on the book. through the notch on the left side of the string No. allowing about 2 in. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. then back through the notch on the right side. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. is used for the sewing material. of the ends extending on each side. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. 1. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. on all edges except the back. If started with the January or the July issue. using . Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. The sections are then prepared for sewing.4. C. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. . is nailed across the top. The string No. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. After drawing the thread tightly. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. size 16 or larger. Five cuts. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. as shown in Fig. 5. and then to string No. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. The covering should be cut out 1 in. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. deep. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. 1. 1. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. and place them against the strings in the frame. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. 2. Coarse white thread. 1/8 in. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. 2. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. 1 in Fig. The covering can be of cloth. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. which is fastened the same as the first. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. and a third piece. threaded double. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. Start with the front of the book.

then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. Nebr. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. round iron. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. College View. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. Tinplate. Cal. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. at opposite sides to each other. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. and mark around each one. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. --Contributed by Clyde E.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. Encanto. For the blade an old talking-machine . Divine. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. on which to hook the blade. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. Place the cover on the book in the right position. and.

thick. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). as shown. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. with a steel sleeve. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. at the same end.. C. Moorhead. or double extra heavy. thick. in order to drill the holes in the ends. Hays. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. and 1/4 in. as it is sometimes called. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. Then on the board put . -Contributed by Willard J. by 1 in. Ohio. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. On the upper side. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. Make the blade 12 in. Summitville. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. and file in the teeth. F. by 4-1/2 in. bore. B. hydraulic pipe. with 10 teeth to the inch. Miss. and a long thread plug. A. fuse hole at D. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. and another piece (B) 6 in. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch.. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. E. long. and 1/4 in. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in.

Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. high around this apparatus. about 5 ft. the jars need not be very large. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. If you are going to use a current of low tension. some sheet copper or brass for plates. Connect up as shown. 4 jars. of wire to each coil. Boyd. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. using about 8 in. and some No. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of .Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. H. as from batteries. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. of rubber-covered wire. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. Philadelphia. A lid may be added if desired. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. --Contributed by Chas.

bevel block K to give a rocker motion. 2 in. Construct the auto front (Fig. 2. See Fig. steel rod makes a good steering rod. 4. On the door of the auto front put the . making them clear those in the front runner. wide by 3/4 in. Their size also depends on the voltage. The top disk in jar No. 7 in. by 2 in. A variation of 1/16 in. square by 14 ft. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. The current then will flow through the motor. B. 4) of 3/4-in. direct to wire across jars. No. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. For the front runners these measurements are: A. 15-1/2 in. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. thick. 1. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. two pieces 34 in. long. 16-1/2 in. 2. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front.. thick. by 5 in.. beginning at the rear. Equip block X with screw eyes. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. are important. For the brass trimmings use No. 1 is connected to point No. 3 and No. An iron washer. The stock required for them is oak. 1 and so on for No. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. 4 in. by 2 in.. sheet brass 1 in. The sled completed should be 15 ft. A 3/4-in. by 1 in.the way. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. oak boards. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. 3. two pieces 14 in. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. Put arm of switch on point No. and bolt through. and for the rear runners: A. 2 and 3. by 1-1/4 in. B and C. long. and plane it on all edges. with the cushion about 15 in. B. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. gives full current and full speed. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. long. by 5 in.. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. To wire the apparatus. 2 is lower down than in No. 11 in. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. & S. 34 in. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. on No. C. and four pieces 14 in. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. or source of current. by 1-1/4 in. 30 in. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery.. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. as they "snatch" the ice. 1 on switch. two for each jar. long by 22 in. then apply a coat of thin enamel. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. wide. Use no screws on the running surface. The illustration shows how to shape it.. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. 3 in. two pieces 30 in. by 6 in. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. First sandpaper all the wood. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. however. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. wide and 3/4 in. C. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. 2. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. above the ground.. Use no nails. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. In proportioning them the points A. 5 on switch. apart. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. long. Fig. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. . The connection between point No. Z. as they are not substantial enough. 27 B. At the front 24 or 26 in. is used to reduce friction. wide and 2 in.

may be stowed within. cheap material. parcels. by 30 in. Fasten a horn. etc. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. If desired. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. by 1/2 in. which is somewhat moist. Then get some upholstery buttons. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. If the expense is greater than one can afford. to improve the appearance. If desired. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. such as used on automobiles. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. such as burlap. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. lunch. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. or with these for $25. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. to the wheel. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. a brake may be added to the sled. fasten a cord through the loop. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. long. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. overshoes. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . brass plated. cutting it out of sheet brass. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. The best way is to get some strong. a number of boys may share in the ownership.

tree and bring. --Contributed by Stewart H. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. Leland. Ill. Lexington. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. .

so that the center of the blade. Fig. The first tooth may now be cut. Fig. A small clearance space. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. the cut will be central on the line. thick. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. some files. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. First take the case of a small gearwheel. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. say 1 in. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. will be over the line FG. 4). The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. Fig. 2. mild steel or iron. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. the same diameter as the wheel. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. London. Draw a circle on paper. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. outside diameter and 1/16 in. which. a compass.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. This guide should have a beveled edge. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. when flat against it. FC. sheet metal. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. from F to G. by drawing diameters. E. CD. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. The Model Engineer. though more difficult. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. The straight-edge. With no other tools than a hacksaw. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. with twenty-four teeth. 3. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. made from 1/16-in. 1. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter.

With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. as shown in Fig. . and the other outlet wire. some wire and some carbons. B. No shock will be perceptible. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. each in the center. either the pencils for arc lamps. R. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. Then take one outlet wire. or several pieces bound tightly together. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. If there is no faucet in the house. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. Make a hole in the other. ground it with a large piece of zinc. transmitter. 1. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. A bright. Focus the camera in the usual manner. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. electric lamp. hold in one hand. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. 1. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. 2. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver.Four Photos on One Plate of them. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. B. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig.

How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. Pa. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. and about that size. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. by 12 in. One like a loaf of bread. Slattery. Dry batteries are most convenient. by 1 in. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. J. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. 36 wire around it. one at the receiver can hear what is said. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. are also needed. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. Several battery cells. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. Then set the whole core away to dry. --Contributed by Geo. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. If desired. Emsworth. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. They have screw ends. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. at each end for terminals. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. leaving about 10 in. D D are binding posts for electric wires. and again wind the wire around it. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. serves admirably. B. and will then burn the string C. Ashland. A is a wooden block. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. Wrenn. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. But in this experiment. of course. For a base use a pine board 10 in. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. Ohio. as indicated by E E. as shown. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. a transmitter which induces no current is used. or more of the latter has been used. under the gable.

wire. as shown. 2. run a No. in parallel. These should have hollow ends. Turn on switch. Fig. 12 or No. The oven is now ready to be connected. C. Place 16-cp. the terminal of the coil. First make a support. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. 14 wire. From the other set of binding-posts. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. Connect these three to switch. C. The coil will commence to become warm. Jr. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. D. The apparatus is now ready for operation. for the . while C is open. B B. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. F. Ohio. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. At one side secure two receptacles. until the hand points to zero on the scale. as shown. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. Fig. E. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. D. in series with bindingpost. 1. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. B B.. and switch. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. connecting lamp receptacles. and the lamps. Newark. and one single post switch. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A.

Solder to the short end a piece of brass. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. 2. as shown in the cut. 10 turns to each layer. wide and 1-3/4 in. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. Montreal. 4 in. but if for a 4way. After drilling. and D. The pointer or hand. This is slipped on the pivot. Dussault. 1/4 in. inside measurements. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. where A is the homemade ammeter. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. If for 3-way. The core. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. although copper or steel will do. To make one. is made of wire. 14 wire. wide and 1/8 in. C. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. remove the valve. long. 1/2 in. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C.. although brass is better. 4. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. B. long and make a loop. D. 6. --Contributed by J. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. Mine is wound with two layers of No.E.or 4-way valve or cock. 3. 4 amperes. 14. long.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. 1. a variable resistance. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. 1. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. Fig. drill through the entire case and valve. The box is 5-1/2 in. Fig. 5. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. wind with plenty of No. to prevent it turning on the axle. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. At a point a little above the center. This may be made of wood. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. Fig. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. E. a standard ammeter. A wooden box. 7. 36 magnet wire instead of No. high. is made of iron. drill in only to the opening already through. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. is then made and provided with a glass front. etc. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. 5. until the scale is full. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. 3 amperes. It is 1 in. a battery. from the lower end. thick. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. deep. Fig. drill a hole as shown at H. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. D.

The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. F. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. B. A. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. as shown. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. and the arc light. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. One wire runs to the switch. which is used for reducing the current. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. in thickness . C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. high. To start the light. in diameter. making two holes about 1/4 in. This stopper should be pierced. E. and a metal rod. By connecting the motor. and the other connects with the water rheostat. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in.performing electrical experiments. D. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. provided with a rubber stopper. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple.

B. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. as shown in B. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. 1. Turn on the current and press the button. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. 1. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. 2. Jones. As there shown. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. Fig. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. Fig. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. Fig. Y. To insert the lead plate. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. 1. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. Having finished the interrupter. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. as shown in C. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. long. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. Fig. --Contributed by Harold L. Carthage. A. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. Having fixed the lead plate in position. If all adjustments are correct. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. where he is placed in an upright open . A piece of wood. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. If the interrupter does not work at first. N. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. 2. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings.

and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. the illusion will be spoiled. If everything is not black. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. Its edges should nowhere be visible. to aid the illusion. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. loosejointed effect. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. from which the gong has been removed. A white shroud is thrown over his body. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. is constructed as shown in the drawings. until it is dark there. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. figures and lights. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. high. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. and must be thoroughly cleansed. by 7-1/2 in. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. dressed in brilliant. L and M. should be miniature electric lamps. as the entire interior. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. They need to give a fairly strong light. If it is desired to place the box lower down. especially L. A. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. and wave his arms up and down. The model. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. especially the joints and background near A. which can be run by three dry cells. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. should be colored a dull black.. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. with the exception of the glass. All . and can be bought at Japanese stores. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. The lights. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. giving a limp.coffin. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. The skeleton is made of papier maché. could expect from a skeleton. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. inside dimensions. light-colored garments. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. within the limits of an ordinary room. by 7 in. The glass should be the clearest possible.

as shown in the sketch. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. Cal. fat spark. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. Fry. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. Two finishing nails were driven in. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. If a gradual transformation is desired. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white.that is necessary is a two-point switch. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. --Contributed by Geo. placed about a foot apart. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. San Jose. square block. W. after which it assumes its normal color. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps.

-Contributed by Dudley H. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. with two tubes. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. Cohen. The plates are separated 6 in. This is a wide-mouth bottle. One of these plates is connected to metal top. B and C. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. 1. soldered in the top. F. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. A (see sketch). by a piece of hard rubber at each end. In Fig. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. New York. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. into the receiver G. or a solution of sal soda. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. and should be separated about 1/8 in. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. In Fig. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. as shown. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. the remaining space will be filled with air. hydrogen gas is generated.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. by small pieces of wood. to make it airtight. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. If a lighted match . It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. which is filled with melted rosin or wax.

The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. which forms the vaporizing coil. P. as is shown in the illustration. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. Fig. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . London. A nipple. N. or by direct contact with another magnet.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. 1-5/16 in. either by passing a current of electricity around it. 1/2 in. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. A 1/64-in. A. A. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. should be only 5/16 of an inch. says the Model Engineer. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. C C. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. of No. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. A. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. B. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. If desired. is then coiled around the brass tube. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. then a suitable burner is necessary. long. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. in diameter and 6 in. by means of the clips. long. The distance between the nipple. 2 shows the end view. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. which is plugged up at both ends. A. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. 1. and the ends of the tube. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. from the bottom. 36 insulated wire. One row is drilled to come directly on top. copper pipe. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. N. Fig. copper pipe. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. A piece of 1/8-in. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. is made by drilling a 1/8in.

longer and 1/4 in. at the front and back for fly leaves. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. larger all around than the book. this makes a much nicer book. fold and cut it 1 in. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. trim both ends and the front edge. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. taking care not to bend the iron. 2). Fig. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. Fig. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. leaving the folded edge uncut. about 8 or 10 in.lamp cord. Cut four pieces of cardboard. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. 1/4 in. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. boards and all. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. cut to the size of the pages. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. with a fine saw. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. Take two strips of stout cloth. should be cut to the diameter of the can. duck or linen. smoothly. Fig. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. 3. Turn the book over and paste the other side. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. but if the paper knife cannot be used. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. A disk of thin sheet-iron. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. 1.

Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. which will just slip inside the little can. --Contributed by James E. as shown in the sketch. 18 in. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. is fitted in it and soldered. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. . Noble. deep. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. without a head. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. Parker. is made the same depth as B. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. is soldered onto tank A. A. H. Va. Toronto. This will cause some air to be enclosed. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. and a little can. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. In the bottom. B. is turned on it.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. the joint will be gas tight. Another can. or rather the top now. pasting them down (Fig. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. in diameter and 30 in. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. Bedford City. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. C. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. A gas cock. --Contributed by Joseph N. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. D. as shown. E. of tank A is cut a hole. Another tank. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. but its diameter is a little smaller. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. 4). Ont. is perforated with a number of holes. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top.

so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. long. tacks. basswood or white pine. The small guards. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. Fig. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. The diagonal struts. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. 1. fastened in the bottom. when finished. should be 1/4 in. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. should be cut a little too long. 2. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. square by 42 in. The longitudinal corner spines. thus adjusting the . and about 26 in. B. Bott. with an electric-bell magnet. The armature. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. S. H is a square knot. B. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. If the back armature. to prevent splitting. J. long. exactly 12 in. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. A. Beverly. should be 3/8 in. E. and sewed double to give extra strength. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. D. N. -Contributed by H. If the pushbutton A is closed. The bridle knots. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. which moves to either right or left. The wiring diagram. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. A A. shows how the connections are to be made. which may be either spruce. Fig. making the width.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. are shown in detail at H and J. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. D. and the four diagonal struts. by 1/2 in. C. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well.. B. as shown at C.

Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. however. --Contributed by Edw. A bowline knot should be tied at J. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. and if a strong wind is blowing. thus shortening G and lengthening F. --Contributed by A. Clay Center. Chicago. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. as shown. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. for producing electricity direct from heat. Closing either key will operate both sounders. Harbert. and. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. to prevent slipping. E. with gratifying results. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. shift toward F. Stoddard. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. Kan. If the kite is used in a light wind.lengths of F and G. that refuse to slide easily. D. can be made of a wooden . the batteries do not run down for a long time.

C. or parallel with the compass needle. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. placed on top. B. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. The wood screw.frame. E. by means of machine screws or. E. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. F. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. which conducts the current into the cannon. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. Fasten a piece of wood. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. and also holds the pieces of wood. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. A and B. D. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. A. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. spark. A. with a number of nails. --Contributed by A. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. Chicago. 14 or No. C. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. and the current may then be detected by means. to the cannon. 16 single-covered wire.. A. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. C. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . in position. with a pocket compass. Then. When the cannon is loaded. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. Turn the spool in a north and south direction.

screw is bored in the block. --Contributed by Joseph B. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. 1. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. Keil. when in position at A'. Chicago. square and 3/8 in. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. Connect as shown in the illustration. within the reach of the magnet. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. Big Rapids. where there is a staple. requiring a strong magnet. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. in this position the door is locked. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. To lock the door. Ohio. L. . Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. Fig. Fig. A and S. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. H. Mich. To unlock the door. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. B. A. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. 1. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. press the button. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. Bend the strips BB (Fig. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. with the long arm at L'. now at A' and S'. A hole for a 1/2 in. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. to receive the screw in the center. Marion. To reverse. 1. but no weights or strings. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. A and S. In Fig. --Contributed by Henry Peck. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. The fulcrum of the lever is at C.the current is shut off. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts.

couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. if enameled white on the concave side. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. The standard and base. are enameled a jet black. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. West Somerville. Thread the other end of the pipe. or for microscopic work. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. When the holes are finished and your lines set. and C is a dumbbell. Mass. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. and may be made at very slight expense. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. and if desired the handles may . Rand. hole. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. J. When ready for use. --Contributed by C. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. about 18 in. gas-pipe. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. long. pipe with 1-2-in. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. put in the handle.

A. across. M. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . 1. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. Make a cylindrical core of wood. 8 in. long and 8 in. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. with a cover. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. inside the pail. Fig. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. Mass. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. which shall project at least 2 in. B. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. as shown at A in the sketch.be covered with leather. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. North Easton. Fig. Warren. 1. --Contributed by C. across. E. D. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings.. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. high by 1 ft. This peculiar property is also found in ice.

How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. The 2 in. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. or make one yourself. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. full length of iron core. Fit all the parts together snugly.mixture of clay. about 1 in. wider than the kiln. but it will burn a great deal of gas. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. if you have the materials. Cover with paper and shellac as before.. which is the hottest part. It is placed inside the kiln. 25%. cutting the hole a little smaller. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. and varnish. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. After removing all the paper. the point of the blue flame. and with especial caution the first time. pack this space-top. and 3/8 in. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. as dictated by fancy and expense. 1). Procure a bundle of small iron wire. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. 1). Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. if there is to be any glazing done. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. 3) with false top and bottom. and cut it 3-1/2 in. say 1/4 in. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. thick. and on it set the paper wrapped core. long. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. L. thick. C. 15%. Wind about 1/8 in. E. 60%. long over the lid hole as a chimney. C. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. 2 in. passing wire nails through and clinching them. in diameter. sand. and your kiln is ready for business. projecting from each end (Fig. in diameter. hard porcelain.-G. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. This done. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. If the cover of the pail has no rim. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. Whatever burner is used. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. Line the pail. make two wood ends. 2. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. bottom and sides.. hotel china. In like manner make the cover of the kiln.. Set aside for a few days until well dried. 1390°-1410°. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. layer of the clay mixture. of fine wire. pipe 2-ft. C. 1330°. to hold the clay mixture. as is shown in the sketch. and graphite. When lighted. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. the firing should be gradual. carefully centering it. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. such . A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. Fig. W. let this dry thoroughly. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. strip of sheet iron. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. but will be cheaper in operation. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. diameter. pipe. After finishing the core. and 3/4 in.

--Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. square them up. A.. --Contributed by J. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. . the next black. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. Chicago. with a plane. and so on. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. 2. D. around the coil. length of . and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. You can display either color called for. C. and discharges into the tube. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. The funnel. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. procure a new deck. C. as shown in the sketch herewith. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. 1. taking care to have the first card red. bind tightly with black silk. all cards facing the same way. red and black. as in Fig. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. diameter. Take the red cards. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. every alternate card being the same color. B. leaving long terminals. 2). A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. Of course. Then. 8 in. C. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. 2. square them up and place in a vise. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner.53 in. Washington. as in Fig.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. about 1/16 in. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. and plane off about 1/16 in. Then take the black cards. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. Next restore all the cards to one pack. T. and divide it into two piles. overlaps and rests on the body. R.

will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. A. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. Fig. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. through the holes already drilled. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. E. When the glass is put in the frame a space. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. The cement. thus making all the holes coincide. All the horizontal pieces. to form a dovetail joint as shown. N. and then the frame is ready to assemble. as the difficulties increase with the size. D. B. C. about 20 in. F. A. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. 1 gill of litharge. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. The upright pieces.. the first thing to decide on is the size. stove bolts. It should be placed in an exposed location. and this is inexpensive to build. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces.J. of the frame. Long Branch. E. Let . The bottom glass should be a good fit.C. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. Drill all the horizontal pieces. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. stove bolts. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. so that when they are assembled. the same ends will come together again. 1 gill of fine white sand. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. B. 1. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. B. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. angle iron for the frame. To find the fall of snow. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in.

a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . to the door knob. Aquarium Finished If desired. D. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. B. if desired. A. a centerpiece (A. Fig. having a swinging connection at C. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. and. on the door by means of a metal plate. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. Fasten the lever. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump.

nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. Do not fasten these boards now. as at E. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. according to the slant given C. thus doing away with the spring. Fig. B. --Contributed by Orton E. long. PAUL S. wide by 1 in. from the outside top of the frame. 6 in. 1. To make the frame. AA. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. D. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. approximately 1 ft. 2 ft. to form the slanting part. Fig. wide . They are shown in Fig. long. will open the door about 1/2 in. Fig. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. several lengths of scantling 3 in. another. another. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. 1 is the motor with one side removed. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. soldered to the end of the cylinder. Fig. White.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. E. and another. Buffalo. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration.. with a water pressure of 70 lb. showing the paddle-wheel in position. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. F. Y. for the top. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. Cut two pieces 30 in. N. long. I referred this question to my husband. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. 1 . which is only used to keep the door from relocking. to form the main supports of the frame. A small piece of spring brass. Fig. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. 3 shows one of the paddles. long. 2 is an end view. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. 2 at GG. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. Fig. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. which is 15 in. hoping it may solve the same question for them. Two short boards 1 in. to keep the frame from spreading. 26 in. C. Cut two of them 4 ft. screwed to the door frame. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. but mark their position on the frame. 1. and Fig.

thick. 2) and another 1 in. Drill 1/8-in. and drill a 1-in. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. hole to form the bearings. (I. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. pipe. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. to a full 1/2 in. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. 2) with a 5/8-in. hole through them. hole through their sides centrally. in diameter. 2) form a substantial base. and drill a 1/8-in. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. GG. remove the cardboard. and a 1/4 -in.along the edges under the zinc to form . Now block the wheel. iron 3 by 4 in. from one end by means of a key. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. that is. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. hole through its center. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. iron. Fasten them in their proper position. long and filling it with babbitt metal. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. holes. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. Tack one side on. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). 24 in. Fig. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. with the wheel and shaft in place. Fig. long to the wheel about 8 in. as shown in Fig. Next secure a 5/8-in. thick (HH.burlap will do -. Fig. These are the paddles. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. tapering from 3/16 in. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. Take the side pieces. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. then drill a 3/16-in. steel shaft 12 in. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. take down the crosspieces. Make this hole conical. 4. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. When it has cooled. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. hole from the tops to the 1-in. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. hole through the exact center of the wheel. after which drill a 5/8 in. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. 1. by 1-1/2 in.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned.

says the Photographic Times. Do not stop down the lens. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. Drill a hole through the zinc.a water-tight joint. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. as this makes long exposure necessary. but as it would have cost several times as much. but now I put them in the machine. any window will do. If the bearings are now oiled. place the outlet over a drain. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. as shown in the sketch at B. shutting out all light from above and the sides. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. it would be more durable. and leave them for an hour or so. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. Correct exposure depends. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. If sheet-iron is used. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. on the lens. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. The best plate to use is a very slow one. Focus the camera carefully. and the subject may move. sewing machine. start the motor. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. or what is called a process plate. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. of course. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. Darken the rest of the window. light and the plate. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. Raise the window shade half way. and as near to it as possible. . At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. drill press. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. It is obvious that. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. ice-cream freezer. remove any white curtains there may be.

18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. a glass tube. B. until the core slowly rises. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. or wood. 2. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. by twisting. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. The glass tube may be a test tube. A. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. C. an empty pill bottle may be used. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. The current required is very small. as shown in Fig.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. which is made of iron and cork. with binding posts as shown. 2. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. or can be taken from an old magnet. as a slight current will answer. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. without detail in the face. The core C. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. With a piece of black paper. full of water. and without fog. hard rubber. or an empty developer tube. the core is drawn down out of sight. On completing . D. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. a core. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. and a base.

Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. water and 3 oz. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. 1. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. This is a mysterious looking instrument. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. finest graphite. and are changed by reversing the rotation. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. and make a pinhole in the center. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. according to his control of the current. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. The colors appear different to different people. 1 lb. is Benham's color top. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . and one not easy to explain. white lead. whale oil. 1 pt. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires.

Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. Chicago. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. As this device is easily upset. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. or three spot. In making hydrogen. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. deuce. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. In prize games. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. A. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. before cutting.. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. nearly every time. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. 2 can cut the cards at the ace.L. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. C. B. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure.B. when the action ceases. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. thus partly filling bottles A and C. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. fan-like. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. especially if the deck is a new one. -Contributed by D.

using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. Jr. 12 in. S. Make ten pieces about 1 ft.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. in diameter. 4. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. Form a cone of heavy paper. 2. 9 in. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. Detail of Phonograph Horn . 2 is also an enlarged sketch. . to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. 3).. W. Bently. Detroit. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. long. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. in length and 3 in. 1. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. Fig. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. Fig. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. Make a 10-sided stick. long and 3 in. --Contributed by F. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. S.. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. that will fit loosely in the tube A. 10 in. (Fig. --Contributed by C. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. Huron. J. as shown in Fig. Dak.

A second piece of silk thread. 6. long. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. on one side and the top. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. making it three-ply thick. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. will cause an increased movement of C. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. allowing 1 in. E.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. A. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. --Contributed by Reader. Fig. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. Denver. and walk in. about the size of a leadpencil. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. push back the bolt. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. C. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. A piece of tin. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. bend it at right angles throughout its length. Remove the form. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. Cut out paper sections (Fig. Fortunately. with a pin driven in each end. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. it is equally easy to block that trick. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. but bends toward D.

Minn. B. and rest on a brick placed under each end. S. are 7 ft. put together as shown in the sketch. or left to right. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. as shown. The feet. W. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. Paul. --Contributed by J. The reverse switch. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. is connected each point to a battery. S S. long. B. The 2 by 4-in. posts. long. 4 ft. West St. will last for several years. are made 2 by 4 in.. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. Two wood-base switches. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . The upper switch. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. Fremont Hilscher. Jr. R. By this arrangement one. A. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached.strip. S. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor.. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. while the lower switch.

2 the steam is entering the cylinder. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. Fig. and valve crank S. The hose E connects to the boiler. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. E. and has two wood blocks. either an old sewing-machine wheel. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. thick. the size of the hole in the bearing B. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. cut in half. 2 and 3. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. and a cylindrical . and the bearing B is fastened by staples. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. with two washers. which is made of tin. 3/8 in. and the crank bearing C. The base is made of wood. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. which will be described later. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. is an old bicycle pump. and in Fig. 2. the other parts being used for the bearing B. Fig. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. The valve motion is shown in Figs.every house. 1. The piston is made of a stove bolt. pulley wheel. FF. or anything available. In Fig. The steam chest D. H and K.

powder can. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. First. This is wound with soft string. or galvanized iron. Wis. 3. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. J. using the positive wire as a pen. 1. Eustice. is cut out of tin. Cal. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. of Cuba. and the desired result is obtained. Fig. to receive the connecting rod H. This engine was built by W. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. --Contributed by Geo. The valve crank S. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. Schuh and A. W. . San Jose. Fig. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. can be an old oil can. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. and a very amusing trick.piece of hard wood. as shown in Fig. C. G. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. and saturated with thick oil. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. G. The boiler. 4. at that. as it is merely a trick of photography. Fry. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank.

Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. B. 1 will be seen to rotate. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. C. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. They may be of any size. The smaller wheel. and place a bell on the four ends. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. 1 by covering up Figs. Fig. as shown. as shown at AA. and Fig. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. diameter. to cross in the center.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. Fig. B. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. Cut half circles out of each stave. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. and pass ropes around . When turning. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. Fig.

but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. Mo. To make this lensless microscope. Louis. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. A (a short spool. which accounts for the sound. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. W.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. which allows the use of small sized ropes.G. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. from the transmitter. From a piece of thin . long. produces a higher magnifying power). and enlarge the bore a little at one end. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in.M. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. --Contributed by H. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. procure a wooden spool. but not on all. This in turn will act on the transmitter. as shown in the illustration. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury.. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. St. such as clothes lines. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer.

The pivot. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. D. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. 2. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. bent as shown.. held at arm's length. the object should be of a transparent nature. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. . as in all microscopes of any power. C. C. and so on. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms.) But an object 3/4-in. the diameter will appear three times as large. by means of brads. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. B. is fastened at each end by pins. and look through the hole D. The lever. B. in which hay has been soaking for several days. (The area would appear 64 times as large. A.. e. if the distance is reduced to one-half. D. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. i. Fig. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. if the distance is reduced to one-third. Viewed through this microscope. The spring. and at the center. 3. or 64 times. To use this microscope. can be made of brass and the armature. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. fastened to a wooden base. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. which are pieces of hard wood. cut out a small disk. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. otherwise the image will be blurred. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. place a small object on the transparent disk. 1. the diameter will appear twice as large. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. E. darting across the field in every direction. An innocent-looking drop of water. which costs little or nothing to make. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. is made of iron. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. H.

wood: C. D. soft iron. brass or iron soldered to nail. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. wood. KEY-A. The back. wide and set in between sides AA. should be about 22 in. K. 26 wire: E. in length and 16 in. FF. long and 14-1/2 in. nail soldered on A. or taken from a small one-point switch. similar to the one used in the sounder. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. A switch. The base of the key. Cut the top. 16 in. wide. wide. which are made to receive a pivot. F. wide. 2. is cut from a board about 36 in. . E. wide and about 20 in. DD.SOUNDER-A. The door. C. and are connected to the contacts. connection of D to nail. B. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. long. Fig. brass: B. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. wood: F. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. 1. C. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. brass: E. binding posts: H spring The stop. 16 in. K. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. coils wound with No. D. AA. wide. B. The binding posts. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. Fig. brass. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. fastened near the end. D. can be made panel as shown. Each side. thick. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. long by 16 in. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. HH. or a single piece. between the armature and the magnet. A.

Make 12 cleats. In operation. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. Garfield. long. as shown. as shown in the sketch. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. 2 and made from 1/4-in. material. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. AA. When the electrical waves strike the needle. brads. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one.. E. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. 13-1/2 in. with 3/4-in. cut in them. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. Ill.

filled with water. pulls down the armature. N. A fairly stiff spring. in order to increase the surface. through which a piece of wire is passed. Fairport. Ridgewood. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. B. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. down into the water increases the surface in contact. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. Y. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. J. When the pipe is used. A (see sketch). the magnet. when used with a motor. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . --Contributed by R. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. A. E. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. Brown. and. --Contributed by John Koehler. N. The cord is also fastened to a lever. will give a greater speed. Pushing the wire. A. and thus decreases the resistance. C. F.

By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. B. Of course. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts.for the secret contact. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. even those who read this description. Gachville. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. Borden. N. if desired. --Contributed by Perry A.

-Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. C. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. long and 5 in. as shown in Fig. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. The three shelves are cut 25-in. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. Compton. The top board is made 28-in. wide. records and 5-5/8 in. 2. Nails for stops are placed at DD. Two drawers are fitted in this space. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. --Contributed by H. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. D.whenever the bell rings. J. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. wide. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. E. wide. deep and 3/4 in. --Contributed by Dr. Cal. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. for 6-in. East Orange. Connect switch to post B. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. N. from the bottom. With about 9 ft. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. in a semicircle 2 in. C. apart. Washington. 1. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. records. Dobson. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. H. where the other end of wire is fastened. .. for 10in. long and full 12-in. From a piece of brass a switch. A. wide. as shown in Fig. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. and on both sides of the middle shelf. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. Jr. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. wide. Mangold. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. thick and 12-in.

to which is fastened a cord. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. A. which in operation is bent. 1. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. as shown by the dotted lines. as shown in Fig. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . closed. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. When the cord is passed over pulley C. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. E. Roanoke. Va.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. B.

Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. square and 7/8 in. Fig. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. deep and 1/2 in. Bore two 1/4 in. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. they will bind. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. Put the rubber tube. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. 3. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. they will let the air through. D. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. CC. thick. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. apart. in diameter. Do not fasten the sides too . Fig. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. Fig. The crankpin should fit tightly. 3). long. deep. 1 in. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. thick (A. These wheels should be 3/4 in. one in each end. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. in diameter. Cut two grooves. 4 shows the wheel-holder. 1. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. in diameter. wide. it too loose. is compressed by wheels. against which the rubber tubing. wide. E. to turn on pins of stout wire.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. excepting the crank and tubing. Figs. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. If the wheels fit too tightly. In the sides (Fig. In these grooves place wheels. 5) when they are placed. Now put all these parts together. through one of these holes. in diameter. which should be about 1/2 in. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. Figs. but a larger one could be built in proportion. B. as shown in the illustration. Notice the break (S) in the track. holes (HH. E. 1 in. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping.

and mark for a hole. Two feet of 1/4-in. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. and are 30 in. AA. beyond each of these two. The three legs marked BBB.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. long. To use the pump. from each end. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. Fig. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. a platform should be added. 17-1/2 in. and 3-1/2 in. The screen which is shown in Fig. A in Fig. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. For ease in handling the pump. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. 2. Fig. as shown in Fig. Take the center of the bar. of material. 1. Hubbard. Fig. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. the other wheel has reached the bottom. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. as it gives steadiness to the motion. The animal does not fear to enter the box. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. from that mark the next hole. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. costing 10 cents. stands 20 in. mark for hole and 3 in. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. is all the expense necessary. though a small iron wheel is better. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. from the bottom and 2 in. because he can . --Contributed by Dan H. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. mark again. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. from each end. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. AA. Fig. from each end. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. Cut six pieces. B. If the motion of the wheels is regular. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. 1. tubing. Idana. 2. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. 1. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. Then turn the crank from left to right.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. 1. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. the pump will give a steady stream. iron. Kan. 15 in. In the two cross bars 1 in. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. 1. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars.

or small electric motors. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. sulphuric acid. 14 copper wire. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. It is useful for running induction coils. until it is within 3 in. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. potassium bichromate. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. Philadelphia. stirring constantly. or. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. . This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. Place the carbon in the jar. rub the zinc well. The battery is now complete. some of it should be poured out. Meyer. and the solution (Fig. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. The truncated. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. of the top. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. If it is wet. however. When the bichromate has all dissolved. When through using the battery. The battery is now ready for use. 4 oz. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. silvery appearance. 2). If the solution touches the zinc. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. add slowly. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. long having two thumb screws. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. --Contributed by H. but if one casts his own zinc. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. C. there is too much liquid in the jar. The mercury will adhere. To cause a flow of electricity. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. 1) must be prepared. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig.see through it: when he enters. giving it a bright. acid 1 part). It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. of water dissolve 4 oz. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. dropping. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. shuts him in. and touches the bait the lid is released and. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. If the battery has been used before. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc.

This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. e. The price of the coil depends upon its size. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. Madison. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. however.. If. pressing the pedal closes the door.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace.Fig. which opens the door. the battery circuit. while the coal door is being opened. with slight changes. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. the jump-spark coil . When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. Wis. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. i. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. After putting in the coal.

6. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. in a straight line from top to bottom.described elsewhere in this book. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. Change the coil described. This will make an excellent receiver. W W. the full length of the coil. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. apart. Now for the receiving apparatus. and closer for longer distances. Fig. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. coil. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. being a 1-in. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. as shown in Fig. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. 7). 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. while a 12-in. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. After winding. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. 7. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. as shown in Fig. 7.7. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. 5. made of No. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. This coil. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. diameter. which is made of light copper wire. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. W W. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. in a partial vacuum. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". . carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. 6. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings.

The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. using an electric motor and countershaft. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. Figs. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. These circles. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. but simply illustrates the above to show that. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. are analogous to the flow of induction. B the bed and C the tailstock. Run a wire from the other binding post. to the direction of the current. in the air. being vertical.The aerial line. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. as it matches the color well. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. only. may be easily made at very little expense. No. being at right angles. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. at any point to any metal which is grounded. which will be described later. . but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. A. and hence the aerial line. For an illustration.6 stranded. I run my lathe by power. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. 1 to 4. above the ground. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. but it could be run by foot power if desired. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. 1). The writer does not claim to be the originator. after all. where A is the headstock. 90°. 90°. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. A large cone pulley would then be required.

tapered wooden pin. one of which is shown in Fig. Heat the babbitt well. Fig. To make these bearings. 4. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . The shaft is made of 3/4-in. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. The headstock. 2 and 3. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. too. and Fig. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. 5. Fig. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. and runs in babbitt bearings. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. thick. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. 5. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. steel tubing about 1/8 in. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. If the bearing has been properly made. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. but not hot enough to burn it. A. Fig. which pass through a piece of wood. 6 Headstock Details D. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. B. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. deep. just touching the shaft. Fig. and it is well to have the shaft hot. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. The bearing is then ready to be poured. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. on the under side of the bed. pitch and 1/8 in. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. 4. After pouring. which are let into holes FIG. The bolts B (Fig. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. 6.

If one has a wooden walk. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. the alarm is easy to fix up.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. B. FIG. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. Ill. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. so I had to buy one. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. If not perfectly true. The tail stock (Fig. Oak Park. and a 1/2-in. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. of the walk . but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. they may be turned up after assembling. embedded in the wood. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. This prevents corrosion. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach.J. N. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft.other machines. A. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. Take up about 5 ft. lock nut. Newark.

about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. Minn. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. --Contributed by R. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. (A. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. to roughen the surface slightly. Connect up an electric bell. Minneapolis. save when a weight is on the trap. silver or other metal. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. Finally. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. clean the articles thoroughly. to remove all traces of grease. so that they will not touch. add potassium cyanide again. Do not touch the work with the hands again. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. and the alarm is complete. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. Then make the solution .and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. Jackson. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. To avoid touching it. Fig. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. leaving a clear solution. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. S. water. 2). Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. before dipping them in the potash solution. hang the articles on the wires. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. of water.

1. Repeat six times. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. of water. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. make a key and keyhole. shaking. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. about 25 ft. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. hole in its center. and 4 volts for very small ones. a circuit is completed. also. pewter. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. --Model Engineer. A (Fig. Then. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. Fig. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. thick by 3 in. and the larger part (F. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. when the point of the key touches the tin. In rigging it to a sliding door. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. with the pivot 2 in. nickel and such metals. With an electric pressure of 3. This solution. a hand scratch brush is good. light strokes. square. 1). 10 in. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. The wooden catch. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. which is held by catch B. lead. Can be made of a 2-in. which is advised. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. Screw the two blocks together. Take quick. 1 in. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. use 2 volts for large articles. On brass. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. If more solution is required. Fig. When all this is set up. saw a piece of wood. copper. and then treated as copper. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. of clothesline rope and some No. 18 wire. Make a somewhat larger block (E. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in.5 to 4 volts. piece of broomstick. but opens the door. if one does not possess a buffing machine. 3) strikes the bent wire L. 3. with water. 1). Where Bunsen cells are used. will serve for the key. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. as shown in Fig. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. long. which . I. zinc. Fig. A 1/4 in. German silver. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. with water. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. Having finished washing the precipitate. 3) directly over the hole. Before silver plating. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. an old electric bell or buzzer. B should be of the same wood.up to 2 qt. must be about 1 in. as at F. To provide the keyhole. such metals as iron. The wooden block C. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. If accumulators are used. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. Fig. 1 not only unlocks. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. silver can be plated direct. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. from the lower end. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. long.

is the cut through which the rope runs. sides and end. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. cut in one side. such as forks. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. Fig. between the parlor and the room back of it. He removes the bowl from the black box. top. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. and hands its contents round to the audience. Next. 116 Prospect St. East Orange. spoons and jackknives. Objects appear and disappear. The magician stands in front of this. the requisites are a large soap box. one-third of the length from the remaining end. with a switch as in Fig. Klipstein. the box should be painted black both inside and out. One thing changes to another and back again. some black cloth. One end is removed. H. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. so much the better. although a little more trouble. 2. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. The interior must be a dead black. H. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. with the lights turned low. to throw the light toward the audience. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. 2. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. 1. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. a few simple tools. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. Fig. and finally lined inside with black cloth. he points with one finger to the box. 3. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. and black art reigns supreme. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. Heavy metal objects. which unlocks the door. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. some black paint. On either side of the box. Fig. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. he tosses it into the cave. Thus. floor. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. in his shirt sleeves. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. half way from open end to closed end. heighten the illusion. To prepare such a magic cave. the illumination in front must be arranged. Receiving the bowl again.. New Jersey. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. or cave. B. and plenty of candles. Fig. 1. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. --Contributed by E. no painting inside is required. shows catch B. 0. In front of you. . and a slit. surrounding a perfectly black space. should be cut a hole. Next. The box must be altered first. enlarged. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. H.

The exhibitor should be . But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. of course. is on a table) so much the better. Consequently. his confederate behind inserts his hand. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. a screen must be used. if. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. and several black drop curtains. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. and pours them from the bag into a dish.Finally. as presented by Hermann. you must have an assistant. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. which can be made to dance either by strings. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. which are let down through the slit in the top. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. had a big stage. the room where the cave is should be dark. The audience room should have only low lights. one on each side of the box. in which are oranges and apples. only he. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. and if portieres are impossible. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. was identical with this. The illusion. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. of course. into the eyes of him who looks. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. But illusions suggest themselves.

Fig. making contact with them. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. d. 2. held down by another disk F (Fig. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. 1. b2. 1.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. f2. b3. 2. vice versa. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). c4. their one end just slips under the strips b1. e1 and e2. c2. and c4 + electricity. held down on disk F by two other terminals. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . as shown in Fig. Then. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. A represents a pine board 4 in..2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. if you turn handle K to the right. b1. terminal c3 will show +. and c1 – electricity.a boy who can talk. square. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. and a common screw. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. so arranged that. by means of two wood screws. A. when handle K is turned to one side. at L. held down on it by two terminals. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. terminal c3 will show . c1. b3. or b2. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. or binding posts. Finally. by 4 in. with three brass strips. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. and c2 to the zinc. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. respectively. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. About the center piece H moves a disk. FIG. 2). On the disk G are two brass strips. making contact with them as shown at y. c3. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. respectively. is shown in the diagram. b2. respectively.

from four batteries. 3. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. When switch B is closed and A is on No. and C and C1 are binding posts. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. . thus making the message audible in the receiver. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . when on No. when A is on No. Jr. Newark. -Contributed by A. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b.. from five batteries. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. 1. B is a onepoint switch. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. Ohio. --Contributed by Eugene F. and then hold the receiver to your ear. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. Joerin.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. 4. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. when on No. Tuttle. and when on No. 5. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). jump spark coil. from three batteries. E. you have the current of one battery.

. A. Wis. as shown in the sketch. La. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. traveled by the thread. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. and placed on the windowsill of the car. and supporting the small weight. New Orleans. A. over the bent portion of the rule. mark. B. When you do not have a graduate at hand. of Burlington. per second. Redmond. mark. which may be a button or other small object. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. P. Thus if the thread moves 1 in.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. Handy Electric Alarm . --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. E. is the device of H. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. The device thus arranged. A. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. so one can see the time. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. per second for each second. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. Thus. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. rule. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in.

. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. --C. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. Lane. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. S. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. and with the same result. Crafton. which illuminates the face of the clock. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. but may be closed at F any time desired. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. When the alarm goes off. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal.which has a piece of metal. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. C. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. Then if a mishap comes. Pa. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. wrapping the wire around the can several times. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. Instead. B. for a wetting is the inevitable result. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. soldered to the alarm winder. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. --Contributed by Gordon T. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log.

as shown in Fig. when it is being prepared. cannons. models and miniature objects. and duplicates of all these. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. battery zincs. and many other interesting and useful articles. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. which may. New York City. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. 1. C. engines. Macey. L.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. It is possible to make molds without a bench. but it is a mistake to try to do this. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . which in turn support the mold while it is being made. ornaments of various kinds. --Contributed by A. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. BE. A. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. whence it is soon tracked into the house. 1 . Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. binding posts. With the easily made devices about to be described. small machinery parts. If there is no foundry Fig. Two cleats. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. AA. as shown. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. The first thing to make is a molding bench. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. bearings.

is nailed to each end of the cope. If desired the sieve may be homemade. is about the right mesh. F. A A. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. The dowels. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. is shown more clearly in Fig." or lower part. J. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. It is made of wood and is in two halves. makes a very good sieve. high. as shown. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. a little larger than the outside of the flask." or upper half. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. by 6 in. The flask. Fig. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. 1. which can be either aluminum. The rammer. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. and this. say 12 in. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. is filled with coal dust. A wedge-shaped piece. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. DD. A slight shake of the bag Fig. which can be made of a knitted stocking. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. will be required. but this operation will be described more fully later on. previous to sawing. the "cope.near at hand. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. by 8 in. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. is made of wood.How to Make a Mold [96] . and a sieve. CC. The cloth bag. II . An old teaspoon. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. 1. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. E. which should be nailed in. 2. Fig. 2 . and the "drag. D. as shown. try using sand from other sources. white metal. If the box is not very strong. CC. and the lower pieces. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. H. G. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. and saw it in half longitudinally. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag.

the surface of the sand at . In finishing the ramming. as it is much easier to learn by observation. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. in order to remove the lumps. The sand is then ready for molding. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. as shown. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. Place another cover board on top. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand." in position. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. or "cope. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. or "drag." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. where they can watch the molders at work. as shown at D. as shown at C. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. and by grasping with both hands. and scatter about 1/16 in. as described. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. turn the drag other side up. and then more sand is added until Fig. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. as shown at E. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. It is then rammed again as before. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. and thus judge for himself. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. and if water is added. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. After ramming.

as shown in the sketch. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. III. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. place the cope back on the drag. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. . 4 -Pouring the Metal If. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. thus holding the crucible securely. as shown at F. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. deep. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. as shown at H. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. made out of steel rod. is next cut. as shown at H.E should be covered with coal-dust." or pouring-hole. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. and then pour. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. thus making a dirty casting. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. as shown at G. in order to prevent overheating. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. Fig. in diameter. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. Place a brick or other flat. After drawing the pattern. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. it shows that the sand is too wet.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. after being poured. wide and about 1/4 in. The "sprue. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. This is done with a spoon. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. to give the air a chance to escape. as shown at J.

Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. and. the following device will be found most convenient. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. although somewhat expensive. may be used in either direction. and the casting is then ready for finishing. is very desirable. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. 15% lead. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. white metal and other scrap available. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. babbitt. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. Although the effect in the illustration . it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. Referring to the figure. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. Minneapolis. or from any adjacent pair of cells. --Contributed by Harold S.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. Morton. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. In my own case I used four batteries. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. If a good furnace is available. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. used only for zinc. but any reasonable number may be used. battery zincs. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned.

Make one of these pieces for each arm. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. outward. Chicago. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. To make it take a sheet-iron band. 3/4 in. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. 2. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. If desired. A. shaft made. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . may be made of hardwood. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. B. The bearings. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. --Contributed by Draughtsman. B. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. connected by cords to the rudder. Then replace the table. as shown in the illustration. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. Put a sharp needle point. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. The brass rings also appear distorted.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. backward. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. Then walk down among the audience. By replacing the oars with paddles. as shown at A. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. Fig. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. which will be sufficient to hold it. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed.

it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. 1. If galvanized iron is used. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. 2. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. The hubs. as shown in Fig. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. A block of ice. or the paint will come off. 1. D. The covers. It may seem strange that ice . much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. E. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. or under pressure. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. Snow. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. being simply finely divided ice. If babbitt is used. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. W. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. should be made of wood. Fig.melted babbitt. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. but when in motion. A. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. 3. spoiling its appearance. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. when it will again return to its original state. as shown in Fig. 2 and 3. In the same way. C. and a weight. 1. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece.

it will gradually change from the original shape A. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . --Contributed by Gordon T. no matter how slow the motion may be. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. or supporting it in some similar way. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. which resembles ice in this respect. but. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. Crafton. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. Lane. brass. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it.should flow like water. thus giving a high resistance contact. by 1/4. by 5 in. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. as shown on page 65. B. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. Pressing either push button. whenever there is any connection made at all. in. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. sometimes only one or two feet a day. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. square. but by placing it between books. Pa. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. as per sketch. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. by 1/2 in. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. P. by 2 in.. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. The rate of flow is often very slow. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. and assume the shape shown at B.

A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. and C. H. and five dry batteries. weight. horizontal lever. B. about the size used for automobiles. Wilkinsburg. draft chain. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two.000 ft. F. K . --Contributed by Coulson Glick. I. J. alarm clock. A is the circuit breaker. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. Ward. E. --Contributed by A. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. the battery. draft. pulleys. as shown. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. cord. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated.thumb screws. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. wooden supports. The success depends upon a slow current. furnace. Indianapolis. the induction coil. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. G. In the wiring diagram. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. G. B. The parts are: A. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. as shown. vertical lever. C. D. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. Pa.

Kalamazoo. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. which will provide a fine place for the plants. will fit nicely in them. where house plants are kept in the home. 3. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. 2 are dressed to the right angle. as well as the bottom. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. Artistic Window Boxes The top. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . such as used for a storm window. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. The frame (Fig. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. material framed together as shown in Fig.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. Mich. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning.

in this connection. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. Push the needle into the cork. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. N. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. this must be done with very great caution. where they are glad to have them taken away. can be connected up in series. However.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. which sells for 25 cents. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. multiples of series of three. --Contributed by Wm. so as to increase the current. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. a cork and a needle.. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. is something that will interest the average American boy. as indicated by Fig. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. and a suitable source of power. W. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high.. and the instrument will then be complete. Thus. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. This is more economical than dry cells. 1. after a rest. It must be remembered. A certain number of these. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. for some time very satisfactorily. i. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. since a battery is the most popular source of power. The 1/2-cp. as if drawn upon for its total output. by connecting them in series. 1 cp. in diameter. 1 each complete with base. However. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. Halifax. and cost 27 cents FIG. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. Grant. one can regulate the batteries as required. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs.. Canada. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. and will give the . which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. but maintain the voltage constant. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. in any system of lamps. e. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. S. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch.

--Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. making. Thus. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. 11 series. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. generates the power for the lights. lamps. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. although the first cost is greater. which is the same as that of one battery. FIG. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. These will give 3 cp. 18 B & S. or 22 lights. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. Fig. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. 1-cp. and diffused light in a room. if wound for 6 volts. and running the series in parallel. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. and for Christmas trees. Thus. In conclusion. each. according to the water pressure obtainable. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. However. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current.proper voltage. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. to secure light by this method. especially those of low internal resistance. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. . double insulated wire wherever needed. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. by the proper combination of these. 3. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement.. lamp. Chicago. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. where the water pressure is the greatest. for display of show cases. So. 2 shows the scheme. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. lamps.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. If wound for 10 volts. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. as in Fig. and then lead No. we simply turn on the water. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run.

switch. BB. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. --Contributed by F. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. or a tempting bone. field of motor. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. a bait of meat. Santa Clara. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. Ind. simply change the switch. B. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. outside points of switch. we were not bothered with them. A. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. bars of pole-changing switch. are cut just alike. brushes of motor. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. AA. After I connected up my induction coil. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. thus reversing the machine. A indicates the ground. Parker. --Contributed by Leonard E. . It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. B. center points of switch. the letters indicate as follows: FF. or from one pattern. DD. and C. and the sides. Plymouth. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. Emig. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. To reverse the motor. Cal. CC. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. as shown in the sketch.

merely push the button E. W. or would remain locked. as it is the key to the lock. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. one cell being sufficient. attached to the end of the armature B.. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. Minn. Melchior. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. Fry. a piece of string. The button can be hidden. A. -Contributed by Claude B.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. The experiment works best . If it is not. thus locking the door. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. Cal. which is in the door. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. When the circuit is broken a weight. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. San Jose. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. a hammer. 903 Vine St. Hutchinson. and a table or bench. To unlock the door.

is attached to the draft B of the furnace. as shown in Fig. forming a loop. Crawford Curry. 3. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. 2. D. 18 Gorham St. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. attached at the other end. A. in the ceiling and has a window weight. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. Wis.Contributed by F. Canada. --Contributed by Geo. Brockville. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. releasing the weight. 1). run through a pulley.. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. W. -. 3. the key turns. the current flows with the small arrows. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. On another block of wood fasten two wires. Ontario. 4). Tie the ends of the string together. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. the stick falls away. . where it will remain suspended as shown. Schmidt. I. Porto Rico. Culebra. P. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. When the alarm rings in the early morning. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. C. Madison. which pulls the draft open.

The cut shows the arrangement. J. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. and then to the receiver. or tree. or from a bed of flowers. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. which fasten to the horn.. and break the corners off to make them round. thick. Connect two wires to the transmitter. D. S. and . square and 1 in. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. including the mouthpiece. J. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. --Contributed by Wm. running one direct to the receiver. and the other to the battery. 6 in. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. thence to a switch. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. N. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. Camden. Farley. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. Jr. Use a barrel to work on. made with his own hands. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. First. get two pieces of plate glass. R.

When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. L. and is ready for polishing..Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. wide around the convex glass or tool. then 8 minutes. When polishing the speculum. 1. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. as in Fig. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. Use a binger to spread it on with.. spaces. Fig. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. and label. 2. and spread on the glass. then take 2 lb. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. or less. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. or it will not polish evenly. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. When done the glass should be semitransparent. so the light . which is necessary to make it grind evenly. wet till soft like paint. melt 1 lb. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. with 1/4-in. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. using straight strokes 2 in. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. 2. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. while walking around the barrel. in length. and the under glass or tool convex. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. unless a longer focal length is wanted. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. Have ready six large dishes. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. Fasten. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. with pitch. by the side of the lamp. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. a round 4-in. Fig. twice the focal length away. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. A. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. of water. also rotate the glass. the coarse grinding must be continued. wetting it to the consistency of cream. Then warm and press again with the speculum. and a large lamp. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. In a dark room. When dry. set the speculum against the wall.

100 gr.. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. the speculum is ready to be silvered. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. or hills. the speculum will show some dark rings.. Alcohol (Pure) ……………. in the bath and leave until the silver rises. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. The polishing and testing done. add the ammonia solution drop by drop. 100 gr. 4 oz. 840 gr. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. must be procured. deep. Fig. Fig.. 2. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. face down. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. touched with rouge.. cement a strip of board 8 in. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. Fig. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. shorter strokes should be used in polishing.. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. Then add solution B. with distilled water. With pitch. from the lamp. Nitric acid .……………………………. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside.. 25 gr. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. Place the speculum. When dry. Then add 1 oz. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. then ammonia until bath is clear. When the focus is found. The knife should not be more than 6 in. Solution D: Sugar loaf . the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. 39 gr. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. also how the rays R from a star . longer strokes. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right.. If not. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. if a hill in the center. as in K. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). long to the back of the speculum.. Now add enough of the solution A. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. Place the speculum S. and pour the rest into the empty dish.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes.………………………………. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. Silver nitrate …………………………….. 4 oz. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. fill the dish with distilled water. that was set aside.. Two glass or earthenware dishes. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. 2.…………….

as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. My telescope is 64 in. is a satisfactory angle. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. which proves to be easy of execution.John E. Make the tube I of sheet iron. telescope can be made at home. and proceed as for any picture.. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. deg. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. About 20. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. Thus an excellent 6-in. cover with paper and cloth. . slightly wider than the lens mount. two glass prisms. The flatter they are the less they will distort. Mellish. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. long and cost me just $15. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. stop down well after focusing. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. with an outlay of only a few dollars. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. using strawboard and black paper. Place over lens. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. Then I made the one described. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers.

when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. Do not stir it. unobstructed light strike the mirror. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. push the button D. says the Master Painter. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. Ill. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. instead of the contrary. D. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. -Contributed by A. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. The rays of the clear. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. or powdered alum. complete the arrangement. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. . and reflect through the negative. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. Boody. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. B. Fig. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. but will not preserve its hardening. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. To unlock. Zimmerman. 2. add the plaster gradually to the water. 1. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. through the lens of the camera and on the board. A. then add a little sulphate of potash. The paper is exposed. as shown in Fig.

use a string. To reverse. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. but will remain suspended without any visible support. 3. 1). This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. as at A and B. Then blow through the spool. also provide them with a handle. Fig. as in Fig. as shown in the sketch. Fasten on the switch lever. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. so that it can rotate about these points. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. 2. throw . thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. 2. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner.

wash in running water. North Bend. In the sketch. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. and rub dry with linen cloth. A is the electricbell magnet. as shown in the sketch. Levy. rinse in alcohol. L. carbon sockets. carbons. -Contributed by Morris L. --Contributed by Geo. Go McVicker. --Contributed by R. binding posts. C C. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. Thomas. Push one end of the tire into the hole. Tex. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. San Antonio. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. although this is not necessary. and E E. D. San Marcos. B. Tex. Neb. . making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. Take out. the armature.

it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. wound evenly about this core. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. Brooklyn. --Contributed by Joseph B. 36 magnet wire.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. Bell. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. 14 or No. By means of two or more layers of No. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . Divested of nearly all technical phrases. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. long or more. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. 16 magnet wire.

In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. the entire core may be purchased readymade. A 7/8-in. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. wide. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. coil illustrates the general details of the work. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. and finally the fourth strip of paper. in length. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. long and 5 in. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. at a time. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. which is desirable. long and 2-5/8 in. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. which is an important factor of the coil. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. After the core wires are bundled. in diameter. with room also for a small condenser. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. or 8 in. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. and the results are often unsatisfactory. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. The condenser is next wrapped . When cut and laid in one continuous length. diameter. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. but if it is not convenient to do this work. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious.which would be better to buy ready-made. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. 1. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. The primary is made of fine annealed No. hole is bored in the center of one end. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. This makes a condenser which may be folded. 4. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. one piece of the paper is laid down. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. Beginning half an inch from one end. 2 yd. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. In shaping the condenser. as the maker prefers. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. a box like that shown in Fig. No. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. about 6 in. The following method of completing a 1-in. as shown in Fig. making two layers. then the strip of tin-foil.

B. which is insulated from the first.securely with bands of paper or tape. A. V-shaped copper strip. round so that the inside . spark. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. shelf for clock. one from bell. I. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. E. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser.) The wiring diagram. G. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. and the other sheet.. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. long and 12 in. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. go. forms the other pole or terminal. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. Fig. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. open switch C. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. bell. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. and one from battery. wide. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. long to key. switch. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. C. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. D. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. 3. copper lever with 1-in. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. B. the letters indicate as follows: A. whole length. which allows wiring at the back. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. to the door. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. 4 in. F. The alarm key will turn and drop down. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. flange turned on one side. battery . ready for assembling. shows how the connections are made. lines H. by 12 in.

This is for blowing. Line the furnace. London. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. of zinc sulphate. That is what they are for. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. If desired for use immediately. Short-circuit for three hours. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. . The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. Use a glass or metal shade. but add 5 or 6 oz. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. and then rivet the seam. says the Model Engineer. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. 2 in. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side..diameter is 7 in. from the bottom. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. The circuit should also have a high resistance. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. but with the circuit. and the battery is ready for use. of blue stone. do not shortcircuit. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. instead of close to it.

affects . and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. changes white phosphorus to yellow. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. for others the opposite way. and therein is the trick. the second finger along the side. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. Outside of the scientific side involved. Try it and see. g. while for others it will not revolve at all. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. as in the other movement. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. At least it is amusing. and then. Enlarge the hole slightly. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. but the thing would not move at all. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. long. To operate the trick. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. thus making the arm revolve in one direction." which created much merriment. 2. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. thus producing two different vibrations. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. If too low. for some it will turn one way. grip the stick firmly in one hand. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. imparting to them a violet tinge. 1. porcelain and paper. herein I describe a much better trick. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. This type of battery will give about 0. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. oxygen to ozone.9 of a volt.. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. below the bottom of the zinc. If any or your audience presume to dispute. or think they can do the same let them try it. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. square and about 9 in. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. Ohio.

On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. and. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. chemicals. insects. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. but not essential. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. a short-focus lens. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. but this is less satisfactory. says the Photographic Times. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. To the front board is attached a box. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. earth. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand .photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. if possible. but small flowers. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. a means for holding it vertical. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. an old tripod screw. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. and one of them is photomicrography. however.

Divide one-quarter of the circle . 11 ft. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. 179 11 lb. Ft Lifting Power. 7-1/2 in. 9 ft. Boston. long and 3 ft. 7 ft. A line. while it is not so with the quill. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. 7-1/2 in.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. Mass. Cap. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. in diameter. 697 44 lb. 5 ft. 381 24 lb. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. 268 17 lb. 12 ft. CD. If the balloon is 10 ft. Madison. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. 5 in. and a line. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. 65 4 lb. in Cu. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. Fig. 905 57 lb. wide from which to cut a pattern. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. 8 ft. which is 15 ft. 1. 6 ft. AB. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. 10 ft 523 33 lb. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. or 31 ft. balloon. or 3 ft. The following table will give the size. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. 113 7 lb.--Contributed by George C.

and after marked is cut the same shape and size. and so on. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. using a fine needle and No. cutting all four quarters at the same time. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. 3. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. This test will show if the bag is airtight. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. of the very best heavy body. 70 thread. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. 2. The amounts necessary for a 10- . When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. The pattern is now cut. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. 4. of beeswax and boil well together. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. making a double seam as shown in Fig. Repeat this operation four times. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. keeping the marked part on the outside. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. The cloth segments are sewed together. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. on the curved line from B to C. Procure 1 gal. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD.

a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. C. Vegetable oils should never be used. About 15 lb. to the bag. by fixing.. B. leaving the hand quite clean. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. B. 1 lb. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. pipe. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. above the level of the water in barrel A. 1 lb. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. but if any grease remains on the hand. A. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes.ft. The 3/4-in. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. as shown in Fig. should not enter into the water over 8 in. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. . with water 2 in. ]. 150 gr. A. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. oil the spindle holes carefully. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. In the barrel. C. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. Fill the other barrel. of sulphuric acid.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. All FIG.Green Iron ammonium citrate . How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. Water 1 oz. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. of gas in one hour. this should be repeated frequently. When the clock has dried. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. if it is good it will dry off. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. with 3/4in. until no more dirt is seen. with the iron borings. of water will make 4 cu. 5. B. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. ft. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. or dusting with a dry brush. capacity and connect them. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. After washing a part. using a fine brush. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. of iron. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. . You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. A. which may sound rather absurd. or a fan. of iron borings and 125 lb. a clean white rag. 5 . When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. The outlet. balloon are 125 lb. it is not fit to use.

A longer exposure will be necessary. toning first if desired. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. Exposure. Bathe the plates 5 minutes.. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. The negative pole. This aerial collector can be made in . Dry in the dark. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. keeping the fingers out of the solution. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. or battery. The miniature 16 cp.000 ft. says the Moving Picture World. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. A cold. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. of any make. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. and a vigorous negative must be used. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. . at the time of employment. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. .Water 1 oz. 20 to 30 minutes. dry atmosphere will give best results. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. Printing is done in the sun. or zinc. fix in hypo. Port Melbourne. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. to avoid blackened skin. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. or carbon. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. and keep in the dark until used. Dry the plates in the dark. The positive pole.

5 in. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. As the telephone offers a high resistance. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. in diameter. long. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. a positive and a negative. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. the resistance is less. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. lay a needle. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. If the wave ceases.various ways. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. will soon become dry and useless. and as less current will flow the short way. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. holes . as described below. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. lead pipe. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. If the waves strike across the needle. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. This will complete the receiving station. both positive and negative. The storage cell. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. when left exposed to the air. making a ground with one wire. and have the other connected with another aerial line. forming a cup of the pipe. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon.

one to the positive. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. This support or block. by soldering the joint. namely: a square hole. or tube C. and the other to the negative. The other plate is connected to the zinc. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. Two binding-posts should be attached. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. says the Pathfinder. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. B. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. This box can be square. an oblong one and a triangular one. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C.as possible. does not need to be watertight. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. on each end. D. of course. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . or tube B. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. When mixing the acid and water. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. a round one. This. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. except for about 1 in.

Only galvanized nails should be used. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. and match them together. thick cut two pieces alike.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. is built 15 ft. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. in place on the wood. The third piece of brass. and has plenty of good seating capacity. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. deep and 4 ft. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. as shown in Fig. wide. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. A and B. 2. long. 2. 3. 1. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. . 1. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. back and under. This punt. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. about 20 in. C. Chicago. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. Ill. leaving about 1/16 in. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. as shown in Fig. were fitted by this one plug. all around the edge. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. as it is not readily overturned. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. C. wide. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch.

Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. is cut 1 in. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. Wash. In Fig. gas pipe. A piece of 1/4-in. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. A. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. Tacoma. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. square (Fig 2). 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. B. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. thick and 3-1/2 in.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] .

It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. no more current than a 16-cp." has no connection with the outside circuit. says the Model Engineer. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. The winding of the armature. lamp. which the writer has made. may be of interest to some of our readers. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . if possible. without auxiliary phase. In designing. no special materials could be obtained. and to consume. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. H. it had to be borne in mind that. or "rotor. with the exception of insulated wire. which can be developed in the usual manner. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. Wagner. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate.--Contributed by Charles H.

This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. They are not particularly accurate as it is. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire.the field-magnet. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. C. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. being used. in diameter were drilled in the corners. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. The stator is wound full with No. this little machine is not self-starting. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. to be filed out after they are placed together. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. B. After assembling a second time. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. wrought iron. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. and filled with rivets. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. bolts put in and tightened up. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. A. 4. were then drilled and 1/4-in. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. 3. Unfortunately. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. also varnished before they were put in. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. about 2-1/2 lb. thick. Holes 5-32 in. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. and all sparking is avoided. 5. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. while the beginnings . or "stator. as shown in Fig. no steel being obtainable. 2. 1. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. holes. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. with the dotted line. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight.

This type of motor has drawbacks. The rotor is wound with No. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. J. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply.. and as the motor runs at constant speed. Newark. In making slides by contact. The image should . The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. Jr. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. film to film. it would be very simple to build. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. as before stated. One is by contact. a regulating resistance is not needed. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. and all wound in the same direction. If too late for alcohol to be of use. and as each layer of wire was wound. as a means of illustrating songs. 3-Contributed by C. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. The lantern slide is a glass plate. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. having no commutator or brushes. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. 2. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. and would not easily get out of order. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. E. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. if applied immediately. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. No starting resistance is needed. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. as shown in Fig. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. 1. and especially of colored ones. McKinney. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. N. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. and the other by reduction in the camera. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high.

This will enable you to focus to the proper size. D. a little extra work will be necessary. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. and development should be over in three or four minutes. C. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. Fig. Select a room with one window. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. if possible. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. 5. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. A. Being unbreakable. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. 1. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. they are much used by travelers. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. over the mat. It is best. also. and then a plain glass. 4. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. 3. Draw lines with a pencil. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. to use a plain fixing bath. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. except that the binding is different.appear in. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. These can be purchased from any photo material store. 2. about a minute. B. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . If the exposure has been correct. the formulas being found in each package of plates. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush.

The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. 1. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. Fig. These longer pieces can be made square. from the end piece of the chair. 16 in. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. 2. Corinth. as shown at B. 1. Hastings. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. is to be used for the seat. known as rods and cones. or other stout cloth. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. If the star is in front of the left eye. as shown at A. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. from the ends. Vt. while the dot will be in front of the other. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. in diameter and 20 in. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. wide and 50 in. Fig. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. holes bored in the end pieces. as shown in Fig. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. long. long. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. A piece of canvas. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. from the center of this dot draw a star. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. in diameter and 40 in. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. long.

The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. 2. O'Gara. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. J. A disk 1 in. as well as to operate other household machines. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. .The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. A belt. made from an ordinary sash cord. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. as shown in Fig. Cal. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. per square inch. as shown in Fig. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. Auburn. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. in thickness and 10 in. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. 1. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left.-Contributed by P. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely.

Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. Bore a 1/4-in. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. it serves a very useful purpose. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. to the top of the bench. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. divided by the number of threads to the inch. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. The part of a rotation of the bolt. will be the thickness of the object. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. thick and 2-1/2 in. says the Scientific American. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. 3/4 in. leaving it shaped like a bench. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. square for a support. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. fairly accurate. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. screwing it through the nut. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. Cut out a piece from the block combination.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. direction. then removing the object. long. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. Put the bolt in the hole. with as fine a thread as possible. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. and the construction is complete. wide. or inconvenient to measure. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. . and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. A simple.

piece of wood 12 ft. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. which show up fine at night. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. beyond the end of the wood. Santa Maria. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. long is used for the center pole. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. material 12 ft. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. Oal. Bore a 3/4-in. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. long. The wheel should be open . Place a 3/4-in. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. globe that has been thrown away as useless. bolt in each hole. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe.

-Contributed by A. C. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. at the top and 4 in. A piece of brass 2 in. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. H and J. to be operated by the magnet coil. long. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. square and 3 or 4 in. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. A cross bar. 1/2 in. from the top end. thick. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. A. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. which should be 1/4 in. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. and on its lower end a socket. of the ends with boards. P. long. B. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. is soldered. Graham. thick. thick is used for the armature. long. made of the same material. and the lower part 61/2 in. L. C. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. The spool . wide and 1/8 in. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. long. The boards may be nailed or bolted.Side and Top View or have spokes. from the ends. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. Tex. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. Fort Worth. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. pieces used for the spokes. wide and 1/8 in. in diameter. The coil. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. at the bottom. O.

Mass. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. D and E. S. for insulating the brass ferrule. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. and place it against a door or window casing. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. one without either rubber or metal end. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. C. Randolph. and in numerous other like instances. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. When you slide the pencil along the casing. that holds the lower carbon. which may be had by using German silver wire. long.J. R.--A. --Contributed by Arthur D. A. Bradlev. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. This is a very neat trick if performed right. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig.is about 2-1/2 in. F. and directly centering the holes H and J. This tie can be used on grain sacks. B. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. then with a firm. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. is drilled. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. or a water rheostat heretofore described. The armature.000 for irrigation work. 2 the hat hanging on it. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. do it without any apparent effort. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. 2. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. At the bottom end of the frame. 1.000. S. A soft piece of iron. . and is adjusted in place by two set screws. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. by soldering.E.

and then 1. S. about 3/16 in. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. is connected to a flash lamp battery. for adjustment. Experiment with Heat [134] . is constructed in the usual manner. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. S. in diameter. 2. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. from the core and directly opposite. about 1 in. for the primary. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. hole in the center. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. The core of the coil. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. C. F. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. 1. with a 3/16-in. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. The coil ends are made from cardboard. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. wide. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. leaving the projections as shown. in diameter. long. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. Fig. 1. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. About 70 turns of No. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. about 1/8 in. may be made from a 3/8-in. for the secondary. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. B. in diameter and 1/16 in.500 turns of No. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. A. mixed with water to form a paste. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. The switch. Fig. The vibrator. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. The vibrator B. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. long and 1 in. D. in diameter and 2 in. thick.

it laps down about 8 in. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. as shown in the sketch. The three screws were then put in the hasp. 2 to fit the two holes. The tin is 4 in. The hasp. which is only 3/8-in. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. . It is necessary to add 1/2-in. as shown. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards.Place a small piece of paper. 1. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. 1. 16 in. and the same distance inside of the new board. The knob on the dial extends out too far. was to be secured by only three brass screws. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. brass plate. in an ordinary water glass. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. with which to operate the dial. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. between the boards. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. board. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. and then well clinched. long and when placed over the board. which is cut with two holes. lighted. wide. thick on the inside. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. Fig. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. The lock. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. which seemed to be insufficient.

which completely divides the box into two parts. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. When the rear part is illuminated. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. When making of wood. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. but when the front part is illuminated. and the back left dark. black color. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. the glass. square and 10-1/2 in. one in each division. high for use in window displays. not shiny. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. or in the larger size mentioned. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. any article placed therein will be reflected in. clear glass as shown. If the box is made large enough. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. square and 8-1/2 in. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in.

. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. alternately. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. as shown in the sketch. When there is no electric current available. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. into the other. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. When using as a window display. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. above the top of the tank. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center.. long and 1 ft. as it appears. and with the proper illumination one is changed. a tank 2 ft. as shown at A in the sketch. wide will be about the right size.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

6 in. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. wide. The pieces can then be taken out. Three windows are provided. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. square and 40 in.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. from the ground. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. or ferrous sulphate. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. radius. using a 3/4-in. two pieces 1-1/8 in. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. 1 in. If a planing mill is near. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. long. and a solution of iron sulphate added. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. dried and mixed with linseed oil. Shape the under sides first. O. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. and boring two holes with a 1-in. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. This precipitate is then washed. The 13-in. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. however. hole bored the full length through the center. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. with a length of 13 in. is the green vitriol. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. is built on the front. and a door in front. This hole must be continued . 2 ft. 5 ft. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. long. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. one for each side. as shown. A small platform. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. wide. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. but with a length of 12 in. each. lines gauged on each side of each. bore from each end. gauge for depth. high. thick and 3 in. then use a red-hot iron to finish. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. square. and 6 ft. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. bit. under sides together. Columbus. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. hole. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. Iron sulphate.

The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. square and drawing a diagonal on each. hole in each block. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. if shade is purchased. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. Directions will be found on the filler cans. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together.through the pieces forming the base. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. The sketch shows one method of attaching. apply two coats of wax. A better way. Saw the two blocks apart. When this is dry. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. If the parts are to be riveted. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. thick and 3 in. When the filler has hardened. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. three or four may be attached as shown. For art-glass the metal panels are . Electric globes--two. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each.

as brass.Construction of Shade . such as copper. METAL SHADE . and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal.The Completed Lamp cut out.

with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . as in ordinary devices. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. as shown in the sketch. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. and Fig. the object and the background. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. Figure 1 shows the side. The arms holding the glass. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. 2 the front view of this stand. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. one way and 1/2 in. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. the other.

These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. and an inside diameter of 9 in. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. channel in the circumference of the ring. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. pointing north and south. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. in diameter for a base. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. long. as it is very poisonous. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. wide and 6-5/16 in. about 1-1/4 in. wide and 11 in. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . If the light becomes dim. in diameter. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. Before mounting the ring on the base. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. thick 5/8-in. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. thus forming a 1/4-in. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. An ordinary pocket compass. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. outside diameter. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. as shown in the sketch. Cut another circular piece 11 in. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. uncork and recork again. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. as shown in the cut. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. and swinging freely. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. Put the ring in place on the base.

CC.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. black oxide of copper. and north of the Ohio river. B. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders. are mounted on a base. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. EE. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can.420 . The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other. 1 oz. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. of the top. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago.715 . The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. The results given should be multiplied by 1. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in.500 .600 . For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes .182 . in diameter and 8 in. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. into these cylinders.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. AA. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. above the half can. and mirrors.289 .088 . from the second to the third. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. Corresponding mirrors. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg.865 1. Place on top the so- . to which a wire has been soldered for connections.

closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. the wheel will revolve in one direction. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. which otherwise remains clear. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. When renewing. of pulverized campor. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. 62 gr. alcohol. says Metal Worker. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. little crystals forming in the liquid. slender bottle. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. In Fig. Put the solution in a long. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. 31 gr. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. then they will not rust fast. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. University Park. Colo. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. always remove the oil with a siphon. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete.

which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. A paper-fastener box. If two of them are floating on the same solution. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. floating on a solution. Lloyd Enos. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. If zinc and copper are used. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. about 1-1/4 in. Solder in the side of the box . Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. on the under side of the cork. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. --Contributed by C.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. If zinc and carbon are used. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. will allow the magnet to point north and south. This is used in place of the spoon. Attach to the wires.

the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. If the hose is not a tight fit. can be made of oak. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. hole. To this standard solder the supporting wire. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. A. long. one on each side of the board. D. long.in.in. A. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine.Contributed by J. away. Bore holes for binding-posts. E. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. D. 1-1/4 in. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. Thos. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. B. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. 1/2. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. H. The bottom of the box. brass tubing. is made from a piece of No. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. to it. D. as shown in Fig. glass tubing . The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. wide and 2-1/2 in. Rhamstine. Wind evenly about 2 oz. A circular piece of cardboard. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. and on the other around the glass tube. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. of wire on each end extending from the coil. piece of 1/4-in. thick. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. The base. C. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. The standard. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . 14 wire will do. Put ends. 10 wire about 10 in. Use a board 1/2. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. G--No. F. B. or made with a little black paint. The spring should be about 1 in. wide and 6 in. C. and then solder on the cover. stained and varnished.not shorter than 18 in. 1. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. . long that has about 1/4-in.1-in. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. of No.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. 3 in. Take a small piece of soft iron. C. E. Secure a piece of 1/4-in.

is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. four hinges. about 1 in. is drawn nearer to the coil. making a support as shown in Fig. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. Milwaukee. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. J. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. 3. long. long. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. long are used for the legs. canvas. of mercury will be sufficient. Teasdale. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. of No. 2. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. About 1-1/2 lb. as shown in Fig. D. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. 5. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. Smith. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. of 8-oz. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. When the glass becomes soft. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. 3 in. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. Wis. long.of the coil. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. Cuba.--Contributed by R. long. 3-in. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. The iron plunger. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. in diameter. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest.--Contributed by Edward M. N. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. Y. from the right hand. . The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. two pieces 2 ft. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. long. E. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. 1.

. expelling all the air. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. holding in the left hand. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. 2. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. Take 1/2 in. small aperture in the long tube. Can. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. 5. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. 6. Fig. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. Break off the piece of glass. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. long. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. Measure 8 in. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. thus leaving a. Toronto. Keys.. leaving 8 in. --Contributed by David A. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. This tube as described will be 8 in. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. The tube now must be filled completely. 4. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. 3. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. of vacuum at the top.

Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. joint be accurately put together. A crosspiece 3/4-in. 1 in. wide and 5 ft. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. 4. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. long. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. FIG. with each projection 3-in. Four blocks 1/4 in. This forms a slot. thick. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . 6. wide and 12 in. in diameter. as shown in Fig. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. long. These are bent and nailed. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. Fig. long. 1 in. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. long. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. 5. thick. The large pulley is about 14 in. 7. material 2 in. but yellow pine is the best. 3. wood screws. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. thick. wide and 5 ft.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. cut in the shape shown in Fig. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. wide and 5 ft. 3 in. 4 in. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. and 1/4 in. thick. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. thick. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. wide and 3 in. 2. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in.6 -. 3 in. 9 in. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. 1. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. and the single projection 3/4 in. as in Fig. from the end of same.

. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. R. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. Kan. above the runner level. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. first removing the crank. says Photography. Welsh. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. attach runners and use it on the ice. --Contributed by C. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. Water 1 oz. Manhattan. by 1-in. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr.

. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. Leominster. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. as shown in Fig. Newton. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. This is done with a camel's hair brush. from an ordinary clamp skate. 2. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. also. Printing is carried rather far. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. 1 oz. of water. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. Treasdale. --Contributed by Wallace C. 1. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. and very much cheaper. 3. --Contributed by Edward M. as shown in Fig. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. The print is washed. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. Mass. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass.

Church. Va. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. say. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. with about 1/8-in. which represents the back side of the door. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. hole. about 10 in. and 3 ft. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. Fig. high. The thread is broken off at the . 1. 2. Take two glass tubes. too. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. square piece. as shown in the sketch. causing the door to swing back and up. from one end. and bend them as shown in the sketch. Then. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. The swing door B. and to the bottom. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. F. wide. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. 1-1/2 ft. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. 1 ft. 1. --Contributed by H. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. fasten a 2-in. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. Alexandria.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. high for rabbits. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. Fig. wide and 4 in. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. A. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. Place a 10-in. extending the width of the box. long.

1 in. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5.by 5-in. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. 10 in. Jr. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. -Contributed by William M. . as shown in Fig. shorter. Fig. being 1/8 in. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. in size. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. automobiles. Cut an opening in the other piece. says Camera Craft. wide and 5 in. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. Crilly. B. shorter at each end. inside of the opening. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. from the edge on each side of these openings. Take two pieces of pasteboard. 2. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around.proper place to make a small hole. but cut it 1/4 in. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. and go in the holder in the same way. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. high and 12 in. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. wide. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. black surfaced if possible. trolley cars. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. in size. long. This opening. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. horses and dogs. A and B. 1. camera and wish to use some 4. C.by 7-in. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. 3. Chicago. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. and exactly 5 by 7 in. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. wide. plates.. long. say 8 in. Paste a piece of strong black paper. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. Fig. Out two rectangular holes. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. to be used as a driving pulley. D.

if it has previously been magnetized. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. long and 6 in. A cell of this kind can easily be made. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. making a . into which the dog is harnessed. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it.. wide will be required. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. The needle will then point north and south. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. in diameter. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in.in.

in diameter and 6 in. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. and a notch between the base and the pan. 3/4 lb. sal ammoniac. of the top. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. one that will hold about 1 qt. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. Pack the paste in. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. short time. of rosin and 2 oz. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. long which are copper plated. for a connection. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. Place the pan on the stove. beeswax melted together. This makes the wire smooth. in which P is the pan. filter. Form a 1/2-in. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. 1/4 lb. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. with narrow flanges. when the paraffin is melted. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. only the joints. F is a spool. zinc oxide. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. 1 lb. of the plate at one end. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. of water. A is a block of l-in. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. says Electrician and Mechanic. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. B is a base of 1 in. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. Do not paint any surface. fodder. leaving about 1/2-in. pull out the wire as needed. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H.in. .watertight receptacle. fuel and packing purposes. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. pine. File the rods to remove the copper plate. under the spool in the paraffin. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. plaster of paris.

You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. but the thing would not move at all. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. Ohio. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. let them try it. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. At least it is amusing. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. square and about 9 in. for some it will turn one way. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. grip the stick firmly in one hand. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. and he finally. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. Toledo. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it.. while for others it will not revolve at all." which created much merriment. long. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. by the Hindoos in India. and therein is the trick. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. Enlarge the hole slightly. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. g. from vexation. as in the other movement. thus producing two different vibrations. and then. Try it and see. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. If any of your audience presume to dispute.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. or think they can do the same. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. 2. for others the opposite way. and one friend tells me that they were .

The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. 4. gave the best results. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. no rotation resulted. m. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. and I think the results may be of interest. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape.100 r. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. To operate. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. the rotation may be obtained. Thus a circular or . this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. 2. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. 7. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. The experiments were as follows: 1. p. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. rotation was obtained. 6. Speeds between 700 and 1. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. 3. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. by means of a center punch. 5. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. secondly. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. and. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. A square stick with notches on edge is best. If the pressure was upon an edge. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece.

Duluth.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. and the resultant "basket splash. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use.. if the pressure is from the left. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. Washington. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. A. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. Lloyd. as shown. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. C. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. D. Ph. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. unwetted by the liquid. a piece of wire and a candle. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. G. and the height of the fall about 6 in. --Contributed by G. .. A wire is tied around the can. or greasy. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. it will be clockwise. Minn. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. forming a handle for carrying. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown.D." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. at first. --Contributed by M. so far as can be seen from the photographs. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. is driven violently away. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. Sloan. the upper portion is.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. as shown. long. about 2-5/8 in. Each wheel is 1/4 in. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. flange and a 1/4-in. in diameter. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. hole drilled in the center. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . axle. as shown in Fig. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. with a 1/16-in. 1. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. thick and 1 in.

is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. put together complete. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. of No. with cardboard 3 in. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. 3. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. as shown in Fig.50. 16 cotton-covered copper wire.brass. or main part of the frame. The parts. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. 2. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. bottom side up. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. Fig. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. Fuller. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. which must be 110 volt alternating current. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. and the locomotive is ready for running. The current. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. bent as shown. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. as shown in Fig. 6. A trolley. wood. The first piece. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. 2. are shown in Fig. 3. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. 4. long. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. is made from a piece of clock spring. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. These ends are fastened together. wide and 16 in. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. each in its proper place. San Antonio. 1 from 1/4-in. This will save buying a track. The motor is now bolted. If the ends are to be soldered. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. Texas. 5. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. is made from brass. 3/4 in. --Contributed by Maurice E. lamp in series with the coil. holes 1 in. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. Fig.

as shown in Fig. 2. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. The quarter will not go all the way down. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. but do not heat the center. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. When cold treat the other end in the same way. 1. Fig 1. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. as shown in Fig.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. the length of a paper clip. O. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. 3. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. and holes drilled in them. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. Cincinnati. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. Fig. then continue to tighten much more. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. and as this end . Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file.

9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. or apparent security of the knot. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. has finished a cut for a tooth. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. or should the lathe head be raised. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. A pair of centers are fitted. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. In the sketch. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. and adjusted . When the cutter A. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. 2 and 1 respectively. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. When the trick is to be performed.

With such objects as coin purses and card cases. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). 2. twisted around itself and soldered. (2. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. note book. Bott. dividing it into as many parts as desired. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. if but two parts. at the same time striking light.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. --Contributed by Howard S. Brooklyn. watch fob ready for fastenings.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. gentleman's card case or bill book.) Place the paper design on the leather and. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. lady's belt bag. or one-half of the design. The frame holding the mandrel. coin purse. lady's card case. Bunker. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. tea cosey. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. blotter back. Fig. (4. above the surface. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. Fold over along these center lines. When connecting to batteries. and a nut pick. trace the outline. long. holding it in place with the left hand. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. (6. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case.) Make on paper the design wanted. 1. draw center lines across the required space. if four parts are to be alike. tea cosey. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. book mark. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. such as brass or marble. swing lathe. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. An ordinary machine will do. (1. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . --Contributed by Samuel C. (3. N. Y. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather.to run true. Second row: -Two book marks. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. (5. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. In this manner gears 3 in. about 1-1/2 in. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within).

and an ordinary bottle. Secure . some heavy rubber hose.How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube.

Florida. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. Thrust a pin. A. where it condenses. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. The electrodes are made . and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. C. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water.. B. D. and bore a hole through the center.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle.C. and push it through a cork. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. into which fit a small piece of tube. a distance of 900 miles. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. from Key West. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. If the needle is not horizontal. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube.

the rudder sticks 3/4 in. 1-1/4 in. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. as shown in Fig. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. long. Powell. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. and also to keep it steady in its flight. To make a glide. thick. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. using a high resistance receiver. free from knots. as shown in Fig. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. thick. wide and 3 ft. thick. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. 2 in. long. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. lengths and splice them. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. or flying-machine. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. 3. wide and 3 ft. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. If 20-ft. long. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. C. 2. 2 arm sticks 1 in. 1. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. wide and 4 ft long. square and 8 ft long. Connect as shown in the illustration. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. 1-1/2 in. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. long. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. 1/2. which is tacked to the front edge. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. long. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. 3/4 in. 1. 16 piano wire. several strips 1/2 in. Four long beams 3/4 in. apart and extend 1 ft. wide and 4 ft. by 3/4 in. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. slacken speed and settle.in. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. wide and 4 ft. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. 1. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. long for the body of the operator. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. both laterally and longitudinally. take the glider to the top of a hill. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. All wiring is done with No. --Contributed by Edwin L. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. use 10-ft. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. as shown in Fig. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. The operator can then land safely and . the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. 2. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. wide and 20 ft. D. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. Washington. thick. thick. 12 uprights 1/2 in. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. lumber cannot be procured.

The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. Of course. Great care should be .gently on his feet. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. but this must be found by experience. Glides are always made against the wind. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps.

When heated a little. half man and half horse. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. Olson. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. a creature of Greek mythology. which causes the dip in the line. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. M. 1. 2. Bellingham. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig.exercised in making landings. --Contributed by L. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. as shown in Fig. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place.

in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. of small rubber tubing. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. at the other. in diameter. this will cost about 15 cents. 14 in. outside the box. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. making it 2-1/2 in. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. about the size of stove pipe wire. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. long. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. long and about 3/8 in. square. a piece of brass or steel wire. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. about the size of door screen wire. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. While at the drug store get 3 ft. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. will complete the material list. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. The light from the . When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows.

--Photo by M. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. 1. O. Hunting. If done properly the card will flyaway.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. 2. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. M. Dayton. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. while others will fail time after time. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. . This is very simple when you know how. as shown in the sketch. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure.

How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. When the desired shape has been obtained. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. If a certain color is to be more prominent. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. closing both hands quickly. as before. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. hold the lump over the flame. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick." or the Chinese students' favorite game. This game is played by five persons. as shown. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. place the other two. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. Cool in water and dry. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. as described. then put it on the hatpin head.

This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. these sectors. distribute electric charges . A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. or more in width. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. passing through neutralizing brushes. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented.

The plates are trued up. and pins inserted and soldered. in diameter. 3/4 in. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. The drive wheels. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. The fork part is 6 in. in diameter. Fig.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. wide. 4. 1-1/2 in. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. as shown in Fig. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. in diameter. Two pieces of 1-in. 3. material 7 in. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. The two pieces. The plates. 3. from about 1/4-in. GG. and the outer end 11/2 in. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. in diameter and 15 in. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. and of a uniform thickness. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. D. RR. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. are made from 7/8-in. long and the standards 3 in. long. brass tubing and the discharging rods. in diameter. long and the shank 4 in. 2. 1 in. wide at one end. and this should be done before cutting the circle. free from wrinkles. are made from solid. and 4 in. C C. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. Two solid glass rods. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. the side pieces being 24 in. as shown in Fig. in diameter. or teeth. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. Fig. long. 1. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. EE. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. turned wood pieces. after they are mounted. in diameter. to which insulating handles . at the other. The collectors are made. These pins.

and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates.are attached. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. --Contributed by C. Colo. one having a 2-in.. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. KK. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. ball and the other one 3/4 in. and the work was done by themselves. D. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. 12 ft. in diameter. long. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. wide and 22 ft. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. Colorado City. Lloyd Enos. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. which are bent as shown. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods.

fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. using a 1-in. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. The key will drop from the string. deep. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. as at A. yet such a thing can be done. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch.is a good one. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. bit. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. and bore a hole 1/2 in. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. pens . All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. They can be used to keep pins and needles. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. string together.

very rapid progress can be made. etc. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. slim screw. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. using a nail filed to chisel edge. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. 23 gauge. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. 9. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. 3. file. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. inside the first on all. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. also trace the decorative design. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. 2. unless it would be the metal shears. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. sharp division between background and design. above the metal. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. they make attractive little pieces to have about. extra metal on each of the four sides. Draw one-half the design free hand. then the other side. flat and round-nosed pliers. They are easily made. Inside this oblong. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. When the stamping is completed. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. Having determined the size of the tray. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. 5.and pencils. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. 8. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. 6. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides.. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. about 3/4-in. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. Use . etc. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. This is to make a clean. Proceed as follows: 1. stamp the background promiscuously. and the third one 1/4 in. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. The second oblong was 3/4 in. 7. two spikes. 4. Raise the ends. or cigar ashes. above the work and striking it with the hammer. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. inside the second on all..

The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. In the first numbering. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. 9. and the effect will be most pleasing. and fourth fingers. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. second fingers. first fingers. 10. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. third fingers. 8. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. 6. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. 7. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. The eyes. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off.

Put your thumbs together. first fingers.. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. or the product of 6 times 6. or 60. or the product of 8 times 9. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. but being simple it saves time and trouble. Let us multiply 12 by 12. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. etc. At a glance you see four tens or 40. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. renumber your fingers. 400. Still. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. or 80. etc. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. there are no fingers above. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. and the six lower fingers as six tens. In the second numbering. 2 times 2 equals 4. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. 11. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. or numbers above 10. which would be 16. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. etc. the product of 12 times 12. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. thumbs. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. 12. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. above 15 times 15 it is 200. viz.. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. . Two times one are two. 25 times 25. 600.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. which would be 70. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired.. as high as you want to go. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. if we wish. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. above 20 times 20. which tens are added.

the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. and. the value which the upper fingers have. the lump sum to add. when he removes his spectacles. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. the inversion takes place against his will. in the case of a nearsighted person. . not rotation. For example. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. It takes place also. which is the half-way point between the two fives. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. first fingers 22. Take For example 18 times 18. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. being 80). "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. And the lump sum to add. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. further. thumbs. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. beginning the thumbs with 16. or from above or from below. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. any two figures between 45 and 55. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. 2. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. 3. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side.. twenties. as one might suppose. about a vertical axis. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. 8. or what. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. For figures ending in 6. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. and so on. Proceed as in the second lumbering. etc. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. however. 75 and 85. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. forties. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. 7. the value of the upper fingers being 20. thirties. lastly. at the will of the observer. whether the one described in second or third numbering. The inversion and reversion did not take place. first finger 17. adding 400 instead of 100. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. the revolution seems to reverse. 21.

and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. and putting a cork on the point. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. The ports were not easy to make.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. tee. when he knows which direction is right. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. as . sometimes the point towards him. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. A flat slide valve was used. the other appearance asserts itself. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. Looking at it in semidarkness.

Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. it is easily built. saw off a section of a broom handle. . While this engine does not give much power. across and 1/2 in. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. H. Beating copper tends to harden it and. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. such as is shown in the illustration. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. secure a piece of No. Springfield. about 2 in. as in a vise. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. bottom side up.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. in diameter. Next take a block of wood. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. -Contributed by W. deep. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. If nothing better is at hand. Fasten the block solidly. across the head. pipe. and make in one end a hollow. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. pipe 10 in. if continued too long without proper treatment. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. The eccentric is constructed of washers. inexpensive. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. Kutscher. The tools are simple and can be made easily. apart. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. The steam chest is round. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. Ill.. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in.

In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. Camden. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. S. and. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. the other to the left. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. To overcome this hardness. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . --Contributed by W. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. Vinegar. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. O. especially when the object is near to the observer.will cause the metal to break. Hay. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. as it softens the metal. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. To produce color effects on copper. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. C. This process is called annealing. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper.

the further from the card will the composite image appear. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. from the stereograph.stereoscope. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. But they seem black. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. the left eye sees through a blue screen. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. In order to make them appear before the card. however. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. they must be a very trifle apart. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. and without any picture. because. while both eyes together see a white background. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. as for instance red and green. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. not two mounted side by side. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. So with the stereograph. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. because of the rays coming from them. The red portions of the picture are not seen. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. orange. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. although they pass through the screen. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. . the one for the left eye being blue. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. diameter. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. It is just as though they were not there. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. would serve the same purpose. in the proper choice of colors. only the orange rays may pass through. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. disappears fully. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. it. and lies to the right on the picture. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. with the stereograph. that for the right. The further apart the pictures are. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored.

14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. 1/4 in. in diameter. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. Cal. The weight of the air in round . 12 gauge wire. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. This should only be bored about half way through the block. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. long and a hole drilled in each end. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. or the middle of the bottle. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. etc. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. San Francisco. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. in the shape of a crank. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. thick. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. A No. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. wireless. Place a NO. wide and 1 in.

inside diameter and 2 in. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. When the tube is filled to within 1 in..6) 1 in. internal diameter and about 34 in. the instrument. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. high. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. a glass tube 1/8 in. long. . and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. or. wide and 40 in. will calibrate itself. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. high. But if a standard barometer is not available. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. In general. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. 30 in. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. long. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. if you choose. Only redistilled mercury should be used. if accurately constructed. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. and a slow fall. The 4 in. 34 ft. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. a bottle 1 in. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. wide and 4 in. square. high. pine 3 in. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. long. but before attempting to put in the mercury. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in.numbers is 15 lb. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. the contrary. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. or a column of mercury (density 13. thick. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. square. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. Before fastening the scale.

Procure a metal can cover. 1. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. 6 and 7. 5. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. Number the pieces 1. and place them as shown in Fig. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. 2. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. wide and 10 in. Mark out seven 1-in. long. thick. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. 3. which is slipped quickly over the end. the size of the outside of the bottle. a cover from a baking powder can will do. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch.

1 to No. 5 over No. 3 to the center. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. 2. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. 2 over No. 1. 7 over No. L. Move 3-Move No. each 10 ft. 5. 5's place. 2 . l over No. in diameter. 6 over No. 5's place. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. Move 8-Jump No. Woolson. 6. 7. 2's place. 3 into No. 2's place. 7 over No. 3 over No. Move 15-Move No. Move 12-Jump No. 1. 6 in. 7's place. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. Move 7-Jump No. 2. as shown in Fig. Move ll-Jump No.-Contributed by W. Move 9-Jump No. 6 into No. Move 6-Move No. using checkers for men. Move 10-Move No. shaped like Fig. 6 to No. Move 5-Jump No. 3. procure unbleached tent duck. Make 22 sections. Cape May Point. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. long and 2 ft. To make such a tent. 3. N. Move 14-Jump No. Move 2-Jump No. 1 into No. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. 5 over No. which is the very best material for the purpose. 3.Position of the Men move only one at a time.J. 6. 2 over No. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. Move 4-Jump No. This can be done on a checker board. Move 13-Move No.

Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. 6-in. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. Fig. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. Emsworth. as in Fig. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. added. from the top. After transferring the design to the brass. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. 5) stuck in the ground. 5. made in two sections. to a smooth board of soft wood. In raising the tent. Use blocks. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. leaving the rest for an opening. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. long and 4 in. in diameter. 3 in. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. long. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. Pa. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. about 9 in. high. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. wide at the bottom. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. Fig. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. Punch holes in the brass in . 6. round galvanized iron.. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. diameter. fill with canvas edging. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. As shown in the sketch. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. will do. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. 9 by 12 in.J. 2 in.in. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. wide by 12 in. Have the tent pole 3 in. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. 2. These are ventilators. Tress. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. --Contributed by G. Nail a thin sheet of brass. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. wide at the bottom.

fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern.the spaces around the outlined figures. cut out the brass on the outside lines. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. apart. bend into shape. The pattern is traced as before. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. . I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. When the edges are brought together by bending. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. Chicago. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. but before punching the holes. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. When all the holes are punched. Corr. It will not. around the outside of the pattern. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. excepting the 1/4-in.

Dunham. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard.however. allowing 2 ft. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. partially filled with cream. pipe. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. or center on which the frame swings. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. between which is placed the fruit jar. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. A cast-iron ring. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. --Contributed by H. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. pipe is used for the hub. A 6-in. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. Oregon. These pipes are . Sometimes the cream will accumulate. G. --Contributed by Geo. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end.. E. or less. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. Badger. Que. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. Stevens. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. better still. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. or. If a wheel is selected. Mayger.

The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. An extra wheel 18 in.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. pipe. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. bent to the desired circle. Four braces made from 1/2-in. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. pipe clamps.

and the guide withdrawn. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. The performer. which was placed in an upright position. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. and dropped on the table. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. 1. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. as shown in Fig. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. while doing this. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. 3. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can.

The box can be made of selected oak or . The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. --Contributed by H. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. -Contributed by C. in diameter on another piece of tin. D. St. it requires no expensive condensing lens. 1. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. White. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. Denver. and second. F. Mo. first.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. Harkins. Louis. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. in a half circle. Colo. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. 2. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. Make a circle 3-1/2 in.

The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. If a camera lens is used. high and 11 in. fit into the runners. wide by 5 in. focal length. wide and 6-1/2 in. from each end. and. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. long and should be placed vertically. 1. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. and 2 in. wide and 5 in. as shown in Fig. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. 3-1/2 in. AA. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. Two or three holes about 1 in. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. wide. wide and 6-1/2 in. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. This will be 3/4 in. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. An open space 4 in. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. long. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. from each end of the outside of the box. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. long. high and must . is made from a board 4-1/2 in. The door covering this hole in the back. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. 2. 5-1/2 in. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens.mahogany. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. but not tight. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. represented by the dotted line in Fig. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in.

or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. Ohio. the article may be propped up . Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. --Contributed by Chas. and so on. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door.. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct." etc. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. West Toledo. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. as it requires an airtight case. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. June and November. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. C. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. Bradley.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. and extending the whole height of the lantern. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. provided it is airtight. This process is rather a difficult one. calling that knuckle January. April. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. then the second knuckle will be March. calling this February. 1.

In each place two electrodes. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. 1. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. .with small sticks. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. fruit jars are required. H. taking care to have all the edges closed. giving it an occasional stir. The top of a table will do. Crawford. one of lead and one of aluminum. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. running small motors and lighting small lamps. and the lead 24 sq. Y. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. In both Fig. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. --Contributed by J. in. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. but waxed. the lid or cover closed. 1 and 2. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. or suspended by a string. N. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. and set aside for half a day. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. Pour in a little turpentine. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. Schenectady. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. in. 2. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes.

you remove the glass. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. O. as well as others. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . he throws the other. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. After a few seconds' time. Cleveland. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. which you warm with your hands. This trick is very simple. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. He. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. You have an understanding with some one in the company. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. as you have held it all the time..

Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. Crocker. put it under the glass. Colo. . Victor. but in making one.take the handiest one. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. on a table. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. near a partition or curtain. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. J. in diameter in the center. if any snags are encountered. Be sure that this is the right one. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. Pull the ends quickly. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint.-Contributed by E. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. but by being careful at shores.

by 2 in. 8 in. and fastened with screws. 7 ft. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. from each end to 1 in. for center deck braces. is 14 ft. by 15 ft. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. 9 ft. and. 3 in. wide and 12 ft. by 12 in. 1. 1 mast. at the ends. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . of 1-yd. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. long. 11 yd. by 16 ft.. of 1-1/2-yd. wide. thick and 3/4 in. 1 piece. 2 in. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. 4 outwales. 3 in. from the bow and the large one. The keelson. 8 yd. and is removed after the ribs are in place. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. 1/8 in. 1 in. for the stern piece. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. 1 in. ducking. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. 3 and 4. long. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. clear pine. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. 1 piece. 50 ft. selected pine. 2 and braced with an iron band. 1/4 in. drilled and fastened with screws. Paint. 1 in. from the stern. long. one 6 in. by 10 ft. by 16 ft. by 2 in. Fig. screws and cleats. Both ends are mortised. 14 rib bands. are as follows: 1 keelson. and the other 12 in. wide unbleached muslin. wide and 12 ft. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. by 8 in. apart. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. 2 gunwales. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. square by 16 ft. 1 in. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. for cockpit frame. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. as illustrated in the engraving. long. the smaller is placed 3 ft.. wide 12-oz.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. for the bow. of rope.

A 6-in. 6 in. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. wood screws. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. doubled. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. The deck is not so hard to do. long is well soaked in water. long. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. 1/4 in. The trimming is wood. 1 in. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. apart. A seam should be made along the center piece. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. A block of pine. thick 1-1/2 in. . They are 1 in. is cut to fit under the top boards. thick and 12 in. 1 in. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. 6 and 7. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. gunwales and keelson. The block is fastened to the keelson. 7 and 8. length of canvas is cut in the center. screws. wide and 14 in. thick and 1/2 in. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. Braces. in diameter through the block. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. Fig. wide and 3 ft. wide. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. long. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. long. 3-1/2 ft. A piece of oak. Before making the deck. wide and 24 in. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. 4 in. and fastened to them with bolts. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. Fig. These are put in 6 in. 5. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. is a cube having sides 6 in. 6. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. a piece 1/4 in. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. Figs. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. from the bow. thick. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. wide. corner braces. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. The 11-yd. 9. This block. thick. also.

The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. are used for the boom and gaff. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. 10 with a movable handle. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. thick by 2 in. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. long. The mast has two side and one front stay. The house will accommodate 20 families. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. . The keel. apart in the muslin. is 6 in. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. 12. E. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. 11. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. wide. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. each 1 in. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. The sail is a triangle. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. wide at one end and 12 in. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. Wilmette. in diameter and 10 ft. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. Ill. Fig. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. Tronnes. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. --Contributed by O. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. A strip 1 in. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. at the other. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. long.

five 1/2-in. 5. wide and 2 ft. long. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. square. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. 3. 2. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. Fig. and 3 ft. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. thick. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. thick. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. and the other 18 in. 2-1/2 in. long. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. long. long and five 1/2-in. Take this and fold it over . one 11-1/2 in. wide and 30 in. 4. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. as shown in Fig. Tronnes. Ill. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. thick. 1.into two 14-in. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. Cut the maple. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. 1 yd. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. Wilmette. with the ends and the other side rounding. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. --Contributed by O. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. flat on one side. Bevel both sides of the pieces. 2-1/2 in. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. flat-headed screws. about 5/16 in. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. flat headed screws. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. E. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. wide. wide. 2 in.

The front. pieces 2-5/8 in. thick. and make a turn in each end of the wires. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. 2 and 3. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. Mo. wide and 5 in. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. of each end unwound for connections. The sides are 3-1/4 in. wide and 6-3/4 in. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. D. long. the top and bottom. long. are rounded. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. long. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. long. and take care that the pieces are all square. wide and 4-1/2 in. St. is set. The bag is then turned inside out. and the four outside edges. F. thick and 3 in. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. C. 3 in. A. wide and 3 ft. soaked with water and blown up. wide and 6-1/2 in. long. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. A. Glue a three cornered piece. About 1/2 in. Make a double stitch all around the edge. about 3/8 in. wide and 2-3/4 in. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. square. After the glue. the mechanical parts can be put together. E. If carefully and neatly made. but can be governed by circumstances. Bliss. thick. long. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. 3-1/4 in. 6-1/2 in.once. 1-1/4 in. C. wide . Wind three layers of about No. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. as well as the edges around the opening. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. then centered. forming an eye for a screw. wide and 2-1/2 in. leaving a small opening at one corner. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. B. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. Fig. When the glue is set. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. Cut another piece of board. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. 5 from 1/16-in. Figs. square. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. --Contributed by W. Another piece. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. long. Louis. this square box is well sandpapered. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. long. 3/8 in. 1.

Place the tin. R. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. The end of the polar axis B. The base is a board 5 in. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. long. showing a greater defection of the pointer. Fig. 1/4 in. Like poles repel each other. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. Yorkshire.R. that has the end turned with a shoulder. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. Richmond Hill. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. These wires should be about 1 in. 5. long. 4. A pointer 12 in.and 2-5/8 in. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . Fig. from the spindle. the part carrying the pointer moves away. Austwick Hall. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. F. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. Chapman. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. --Contributed by George Heimroth. and fasten in place. from one end. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. L.A. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. bored in the back. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. so it will just clear the tin. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. the same size as the first. 1/16 in. Another strip of tin. thick. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. and the farther apart they will be forced. wide and 9 in. 4 is not movable. wide and 2-1/2 in. When the current flows through the coil. I. board. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. hole is fastened to the pointer. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass.S. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. in diameter. 4. and as the part Fig. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. The resistance is now adjusted to show . An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. W. G. 5-1/2 in. C. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. long. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. The stronger the current. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark.

10 min. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. 30 min. M. and vice . at 9 hr. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. 1881. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. thus: 9 hr. say Venus at the date of observation. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. A. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. The following formula will show how this may be found. 10 min. shows mean siderial.

and then verify its correctness by measurement. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances.m. if one of these cannot be had. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. get a glazed vessel of similar construction.f. . New Haven. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. or. Hall.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. Conn. owing to the low internal resistance. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. --Contributed by Robert W.

Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. 1-3/4 in. Fig. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. of alum and 4 oz. 1. The boring bar. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. especially for cooking fish. When the follower is screwed down. leaves or bark. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. fresh grass. cover up with the same. as shown in the accompanying picture. and heap the glowing coals on top. arsenic to every 20 lb. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. thick. Wet paper will answer. Then. 3/8 in. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. put the fish among the ashes. long. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. inside diameter and about 5 in.

A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. and threaded on both ends. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. when they were turned in. thick. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. pipe. about 1/2 in. fastened with a pin. pipe. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. turned to the same diameter as the flanges.

Fig. Iowa. wide. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. 4. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. then it should be ground to a fit. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. a jump spark would be much better. A 1-in. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. and which gave such satisfactory results. was then finished on an emery wheel. 3. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. If the valve keeps dripping. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. The rough frame. 5. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. bent in the shape of a U. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. Fig. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. as the one illustrated herewith. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. long.valve stems. square iron. labor and time. Clermont. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. the float is too high. 2. This plate also supports the rocker arms. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. Fig. It . The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. 30 in. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. but never one which required so little material. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. thick and 3 in. however.

The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. in fact. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. and. in diameter and 15 in. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. hole bored in the post. The seats are regular swing boards. A malleable iron bolt. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. long. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . The crosspiece is 2 in. As there is no bracing. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. square and 2 ft. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. long. butting against short stakes. from the center. timber. strong clear material only should be employed." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. from all over the neighborhood. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. The illustration largely explains itself. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. being held in position by spikes as shown. rope is not too heavy. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. It looks like a toy. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. and a little junk. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. Nieman. Use a heavy washer at the head. long is the pivot. strengthened by a piece 4 in. set 3 ft. in the ground with 8 ft. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. W. so it must be strong enough. If it is to be used for adults. square and 5 ft. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. A 3/4 -in. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. This makes an easy adjustment. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. completes the merry-go-round. extending above. for the "motive power" to grasp. 12 ft. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. with no trees or buildings in the way. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. --Contributed by C. 3/4 in. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. square. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders." little and big. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. no matter what your age or size may be. long. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top.

and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. and 18 in. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. as shown in Fig. away. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. if nothing better is at hand. 4. square. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. and sent to earth. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. These ends are placed about 14 in. one for the backbone and one for the bow. To wind the string upon the reel. a wreck. Both have large reels full of . 1/4 by 3/32 in. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. then it is securely fastened. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. light and strong. The bow is now bent. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. Having placed the backbone in position. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. 2. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. long. 1. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line.the fingers. A reel is next made. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other.2 emery. The backbone is flat. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread.

the first tries to spear him by swift dives. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. Y. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string.-Contributed by S. Moody. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. Bunker. Mass. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. The handle end is held down with a staple. common packing thread. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. If the second kite is close enough. often several hundred yards of it. C. Brooklyn. or glass-covered string. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. N. the balance. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. he pays out a large amount of string. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever.string. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. Newburyport. --Contributed' by Harry S. First.

Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. lengths (Fig. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. square (Fig. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. then draw the string up tight. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. Vt. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. length of 2-in. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. If the table is round. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. cutting the circular piece into quarters.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. Corinth. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. Hastings. each the size of half the table top. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. then a dust protector. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. must be attached to a 3-ft. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. make the pad as shown in the illustration. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. --Contributed by Earl R. such as mill men use. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle .

non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. E. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern.-Contributed by H. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. Calif. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather... but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. . from C to D. 2-1/4 in. 6-1/4 in. Oakland. 17-1/2 in. Wharton. which spoils the leather effect. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. Make the other half circular disk in the same way.. trace the design carefully on the leather. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. from E to F. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. 16-1/4 in. and E to G. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. Use a smooth. G to H. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. hard pencil. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. Moisten the .9-1/4 in.

Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. get something with which to make a lining. place both together and with a leather punch. if not more than 1 in. To complete the bag. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. G-J. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. apart. Now cut narrow thongs. Trace the openings for the handles. Cut it the same size as the bag. with the rounded sides of the tools. about 1/8 in.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. wide. and E-G. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. is taken off at a time. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. and corresponding lines on the other side. and lace through the holes. H-B. I made this motor . Cut out the leather for the handle openings. also lines A-G.

--Contributed by J. Pasadena. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. iron. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. Shannon. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. D. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. each being a half circle. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. 2-1/4 in. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. long. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. 1. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in.M. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. 2.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. 24 gauge magnet wire. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. B. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. . Calif. 1. in length. as shown in Fig. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. of No. The one shown is 3-1/2 in.

will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. pasted in alternately. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. near the center. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. are the best kind to make. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. from the bottom end. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. balloon should be about 8 ft. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. and the gores cut from these. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . high. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. 1. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. The gores for a 6-ft.

Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. 2. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. E. in diameter. As the boat is driven forward by this force. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. leaving a long wake behind. --Contributed by R. coming through the small pipe A. 3. In starting the balloon on its flight. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. 4. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. so it will hang as shown in Fig. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. Staunton. as shown in Fig. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. lap on the edges. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. leaving the solution on over night. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. If the gores have been put together right. after which the paint will adhere permanently. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. In removing grease from wood. 5. using about 1/2-in. These are to hold the wick ball. Fig. as shown in Fig.widest point. A. B. saturating it thoroughly. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . The steam. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. somewhat larger in size. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. 1. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. After washing. The boat soon attains considerable speed.

Third. high and 8 in. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. Second. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. The blocks are about 6 in. apart on these lines. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. if you have several copies of the photograph. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. There are three ways of doing this: First. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. in bowling form. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. wide by 6 in. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. 1. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. long and each provided with a handle. long. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. as is shown in Fig. In using either of the two methods described.

N. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. thick. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. Hellwig. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. Fig. not pointed down at the road at an angle. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. --Contributed by John A. 2. being careful not to dent the metal. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. Rinse the plate in cold water. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. Y. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. Albany. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin.Fig.

leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. Richmond. through which passes the set screw S. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. and. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. 5 in. and not produce the right sound. and Fig. A. 6 in. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. is fastened to a common camera tripod. in diameter. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. With this device. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . In Fig. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. thick. A circular piece of wood. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. with a set screw. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. Va. wide and 8 in. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. 2 the front view. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. B. wide and of any desired height. A. Break off the frame. which is 4 in. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. are screwed to the circular piece. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D.upon any particular object. These corner irons are also screwed to. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. 1 Fig. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. Corner irons. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. Paine. long for the base. --Contributed by R. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. S. CC. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims.

S. pine boards. This will make a very compact electric horn. Lake Preston. D. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. in diameter of some 1-in. R. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. La Salle. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. as only the can is visible. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. Kidder. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. . and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. -1. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. I made a wheel 26 in. thus producing sound waves. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. This horn. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. Ill. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery.

The drawers can be taken out and turned over. Feet may be added to the base if desired. 2. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. Kane. O. 1. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. Purdy. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. If the collection consists of only a few coins. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. the same thickness as the coins. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. B. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. Ghent.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. thick and 12 in. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. square. Doylestown. A. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. --Contributed by James R. Fig. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. 1. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. If there is a large collection of coins. The frame is made of a heavy card. --Contributed by C.

Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. A rivet punch is desirable. One Cloud. --Contributed by R. Toronto. The material required is a sheet of No. If desired. of developer. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. A lead pencil. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. Canada. border all around. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry.J. a hammer or mallet. Wis. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. Cal. cut and grooved. into which to place the screws . --Contributed by August T. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. for after the slides have been shown a few times. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. though not absolutely necessary. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. melted and applied with a brush. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. Neyer. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. --Contributed by J. thick. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. Milwaukee. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. It will hold 4 oz. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. and then glued together as indicated. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. several large nails.E. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. plus a 3/8-in. Noble. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. they become uninteresting. Smith.

using 1/2-in.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. Take the nail. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. and file it to a chisel edge. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. draw one part. like the one shown. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. screws placed about 1 in. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. never upon the metal directly. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . There are several ways of working up the design. Remove the screws. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. both outline and decoration. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom.

Do not bend it over or flatten it. 3/4 in. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool.wall. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. Rivet the band to the holder. Provide four lengths for the legs. 1. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. as shown in Fig. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. and two lengths. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. square and 11 in. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. of 11-in. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. square and 181/2 in. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. long. using a 1/2in. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. two lengths. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. 3. square. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. each 1 in. being ball bearing. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. long. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. in the other. l-1/8 in. 2. About 1/2 yd. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. . for the lower rails. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. long. up from the lower end. The pedal. for the top. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top.

It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. F. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . Ala. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. --Contributed by John Shahan. Quackenbush. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. --Contributed by W. Attalla. having quite a length of threads. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. New York City. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator.

and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied .This novelty watch fob is made from felt. college or lodge colors. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. wide and 4-1/4 in. Purchase a 1/2-in. and the other 2-3/4 in. and two holes in the other. and 3/8 in. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. one about 1 in. Assemble as shown in the sketch. in depth. --Contributed by C. something that is carbonated. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. from the end. long. long. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. making a lap of about 1 in. Ironwood. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. the end of the other piece is folded over. using class. Luther. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. Two pieces of felt. from one end. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. Mich. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. initial. stitched on both edges for appearance. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. long. D. each 1-1/4 in. The desired emblem. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt.. wide and 8-1/4 in.

This method allows a wide range of designs. in the cover and the bottom. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. as shown in the sketch. as shown at B. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. or a pasteboard box. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. and the cork will be driven out. A piece of lead. if desired by the operator. in diameter and 2 in. --Contributed by John H. Schatz. about 2 in. Fig. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . Ind. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. 1/4 in. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. from the center and opposite each other. Punch two holes A. 1. Indianapolis. 2. which can be procured from a plumber. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. or more in height. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall.

These tools can be bought for this special purpose. it winds up the rubber band. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. putting in the design. Fig. A piece of thick glass. 4. When the can is rolled away from you. 1. metal. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. . Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. allowing the two ends to be free. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. and the ends of the bands looped over them. 3. as shown in Fig. O. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. are turned up as in Fig. or marble will serve. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. 5. on both top and bottom. Columbus.Rolling Can Toy lead. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. The pieces of tin between the holes A.

this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. deep in its face. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. mark over the design. or more thick on each side. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. and. The edges should be about 1/8 in. After this has been done. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. New York City.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. thick. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. Next place the leather on the glass. long and bored a 1/2-in. 1 in. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. face up. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. hole through it. 3 in. A pencil may be used the first time over. from each end. thicker than the pinion. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. I secured a board 3/4 in. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. If it is desired to "line" the inside. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. wide and 20 in. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent.

3 by 3 by 20 in. 3 by 3 by 6 in. in diameter. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. M. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. 1 by 9 by 80 in. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. 1 piece for clamp. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. 1 by 12 by 77 in. N. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . 1. 2 end rails. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. 2. countersinking the heads of the vise end. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. Brooklyn. Syracuse. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. thick top board. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. Fig. much of the hard labor will be saved. --Contributed by A. 1 screw block. Cut the 2-in. Rice. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. 1 top board. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. Make the lower frame first. New York. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. 2 side rails. 4 guides. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. 1 piece for clamp. 2 crosspieces. and fit it in place for the side vise. Fasten the end pieces on with screws.in the board into the bench top. 1 back board. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. pieces for the vise slides. lag screws as shown. 2 by 12 by 77 in. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. Now fit up the two clamps. 1 piece. Y. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. 3 by 3 by 36. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. 2 by 2 by 18 in. 1 top board.

24 in. If each tool is kept in a certain place. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. 1 pocket level. Only the long run. 1 claw hammer. as well as the pattern maker. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. in diameter. it can be easily found when wanted. 1 monkey wrench. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. The amateur workman. rule. . They can be purchased at a hardware store. 1 countersink. 1 nail set. The bench is now complete. 1 pair dividers. 1 wood scraper. 1 marking gauge. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. 1 brace and set of bits. 1 pair pliers. 1 cross cut saw. 1 compass saw.. 1 set gimlets. 3 and 6 in. 1 jack plane or smoother. 1 bench plane or jointer. 1 2-ft. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise.. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. 1 rip saw. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. 1 set chisels. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws.. 2 screwdrivers. 24 in.screws. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work.

Fig. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. The calf skin. ---Contributed by James M. Fig.1 6-in. being softer. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin.1. Pa. No. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. but will not make . becomes like A. 2. Fig. the projecting point A. will be easier to work. try square. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. 3. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. Fig. will sink into the handle as shown at D. after constant use. 2 and 00 sandpaper. 1. Kane. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. Doylestown. 1 oilstone. 1.

If cow hide is preferred. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. will do just as well. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. . which steam. Two pieces will be required of this size. such as copper or brass.as rigid a case as the cow skin. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. If calf skin is to be used. lay the design on the face. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. the same method of treatment is used. when dry. water or heat will not affect. but a V-shaped nut pick. secure a piece of modeling calf. Having prepared the two sides. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. and the length 6-5/8 in. Turn the leather. then prepare the leather. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. After the outlines are traced. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. New York City. cover it completely with water enamel and. First draw the design on paper. The form can be made of a stick of wood. -Contributed by Julia A. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. White.

When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. --Contributed by Chas. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. --Contributed by W. Portland. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. A. Maine. Jaquythe. as shown in the sketch. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. Richmond. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. Cobb. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. C. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. and an adjustable friction-held loop. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. Herrman. New York City. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. . --Contributed by Chester L. Cal.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel.

B. --Contributed by Wm. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. Roberts. Mass. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. Wright. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. A thick piece of tin. Middletown. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. an inverted stewpan. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. . Conn. for instance. This was very difficult. was marked out as shown. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly.. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. --Contributed by Geo. Cambridge. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop.

With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. so some bones were quickly calcined. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. --Contributed by C. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. of boiling water. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. Indianapolis. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. face down. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. If any traces of the grease are left. on a clear piece of glass. L. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. as shown. The next morning there was no trace of oil. but only an odor which soon vanished. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. which has been tried out several times with success. F. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. used as part of furniture. such as chair seats. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. . care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. --Contributed by Paul Keller. If the article is highly polished. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane.. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. Bone. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. pulverized and applied. apply powdered calcined magnesia. well calcined and powdered. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. Illinois. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. Chicago. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. There was no quicklime to be had. but not running over. A beautifully bound book. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. Ind. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. and quite new. and the grease will disappear. Herbert. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. When dry.

deep and 5 in. set and thumbscrews. This coaster is simple and easy to make. New York. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner.. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. the pieces . 6 in. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. Howe. Tarrytown. A. soft steel with the opening 6 in.. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. long. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. thick. The pieces marked S are single. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. If properly adjusted. wide and 12 in. says Scientific American. 2 in. --Contributed by Geo. high and are bolted to a block of wood.

The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. The seat is a board. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. A sharp knife. for sending to friends. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. E. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. albums and the like. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. If the letters are all cut the same height. to the underside of which is a block. no doubt. they will look remarkably uniform. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. Their size depends on the plate used. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. says Camera Craft.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin.

If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. using care to get it in the right position. The puzzle is to get . This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. for example. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. after. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. mount them on short pieces of corks. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. photographing them down to the desired size. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. So arranged. So made. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. In cutting out an 0. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. pasting the prints on some thin card. and.

squeezes along past the center of the tube. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. says the American Thresherman. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. Cape May Point. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. N. Bayley. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. G. snow or anything to hide it.J. of its top. with the longest end outside. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. so they will lie horizontal. A hole 6 or 7 in. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. Old-Time Magic . Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. long that will just fit are set in. hung on pivots.-Contributed by I. He smells the bait.

E. Idaho. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it.faced up. Szerlip. Pocatello. then spread the string. --Contributed by L. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. Pawtucket. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. Parker. or rub the hands a little before doing so. Rhode Island. Press the hands together. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. --Contributed by L. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. N. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. Y. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. then expose again. Brooklyn. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. --Contributed by Charles Graham. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve.

dark red. they will look very much like the genuine article. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. full size. The handle is next made. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in..Genuine antique swords and armor. wide and 2 in. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. 3 Fig. near the point end. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. end of the blade. or green oil paint. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. The blade should be about 27 in. in width. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. if any. thick. 1 Fig. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. wipe the blade . Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw.. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. Glue the other side of the blade. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. using a straightedge and a pencil. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. in building up his work from the illustrations. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. says the English Mechanic. whether he requires a single sword only. long. or a complete suit of armor. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. 2 Fig. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. 4 on the blade. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. and if carefully made. narrower. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. 1. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. When the glue is thoroughly dry. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. When the whole is quite dry. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. The pieces.

wind it around in a continuous line closely together. thick and 5 in. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. 3.. The length of the handle. 1.. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. the length of the blade 28 in. preferably of contrasting colors. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. in diameter. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. Fig. take two pieces of wood. the other is flat or half-round. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration.with light strokes up and down several times. follow the directions as for Fig. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. In the finished piece. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. In making this scimitar. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. 3. in the widest part at the lower end. 2. the illustration. about 1-1/2 in. and 3 in. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. should be about 9 in. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. In making. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. 1/8 in. the other two are identical. square and of any length desired. 1. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. 1. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. allowing for a good hold with both hands. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. long. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. Both edges of the blade are sharp. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. 4. as it is . not for use only in cases of tableaux. 2. shows only two sides. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. This sword is about 68 in. the other is flat or halfround. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. of course. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. 1.

causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. Syracuse. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. at the lower end. however. long. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. as shown in the sketch. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. and. Doctors probed for the button without success. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. or an insecure fastening. --Contributed by Katharine D. On each edge of the board. Mass. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. each about 1 ft. It is made of a plank. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. 2 in. A piece of mild steel. as there was some at hand. square. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. Morse. N. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. Franklin. about 3/8 in. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. A cold . can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. piping and jackets by hard water.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. Y. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. in an attempt to remove it. The thinness of the plank. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. and if so. Both can be made easily. as can the pitch bed or block. --Contributed by John Blake. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring.

18 gauge. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. Trim up the edges and file them . and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. on the pitch. To remedy this. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. secure a piece of brass of about No. using a small metal saw. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. plaster of Paris. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. When this has been done. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. When the desired form has been obtained. 5 lb.. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb.. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. To put it in another way. design down. a file to reduce the ends to shape. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. tallow. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. 5 lb.

in one second. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. or 550 ft. per minute. in diameter (Fig. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. --Contributed by Harold H. Before giving the description. . lb. 2). Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. Clean the metal thoroughly. or fraction of a horsepower. using powdered pumice with lye. lb. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. 1) and the other 12 in. A. over the smaller vessel. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. 3. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. in diameter (Fig. Fig. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. in the center. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines.000 lb. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. The smaller is placed within the larger.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. 1 ft. 1 ft. and still revolve. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. per second. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. and hang a bird swing. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. one 18 in. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. That is lifting 33. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. make an unusual show window attraction. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. This in turn divided by 33. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. it may be well to know what horsepower means. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. living together in what seems like one receptacle. space between the vessels with water. to keep it from floating. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. Cutter.smooth. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered.000 ft. Fill the 3-in. 30 ft. in one minute or 550 lb. but not to stop it.

It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. The effect is surprising. by L. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. 1 Fig. Campbell. --Contributed by J. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. N. F.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. Szerlip. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. Y. 2 Fig. Diameter 12 in. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . Brooklyn. Diameter Fig. or on a pedestal.3 Fig. Somerville. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. Mass. --Contributed.18 in.

With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. after which it is ready for use. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. using any of the common metal polishes. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. which. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. which may be of wood or tin. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. often render it useless after a few months service. and cut out the shape with the shears. as a rule. and then. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. then by drawing a straightedge over it. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. keeping the center high. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. away from the edge. unsatisfactory. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. is.copper of No. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. This compound is impervious to water. with the pliers. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. and the clay . Do not be content merely to bend them over. the same as removing writing from a slate. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. with other defects. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. Polish both of these pieces. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. In riveting. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. Rivet the cup to the base. to keep the metal from tarnishing. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer.

The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. The siphon is made of glass tubes. --Contributed by A. as shown in Fig. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. in diameter and 5 in. Dunlop.can be pressed back and leveled. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. DeLoof. . long. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. Mich. 2. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. -Contributed by Thos. A. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. Mich. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. Scotland. 3/4 in. It is made of a glass tube. --Contributed by John T. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. 1. Houghton. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. the device will work for an indefinite time. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. Grand Rapids. Shettleston. Northville. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig.

The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. long with the crossguard and blade of steel. This sword is 4 ft.1 FIG. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic.FIG. in width and 2 in. As the handle is to . thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. London. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. put up as ornaments. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. long. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. 1. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. stilettos and battle-axes.

the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. studded with brass or steel nails. which is about 2-1/2 ft. The ball is made as described in Fig. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. with wire or string' bound handle. very broad. When dry. 8. sharp edges on both sides. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. wood with a keyhole saw. small rope and round-headed nails. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. in length. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. In Fig. This axe is made similar to the one . Three large. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. The handle is of wood. 11 were used. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. In Fig. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. The crossbar and blade are steel. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. long with a dark handle of wood. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. in width. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. the upper part iron or steel. long. in length. then glued on the blade as shown. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. with both edges of the blade sharp. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. the same as used on the end of the handle. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. with both edges sharp. paint it a dark brown or black. 6. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. string. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. The lower half of the handle is of wood.represent copper. 9. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. 5. These must be cut from pieces of wood. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. sometimes called cuirass breakers. 20 spike. This stiletto has a wood handle. 3 is shown a claymore. the axe is of steel. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. Both handle and axe are of steel. This weapon is about 1 ft. narrower. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. The sword shown in Fig. A German stiletto. firmly glued on. glue and put it in place. is shown in Fig. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. This sword is about 4 ft. one about 1/2 in. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. 7. This weapon is also about 1 ft. In Fig. When the whole is quite dry. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. A German poniard is shown in Fig. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. When the glue is thoroughly dry. 4. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. Cut two strips of tinfoil.

If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. This will make a very good flexible belt. so the contents cannot be seen. . When wrapped all the way around. Old-Time Magic . use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. Davis. such as braided fishline.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. will pull where other belts slip. 10. 2. --Contributed by E.described in Fig. Chicago. high. the ends are tied and cut off. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. together as shown in Fig. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. W. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened.

J. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. Calif. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. Oakland. --Contributed by A. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. 1 and put together as in Fig. four glass tumblers. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. As zinc is much lighter than iron. with the circle centrally located. an acid. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. filled with water. about one-third the way down from the top. To make the flowers grow in an instant. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. N.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. some of the liquid. S. Bridgeton. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. held in the right hand. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. or using small wedges of wood. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. These wires are put in the jar. There will be no change in color. causing the flowers to grow. Macdonald. Before the performance. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. apparently. The dotted lines in Fig. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. 2. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . in a few seconds' time.

If the size wanted is No. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. and kept ready for use at any time. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. and equally worthy of individual treatment. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. When many slides are to be masked. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. A. 4 for width and No. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. Jaquythe. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. practical and costs nothing. Cal. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. which are numbered for convenience in working. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. --Contributed by W.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. says a correspondent of Photo Era. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. Richmond. This outlines the desired opening. 2 for height. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. not only because of the fact just mentioned. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. unless some special device is used.

the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. or a pair of old tongs. may be changed. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. When etched to the desired depth. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. 16 gauge. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . The decoration. about half and half. not the water into the acid. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. too. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. or. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. Secure a sheet of No.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. possibly. a little less acid than water. paint the design. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. and the extreme length 7 in. is about right for the No. With a stick. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. Draw a design. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. which is dangerous. The one shown is merely suggestive. but they can be easily revived. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. the paper is folded along the center line. and do not inhale the fumes. This done. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. using the carbon paper. the margin and the entire back of the metal. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid.

about 3 ft. wide. 5. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. as shown in the illustration. 2. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. thick. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. The connections are simple: I. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. 2. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. long and 1 ft. A. 2. as shown in Fig. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. Then get two posts. as at H. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. Fig. 5. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. Fig. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. 3/8 in. about 8 in. as in Fig. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. high. it will touch post F. about 1 in. 1. 0 indicates the batteries. about 2-1/2 in. to the table. Fig. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. long. Fig. C and D. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. in diameter and 1/4 in. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. J is another wire attached in the same way. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. and bore two holes. . Nail a board. Cut out a piece of tin. Fig. repeat as many times as is necessary. 24 parts water. When the button S is pressed. through it. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. 4. attached to a post at each end. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. with the wires underneath. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. 3. wide and of the same length as the table. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. It may be either nailed or screwed down. Paint the table any color desired. the bell will ring. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. and about 2-1/2 ft. or more wide. so that when it is pressed down.

It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces.Imitation Arms and Armor . The imitation articles are made of wood. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. The circle is marked out with a compass. long. The entire weapon. is to appear as steel. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. After the glue is dry. long serves as the dowel. the wood peg inserted in one of them. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. thick.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. A wood peg about 2 in. These rings can be carved out. says the English Mechanic. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings.. 2. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. but they are somewhat difficult to make. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. such as . The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. 1. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. handle and all. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. This weapon is about 22 in. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set.

6. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. as before mentioned. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. also. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. or the amateur cannot use it well. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. The axe is shown in steel. The lower half of the handle is wood. . covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. The upper half of the handle is steel. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil.ornamental scrolls. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. This weapon is about 22 in. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. leaves. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. the hammer and spike. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. etc. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. The entire handle should be made of one piece. as shown. is shown in Fig. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. used at the end of the fifteenth century. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. 8. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. with a sharp carving tool. covered with red velvet. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. 3. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. flowers. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. 5. The spikes are cut out of wood. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. as described in Fig. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. The handle is of wood. If such a tool is not at hand. studded with large brass or steel nails. long. 2. All of these axes are about the same length. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. Its length is about 3 ft. The handle is of steel imitation. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil.

7) calls for one out. 5. 2. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. Fig. Chicago. 4). as in Fig. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. a three-base hit. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. then the other plays. The knife falling on its side (Fig. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. Each person plays until three outs have been made. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. 1. 6. the knife resting on its back. as shown in Fig. . 3. calls for a home run. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. and so on for nine innings.

The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. 3. F. It may be found that the negative is not colored. Mass. of the rope and holds it. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. one of them burning . If it is spotted at all.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. Old-Time Magic . Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. Somerville.-Contributed by J. as shown in Fig. while the committee is tying him up.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. This he does. 2. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. hypo to 1 pt. as shown in Fig. 1. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. Campbell. with the rope laced in the cloth. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. of water for an hour or two. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make.

Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. with which he is going to light the other candle. 4 oz. of water and 1 oz. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. of sugar. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. and. invisible to them (the audience). you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. of plumbago. of turpentine. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. Drill Gauge screw. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. thus causing it to light. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. He then walks over to the other candle. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. Thome.Contributed by Andrew G. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. the other without a light. --Contributed by L. Louisville. . The magician walks over to the burning candle. Ky. shades the light for a few seconds. Ky. New York City. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands.. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. thick. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. 4 oz. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. Brown. etc. showing that there is nothing between them. --Contributed by C. Lebanon. 3/4 in.brightly. bolt. B. Evans.

running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. long. thick. Y.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. 5 in. for the material. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. or blotting paper. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. Pulteney. Do not add water to the acid. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. into a tube of several thicknesses. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. N. diameter. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. Denniston. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. but is not so good. which will give a strong. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. In making up the solution. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. --Contributed by C. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. about 5 in. H. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. steady current. Its current strength is about one volt. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. To make the porous cell.

a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. steel. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. To insure this. long with a bearing at each end. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. one drawing them together. Finally. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. while the other end is attached by two screws. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. but somewhat lighter. One hole was bored as well as possible. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. As to thickness. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised.station. After much experimentation with bearings. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces.) may be obtained. the other holding them apart. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. carrying the hour circle at one end. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. a positive adjustment was provided. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. The . It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. steel. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. steel. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in.

since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes.. Point it approximately to the north star. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. Set the declination circle to its reading. Instead. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . need not be changed.. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. excepting those on the declination axis. Declination is read directly. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. When properly set it will describe a great circle. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. The pointer is directed to Alpha. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. apart. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. The aperture should be 1/4 in. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. save the one in the pipe. and if it is not again directed to the same point. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. All these adjustments. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. It is. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. in each direction from two points 180 deg. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. Each shaft. subtract 24." Only a rough setting is necessary. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. If the result is more than 24 hours. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. once carefully made. Cassiopiae. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. and 15 min. is provided with this adjustment." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. To find a star in the heavens. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. To locate a known star on the map. The pole is 1 deg. 45 min." When this is done. All set screws. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. are tightened. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. turn the pointer to the star.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars.

New Orleans. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. a great effect will be produced. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. Ohio. of ether. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. The ball is found to be the genuine article. benzole. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. Plain City. If this will be too transparent. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. In reality the first ball. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. long. is folded several times. taking care not to add too much. The dance will begin. then add 1 2-3 dr. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water.. add a little more benzole. -Contributed by Ray E. Strosnider. La. 3 or 4 in. is the real cannon ball. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. cannon balls. as shown in the sketch. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. which is the one examined. the others .

Somerville. Milwaukee. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. San Francisco. Cal. without taking up any great amount of space. 1). Campbell. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . Wis. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. Return the card to the pack. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. 2. --Contributed by J. small brooches. etc. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. Mass.. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. In boxes having a sliding cover. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. F. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. taps. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. as shown in the illustration. Fig. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band.

the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. from the bottom of the box. This box has done good service. Connecticut. thus giving ample store room for colors. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. round pieces 2-1/4 in.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. prints. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. Beller. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. as shown in the illustration. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. Hartford. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. . slides and extra brushes.

with well packed horse manure. will answer the purpose. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. 1). Fill the upper tub. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. . This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. tacking the gauze well at the corners. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. about threefourths full. Mass. or placed against a wall. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. 2). When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. FIG. holes in the bottom of one. Darke.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. West Lynn. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. O. -Contributed by C. When the ends are turned under. costing 5 cents.

he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. Eifel. Chicago. when they are raised from the pan. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. If plugs are found in any of the holes. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. If the following directions are carried out. cutting the cane between the holes. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. and each bundle contains . M. oil or other fluid. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. if this is not available. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. --Contributed by L. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. they should be knocked out. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors.

Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. In addition to the cane. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. No plugs . held there by inserting another plug. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. then across and down. 1. after having been pulled tight. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. as shown in Fig. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. a square pointed wedge. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. put about 3 or 4 in. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. as it must be removed again. it should be held by a plug. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. and.

1 lat. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. but the most common. Fig. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. 5. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. the next smallest. After completing the second layer.2+. During the weaving. 41°-30'. The chemicals will not affect the rosin.075 in. 5 in.3 in. is the horizontal dial. From table No.5 in. as shown in Fig. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. is the base (5 in. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. D. Fig. 1. Even with this lubrication. R. When cool.2 in. 4. Their difference is . lat. If you have a table of natural functions. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. as shown in Fig. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. Detroit. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. No weaving has been done up to this time. it is 4. If handled with a little care. 1. The style or gnomon. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. or the style. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. for 2°. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. 41 °-30'. trim off the surplus rosin. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. and for lat. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break.15+.= 4. This will make three layers. using the same holes as for the first layer. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. and the one we shall describe in this article. the height of which is taken from table No. All added to the lesser or 40°. 40°. There are several different designs of sundials. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. we have 4. It consists of a flat circular table. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. as it always equals the latitude of the place. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. stretch the third one.15 in.075 in. -Contributed by E. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. 3. 3. 1. 42° is 4. and for 1° it would be . W. in this case) times the . the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. Start at one corner and weave diagonally.42 in. as for example. Patrick. called the gnomon. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. the height of the line BC. as the height of the line BC for lat. --Contributed by M. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. Michigan.

55 5.32 6. if of metal.50 26° 2.02 1.41 38° 3.42 1. 1. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points.00 40° 4. and intersecting the semicircles.12 52° 6.99 2.96 32° 3.57 3.93 6.37 54° 6.57 1. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial.06 2.87 1. Height of stile in inches for a 5in.30 2.42 45 . may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in. .46 3.26 4.46 .33 . Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown.93 2.44 44° 4.07 4.81 4.82 3.94 1. and for this size dial (10 in. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No. or if of stone.88 36° 3.42 .33 42° 4.76 1. Fig. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in.19 1.66 1.85 35 .64 4 8 3. Table NO. according to the size of the dial.18 28° 2.16 1. Chords in inches for a 10 in. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight.30 1.87 4.66 latitude.tangent of the degree of latitude.49 3.77 2.83 27° 2.14 5.03 3. base.85 1.29 4-30 7-30 3. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2. circle Sundial.55 30° 2. For latitudes not given.40 34° 3.89 50° 5. 2.38 . Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 . using the points A and C as centers.79 4. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks. an inch or two. draw two parallel lines AB and CD. A line EF drawn through the points A and C.49 30 . Draw the line AD.16 40 .11 3.63 56° 7.97 5 7 4. Its thickness.37 5. To layout the hour circle. 2 for given latitudes.82 2.40 1.27 2.10 6. or more. gives the 6 o'clock points.66 48° 5.68 5-30 6-30 5.82 5.23 6. 2. which will represent the base in length and thickness.55 4.56 .28 . and perpendicular to the base or style. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No.39 . The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed.55 46° 5.20 60° 8. with a radius of 5 in.59 2. Draw two semi-circles. long.91 58° 8.

says the English Mechanic.46 5. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position.79 6.98 4. adding to each piece interest and value. An ordinary compass. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year.68 3.add those marked + subtract those Marked . This correction can be added to the values in table No.50 . The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No. 2 and Dec.from Sundial lime. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen.01 1. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the . The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face. will enable one to set the dial.34 5.87 6.49 3. 3 Corrections in minutes to change. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time. and on these dates the dial needs no correction.54 60 .72 5. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached.. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15. The + means that the clock is faster.08 1. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.10 4. Mitchell.63 1.19 2. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time. then the watch is slower. 3. Sun time to local mean time. E.89 3.30 2. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon.93 6. 25. each article can be labelled with the name.77 3.52 Table No. Iowa. Sept. 3. As they are the genuine reproductions.06 2. Sioux City.60 4. 900 Chicago. and the .57 1.82 3.46 4.24 5. June 15.49 5. April 16. London.71 2.14 1. Each weapon is cut from wood. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds.means that the dial is faster than the sun. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco.53 1. after allowing for the declination. --Contributed by J.21 2. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole.50 55 . and for the difference between standard and local time. if west. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid.12 5. it will be faster.37 2.

This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. When putting on the tinfoil. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. . 1.. the length of which is about 5 ft. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. Partisan. 3.

long. long. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. used about the seventeenth century. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. which are a part of the axe. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. 8. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. sharp on the outer edges. . The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. 6 ft. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. is shown in Fig. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. the holes being about 1/4 in. about 4 in. The edges are sharp. long with a round staff or handle.which is square. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails.. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. press it well into the carved depressions. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. The spear is steel. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. This weapon is about 6 ft. 5. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. long with a round wooden handle. The extreme length is 9 ft. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. 7. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. It is about 6 ft. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The length of this bar is about 5 in. in diameter. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. A gisarm or glaive. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd.

the most durable being bamboo. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. In Figs. the cross cords.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. 2 and 3. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. 4. 1. Substances such as straw. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. are put in place. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. 5. are less durable and will quickly show wear. Ohio. B. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. apart. used for spacing and binding the whole together. Cut all the cords the same length. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. This is important to secure neatness.-Contributed by R. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. They can be made of various materials. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. as shown in Fig. The twisted cross cords should . H. or in holes punched in a leather strap. Loudonville. Workman. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom.

-Contributed by Geo. of the bottom. as shown at B. Harrer. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. 3 in. below the top to within 1/4 in. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. Lockport. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. New York. for a length extending from a point 2 in. wide. in which was placed a piece of glass. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. M. The first design shown is for using bamboo. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. To remedy this. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. New Orleans. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. bamboo or rolled paper. This was turned over the top of the other can. Four V-shaped notches were cut. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. A slit was cut in the bottom. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. shaped as shown at C. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the .be of such material. La. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin.

--Contributed by Joseph H. Schaffner. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. --Contributed by W. the brass is loosened from the block. and two along the side for attaching the staff. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. N. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. Pasadena. Y. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. This should be done gradually. Newburgh. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. This plank. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. After this is finished. Shay. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. Ill. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. giving the appearance of hammered brass. wide. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. It would be well to polish the brass at first. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. --Contributed by Chas. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper.tape from sticking to the carpet. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. is shown in the accompanying sketch. do not throw away the gloves. Cal. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. H. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. turned over but not fastened. Maywood. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. Sanford. about 1/16 in. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces.

Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. Oak Park. A. -Contributed by W. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. the pendulum swings . Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. in diameter. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. Jaquythe. Marshall. Richmond. bent as shown. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. K. Cal. Unlike most clocks. --E. Ill.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall.

bearing on the latter. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. --Contributed by V.. wide. such as this one. wide that is perfectly flat. to the first one with screws or glue. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. only have the opposite side up. on the board B. by 1-5/16 in. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. Chicago. bar. is an electromagnet. high. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. about 12 in. the center one being 2-3/4 in. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. high and 1/4 in. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. says the Scientific American. 6 in. Two uprights. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. in diameter. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. Now place the board to be joined. In using this method.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. high. away. are secured in the base bar. thick. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. Metzech. Secure a board. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. The construction is very simple. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. 5/16 in. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. A. . and the other two 2-5/8 in. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. C. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. 7-1/2 in. about 6 in. long and at each side of this. Fasten another board. high. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. B. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. 3/4 in. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in.

Vanderslice. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. 3. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. wide and 1 in. 1. whose dimensions are given in Fig. Phoenixville. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. from one end. square. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. 4. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. 1. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. long. Fig. or more. 1. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. The trigger. --Contributed by Elmer A. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. 2. plates should be made 8 in. is fastened in the hole A. Fig. Pa. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. as shown at A. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. . by driving a pin through the wood. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. square inside. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. wide and 5 in.

if only two bands are put in the . 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. one-half the length of the side pieces. -Contributed by J. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. square. rubbing varnish and turpentine.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks.A. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. 2 parts of whiting. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. Fostoria. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. which allows 1/4 in. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. Ohio. 5 parts of black filler. Simonis. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. by weight. as shown in the illustration.

The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. long. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. Dartmouth. In constructing helmets. Mass. is set at an angle of 45 deg. wide and about 1 ft. which may be either of ground or plain glass. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. G. and it may be made as a model or full sized. London. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. It must be kept moist and well . An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. is necessary. If a plain glass is used. preferably copper. DeLoof. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. keeps the strong light out when sketching. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. Michigan. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. No. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. Grand Rapids. 1. and the picture can be drawn as described. A double convex lens. Shaw. A piece of metal. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. 8 in. in the opposite end of the box. -Contributed by Abner B. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. as shown in Fig. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. deep.lower strings. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. --Contributed by Thos. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. In use. place tracing paper on its surface. says the English Mechanic. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. A mirror. II. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection.

as shown in Fig. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. and left over night to soak. Scraps of thin. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. a few clay-modeling tools. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. the clay model oiled. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. and the deft use of the fingers. 2. All being ready. take. The clay. brown. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. 3. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. 1. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. shown in Fig. as in bas-relief. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. 1. or some thin glue. on which to place the clay. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. This being done. with a keyhole saw. After the clay model is finished. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model.kneaded. will be necessary. and over the crest on top. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. joined closely together. and continue until the clay is completely covered. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand.

A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. the skullcap. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. When dry. square in shape. and the ear guards in two pieces. as shown: in the design. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. and so on. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. a few lines running down. The center of the ear guards are perforated. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. the piecing could not be detected. 7. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. as seen in the other part of the sketch. or. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. Before taking it off the model. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. They are all covered with tinfoil. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. which should be no difficult matter. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. a crest on top. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. 1. then another coating of glue. 9. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. one for each side. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. In Fig. When perfectly dry. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. Indianapolis. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. 5. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. This contrivance should be made of wood. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century.as possible. The band is decorated with brass studs. When the helmet is off the model. Indiana. owing to the clay being oiled. In Fig. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. should be modeled and made in one piece. The whole helmet. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. will make it look neat. --Contributed by Paul Keller. with the exception of the vizor. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel.

The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. 4. of fire clay. if the measurements are correct. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. and two large 3in. of mineral wool. 2. AA. the holes leading to the switch. The holes B and C are about 3 in. should extend about 1/4 in. are allowed to project about 1 in. long. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. 1 in. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. 4. Fig. Fig. in diameter and 9 in. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. one glass tube. one fuse block. 1. German-silver wire is better. as shown in Fig. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. one small switch. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. 1. Fig. 4. long. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. 4 lb. to receive screws for holding it to the base. about 1/4 in. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. 3 in. FF. 4. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. when they are placed in opposite positions. as shown in Fig. 12 in. Fig. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. about 1 lb. A round collar of galvanized iron. Fig. and C. thick sheet asbestos. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. about 80 ft. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. 3. one oblong piece of wood. This will allow the plate. or. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. GG. The mineral wool. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. also the switch B and the fuse block C. is then packed down inside the collar. 2. 1. 1. If a neat appearance is desired. Fig. which can be bought from a local druggist. thick. 1. 2. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. This will make an open space between the plates. above the collar. Fig. as shown in Fig. AA. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. E and F. if this cannot be obtained. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. If asbestos is used. high. Fig. for connections. 1. 4. with slits cut for the wires. The reverse side of the base.same size. each 4-1/2 in. AA. the fuse block. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. Fig. long. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. 4. Fig. until it is within 1 in. and. is shown in Fig. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . two ordinary binding posts. 22 gauge resistance wire. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. Fig. of the top. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. Fig. Fig. JJ. wide and 15 in. of No. The plate. screws. 4. The two holes. as it stands a higher temperature. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D.

In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. Cal. when cool. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. A. Catherines. KK. apart. --Contributed by W. so that the circuit will not become broken. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. more wire should be added. It should not be left heated in this condition. A file can be used to remove any rough places. deep. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. then. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. Cnonyn. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. Jaquythe. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. Fig. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. --Contributed by R. when heated. 2. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. will slip and come in contact with each other. Richmond. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. 4. The clay. and pressed into it. II. causing a short circuit. H. Next. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. St. It should not be set on end. allowing a space between each turn. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. This point marks the proper length to cut it. above the rim. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. When this is done. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. Can. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. Cover over about 1 in. If this is the case. it leaves a gate for the metal. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. Fig. If it is not thoroughly dry. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. This completes the stove. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. Cut a 1/2-in. As these connections cannot be soldered. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. When the tile is in place. steam will form when the current is applied. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. using care not to get it too wet. as the turns of the wires. While the clay is damp.

the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. is large enough. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. says the Photographic Times. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. constructed of 3/4-in. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. square material in any size. Ky. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. --Contributed by Andrew G. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. and the prints will dry rapidly. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. Louisville. but 12 by 24 in. the air can enter from both top and bottom. Thorne. Then clip a little off the . If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. the pie will be damaged. as shown. and the frame set near a window.

A 1/8-in. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. 1. slip on two cardboard washers. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. in diameter and about 4 in. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. The board can be raised to place . The contact F is made of a strip of copper. thick. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. 1. thick and 3 in. 2. at GG. The driving arm D. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. Figs. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in.Paper Funnel point. 22 gauge magnet wire. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. wide and 7 in. Iowa. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. in diameter. Fig. -Contributed by S. high. The connections are made as shown in Fig. 3. Fig. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. long. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. each 1 in. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. each 1/2 in. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. 1/2 in. long. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. as shown. 1 and 3. W. long. Le Mars. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. As the shaft revolves. Two supports. Fig. 2-1/2 in. 14 in. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. for the crank. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. high. An offset is bent in the center. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. 1. thereby saving time and washing. 1. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. wide and 3 in. Herron. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. long. 4 in. 1/2 in. causing a break in the current. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. which gives the shaft a half turn. thick and 3 in. which are fastened to the base. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. The connecting rod E. open out. wide. high. allowing each end to project for connections. The upright B. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in.

The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. on a board. Dorchester. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. In designing the roost. Place the pot. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. . or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. making a framework suitable for a roost. One or more pots may be used. Stecher. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. --Contributed by William F. 3 in.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. Mass. bottom side up. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. in height. as shown in the sketch.

Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. odd corners. F. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. 1. adopt the method described. paraffin and paint or varnish. and give it time to dry. will produce the pattern desired. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. grills and gratings for doors. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. 1. Fig. shelves. The materials required are rope or. when combined. in diameter. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. Wind the . as shown in Fig. that it is heated. windows. if it is other than straight lines. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. ordinary glue. etc. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. without any corresponding benefit. The bottom part of the sketch. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges.. preferably.. F. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects.

2. Harrer. N. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . cut and glue them together. M. -Contributed by Geo. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer.Fig. six designs are shown. Fig. Lockport. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. Y.

Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support.. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. when it will be observed that any organic matter.. says the English Mechanic. chips of iron rust. etc. As the . London. This piece of horse armor.. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. and the sides do not cover the jaws. which was used in front of a horse's head. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. 1. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. will be retained by the cotton. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. but no farther. etc.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work.

as shown in the sketch. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. 2. The armor is now removed from the model. with the exception of the thumb shield. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. This being done. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. as the surface will hold the clay. and therefore it is not described. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. An arrangement is shown in Fig. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. In Fig.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. 4. the rougher the better. This can be made in one piece. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. This triangularshaped support. then another coat of glue. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. except the thumb and fingers. 8. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. This will make the model light and easy to move around. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. but the back is not necessary. the same as in Fig. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. and will require less clay. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. but for . 6 and 7. which can be made in any size. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. which is separate. All being ready. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. 2. and the clay model oiled. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper.

running down the plate. but 3-1/2 in. long. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. --Contributed by Ralph L. . will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. 9. Fasten a polished brass ball to. --Contributed by John G. Y. La Rue.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. If it does not hold a charge. wide and 1/2 in. are better shown in Fig. each about 1/4 in. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. two in each jaw. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. the two pieces of foil will draw together. two for the jaws and one a wedge. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. Redondo Beach. in depth. When locating the place for the screw eyes. 2. fastened to the rod. are glued to it. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. The two pieces of foil. Buxton. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. and the instrument is ready for use. Calif. the foils will not move. A piece of board. the top of the rod. 1/2 in. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. N. Goshen. cut into the shape shown in Fig. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. will be about right. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball.

Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. The can may be bronzed. A. Texas. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. enameled or otherwise decorated. silvered. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. When a fish is hooked. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. --Contributed by Mrs. about 15 in. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. as this will cut under the water without splashing. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. Corsicana. At a point 6 in. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. M. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. as indicated in the . as shown in the illustration. pine board. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. long. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. Bryan. is made of a 1/4-in. 2-1/2 in. from the smaller end. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. hole bored through it.

This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. thick. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. as shown. long over all. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. such as basswood or pine was used. using a piece of carbon paper. Polish the metal. put a coat or two of wax and polish . Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. Basswood or butternut. If soft wood. Next prepare the metal holder.Match Holder accompanying sketch. Any kind of wood will do. wide by 6 in. will do as well as the more expensive woods. then with a nail. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. 22 is plenty heavy enough. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. using powdered pumice and lye. punch the holes. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. and trace upon it the design and outline. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. or even pine. Having completed the drawing. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. A good size is 5 in. 3/8 or 1/4 in." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. take a piece of thin wood. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. When it has dried over night. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on.

--Contributed by W. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. Cal. can be made on the same standards. each 1 in. of pure olive oil. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. long. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. Richmond. Two wire nails. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. wide and 5 in. is used for the base of this instrument. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. . If one has some insight in carving. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. long. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. It is useful for photographers. If carving is contemplated. the whole being finished in linseed oil. 2 in. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. are used for the cores of the magnets. Jaquythe. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. 1/2 in. thick. A. Instead of the usual two short ropes. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached.

1. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. leaving about 1/4 in.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. 25 gauge. when the key is pushed down. A piece of tin. about No. Lynas. as shown by the dotted lines. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. then covered with red. A rubber band. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. . These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. acts as a spring to keep the key open. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. at A. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. H. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. says the English Mechanic. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. similar to that used in electric bells. cloth or baize to represent the legs. All of the parts for the armor have been described. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. in the shape shown in the sketch. 3. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. cut in the shape of the letter T. London. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. the paper covering put on. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. About 1 in. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. --Contributed by W. as shown in Fig. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. except that for the legs.

go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. can be made in a few minutes' time. 1 and drill a 1/4in. drill six 1/4-in. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. make the same series of eight small holes and. Instead of using brass headed nails. Cut them to a length or 40 in. The two pieces are bolted together. not too tight. 2. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. says Camera Craft. holes. apart. completes the equipment. Take the piece shown in Fig. at each end. 3 in. Fig. Secure two strips of wood. hole in the center. or ordinary plaster laths will do. apart. By moving the position of the bolt from. about 1 in. These can be purchased at a stationery store. in the other end. In one end of the piece. long. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. A 1/4-in. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. flat headed carriage bolt. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. So set up. Silver paper will do very well. for the sake of lightness. 1 in.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. one to another . and eight small holes. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder.. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position.

4. 2. D over A and C. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. C over D and B. Then draw all four ends up snugly. as in portraiture and the like. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. as shown in Fig. Start with one end. 2. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. 1. but instead of reversing . In this sketch. lay Cover B and the one under D. Then take B and lay it over A. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. in Fig. and the one beneath C. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. of the ends remain unwoven. for instance. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. doubled and run through the web of A. and lay it over the one to the right. 2. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. A round fob is made in a similar way. A is the first string and B is the second. then B over C and the end stuck under A. taking the same start as for the square fob. Fig. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. the one marked A. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions.of the larger holes in the strip. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. long. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured.

1-1/2 in. Rupp. is left out at the center before starting on one side. Monroeville. Other designs can be made in the same manner. always lap one string. as B. over the one to its right. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. --Contributed by John P. long. especially if silk strings are used. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. Ohio. The round fob is shown in Fig. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down .Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. is to be made of leather. as in making the square fob. A loop. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. 3. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. 5. the design of which is shown herewith. as at A in Fig. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made.

Houghton. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. When the supply of wax is exhausted.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. -Contributed by A. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. pressing it against the wood. such as a nut pick. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. Northville. Any smooth piece of steel. . Mich. A. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. filling them with wax. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. it can be easily renewed. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. beeswax or paraffin. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. door facing or door panel. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. using the reverse side. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin.

--Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. E and F. Y. place it face down in the dish. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. although tin ones can be used with good success. it is best to leave a plain white margin. and about 12 in. New York. Petersburg. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. The tacks should be about 1 in. N. --Contributed by O. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. leaving about 1/4 in. Enough plaster should. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. Thompson. Select the print you wish to mount. but any kind that will not stick may be used. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. apart and driven in only part way. . remaining above the surface of the board. says Photographic Times. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. long. thick. Ill. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. Fold together on lines C. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. J. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. if blueprints are used. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. D. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. and after wetting. those on matte paper will work best. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted.

The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda.. as shown at the left in the sketch. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. etc. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. bell flowers. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. roses. Lower into the test tube a wire. filling the same about onehalf full. violets. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. will be rendered perfectly white. as shown in the right of the sketch. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. without mixing the solutions. One of the . Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water.

Fig. but which will not wobble loose. long. The diaphragm. turned a little tapering. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . about 1/8s in. The sound box. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. thick. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. Shabino. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. 3. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. long and made of wood. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. as shown in the sketch. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. 2. in diameter and 1 in. as shown. When soldering these parts together.. South Dakota. 1. The tin horn can be easily made. shading. should be soldered to the box. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. not too tightly. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. is about 2-1/2 in. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. and at the larger end. L. A rod that will fit the brass tube. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. 1-7/8 in. The first point should be ground blunt. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. --Contributed by L. made of heavy tin. or delicate tints of the egg. Millstown. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. to keep the core from coming off in turning.

put a board on top. Victor. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. mice in the bottom. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] .--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. E. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. and weighted it with a heavy stone. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. and. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it.Contributed by E. Jr. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. Ill. Chicago. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. Gold. Colo. says the Iowa Homestead. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. wondering what it was.

Can. . There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. --Contributed by Lyndwode. Buffalo. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. Ottawa. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. Y. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. Pereira. N.

How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. by means of a flatheaded tack. as it can be made quickly in any size. --Contributed by W. cut round. --Contributed by Thos. through which several holes have been punched. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. Put a small nail 2 in. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. Jaquythe. De Loof. and at one end of the stick fasten. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. Mich. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. Cal. A. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. as shown. above the end of the dasher. This cart has no axle. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. Richmond. Grand Rapids. longer than the length of the can. a piece of tin.

as shown. wide and 1/8 in. A wedge-shaped piece of . La. were below the level of the bullseye. 2. New Orleans. 1. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. wide. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 2. 1-1/2 in. apart. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. screwed it on the inside of a store box. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. Kane.1. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. Fig. Doylestown. Pa. I reversed a door gong. board. wide and as long as the box. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. Notches 1/8 in. of course. 1/4 in. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. 2. The baseboard and top are separable. deep and 3 in. 1 ft. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. 2 in. wide and 3 ft. cut in the center of the rounding edge. long. thick. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. --Contributed by James M. The candles. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle.

when placed as in Fig. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. --Contributed by G. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. the blade is put back into the groove . Mass. For the handle. take two pieces of hard wood. 3. 1. scissors. to prevent its scratching the desk top. Wood. Ia. etc. After completing the handle. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. When not in use. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. by cutting away the ends. can be picked up without any trouble. the shelf could not be put on the window. Cover the block with rubber. stone or wood. wide into each side of the casing. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. it can be removed without marring the casing. the reason being that if both were solid. The block can also be used as a paperweight. will. wide rubber bands or felt. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. dressing one surface of each piece.Book Back Holders metal. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in.. Needles. A. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. After the glue has dried. Worcester. West Union. as shown in Fig. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. This device is very convenient for invalids.

Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. --Contributed by Maud McKee. 1. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. Hutchins. 2. A. Pa. Erie. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces.and sharpened to a cutting edge. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. square and 4 in. 1 in. as shown in Fig. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. . long. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. Each one is made of a hardwood block. Jacobs. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. If desired. Malden. as shown in Fig. S. Ohio. -Contributed by W. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. Mass. A notch is cut in one side. thus carrying the car up the incline. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. --Contributed by H. is shown in the accompanying sketch. Cleveland. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block.

a board on which to work it. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first.J. This will insure having all parts alike.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. 6 by 9-1/2 in. will be needed. Cape May Point. One sheet of metal. If one such as is shown is to be used. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. Prepare a design for the front. and an awl and hammer.. The letters can be put on afterward. N. .

a violin. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. behind or through the center of a table leg. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. placed on a table." In all appearance. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. On the back. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. 1 part. 1/4 part. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. 2 parts white vitriol. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. if desired. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. but weird and distant. . it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. One coat will do. or. The music will not sound natural. says Master Painter. If any polishing is required. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. turpentine. in the waste metal. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. 3/4 part. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. only the marginal line is to be pierced. applied by means of a brush. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. as shown. to right angles. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. paste the paper design right on the metal. flat brush. varnish. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. So impressive are the results. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. mandolin or guitar. The stick may be placed by the side of. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. Remove the metal. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. which is desirable. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal.Fasten the metal to the board. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. that can be worked in your own parlor.

Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. across the top. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. thick by 1/2 in. long and measuring 26 in. round-head machine screws. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. With proper tools this is easy. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. Two pairs of feet. wide. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. and is easy to construct. London. 3. it might be difficult. each 6 in. is bent square so as to form two uprights. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. long and spread about 8 in. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. . square bar iron. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. 2. each 28 in. without them. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. apart. long. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. says Work. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. The longest piece. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. are shaped as shown in Fig.

Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. cut a long piece of lead. Place the corner piece of glass. 6. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. After the joints are soldered. While the piece of lead D. Fig. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. using rosin as a flux. A. is held by the brads. on it as shown. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. Fig. B. 5. The design is formed in the lead. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. 7. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. lead. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. or. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. 4. in the grooves of the borders. After the glass is cut. 5. better still. The glass. The brads are then removed. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. as shown in Fig. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. D. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. special flux purchased for this purpose. C. and the base border. the latter being tapped to . This method is pursued until the glass is complete.

Concrete is much better if it can be secured. long. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. plank about 12 ft. plates. H. N. not less than 4 in. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. long. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. as shown in Fig. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. This ring can be made of 1-in. holes through their centers. bolt. Camden. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in.the base of the clip. Bore a 3/4-in. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. This . Dreier. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. wood screws in each washer. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. bolt. and round the corners of one end for a ring. rounded at the top as shown. Two styles of hand holds are shown. one on each side and central with the hole. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. --Contributed by W. in diameter and about 9 in. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. rocker bolt. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. square and of the length given in the drawing. in diameter and 1/4 in. The center pin is 3/4-in. Make three washers 3-in. J. then drill a 3/4-in.. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. long. 8. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. Jr. thick and drill 3/4-in. Bore a 5/8-in. Fasten the plates to the block B. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. and two wood blocks. then flatten its end on the under side. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. A and B. Secure a post.

Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. 50 ft. 1 by 7 in. by 6-1/2 ft. maple. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. long. New Orleans. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. 9 in. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. chestnut or ash. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. boards along the side of each from end to end. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. of 1/4-in. long. To substitute small. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. hickory. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . 4 in. long.will make an excellent cover for a pot. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. 7 in. the money outlay will be almost nothing. straight-grained hickory. shanks. 4 pieces. 3 in. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. 1. screws. square by 5 ft. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. The four 7-in. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. 1/2 in. 1-1/4in. because it will not stand the weather. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. 2 by 4 in. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. long. 4 in. by 2 ft. long and 1 piece. apart for a distance of 3 ft. 4 pieces. La. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. in diameter and 7 in. 3/4 by 3 in. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. and some one can swing an axe. long. can make a first class gymnasium. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. Draw a line on the four 7-in. from one edge. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. bolts and rope. bit. horse and rings. by 3 ft. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. 16 screws. square by 9-1/2 ft. 4 filler pieces. long. If trees are convenient. 2-1/2 in.

at each end. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. piece of wood.. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. so the 1/2-in. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post.bored. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed.. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. from the end. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. boards coincide. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. 2. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. each 3 ft. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. 8 in. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. apart. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. deep and remove all loose dirt. Bore a 9/16-in. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. apart. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft.

As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. about 100 ft. in an endless belt. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. not even the tumbler. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. but most deceptive at dusk. which at once gathered.. passing through a screweye at either end. If the tumbler is rotated. and ascends the stem. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. it is taken to the edge of the foot. and then passes in a curve across the base. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. When the interest of the crowd.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. was at its height. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. the effect is very striking. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. And all he used was a black thread. and materially heightened the illusion. . He stretched the thread between two buildings. just visible against the dark evening sky. W. apart. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. not much to look at in daytime. disappearing only to reappear again. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud." which skimmed along the distant horizon. it follows the edge for about 1 in. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil.

2 by 4 in. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. La. New Orleans. Bevel the ends of .A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. by 10 ft. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. long. long. square and 6 ft. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. 6 in. 2 side braces. 1. 8 in. 8 bolts. wide and 1 in. so the point will be on top. 4 bolts. The cork will come out easily. long. 8 in. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. preferably cedar. 2 by 3 in. 7 in. by 7 ft. 4 wood screws. long. 2 base pieces. and turned in a spiral D. Chisel out two notches 4 in. large spikes. A wire about No. long and 1 doz. long. 2 in. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. from either side of the center. long. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. 8 in. by 2 ft. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. To make the apparatus. square and 51/2 ft. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Fig. 4 in. 4 in. deep. 4 knee braces. 2 by 4 in. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. long. 2 cross braces. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. beginning at a point 9 in. 2 by 4 in. by 3 ft. long.

If using mill-cut lumber. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. additional long. screws. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces.. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. After the trenches are dug. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. of 7 ft. which face each other. etc. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. jellies. using four of the 7-in bolts. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. . equipped with a strainer. ( To be Continued. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. --Contributed by W. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. Jaquythe. Richmond. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. Two endpieces must be made. but even unpainted they are very durable. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. as shown in the diagram. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. The wood so treated will last for years. These will allow the ladle to be turned. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. and countersinking the heads. so the bolts in both will not meet.the knee braces. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. save the bars. except the bars. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. A large sized ladle. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. A. leaving the strainer always in position. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. leave it undressed. Cal.

milling machine. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. of sufficient 1ength. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. thus holding the pail as shown. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. partly a barrier for jumps. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. . A. drill press or planer. which seems impossible. In order to accomplish this experiment. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. Oil. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. it is necessary to place a stick. or various cutting compounds of oil. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good.

4 in. long. long. stud cut rounding on one edge. 4 in.. bolts. 2 by 4 in. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. bolt. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. 7 in. apart. long. apart in a central position on the horse. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. The material required is as follows: Two posts. bolts. in the ground. is a good length. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. ten 1/2-in. Hand holds must be provided next. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. bolts. beginning 1-1/2 in. 2 by 4 in.. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. two 1/2-in. 4-1/2 in. 2 adjusting pieces. To construct. from each end. and free from knots. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. but 5 ft. projections and splinters. to fasten the knee braces at the top. 2 by 4 in. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. 4 in. 4 knee braces. long. by 3 ft. 1 in. 1 cross brace. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. square by 5 ft. by 3 ft. by 3 ft. square by 5-1/2 ft. These are placed 18 in. These are well nailed in place. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. piece of 2 by 4-in. Procure from a saw mill. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . long. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. 2 bases. long. in diameter--the larger the better. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. 3 in. wood yard or from the woods. The round part of this log must be planed. long. long. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in.

the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. but nevertheless. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. it is caused by some obstruction. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. Jaquythe. Such a hand sled can be made in a . Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. no one is responsible but himself.--Contributed by W. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. Cal. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. water. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. such as a dent. pipe and fittings. then bending to the shape desired. Also. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. snow. Richmond. over and around. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. etc.horse top. A. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. it is caused by an overloaded shell. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition.

W. thick. --Contributed by James E. Toronto. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. will give the length. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. These. Joerin. when straightened out. Noble. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. is much better than a wood sled. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. are all the tools necessary. when complete. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. --Contributed by Arthur E. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. 2.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. Vener. in width and 1/32 in. Boston. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. which. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. 1. Mass. Ontario. France. The end elevation. 1/4 or 3/16 in. --Contributed by J. then run a string over each part. at E and F. Paris. .

A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. . 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. It is best to use soft water. nor that which is partly oxidized. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. 3. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. are nailed. The method shown in Figs. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. and the latter will take on a bright luster. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. AA and BB. 4. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs.

Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. . 2. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. The materials used are: backbone. or various rulings may be made. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. 2. 3. 1). 4. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. 8 and 9. Percy Ashley in Rudder. as shown in Fig. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. as shown in Fig. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. Broad lines can be made. or unequal widths as in Fig. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. class ice-yacht. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. The point should extend about 11/2 in. out from the collar. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. 1-Details of Lathe sort. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut.Fig. a tee and a forging. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. long. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. Both the lower . but if it is made much longer. pipe. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. bent and drilled as shown. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. A good and substantial homemade lathe. pins to keep them from turning. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. It can be made longer or shorter. a larger size of pipe should be used. The headstock is made of two tees. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. 1. about 30 in. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows.

1. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. Indiana. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. W. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. Held. Musgrove. 2. 3/4 or 1 in. and will answer for a great variety of work. Man. 2. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. or a key can be used as well. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. 2. . --Contributed by M. It is about 1 in. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. Cal. else taper turning will result. To do this. a straight line should be scratched Fig. --Contributed by W. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. Laporte. a corresponding line made on this. but also their insulating properties. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. thick as desired. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. Boissevain. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. UpDeGraff. M. --Contributed by W. Fruitvale. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces.

--Contributed by E.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. Ft. Cline. In use. To obviate this. J. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . The handle is of pine about 18 in. Smith. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. long. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. as shown. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. Ark. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back.

A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. Colo. La. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. This prevents the drill from wobbling. on starting the lathe. New Orleans. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. centering is just one operation too many. the drill does not need the tool. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. White. After being entered. take . bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. --Contributed by Walter W. which should be backed out of contact. Denver. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. if this method is followed: First. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. face off the end of the piece. and when once in true up to its size. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread.

by applying caustic soda or . after being shown empty. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. shorter t h a n the wand. and this given to someone to hold. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. and can be varied to suit the performer. unknown to the spectators.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. The glass tube B. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. vanishing wand. After the wand is removed. shown at C. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. says the Sphinx. In doing this. a long piece of glass tubing. It can be used in a great number of tricks. a bout 1/2 in. all the better. the cap is placed over the paper tube. The handkerchief rod. is put into the paper tube A. as shown in D. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other.

preferably hard maple. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. thick. with the back side rounding. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. Glue the neck to the box. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. Cut a piece of hard wood. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. 2 Sides. 1 End. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. The brace at D is 1 in. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. 1/4 in. square and 1-7/8 in.potash around the edges of the letters. With care and patience. across the front and back to strengthen them. Glue strips of soft wood. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. This dimension and those for the frets . ends and bottom are made of hard wood. cut to any shape desired. long. As the cement softens. as shown by K. can be made by the home mechanic. 3/16. 1 Neck. 1 Bottom. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. and if care is taken in selecting the material. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. End. by 14 by 17 in. 1. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. The sides. and glue it to the neck at F. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned.

long is used for a keel. A board 1 in. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. thick and about 1 ft. -Contributed by J. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. Carbondale. E. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. O. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. and beveled . but it is not. When it is completed you will have a canoe. in diameter. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. Norwalk. Frary. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. Six holes. wide and 11-1/2 ft. toward each end. --Contributed by Chas. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. or backbone. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store.should be made accurately. 3/16 in. H. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. 1) on which to stretch the paper.Pa. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. Stoddard.

and so. and notched at the end to receive them (B. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. Fig. 3. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. a. 2). 3/8 in. are next put in. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. Fig. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. 3. 13 in. probably. b. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. which are easily made of long. C. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. Fig. wide by 26 in. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. In drying. 1. in thickness and should be cut. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. two strips of wood (b. as shown in Fig. Fig. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. slender switches of osier willow. and. procure at a carriage factory. thick.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. 4). and are not fastened. but twigs of some other trees. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. These are better. b. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. when made of green elm. the loose strips of ash (b. buy some split cane or rattan. thick. Osiers probably make the best ribs. Fig. 4. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. Fig. b. Fig. such as is used for making chairbottoms. Shape these as shown by A. 3). fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. or similar material. B. 1 and 2. long are required. two twigs may be used to make one rib. or other place. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places.. 2. as they are apt to do. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. 3). will answer nearly as well. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. long. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. The cross-boards (B. with long stout screws.) in notches. . For the gunwales (a. C. Fig. such as hazel or birch. Green wood is preferable. apart. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. Fig. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. some tight strips of ash. by means of a string or wire. twigs 5 or 6 ft. 2). The ribs. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. in such cases. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. as shown in Fig. as before described. but before doing this. Any tough.

Then take some of the split rattan and. apply a second coat of the same varnish. preferably iron. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. and steady in the water. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. When the paper is dry. It should be drawn tight along the edges. after wetting it. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. It should be smooth on the surface. and held in place by means of small clamps. tacking it to the bottom-board. Being made in long rolls. The paper is then trimmed. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. and light oars. but with less turpentine. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. and as soon as that has soaked in. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. of very strong wrapping-paper. If not. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. B. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. If the paper be 1 yd. if it has been properly constructed of good material. 5). varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. but neither stiff nor very thick. You may put in . wide. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. however. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. When thoroughly dry. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. and very tough. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. Fig. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip.

allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. 5. fore and aft. We procured a box and made a frame. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. Fig. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. 1 and the end in . Fig. 1. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. Drive the lower nail first. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. and if driven as shown in the cut. 5). they will support very heavy weights. Fig. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. and make a movable seat (A. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. to fit it easily. 2.

Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass.Fig. and the result is. Pa. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. 3. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. this makes the tube airtight. and the glass. 4. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. 5. This way has its drawbacks. This is an easy . and melt it down and close the end at the same time. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. being softer where the flame has been applied. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. Pittsburg. A good way to handle this work. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. Close the other end with the same operation.

with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. extra metal all around. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. or six arms. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. After the bulb is formed. above the metal.way to make a thermometer tube. also trace the decorative design. then reverse. fourth. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. Seventh. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. 23 gauge. with a piece of carbon paper. second. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. fifth. file. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. very rapid progress can be made. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. Sixth. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. The candle holders may have two. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. metal shears. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. Give the metal a circular motion. thin screw. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. Oswald. -Contributed by A. four. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. rivet punch. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. third. above the work and striking it with the hammer. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. three. flat and round-nosed pliers.

Having pierced the bracket. drip cup. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. Metal polish of any kind will do. and holder. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . Small copper rivets are used.

So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. on a water bath. winding the ends where they came together with wire. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. except they had wheels instead of runners. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. they were like an ice boat with a sail. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. all the rest I found. F. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. I steer with the front wheel. A saw. glycerine 4 parts. Shiloh. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. the stick at the bottom of the sail. deep. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. N. when it will be ready for use. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. J. hammer. The gaff. Twenty cents was all I spent. thus it was utilized. and brace and bit were the tools used. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. Soak 1 oz. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. alcohol 2 parts. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. of glycerine to about 200 deg. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. and other things as they were needed. and add the gelatine. smooth it down and then remove as before. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. and in a week . Mother let me have a sheet. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. Heat 6-1/2 oz. The boom. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. and water 24 parts. is a broomstick. if it has not absorbed too much ink. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. using a steel pen. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. Fifty. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. and it will be ready for future use. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. sugar 1 part.

Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly. a projecting lens . Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up.

and 14 in. and the work carefully done. 3. 1/2 to 3/4 in. describe a 9-in. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. high. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. A and B. or glue. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. Fig. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. 1. well seasoned pine. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. and the lens slide. as desired. wide. focus enlarging a 3-in. at a point 1 in. This ring is made up from two rings. G. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. but if such a box is not found. and. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. at a distance of 24 ft. and a projecting lens 2 in. wide and 15 in. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw.. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. about 2 ft. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. slide to about 6 ft. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. wire brads. DD. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. 8 in. provided the material is of metal. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. thick. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. above the center. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. E. The slide support. long. are . A table. If a small saw is used. H. The board is centered both ways. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. or a lens of 12-in.

How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. JJ. and when the right position is found for each. the water at once extinguishes the flame. The arrangement is quite safe as. B. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. St. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. Small strips of tin. apply two coats of shellac varnish.-Contributed by G. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. should the glass happen to upset. Minn. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. placed on the water. light burning oil.constructed to slip easily on the table. the strips II serving as guides. E. Paul. P. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. To reach the water. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. of safe. but not long enough. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. A sheet .

3 in. Crawford. 4. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. 3. 12 ft. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. 1. by 12 ft. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart.H. Schenectady.. Fig. to cover the mattresses. then the corners on one end are doubled over. --Contributed by J. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. If one of these clips is not at hand. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. N. I ordered a canvas bag. form a piece of wire in the same shape. 2. Y. 3. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. Fig.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. from a tent company. 9 in. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig.

The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. 1. so as to form two oblong boxes.each edge. To calibrate the instrument. Pa. Fig. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. 2. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. Fasten the wire with gummed label. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. holes in the edge. wide. thick. 3 to swing freely on the tack. 1/2 in. insulating them from the case with cardboard. and insert two binding-posts. open on the edges. drill two 3/16 in. first mark the binding-post A. through which the indicator works. 2. 2. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. Fig. as shown in Fig. long. Attach a piece of steel rod. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. A Film Washing Trough [331] . The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. long and 3/16 in. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. Colo. White. Denver. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. D. A rubber band. --Contributed by Walter W. 3/4 in. to keep it from unwinding. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. 3/4 in. apart. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. Teasdale. for amperes and the other post. C. Fold two strips of light cardboard. V. --Contributed by Edward M. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. Warren. to the coil of small wire for volts. An arc is cut in the paper. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. Do not use too strong a rubber. 1/2 in. 1. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. in the center coil. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig.

Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. Place this can on one end of the trough. --Contributed by M. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. with the large hole up. M. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. as shown. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. Dayton. O. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. Wood Burning [331] .Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. Cut a 1/4-in. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. Hunting. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film.

Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle.Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . then into this bottle place. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. mouth downward.

--Contributed by Fred W. Ala. Auburn. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle.Y. but not very thick. 1. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. thick. as shown in the sketch. Place the small bottle in as before. wide and 4 in. If the small bottle used is opaque. --Contributed by John Shahan. Whitehouse. 3/4 in. This will make a very pretty ornament. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . 2. provided the bottle is wide.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. N. many puzzling effects may be obtained. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. If the cork is adjusted properly. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. long. Upper Troy. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split.

1. to the shaft. was 1/4in. were constructed of 1-in. thick. Fig. as shown in Fig. K. If a transmitter is used.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. Both bearings were made in this manner. 2 ft. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. such as blades and pulleys. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. high without the upper half. 4. The wire L was put . which gave considerable power for its size. 1. --Contributed by D. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. 1. Fig. in diameter and 1 in. thick. line. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. even in a light breeze. iron rod. sugar pine on account of its softness. pulley F. G. Milter. 2. A staple. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. Fig. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. 1 in. pulley. long. which was 6 in. Fig. Its smaller parts. 1. was keyed to shaft C. which extended to the ground. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. wide. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. B. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. by the method shown in Fig. W. thick and 3 in. The shaft C. or ordinary telephone transmitters. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. I. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. 1. Fig. which was nailed to the face plate. The 21/2-in. On a 1000-ft. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. The bearing blocks were 3 in. 3.

The power was put to various uses. To lessen the friction here. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. washers were placed under pulley F. 3 in. strips. To make the key. R. for instance. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. 6. providing one has a few old materials on hand. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. Fig. Two washers were placed on shaft C. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. so that the 1/4-in. This board was 12 in. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. Fig. was 2 ft. in the center of the board P. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. 5. hole was bored for it. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. This fan was made of 1/4-in. long and bend it as shown at A. with all parts in place. long. Fig. cut out another piece of tin (X. top down also. was tacked. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. pine 18 by 12 in. 1. as. 1. when the windmill needed oiling. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. The bed plate D. The smaller one. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. 0. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. across the thin edge of a board. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. a 1/2-in. apart in the tower. through the latter. There a 1/4-in. G. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. and was cut the shape shown. long and 1/2 in. This completes the receiver or sounder. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. Fig. long. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. in diameter. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. hole for the shaft G was in the center. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. 1. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. 1) 4 in. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. Fig. The other lid. 2. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. 25 ft. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. long and bend it as . Fig. square to the board P at the top of the tower. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. 6. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. with brass headed furniture tacks. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. 1. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. long and 3 in. If you have no bell. Fig. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. H. wide and 1 in.

1. at the front. leaving the other wire as it is. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. Going back to Fig. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. as indicated. and. When tired of this instrument. Now. using cleats to hold the board frame. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. as shown at Water.shown. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. fitted with paddles as at M. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. 2. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. like many another device boys make. after the manner of bicycle wheels. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . -Contributed by John R. Before tacking it to the board. although it can be made with but two. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. By adjusting the coils. The rear barrels are. McConnell. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. causing a buzzing sound. Thus a center drive is made.

which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. The speed is slow at first. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. as shown in Fig. copper piping and brass tubing for base. or even a little houseboat. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . There is no danger. feet on the pedals. 3. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. which will give any amount of pleasure. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. can be built. there will not be much friction. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. 1. To propel it. If the journals thus made are well oiled. seat yourself on the bicycle seat.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond.

and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. Shape small blocks of boxwood. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. 2. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. Then melt out the rosin or lead. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. Fig. 2. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens.of pleasure for a little work. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. Fig. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. and so creating a false circuit. D. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. Fig. Turn a small circle of wood. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. B. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. 1. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. If it is desired to make the light very complete. Place one brass ring in cylinder. 1. 2. Fig. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. A. or it may be put to other uses if desired. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. 1. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. If magnifying glass cannot be had. C. then the glass disc and then the other ring.

Pa. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. key of alarm clock. some glue will secure them. J. T. Brinkerhoff. wide and 1/16 in.india rubber tubing. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. To operate this. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. and pulled tight. Chatland. or 1/4in. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. by having the switch on the baseboard. set alarm key as shown in diagram. To get the cylinder into its carriage. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . G. such as is used for cycle valves. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. bracket. X. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . wire from batteries to switch. --Contributed by C. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. 5-1/4 by 10 in. The parts indicated are as follows: A. Swissvale. shelf. after setting alarm. contact post. H. 4-1/2 in. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. F. switch. In placing clock on shelf. Ogden.. dry batteries. brass strip. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. To throw on light throw levers to the left. thick. 4 in. wire from light to switch. C. I. while lying in bed. copper tubing. D. Utah. Throw lever off from the right to center. wire from bell to switch. C. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. --Contributed by Geo. S. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. long. bell. if too small. 3/8 in. which stops bell ringing. near the bed. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. When alarm goes off. after two turns have been made on the key. long. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. brass rod. E. B.

Fig. as at A. Make the spindle as in Fig. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. making it as true and smooth as possible. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. This is to form the fuse hole. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. --Contributed by Chas. 3. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. 1. All that is required is a tin covering. A small lamp of about 5 cp. Having finished this. 2. Fig. Minn. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. about 6 in. for instance. being careful not to get the sand in it. 1/4 in. as at A. as . place stick and all in a pail of sand. a bed warmer. letting it extend 3/4 in. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. which can be made of an old can. from one end. Fig. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. wide. Make a shoulder. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. about 3-1/2 in. Pull out the nail and stick. S. gives the heater a more finished appearance. beyond the end of the spindle. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. 4 in. in diameter. A flannel bag. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. 1. in diameter. as in Fig. will do the heating. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. Lanesboro. as at B. long. Chapman. 2.

A piece of tin. ash. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. long. 1. long. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. The illustration shows how this is done. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. thick. wide and 3/8 in. wide and 6 ft. will be sufficient to make the trigger. Joerin. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. 3/8 in.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. but if this wood cannot be procured. long. spring and arrows. 1 in. good straight-grained pine will do. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. deep. or hickory. 11/2 in. 6 in. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . --Contributed by Arthur E. this is to keep the edges from splitting. A piece of oak. 5/8 in. thick. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. wide and 3 ft. The material must be 1-1/2 in. thick. The bow is made from straight-grained oak.

a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. 7. The stick for the bow. The trigger. thick. To shoot the crossbow. it lifts the spring up. A spring. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. 9. or through the necessity of. as shown in Fig. 4. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. Ill. place the arrow in the groove. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. from the end of the stock. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. better still. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. Fig. and one for the trigger 12 in. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. To throw the arrow. as shown in Fig. Wilmette. The bow is not fastened in the stock. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. which is 1/4 in. E.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. --Contributed by O. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. Such a temporary safe light may be . A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. 6. 8. 2. Trownes. Fig. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. in diameter. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. having the latter swing quite freely. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. Fig. When the trigger is pulled. 3. from the opposite end. wide at each end. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back.

Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. it is the easiest camp to make. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. The cut should be about 5 ft. By chopping the trunk almost through.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. is used as a door. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. The hinged cover E. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. from the ground. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. or only as a camp on a short excursion. and nail it in position as shown at A. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. Remove one end. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. says Photo Era. the bark lean-to is a . apart. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. from the ground. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. This lamp is safe. since the flame of the candle is above A. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. make the frame of the wigwam. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. respectively. Remove the bottom of the box. making lighting and trimming convenient. and replace as shown at B. C. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. Moreover.

will dry flat. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. 6 ft. In the early summer. Sheets of bark. 3 ft. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. piled 2 or 3 ft. A piece of elm or hickory. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. and cedar. long and 2 or 3 ft. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. and split the tops with an ax. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. makes a good pair of tongs. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. Where bark is used. spruce. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. deep and covered with blankets.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. thick. For a permanent camp. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. wide and 6 ft. a 2-in. are a convenient size for camp construction. long and 1-1/2 in. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. nails are necessary to hold it in place. . selecting a site for a camp. For a foot in the middle of the stick. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. make the best kind of a camp bed. wide. Tongs are very useful in camp. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. long. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. and when the camp is pitched.

A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. or even a rough lock for the camp larder. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. hinges. and affording accommodation for several persons.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. .

connected by means of a very small lead pipe. B. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. I drove a small cork. the interior can. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. Doylestown. about 4 in. and provide a cover or door. 1. B. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. Kane. Pa. deep and 4 in. changing the water both morning and night. A.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. to another . --Contributed by James M. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. Fig.. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. wide.

The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. 3. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. 2. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. The current is thus compelled. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. such as ether. to pass through an increasing resistance. if necessary. limit. for instance. which project inside and outside of the tube. 2. Fig. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. This makes . With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. for instance. 4 and 5). E. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. until. C. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. The diagram. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered.glass tube. a liquid. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. fused into one side.

in diameter. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. Alpena. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. or pattern. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. on a lathe. thick. but merely discolored. to allow for finishing. 3-3/8 in. as shown in Fig. or even 1/16 in. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. mark off a space. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. These holes are for the bearing studs. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. therefore. tap. which may be of any thickness so that. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. and for the outside of the frame. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. Fig. If the thickness is sufficient. Michigan. when several pieces are placed together.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. A 5/8in. brass or iron. After cleaning them with the solution. 4-1/2 in. as shown in the left-hand sketch. bent at right angles as shown. Fig. The bearing studs are now made. 3-3/8 in. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. clamp the template. When the frame is finished so far. cannot be used so often. between centers. 2. brass. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. which will make it uniform in size. set at 1/8 in. thicker. is composed of wrought sheet iron. in diameter. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. hole is . It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. by turning the lathe with the hand. assemble and rivet them solidly. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. thick. 1. screws. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. making it 1/16 in. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. larger than the dimensions given. Then the field can be finished to these marks. A. two holes. After the template is marked out. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. Before removing the field from the lathe. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. 3. drill the four rivet holes. they will make a frame 3/4 in.

solder them to the supports. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. soldered into place.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. brass rod is inserted. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. file them out to make the proper adjustment. The shaft of the armature. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. When the bearings are located. is turned up from machine steel. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. Fig. 4. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. and build up the solder well. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. or otherwise finished. into which a piece of 5/8-in. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe.

. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. 6. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. The pins are made of brass. as shown in Fig. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. by 1-1/2 in. 3/4 in. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. as shown m Fig. as shown in Fig. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. or segments. Make the core 3/4 in. Armature-Ring Core. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. thick. to allow for finishing to size. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. When this is accomplished. Rivet them together. 5. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. wide. 3/4 in. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. Find the centers of each segment at one end. thick. deep and 7/16 in. being formed for the ends. 8. wide. Procure 12 strips of mica. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. The sides are also faced off and finished. washers. inside diameter. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. 7. hole and tap it for a pin. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. 1/8 in. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. After they . 9. 3. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. thick. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. and held with a setscrew. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. 3. holes through them for rivets. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. brass rod. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. as shown in Fig. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. thick and 1/4 in. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. 6. then drill a 1/8-in. and then they are soaked in warm water. 1-1/8 in. sheet fiber.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. thick are cut like the pattern. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. After the pieces are cut out. When annealed. threaded.

thick. The field is wound with No. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. To connect the wires.have dried. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. The two ends are joined at B. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. shown at A. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. Fig. All connections should be securely soldered. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. 5. which will take 50 ft. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. yet it shows a series of . long. until the 12 slots are filled. by bending the end around one of the projections. shown at B. are soldered together. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. the two ends of the wire. and bring the end of the wire out at B. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. 1. When the glue is set. 6 in. 1. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. wide and 1 in. This winding is for a series motor. sheet fiber. being required. and wind on four layers. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. after the motor is on the stand. of the wire. 8 in. The winding is started at A. After one coil. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. sheet fiber. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. about 100 ft. Fig. The source of current is connected to the terminals. Run one end of the field wire. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. or side. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. of the end to protrude. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. they are glued to the core insulation. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. of No. In starting to wind. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in.

still more simply. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. one from each of the eight contacts. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. which serves as the ground wire. Nine wires run from the timer. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. is fastened to the metallic body. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. A 1/2-in. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. and one. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. or. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. as in the case of a spiral.

circle. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. Covering these is a thin. 45 deg. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing.The Wind Vane. of the dial. board. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. It should be . These magnets are placed in a 10-in. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. thus giving 16 different directions. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. Without this attachment. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. long. 6 in.

The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. To make it. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. and about 6 in. Y. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. high. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. long to give the best results. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. according to who is going to use it. making it heavy or light. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. Blackmer. will be sufficient. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing.about 6 ft. also a piece of new carpet. Buffalo. though a special knife. however. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. thus making a universal joint. -Contributed by James L. and securely nail on the top of the box. will answer the purpose just as well. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. is most satisfactory. 14 by 18 in. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. Cut 3-in. will be enough for the two sides. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. or. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. Place the leather on some level. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. Before tacking the fourth side. N. Fill the box with any handy ballast. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. . called a chip carving knife. if not too high. To work these outlines.

Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine. A good leather paste will be required. Paste the silk plush to the inner side. An ordinary sewing-machine . fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show.

The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. If a fire breaks out. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. a needle and some feathers. and fasten the feathers inside of it. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft.will do if a good stout needle is used. rather than the smooth side. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. or a hip that has been wrenched. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. Syracuse. N. Y. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. of common salt and 10 lb. away from it. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. as in cases of a sprained ankle. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. square and tying a piece of . throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. Morse. can be thrown away when no longer needed. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. --Contributed by Katharine D. of water. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. temporary lameness. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. B. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. and tie them together securely at the bottom. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. The bottles should hold about 1 qt.

etc. E. . commonly called tintype tin. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. wound on the head end. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. Y. setting traps.string to each corner. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. G. long. deep. Wis.. The coil is 1 in. as shown. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. high.J. is cut on the wood. and a coil of wire. One end is removed entirely. but not sharp. N. and tacked it to the boards. Hellwig. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. --Contributed by John A. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. letting it go at arm's length. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. Paterson. made up of four layers of No. The body of the receiver. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. wide and 1/16 in. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. --Contributed by J. long. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. which is the essential part of the instrument. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. thus helping the rats to enter. A. Gordon Dempsey. 1/8 in. the corners being wired. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. board all around the bottom on the inside. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. This not only keeps the rats out. laying poisoned meat and meal. A small wooden or fiber end. and the receiver is ready for use. N. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. Ashland. B. The strings should be about 15 in. cut to the length of the spool. F. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. Albany. The diaphragm C. There is a 1-in. The end is filed to an edge. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail.

wide. To clean small articles. gold. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. to . A single line will be sufficient. begin with the smallest scrolls. The vase is to have three supports. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. better still. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. a piece of small wire. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. Take a piece of string or. and bend each strip in shape. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase.

4-1/4 in.. and does not require coloring. Trace also the line around the purse. After taking off the pattern. Work down the outside line of the design. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. from the lines EF on the piece. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. from C to D. through which to slip the fly AGH. 6-3/8 in.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. sharp pencil. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. 3-1/4 in. Fold the leather on the line EF. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. using a duller point of the tool. 3-1/2 in. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. . The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. wide when stitching up the purse. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. Press or model down the leather all around the design. About 1 in.which the supports are fastened with rivets. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. as shown in the sketch. thus raising it. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used.. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. from E to F.

and cut out a wheel. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. deep.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. long. Fit this to the two . the "open" side. with the largest side down. When it is finished. and cut it out as shown in Fig. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. by 12 ft. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. and a model for speed and power. It can be made without the use of a lathe. square. and which will be very interesting. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. around the wheel. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. all the way around. being cast in wooden molds. First. with pins or small nails. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. Then nail the wheel down firmly. 1. deep. Make the lug 1/4 in. Cut off six pieces 12 in. 2. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. and tack the other piece slightly. thick. then nail it. b.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. and. Now take another piece of wood. leaving the lug a. with the open side down. following the dotted lines. 1 was cut. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. and the projections B. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. then place the square piece out of which Fig. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. 1/2 in. as shown in Fig. with a compass saw. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. as well as useful. 3. This also should be slightly beveled. It is neat and efficient.

one of which should have a 3/8-in. After it is finished. hole bored through its center. deep. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. place it between two of the 12-in. hole entirely through at the same place. and lay it away to dry. 4. in the center of it. square pieces of wood. and boring a 3/8-in. as shown by the black dots in Fig.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. square pieces of wood. as shown by the . and bore six 1/4-in. Now put mold No. then bolt it together. holes through it. hole 1/4 in. slightly beveled. bolts. Now take another of the 12-in. 1. and clean all the shavings out of it. Take the mold apart.pieces just finished. and cut it out as shown in Fig.

only the one is left-handed. from the one end. and 3/8-in. 1. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. the other right-handed. take an ordinary brace.1. and connect to the boiler. This is the same as Fig. After it is fitted in. in diameter must now be obtained. over the defective part. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. Fig. b. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. long. and the exhaust hole in projection b.2. instead of the right-handed piece. This is for a shaft. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench.2. 4. drill in it. see that the bolts are all tight. and pouring metal in to fill it up. one in the lug. one in the projections. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. 5. fasten a 3/8-in. where the casting did not fill out.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. Put this together in mold No. place the entire machine in a vise. This is mold No. Now cut out one of the 12-in. as shown by the black dots in Fig. 6. Let it stand for half an hour. put the top of the brace through this hole. Now take mold No.1. This will cast a paddle-wheel. B. as shown in illustration. 6. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. Then bolt the castings together. place it under the drill. and drill them in the same manner. A piece of mild steel 5 in. and two 1/4-in. and drill it entirely through. screw down. and lay it away to dry. holes. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. true it up with a square. and run in babbitt metal again. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. until it is full. wide and 16 in. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. and bore three 1/4-in. lay it on a level place. and pour babbitt metal into it. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. holes at d. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. d. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. long. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings.black dots in Fig. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. Using the Brace . Pour metal into mold No. Commencing 1-1/2 in. so that it will turn easily. and the other in the base.

and if instructions have been carefully followed. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. At each end of the 6ft. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. with a boss and a set screw. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. one 6 ft. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. turn the wheel to the shape desired. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. Then take a knife or a chisel.. and the other 8 ft. long. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. Plan of Ice Boat . or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. and. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. and with three small screw holes around the edge. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. while it is running at full speed. piece and at right angles to it. will do good service. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam.

Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. plank. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. Fig. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. at the butt and 1 in. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. The tiller. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. plank nail 8-in. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. piece and at right angles to it. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. in front of the rudder block. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. 3. To the under side of the 8-ft.These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used. projecting as in Fig. in diameter in the center. and about 8 in. long. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. tapering to 1-1/2 in. so much the better will be your boat. This fits in the square hole. distant. long. On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . boards to make the platform. leaving 1 ft. at the top. 8 a reef point knot. bolt the 8-ft. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden d