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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial

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08/17/2011

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Sections

  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother

THE BOY MECHANIC VOLUME I

Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)

BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I

THE

700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
HOW TO CONSTRUCT
WIRELESS OUTFITS, BOATS, CAMP EQUIPMENT, AERIAL. GLIDERS, KITES, SELF-PROPELLED VEHICLES ENGINES, MOTORS, ELECTRICAL APPARATUS, CAMERAS
AND

HUNDREDS OF OTHER THINGS WHICH DELIGHT EVERY BOY

WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
COPYRIGHTED, 1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO

POPULAR MECHANICS CO.
PUBLISHERS

A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

1. away. Ontario. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. 2. A piece of plank 12 in. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. long will make six boomerangs. --Contributed by J. 1. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. To throw a boomerang. The pieces are then dressed round. It is held in this curve until dry. Toronto. Fig. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. grasp it and hold the same as a club. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. 2. as shown in Fig. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. as shown in Fig. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. E.Fig. 1. distant. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. 2 -. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. with the hollow side away from you. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . wide and 2 ft. until it is bound as shown in Fig. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. apart. Noble.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply.

The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. 6 in. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. long. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. the block will drop out. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. one inside of the circle and the other outside. and it may be necessary to use a little water. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. or rather no bottom at all. however. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. which makes the building simpler and easier. and with a movable bottom. dry snow will not pack easily. thick. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. minus the top. A very light. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. If the snow is of the right consistency. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. made of 6-in. high and 4 or 5 in. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. A wall. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. forcing it down closely. it is not essential to the support of the walls. but about 12 in. First. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. blocks .

The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. 1. long and 1 in. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. Union. Fig. wide. 3. which is about 1 ft. --Contributed by Geo. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. There is no outward thrust. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. 2. above the ground. 2. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. or an old safe dial will do. Goodbrod. C. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. is 6 or 8 in. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. and the young architect can imitate them. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. 3 -. D. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. Fig. The piece of wood. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. a. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. A nail. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. Fig. which can be made of wood. 1. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. It also keeps them out. Ore.

as the weight always draws them back to place. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. one pair of special hinges. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. If ordinary butts are used. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. says the Sphinx. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes.When taking hot dishes from the stove. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. --Contributed by R. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. S. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. Merrill. the box locked . and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. New York. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. Syracuse. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook.

and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. smooth surface. All . Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. Augusta. If the measuring has been done properly. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. proceed as follows: First. Place the piece in a vise. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. Alberta Norrell. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. as shown in Fig. With the metal shears. about 1-32 of an inch. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. one for each corner. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. If they do not. -Contributed by L. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. 1. 3. 2. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. Fig. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. To make a design similar to the one shown. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. When the sieve is shaken. as shown. as shown in Fig. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. Ga. on drawing paper. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. draw one-half of it. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth.and the performer steps out in view. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. It remains to bend the flaps. allowing each coat time to dry. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No.

the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. If a touch of color is desired. Colo. Galbreath. and in the positions shown in the sketch. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. When the current is turned off. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. 25 German-silver wire. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. long. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. used for insulation. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. which is about 6 in. To keep the metal from tarnishing. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. if rolled under the shoe sole. in passing through the lamp. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. is fitted tightly in the third hole. heats the strip of German-silver wire. causing it to expand. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in.the edges should be left smooth. The common cork. B. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. should be in the line. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. H. --Contributed by R. A resistance. from the back end. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. A piece of porcelain tube. Denver. as shown at AA. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. of No. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. 25 gauge German-silver wire. In boring through rubber corks. about 6 in. The current. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. After this has dried. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. C. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. R. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. in diameter. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can.

cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. leaving a space of 4 in. 1. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. between them as shown in Fig. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. Fig. --Contributed by David Brown.bottom ring. 3. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. as shown in Fig. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. Purchase two long book straps. 2. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. Mo. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. . Kansas City. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. with thin strips of wood.

The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. Fig. Pa. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. long. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. and tack smoothly. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. Doylestown. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. 1. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. These are shown in Fig. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. having a gong 2-1/2 in. N. 1.An ordinary electric bell. 3.. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. as . just the right weight for a woman to use. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. are mounted on the outside of the box. and one weighing 25 lb. to form a handle. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. --Contributed by James M. Fig. 2. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. one weighing 15 lb. --Contributed by Katharine D. which is the right weight for family use. When the aeroplane tips. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. Morse. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. C. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. A. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. Two strips of brass. Fig. Y. 1. in diameter. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. Kane. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. and a pocket battery.. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. 36 in. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. 4. Syracuse. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. The folds are made over the string. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. The string is then tied.

if once used. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. in diameter. four washers and four square nuts. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Louis J. Day. such as brackets. AA. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. 2. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. bent as shown in Fig. machine screws. two 1/8 -in. Y. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. The saw. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. long. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. 3/32 or 1/4 in. and many fancy knick-knacks. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. N. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. 1. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. Frame Made of a Rod . 2. Floral Park.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig.

or silver. Watch Fob For coloring silver. therefore. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. Detroit. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. it has the correct strength. use them in place of the outside nuts. 1 part sulphuric acid. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. allowing each time to dry. after breaking up. Scranton. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. if copper or brass. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk.may be made of either brass. of water. treat it with color. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. Of the leathers. Drying will cause this to change to purple. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. In the design shown. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. as well as brass and copper. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. Silver is the most desirable but. --Contributed by W. Apply two coats. 1 part nitric acid. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. though almost any color may be obtained. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. The buckle is to be purchased. An Austrian Top [12] . of course. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. Michigan. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. the most expensive.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. green and browns are the most popular. be covered the same as the back. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. If it colors the metal red. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. For etching. using a swab and an old stiff brush. A. as well as the depth of etching desired. Rub off the highlights. File these edges. of water in which dissolve.. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. copper.

Ypsilanti. in diameter. The handle is a piece of pine. A 1/16-in. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. long. A handle. Michigan. . Tholl. pass one end through the 1/16-in. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. 5-1/4 in. is formed on one end. 1-1/4 in. --Contributed by J. wide and 3/4 in.F. allowing only 1-1/4 in. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. 3/4 in. hole in this end for the top. When the shank is covered. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. long. starting at the bottom and winding upward. Bore a 3/4-in. set the top in the 3/4 -in. thick. Parts of the Top To spin the top. hole.

Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. Mich. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. Augusta. Houghton. A. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. For black leathers. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. --Contributed by Miss L. --A. Ga. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. having no sides. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. Northville. The baking surface. Alberta Norrell. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. . tarts or similar pastry. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way.

then solder cover and socket together. Stringing Wires [13] A. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. says Studio Light. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. Mo. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. two turns will remove the jar. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . When you desire to work by white light. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. glass fruit jar. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. the eyes forming bearings for the wire.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. the same as shown in the illustration. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. Centralia.

4 Braces. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. 1-1/4 in. 1-1/4 in. . square by 62 in. 16 Horizontal bars. Janesville. They are fastened. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. as shown in the cross-section sketch. Wis. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. square by 12 in. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. and not tip over. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. so it can be folded up. 4 Vertical pieces. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws.for loading and development. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post.

If the loop is tied at the proper place. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. Rosenthal. H. Phillipsburg. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. and a loop made in the end. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. after filling the pail with water. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. The front can be covered . to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. --Contributed by Dr. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. New York. -Contributed by Charles Stem. C. After rounding the ends of the studs. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. Cincinnati. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. O. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. The whole. from scrap material. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler.

it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. the mouth of which rests against a. Develop them into strong prints. FIG. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. thoroughly fix. The results will be poor. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. Md. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. 1 FIG. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. you are. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. Wehr. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. principally mayonnaise dressing. and. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. the color will be an undesirable. The . If the gate is raised slightly. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. sickly one. if you try to tone them afterward. Baltimore.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. by all rules of the game. --Contributed by Gilbert A. By using the following method. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. either for contact printing or enlargements. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. In my own practice. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints.

this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain.. When the desired reduction has taken place. in this solution. preferably the colored kind.. 5 by 15 in... 16 oz.. Gray. to make it 5 by 5 in.. It will bleach slowly and evenly....... three times.. Cal. transfer it to a tray of water... as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away. This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print. without previous wetting.. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table... Put one on each corner of the blotting paper..... etc.. but.... 2 oz. 20 gr. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig... when it starts to bleach.. long to admit the angle support... An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in. Iodide of potassium ... Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper.. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper. With a little practice..." Cyanide of potassium . A good final washing completes the process... thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses.... wide and 4 in.. San Francisco... Place the dry print. Water . 1 and again as in Fig... The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone. --Contributed by T.. as it will appear clean much longer than the white....bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison... The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper. 2. stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax.... The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished.. Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete. The blotting paper can .. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder. where it will continue to bleach. in size.. L.. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes..... being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects.

wide. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. the shaft 1 in. Wisconsin. wide below the . Oshkosh. and a length of 5 in. Corners complete are shown in Fig. Make a design similar to that shown. having a width of 2-1/4 in. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. Wilson Aldred Toronto.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. --Contributed by L. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. the head of which is 2 in. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. 20 gauge. Canada. --Contributed by J. Monahan. 3. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No.J.

With files. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. Apply with a small brush. using carbon paper. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. after folding along the center line. Fig. Pierce a hole with a small drill.FIG. 1 part sulphuric acid. With the metal shears. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. 3. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. . using turpentine. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. Make one-half of the design. After the sawing. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. using a small metal saw. 1 Fig. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. as shown in Fig. freehand. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. 2. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. then put on a second coat. Do not put the hands in the solution. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. but use a swab on a stick. Trace the design on the metal. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. being held perpendicular to the work. then trace the other half in the usual way. which gives the outline of the design Fig. deep. 1. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. The metal must be held firmly. For coloring olive green. Allow this to dry. then coloring. 4. 1 part nitric acid. After this has dried.

which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. New York. as shown. After the stain has dried. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. East Hartford. Conn. . Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. --Contributed by Katharine D. Burnett. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. Richmond. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. Carl Cramer. then stain it a mahogany color. attach brass handles. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. --Contributed by M. Ii is an ordinary staple. Cal. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. Syracuse. on a chopping board. it does the work rapidly. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. When this is cold. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. --Contributed by H. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. thick. Morse. M. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth.

some pieces of brass. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. in width at the shank. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. holes. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. about 3/16 in. H. Richmond. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. --Contributed by Mrs. or tin. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. brass. 1. thick and 4 in. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. indicating the depth of the slots. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. . sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. Florida. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. not over 1/4 in. WARNECKE Procure some brass. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. Jaquythe. Atwell. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. Kissimmee. 1/4 in. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. thick. machine screws. square. and several 1/8-in. also locate the drill holes. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. saucers or pans. as shown at A. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. one shaft. 4. Fig.. as shown in Fig. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. L. --Contributed by W. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. two enameled. Cal. A. 53 steel pens.

with 1/8-in. in diameter and 1/32 in. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. 2. wide. There should be a space of 1/16 in. long and 5/16 in. lead should be run into the segments. These are connected to a 3/8-in. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. Fig. hole. wide and bend as shown in Fig. and pins inserted. into the hole.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. 7.. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. long by 3/4 in. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. hole in the center. each about 1 in. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. supply pipe. Fig. If metal dishes. can be procured. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. 6. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. a square shaft used. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. machine screws and nuts. 5. 3. 3. If the shaft is square. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. 2. as in Fig. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. hole is drilled to run off the water. A 3/4-in. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. as shown. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. 1. Bend as shown in Fig. brass and bolted to the casing. using two nuts on each screw. about 1/32 in. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. and the ends filed round for the bearings. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. thick. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. with a 3/8-in. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. Fig. thick. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. with the face of the disk. machine screws. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. The shaft hole may also be filed square.

Hamilton. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. high and 15 in. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. The four legs are each 3/4-in. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. Fasten with 3/4-in. V. With a string or tape measure. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. --Contributed by F. three of which are in the basket. --Contributed by S. La Salle. When assembling. long. deep and 1-1/4 in. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. Smith. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. from the bottom end of the legs. make these seams come between the two back legs. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. screws. square and 30-1/2 in. Cooke. 8-1/2 in.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. to make the bottom. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. Canada. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. or more in diameter. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. from the top of the box. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. deep over all. using four to each leg. The lower part. Be sure to have the cover. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. Ill. Now you will have the box in two pieces. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. Stain the wood before putting in the . Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. we will call the basket. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in.

It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. wide. If all the parts are well sandpapered. -Contributed by Stanley H. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. Fig. The side. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. Sew on to the covered cardboards. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. Boston. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. Baltimore. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. Md. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. and gather it at that point. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. wide and four strips 10 in. Mass. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. you can. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks.2 Fig.lining. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. Packard. --also the lower edge when necessary. Cover them with the cretonne. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. as shown in the sketch. When making the display. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. sewing on the back side. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. The folded part in the center is pasted together. 1. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . 2.

saving all the solid part.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. It is not difficult to . Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. and. 3. Y. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. When through using the pad. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. with slight modifications. --Contributed by B. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. Fig. Orlando Taylor. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. Gloversville. Crockett. --Contributed by H. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. It is cleanly. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. Mo. L. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. N. Cross Timbers.

Mount the shell on a small card with glue. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. Texas. Bourne. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. Lowell. and scrape out the rough parts. -Contributed by C. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . El Paso. and secure it in place with glue or paste. If a file is used. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. Both of these methods are wasteful. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. or if desired. across the face. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. Mass. it should be new and sharp. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. S. After stirring. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. remove the contents. Lane. are shown in the diagram. After this is done. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. --Contributed by Edith E.

Ill. He captured several pounds in a few hours. After several hours' drying. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. Iowa. Oregon. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. Turl. Wheeler. Greenleaf. A Postcard Rack [25]. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. The process works well and needs no watching. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. F. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. --Contributed by Marion P. --Contributed by Geo. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. Those having houses . Canton. --Contributed by Loren Ward. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other.cooking utensil. Des Moines. The insects came to the light. As these were single-faced disk records. Ill. circled over the funnel and disappeared. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. Oak Park. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth.

the bottom being 3/8 in. Mass. will do as well. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1.. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth.. --Contributed by Thomas E. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. Rosenberg. Glenbrook. boards are preferable. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. 6 in. material. but for cheapness 3/4 in. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. by 2 ft. and both exactly alike. not even with the boards themselves. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. one on each side of what will be the . Dobbins. --Contributed by Wm. Only three pieces are required. and the second one for the developing bench. Worcester. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. Conn. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. and as they are simple in design. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. plane and pocket knife. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. thick. the best material to use being matched boards. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. Both sides can be put together in this way. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. Lay the floor next. 6 in. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. The single boards can then be fixed.

as shown in Figs. 6. wide. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. 7. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. which is fixed on as shown . so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. below which is fixed the sink. 2 in section. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. At the top of the doorway. 9 by 11 in. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. Fig. 9). etc.. of the top of the door for the same reason. 11. hinged to it. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. nailing them to each other at the ridge. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. and the top as at C in the same drawing. The developing bench is 18 in. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. The roof boards may next be put on. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. so that it will fit inside the sink. the closing side as at B. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. and act as a trap for the light. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. 10). 3 and 4. by screwing to the floor. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. 5. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. and in the middle an opening. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. is cut. 6 and 9. so that the water will drain off into the sink. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light.. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. brown wrapping paper. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. 8. 6. It is shown in detail in Fig. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. and should be zinc lined. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. 6) and another as F in the same drawing..doorway. and to the outside board of the sides. In hinging the door.

Details of the Dark Rook .

If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. Fig. Karl Hilbrich. 16. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. In use. are fastened in the corners inside. 13. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . screwing them each way into the boards. 19.in Fig. Fig. hole bored in the center for a handle. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. or red light as at K. as shown in the sections. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. 13. Erie. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. Pennsylvania. 17. --Contributed by W. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. 18. 16. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. 14. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. four coats at first is not too many. but not the red glass and frame. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. mixing flour and water. after lining with brown paper. 20. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. 2. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. as at M. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. if desired. and a tank stand on it. 1. these being shown in Fig. 15. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. and a 3/8-in. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. it is better than anything on the market. as at I. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. though this is hardly advisable. Fig. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. A circular piece about 2 in. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. which makes it possible to have white light. as shown in Fig. Fig. or the room may be made with a flat roof. The handle should be at least 12 in. The house will be much strengthened if strips. preferably maple or ash. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. 6. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. as in Fig. For beating up an egg in a glass. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig.

A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. Eureka Springs. -Contributed by E. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. as shown in the sketch. D. New York. Smith. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. when put together properly is a puzzle. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. long. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . --Contributed by Wm. Yonkers. about 3/8 in. which. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. Mitchell.copper should be. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. Kansas City. Mo. To operate. L. Schweiger. for a handle. G. Ark. --Contributed by L.

Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. need them. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. the rustic work should be varnished. for the moment. the box will require a greater height in front. as shown in Fig. which binds them together. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. 3. to make it set level. Each cork is cut as in Fig. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. After the box is trimmed. A number of 1/2-in. as shown in Fig. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. in order to thoroughly preserve it. . especially for filling-in purposes. as is usually the case. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. The corks in use are shown in Fig. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. as well as improve its appearance. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. If the sill is inclined. Having completed the bare box. 1. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. The design shown in Fig. 2. holes should be drilled in the bottom. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. 3. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable.

Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. can't use poison. cabbages. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. being partly eaten into. too dangerous. and observe results. drilled at right angles. 4.. Traps do no good. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. it's easy. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. . which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. etc. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. F. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. Each long projection represents a leg. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. But I have solved the difficulty. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. When the corn is gone cucumbers. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. as shown in Fig. share the same fate. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. life in the summer time is a vexation. 2. 3. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. 1.

as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. About 9-1/2 ft. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. by trial. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. The solution can be used over and over again. of No. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. strips.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. . The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. Iowa. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. -. and made up and kept in large bottles. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. long. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. cut some of it off and try again. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. cut in 1/2-in. If. the coil does not heat sufficiently. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way.

releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. Texas. Syracuse. is a good size--in this compound. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. of oleic acid with 1 gal. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. to cause the door to swing shut. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. . which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. --Contributed by Katharine D. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. of gasoline. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. Stir and mix thoroughly. D.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. Doylestown. forks. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. hot-water pot. Dallas. N. it falls to stop G. Morse. Knives. C. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. 1) removed. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. Y. of whiting and 1/2 oz. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. Pa. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. Do not wash them. coffee pot. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. --Contributed by James M. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. In cleaning silver. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. as shown in the sketch. Kane. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. and a strip. Fig 2. but with unsatisfactory results.

Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. La. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . --Contributed by Oliver S. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. which is. Sprout. Fisher. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Ill. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. New Orleans. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. --Contributed by Theodore L. Harrisburg. but unfixed. Pa. of course. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. . Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. negatives. using the paper dry. later fixed and washed as usual. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. Waverly.

graceful sweep of the long pendulum. metal. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. then . but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. In this uncertainty lies the charm. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. 1. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. a harmonograph is a good prescription. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. Fig. To obviate this difficulty. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. The harmonograph. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint.

for instance. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. exactly one-third. A length of 7 ft. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. as shown in Fig. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . of about 30 or 40 lb. Another weight of about 10 lb. one-fifth. Chicago. 1-3/4 by 2 in. etc. --Contributed by James T. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak.. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. J. Holes up to 3 in. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. Rosemont. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. makes respectively 3. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. A small table or platform. such as a shoe buttoner. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. and unless the shorter pendulum is. provides a means of support for the stylus. Punch a hole. 1. A pedestal. K. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. G. one-fourth. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. --Contributed by Wm. Ingham. A weight.. in diameter. to prevent any side motion. in the center of the circle to be cut. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. R. is about right for a 10-ft. ceiling. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. Gaffney. with a nail set or punch. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. or the lines will overlap and blur. 1. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. that is. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. as long as the other. Arizona. A small weight. as shown in the lower part of Fig.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. The length of the short pendulum H. is attached as shown at H. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. which can be regulated. what is most important.

These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. --Contributed by J. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. and proceed as before. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. dividing them into quarters. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. a correspondent of . then put 2 at the top. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. 4. and 4 as in Fig. distributing them over the whole card. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. Cruger. one for the sender and one for the receiver. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. then 3 as in Fig. Cape May City. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. The capacity of the vise. 6. Fig. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. Morey.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. N. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. 5. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual.H. Chicago.J. Fig. -Contributed by W.J. The two key cards are made alike. 1. 2. of course. 3. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever.

and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. --Contributed by L. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. remove the prints. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. drill 15 holes. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. of the uprights. of 18-per-cent No. 1/2 oz. sheet of well made asbestos paper. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. 6 gauge wires shown. 30 gr. If constructed of the former. deep. from the top and bottom. the portion of the base under the coil. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. After preparing the base and uprights. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. says Popular Electricity. To assemble. 1/4 in. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. respectively. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. of ferricyanide of potash. Augusta. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. wood-screws. After securing the tint desired. long. Asbestos board is to be preferred. Wind the successive turns of . citrate of iron and ammonia. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. Cut through the center. 22 gauge German-silver wire. of water. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. Alberta Norrell. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. Ga. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. acetic acid and 4 oz.

The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. 16 gauge copper wire. Small knobs may be added if desired. The case may be made of 1/2-in. 14 gauge. Labels of some kind are needed. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. Ampere. square. if one is not a smoker. then fasten the upright in place. etc. Ward. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. Y. --Contributed by Frederick E. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. cut and dressed 1/2 in. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. which. as they are usually thrown away when empty. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. but these are not necessary. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. screws. rivets. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit.. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. N.

G. Larson. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. lead. --C. B. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. being careful about the heat. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. Richmond. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. If the soldering copper is an old one. of water. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. tin. Copper. Eureka Springs. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. The material can be of any wood. . especially if a large tub is used. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. it must be ground or filed to a point. This is considerable annoyance. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. Jaquythe. or has become corroded. S. Ark. then to the joint to be soldered. galvanized iron. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. California. a piece of solder.. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. --Contributed by A. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. Heat it until hot (not red hot). and labeled "Poison. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. C. and one made of poplar finished black. D. --Contributed by W. the pure muriatic acid should be used. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. The parts are put together with dowel pins. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. A. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. sandpaper or steel wool. tinner's acid. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. particularly so when the iron has once been used. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. Kenosha.14 oz. and rub the point of the copper on it. zinc. brass. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. E and F. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. as shown in the sketch. of glycerine to 16 oz. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. In soldering galvanized iron. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. Wis.

a ring may be made from any metal. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. which gives two bound volumes each year. This will leave a clear hole. The disk will come out pan shaped. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. Brass rings can be plated when finished. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . Y. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. The punch A. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. Hankin. C. thick and 1-1/4 in. with good results. Six issues make a well proportioned book. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. Fig. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. 7/8 in. Take a 3/4-in. in diameter. in diameter. D. nut. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. The covers of the magazines are removed. W. Place the band. wide. however. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. 2. The dimensions shown in Fig. 1. Fig. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. I bind my magazines at home evenings. B. round iron. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. Apart from this. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. -Contributed by H. and drill out the threads. brass and silver. Troy. N. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. This completes the die. such as copper.

pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. is nailed across the top. size 16 or larger. which is fastened the same as the first. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. . The sections are then prepared for sewing. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. is used for the sewing material. as shown in Fig. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. Place the cardboard covers on the book. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. 1/8 in. of the ends extending on each side. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. 2. threaded double. The string No. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. and then to string No. 2. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. Five cuts. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. Coarse white thread. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. 1 in Fig. allowing about 2 in. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. 5. 1. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. The covering should be cut out 1 in. and a third piece. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. then back through the notch on the right side. through the notch on the left side of the string No. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. C. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. Start with the front of the book. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. and place them against the strings in the frame. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. on all edges except the back. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. If started with the January or the July issue. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. The covering can be of cloth. using . Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. 1. deep. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. 1. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time.4. After drawing the thread tightly. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves.

and. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. Cal. Place the cover on the book in the right position. at opposite sides to each other. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. Encanto. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. Tinplate. on which to hook the blade. College View. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. Divine. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. For the blade an old talking-machine . The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. --Contributed by Clyde E. round iron. Nebr. and mark around each one. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end.

Summitville. by 4-1/2 in. and a long thread plug. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. fuse hole at D. or double extra heavy. thick. hydraulic pipe. Then on the board put . as it is sometimes called.. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). by 1 in. with a steel sleeve. B. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. and file in the teeth. F. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. thick. long. with 10 teeth to the inch. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. E. Ohio.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. and another piece (B) 6 in. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. Moorhead. Miss. and 1/4 in. Hays. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. On the upper side. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. C. bore. as shown. Make the blade 12 in. -Contributed by Willard J. in order to drill the holes in the ends. and 1/4 in.. A. at the same end.

H. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. using about 8 in. Boyd. high around this apparatus. Philadelphia. Connect up as shown. the jars need not be very large. some sheet copper or brass for plates. A lid may be added if desired. about 5 ft. --Contributed by Chas. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. of wire to each coil. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. of rubber-covered wire. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. as from batteries. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. 4 jars.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. and some No. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. If you are going to use a current of low tension.

27 B. For the front runners these measurements are: A. An iron washer. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. . on No.. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. For the brass trimmings use No. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. two pieces 34 in. two for each jar. 5 on switch.. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. and plane it on all edges. To wire the apparatus. Their size also depends on the voltage. 30 in. The sled completed should be 15 ft. C. 3. and bolt through. 2. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. The top disk in jar No. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. are important. long. by 1 in. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. 2 is lower down than in No. by 5 in. 1 is connected to point No. 2. as they are not substantial enough. above the ground. 4 in. See Fig. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. then apply a coat of thin enamel. & S. wide by 3/4 in. Use no screws on the running surface. by 1-1/4 in. direct to wire across jars. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. The connection between point No. No. B. A 3/4-in. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. 1 on switch. long. making them clear those in the front runner. The illustration shows how to shape it. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. Z. thick. by 2 in. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. thick. In proportioning them the points A. 1 and so on for No. The stock required for them is oak. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. First sandpaper all the wood.. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. 4. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. 1. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. gives full current and full speed. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. Construct the auto front (Fig. 3 in. 2 and 3. beginning at the rear. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. and for the rear runners: A. On the door of the auto front put the .. with the cushion about 15 in. steel rod makes a good steering rod. 4) of 3/4-in. oak boards. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in... Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. by 2 in. however. wide and 2 in. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. long. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. B and C. 11 in. 2 in. A variation of 1/16 in. Equip block X with screw eyes. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. two pieces 14 in. apart. or source of current. 34 in. as they "snatch" the ice. by 6 in. Use no nails. C. is used to reduce friction. wide. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. 16-1/2 in. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. by 1-1/4 in. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A.the way. At the front 24 or 26 in. 3 and No. long by 22 in. B. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. long. wide and 3/4 in. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. and four pieces 14 in. two pieces 30 in. 2. by 5 in. sheet brass 1 in. 7 in. Fig. 15-1/2 in.. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. The current then will flow through the motor. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. square by 14 ft. Put arm of switch on point No.

If desired. long. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. brass plated. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. by 1/2 in. cheap material. Then get some upholstery buttons. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. such as used on automobiles. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. fasten a cord through the loop. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. such as burlap. may be stowed within.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. which is somewhat moist. lunch. If the expense is greater than one can afford. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. overshoes. a brake may be added to the sled. etc. to improve the appearance. to the wheel. cutting it out of sheet brass. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. Fasten a horn. a number of boys may share in the ownership. by 30 in. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. or with these for $25. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. The best way is to get some strong. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. If desired. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. parcels.

Ill. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. --Contributed by Stewart H. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. Leland.tree and bring. Lexington. . the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks.

but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. by drawing diameters. will be over the line FG. E. outside diameter and 1/16 in. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. London. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. Fig. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. the cut will be central on the line. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. Fig. mild steel or iron. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. sheet metal. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. which. some files. CD. though more difficult. say 1 in. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. FC. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. Draw a circle on paper. a compass. 2. with twenty-four teeth. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. made from 1/16-in. The Model Engineer. thick. 3. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. This guide should have a beveled edge. when flat against it. First take the case of a small gearwheel. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. 4). Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. 1. With no other tools than a hacksaw. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. so that the center of the blade. Fig. The first tooth may now be cut. The straight-edge. A small clearance space. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. the same diameter as the wheel. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. from F to G. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one .

2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. 1. 1. If there is no faucet in the house. ground it with a large piece of zinc. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. electric lamp. A bright. R. either the pencils for arc lamps. as shown in Fig. each in the center. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. No shock will be perceptible. 2. B. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. as shown in Fig. Make a hole in the other. hold in one hand. B. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. as shown in Fig. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. some wire and some carbons. and the other outlet wire. or several pieces bound tightly together. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. Focus the camera in the usual manner. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. Then take one outlet wire. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. . Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver.Four Photos on One Plate of them. transmitter. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver.

But in this experiment. one at the receiver can hear what is said. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. D D are binding posts for electric wires. as shown. of course. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. Pa. B. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. leaving about 10 in. Several battery cells. and will then burn the string C. They have screw ends. A is a wooden block. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. are also needed. or more of the latter has been used. by 1 in. and again wind the wire around it. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. 36 wire around it. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. For a base use a pine board 10 in. Dry batteries are most convenient. a transmitter which induces no current is used. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. Wrenn. and about that size. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. If desired. Slattery. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. Ashland. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. J. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. under the gable. at each end for terminals. serves admirably. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. Then set the whole core away to dry. Ohio. One like a loaf of bread. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. --Contributed by Geo. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. Emsworth. as indicated by E E. by 12 in. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons.

2. for the . and switch. C. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. C. in series with bindingpost. At one side secure two receptacles. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. 1. D. The coil will commence to become warm. as shown. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. First make a support. 12 or No. 14 wire. run a No. The apparatus is now ready for operation. Fig.. The oven is now ready to be connected. Newark. E. in parallel. Turn on switch. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. the terminal of the coil. D. until the hand points to zero on the scale. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. These should have hollow ends.wire. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. Jr. connecting lamp receptacles. as shown. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. B B. B B. Fig. From the other set of binding-posts. Place 16-cp. F. and the lamps. Connect these three to switch. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. while C is open. Ohio. and one single post switch.

a variable resistance. high. etc. Fig. The core. --Contributed by J. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. After drilling. 1. drill through the entire case and valve. 14. is then made and provided with a glass front. to prevent it turning on the axle. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. 4 in. B. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. The pointer or hand. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. It is 1 in. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. D. 2. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. 3 amperes. Dussault. 14 wire. 5. If for 3-way. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. wide and 1/8 in. 6. from the lower end. although brass is better. 4 amperes. 3. 36 magnet wire instead of No. C. E. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. wide and 1-3/4 in. drill in only to the opening already through. long. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. To make one. drill a hole as shown at H. wind with plenty of No. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. a standard ammeter. 1/2 in. where A is the homemade ammeter.E. Montreal. This is slipped on the pivot. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. A wooden box. Fig. remove the valve. 10 turns to each layer. deep. 1/4 in.. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. inside measurements. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. is made of iron. Fig. and D. as shown in the cut. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. long and make a loop. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. Mine is wound with two layers of No. 4. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. until the scale is full. is made of wire. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. At a point a little above the center. a battery. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood.or 4-way valve or cock. thick. This may be made of wood. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . Fig. 1. The box is 5-1/2 in. 7. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. D. but if for a 4way. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. 5.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. long. although copper or steel will do.

This stopper should be pierced. which is used for reducing the current. in thickness . in diameter. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. provided with a rubber stopper. By connecting the motor. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. high. as shown. D. F. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. and the arc light. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. and a metal rod. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. A. B. making two holes about 1/4 in. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can.performing electrical experiments. One wire runs to the switch. To start the light. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. E. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. and the other connects with the water rheostat. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown.

next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. 2.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. If the interrupter does not work at first. where he is placed in an upright open . the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. B. A piece of wood. as shown in B. Turn on the current and press the button. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. Having fixed the lead plate in position. --Contributed by Harold L. Jones. 1. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. 1. N. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. A. If all adjustments are correct. Y. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. Fig. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. Fig. 1. Carthage. As there shown. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. To insert the lead plate. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. as shown in C. Having finished the interrupter. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. Fig. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. long. Fig. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. 2. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side.

and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. The glass should be the clearest possible. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. figures and lights. which can be run by three dry cells. is constructed as shown in the drawings. until it is dark there. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. as the entire interior. with the exception of the glass. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. should be colored a dull black. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. dressed in brilliant.coffin. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell.. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. by 7 in. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. A. from which the gong has been removed. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. especially L. especially the joints and background near A. They need to give a fairly strong light. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. the illusion will be spoiled. All . The box need not be made of particularly good wood. giving a limp. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. If everything is not black. by 7-1/2 in. The model. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. could expect from a skeleton. If it is desired to place the box lower down. Its edges should nowhere be visible. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. should be miniature electric lamps. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. to aid the illusion. within the limits of an ordinary room. light-colored garments. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. The skeleton is made of papier maché. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. L and M. The lights. high. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. loosejointed effect. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. A white shroud is thrown over his body. and can be bought at Japanese stores. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. inside dimensions. and must be thoroughly cleansed. and wave his arms up and down.

With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. fat spark. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. W. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. Cal. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. after which it assumes its normal color. --Contributed by Geo. placed about a foot apart. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. as shown in the sketch. Two finishing nails were driven in.that is necessary is a two-point switch. square block. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. Fry. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. San Jose. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. If a gradual transformation is desired.

The plates are separated 6 in. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. soldered in the top. the remaining space will be filled with air. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. into the receiver G. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. by small pieces of wood. A (see sketch). With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. In Fig. to make it airtight. and should be separated about 1/8 in. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. as shown. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. New York. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. F. hydrogen gas is generated. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. This is a wide-mouth bottle. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. If a lighted match . or a solution of sal soda. One of these plates is connected to metal top. In Fig.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. -Contributed by Dudley H. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. B and C. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. 1. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. Cohen. with two tubes.

and the ends of the tube. 36 insulated wire. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. or by direct contact with another magnet. then a suitable burner is necessary.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. If desired. P. N. 2 shows the end view. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. either by passing a current of electricity around it. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. 1. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. One row is drilled to come directly on top. copper pipe. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. A. long. C C. The distance between the nipple. A piece of 1/8-in. from the bottom. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. is made by drilling a 1/8in. A. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. as is shown in the illustration. A 1/64-in. B. of No. A. A nipple. is then coiled around the brass tube. in diameter and 6 in. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . long. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. should be only 5/16 of an inch. 1/2 in. 1-5/16 in. Fig. by means of the clips. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. which is plugged up at both ends. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. says the Model Engineer. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. N. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. Fig. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. copper pipe. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. A. London. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. which forms the vaporizing coil. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. in diameter and 2-1/2 in.

Cut four pieces of cardboard. at the front and back for fly leaves. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. this makes a much nicer book. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. boards and all. duck or linen. should be cut to the diameter of the can. trim both ends and the front edge. 3. fold and cut it 1 in. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. 2). with a fine saw. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. Fig. smoothly. longer and 1/4 in. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. Fig. about 8 or 10 in. Take two strips of stout cloth. larger all around than the book. A disk of thin sheet-iron.lamp cord. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. leaving the folded edge uncut. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. but if the paper knife cannot be used. Turn the book over and paste the other side. 1. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). taking care not to bend the iron. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. Fig. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. 1/4 in. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. cut to the size of the pages. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips.

which will just slip inside the little can. Bedford City. the joint will be gas tight. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. and a little can. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. Noble. as shown in the sketch. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. pasting them down (Fig. is soldered onto tank A. deep. C. Toronto. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. or rather the top now. without a head. is made the same depth as B. In the bottom. --Contributed by Joseph N. Ont. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. A. D. Another tank. Another can. 18 in. is perforated with a number of holes. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. B. is turned on it. Va. H. . It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. is fitted in it and soldered. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. of tank A is cut a hole. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. but its diameter is a little smaller. in diameter and 30 in. E. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. Parker. as shown. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. This will cause some air to be enclosed. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. A gas cock. 4). This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. --Contributed by James E.

as shown at C. The wiring diagram. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. should be 1/4 in. The diagonal struts. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. The longitudinal corner spines. 1. making the width. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. basswood or white pine. thus adjusting the . A.. H is a square knot. are shown in detail at H and J. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. E. 2. The bridle knots. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. B. The small guards. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. fastened in the bottom. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. -Contributed by H. and about 26 in. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. and sewed double to give extra strength. by 1/2 in. exactly 12 in. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. Fig. should be 3/8 in. long. If the pushbutton A is closed. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. Beverly. J. N. tacks. to prevent splitting. Bott. and the four diagonal struts. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. The armature. D. Fig. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. B. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. B. D. which may be either spruce. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. A A. shows how the connections are to be made.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. S. C. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. long. which moves to either right or left. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. should be cut a little too long. square by 42 in. If the back armature. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. with an electric-bell magnet. when finished.

can be made of a wooden . thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. shift toward F.lengths of F and G. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. Clay Center. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. however. with gratifying results. Stoddard. to prevent slipping. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. --Contributed by Edw. as shown. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. If the kite is used in a light wind. thus shortening G and lengthening F. D. for producing electricity direct from heat. the batteries do not run down for a long time. Closing either key will operate both sounders. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. Kan. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. Chicago. and. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. A bowline knot should be tied at J. and if a strong wind is blowing. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. Harbert. E. that refuse to slide easily. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. --Contributed by A.

a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. C. C. placed on top. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. A and B. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. to the cannon. A. F. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . E. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. E. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. --Contributed by A. When the cannon is loaded. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. with a number of nails. spark. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. 14 or No. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. Then. The wood screw. and the current may then be detected by means. and also holds the pieces of wood. 16 single-covered wire. D.frame. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. B. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. Chicago. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. which conducts the current into the cannon.. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. A. or parallel with the compass needle. in position. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. A. by means of machine screws or. C. with a pocket compass. Fasten a piece of wood.

which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. with the long arm at L'. in this position the door is locked. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. Keil. to receive the screw in the center. screw is bored in the block. . press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. 1. --Contributed by Joseph B. Connect as shown in the illustration. 1. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. but no weights or strings. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. A. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. H. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. Fig. Bend the strips BB (Fig. Big Rapids. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. Chicago.the current is shut off. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. when in position at A'. within the reach of the magnet. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. Mich. now at A' and S'. A and S. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. Ohio. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. B. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. A and S. Fig. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. L. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. 1. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. To lock the door. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. square and 3/8 in. press the button. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. Marion. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. where there is a staple. To reverse. In Fig. requiring a strong magnet. To unlock the door. A hole for a 1/2 in. --Contributed by Henry Peck. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L.

Thread the other end of the pipe. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. and C is a dumbbell. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. J. are enameled a jet black.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. long. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. put in the handle. Mass. The standard and base. if enameled white on the concave side. and may be made at very slight expense. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. West Somerville. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. or for microscopic work. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. about 18 in. When the holes are finished and your lines set. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. --Contributed by C. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. and if desired the handles may . When ready for use. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. Rand. pipe with 1-2-in. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. hole. gas-pipe. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy.

Mass. D.. This peculiar property is also found in ice. A. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . which shall project at least 2 in. E. as shown at A in the sketch. Warren. 8 in. M. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. B. 1. across. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug.be covered with leather. Fig. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. Fig. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. long and 8 in. Make a cylindrical core of wood. North Easton. 1. inside the pail. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. --Contributed by C. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. with a cover. high by 1 ft. across. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings.

The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. diameter. When lighted. Fig. pipe 2-ft. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. Whatever burner is used. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. carefully centering it. Cover with paper and shellac as before. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. C. which is the hottest part. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. If the cover of the pail has no rim. 3) with false top and bottom. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. as is shown in the sketch. 1). and varnish. 15%. layer of the clay mixture. sand. bottom and sides.. strip of sheet iron. to hold the clay mixture. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. C. pack this space-top. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. pipe. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. long over the lid hole as a chimney. projecting from each end (Fig. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. the firing should be gradual. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. and with especial caution the first time. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. 2. Set aside for a few days until well dried. W. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. Wind about 1/8 in. about 1 in. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. 2 in. Fit all the parts together snugly. 1330°. and cut it 3-1/2 in. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. say 1/4 in. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. thick. or make one yourself.mixture of clay.-G. the point of the blue flame. hotel china. but it will burn a great deal of gas. of fine wire. 60%. if you have the materials. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. This done. let this dry thoroughly. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. thick. in diameter.. such . and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. 1). and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. wider than the kiln. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. if there is to be any glazing done. make two wood ends. The 2 in. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. 1390°-1410°. but will be cheaper in operation. C. After finishing the core. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. and on it set the paper wrapped core. and 3/8 in. After removing all the paper. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. full length of iron core. and graphite. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. E. and your kiln is ready for business. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. Line the pail. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. L. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. passing wire nails through and clinching them. long. It is placed inside the kiln. hard porcelain. cutting the hole a little smaller. as dictated by fancy and expense. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. and 3/4 in. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in.. in diameter. 25%.

length of . place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed.53 in. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. Take the red cards. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. Next restore all the cards to one pack. T. square them up and place in a vise. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. procure a new deck. leaving long terminals. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. C. about 1/16 in. diameter. 2. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. and discharges into the tube. and so on. overlaps and rests on the body. 1.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. 2). Of course. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. C. bind tightly with black silk. 2. and divide it into two piles. around the coil. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. all cards facing the same way. square them up. Washington. taking care to have the first card red. Then. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. C. as in Fig. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. The funnel. every alternate card being the same color. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. B. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. D. . 8 in. Then take the black cards. as shown in the sketch herewith. --Contributed by J. R. red and black. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. as in Fig. and plane off about 1/16 in. with a plane. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. A.. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. the next black. Chicago. You can display either color called for.

F. stove bolts. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass.. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. 1 gill of litharge. The cement. through the holes already drilled. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. stove bolts. of the frame. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. Fig. C. N. A. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. The upright pieces. It should be placed in an exposed location.C. the same ends will come together again. angle iron for the frame. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. The bottom glass should be a good fit. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. B. about 20 in. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. and this is inexpensive to build. 1 gill of fine white sand. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. B. All the horizontal pieces. D. to form a dovetail joint as shown. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. A. E. Long Branch. so that when they are assembled. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. When the glass is put in the frame a space. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. the first thing to decide on is the size. and then the frame is ready to assemble. Drill all the horizontal pieces. thus making all the holes coincide.J. To find the fall of snow. Let . as the difficulties increase with the size. 1. B. E.

a centerpiece (A. on the door by means of a metal plate. and. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. Fig. Aquarium Finished If desired. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. D. B. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. to the door knob. Fasten the lever. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. if desired. A. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. having a swinging connection at C. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish.

as at E. Cut two pieces 30 in. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. long. Fig. long. E. Fig. approximately 1 ft. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. To make the frame. 2 ft. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. wide . but mark their position on the frame. thus doing away with the spring. Two short boards 1 in. F. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. 1. Fig. to form the main supports of the frame. long. D. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. Fig. 3 shows one of the paddles. Fig. 2 at GG. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. Buffalo. 2 is an end view. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. Fig. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. PAUL S. 6 in. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. will open the door about 1/2 in. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. B. another. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. showing the paddle-wheel in position. Cut two of them 4 ft. soldered to the end of the cylinder. 1.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. which is 15 in. for the top.. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. another. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. to keep the frame from spreading. with a water pressure of 70 lb. to form the slanting part. Do not fasten these boards now. --Contributed by Orton E. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. A small piece of spring brass. and another. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. I referred this question to my husband. screwed to the door frame. AA. from the outside top of the frame. according to the slant given C. N. White. 26 in. 1 is the motor with one side removed. wide by 1 in. C. Y. 1 . and Fig. hoping it may solve the same question for them. long. They are shown in Fig. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. several lengths of scantling 3 in.

This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. that is. Make this hole conical. tapering from 3/16 in. 2) with a 5/8-in. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. pipe. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. in diameter. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. (I. long and filling it with babbitt metal. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. Fig. hole through the exact center of the wheel. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. and a 1/4 -in. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. 1. hole from the tops to the 1-in. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. then drill a 3/16-in. take down the crosspieces. by 1-1/2 in. Take the side pieces. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. and drill a 1-in. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. iron 3 by 4 in. Fasten them in their proper position. long to the wheel about 8 in. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. thick (HH. hole through their sides centrally.burlap will do -. 2) and another 1 in. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. When it has cooled. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. from one end by means of a key. and drill a 1/8-in. 24 in. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. to a full 1/2 in. thick. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. Now block the wheel. hole through its center. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. GG. steel shaft 12 in. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). Drill 1/8-in. hole to form the bearings. hole through them. remove the cardboard. Next secure a 5/8-in. Tack one side on. with the wheel and shaft in place. Fig. 2) form a substantial base. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. These are the paddles. iron. as shown in Fig. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw.along the edges under the zinc to form . holes. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. 4. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. after which drill a 5/8 in. Fig.

and the subject may move. sewing machine. shutting out all light from above and the sides. place the outlet over a drain. as this makes long exposure necessary. . ice-cream freezer. light and the plate. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. but now I put them in the machine. It is obvious that. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. Raise the window shade half way. Do not stop down the lens. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. and leave them for an hour or so. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. start the motor. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. Correct exposure depends. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. remove any white curtains there may be. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. If the bearings are now oiled. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. Drill a hole through the zinc. says the Photographic Times. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. of course. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. The best plate to use is a very slow one. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. or what is called a process plate. but as it would have cost several times as much. on the lens.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. Focus the camera carefully. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. drill press. Darken the rest of the window. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. If sheet-iron is used. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. any window will do. as shown in the sketch at B. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. and as near to it as possible. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. it would be more durable. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting.a water-tight joint. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper.

With a piece of black paper. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. as shown in Fig. without detail in the face. The current required is very small. A. until the core slowly rises.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. the core is drawn down out of sight. or an empty developer tube. 2. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. 2. On completing . an empty pill bottle may be used. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. as a slight current will answer. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. or wood. which is made of iron and cork. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. a glass tube. B. C. and a base. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. hard rubber. D. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. a core. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. The glass tube may be a test tube. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. The core C. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. full of water. by twisting. with binding posts as shown. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. or can be taken from an old magnet. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. and without fog.

finest graphite. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. This is a mysterious looking instrument. 1 pt. whale oil. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. and make a pinhole in the center. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. and one not easy to explain. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. water and 3 oz. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. white lead. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. according to his control of the current.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. The colors appear different to different people. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. 1. and are changed by reversing the rotation. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. 1 lb. is Benham's color top. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows .

produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other.L. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. nearly every time. As this device is easily upset. deuce. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. In prize games. fan-like. In making hydrogen.B. before cutting. B. or three spot. C. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. thus partly filling bottles A and C. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. when the action ceases. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. -Contributed by D. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. A. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. especially if the deck is a new one. Chicago.. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose.

Form a cone of heavy paper. 10 in. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. S. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal.. long and 3 in.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. (Fig. W. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. Dak. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. J.. 4. Fig. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. --Contributed by C. in length and 3 in. in diameter. Jr. . long. 1. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. Bently. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. S. Huron. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. 3). can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. Detail of Phonograph Horn . 12 in. as shown in Fig. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. 2. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. Detroit. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. Fig. Make a 10-sided stick. that will fit loosely in the tube A. --Contributed by F. 9 in.

about the size of a leadpencil. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. A second piece of silk thread. on one side and the top. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. bend it at right angles throughout its length. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. long. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . and walk in. with a pin driven in each end. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. making it three-ply thick. E. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. Cut out paper sections (Fig. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. A piece of tin. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. will cause an increased movement of C. it is equally easy to block that trick. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. Fortunately. Denver. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. push back the bolt. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. --Contributed by Reader. but bends toward D. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. 6. allowing 1 in. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. Remove the form. A. Fig. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. C. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood.

Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. as shown. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with..strip. or left to right. are 7 ft. S S. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. S. Minn. Two wood-base switches. is connected each point to a battery. and rest on a brick placed under each end. B.. long. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. The feet. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. W. Jr. S. By this arrangement one. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. will last for several years. B. The upper switch. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. The 2 by 4-in. 4 ft. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. Fremont Hilscher. Paul. R. are made 2 by 4 in. The reverse switch. West St. --Contributed by J. put together as shown in the sketch. posts. while the lower switch. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. long. A. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire.

and in Fig. The valve motion is shown in Figs. the size of the hole in the bearing B. thick. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. and the crank bearing C. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. either an old sewing-machine wheel. FF. The hose E connects to the boiler. In Fig. which will be described later.every house. with two washers. 2 and 3. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. which is made of tin. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. or anything available. 3/8 in. Fig. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. and a cylindrical . and valve crank S. The piston is made of a stove bolt. is an old bicycle pump. 1. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. 2. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. E. and has two wood blocks. pulley wheel. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. H and K. The base is made of wood. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. cut in half. the other parts being used for the bearing B. Fig. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. The steam chest D.

To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. W. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. G. Cal.piece of hard wood. Fig. Fig. This engine was built by W. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. J. to receive the connecting rod H. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. and the desired result is obtained. and saturated with thick oil. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. --Contributed by Geo. can be an old oil can. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. First. powder can. Fry. 4. . or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. and a very amusing trick. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. is cut out of tin. or galvanized iron. at that. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. as shown in Fig. G. The boiler. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. 1. Eustice. of Cuba. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. as it is merely a trick of photography. The valve crank S. using the positive wire as a pen. San Jose. 3. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. This is wound with soft string. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. Wis. C. Schuh and A.

They may be of any size. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. The smaller wheel. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. and pass ropes around . Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. as shown at AA. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. Fig. Fig. and Fig. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. Fig. and place a bell on the four ends. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. Cut half circles out of each stave. as shown. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. When turning. to cross in the center. B. 1 by covering up Figs. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. diameter. 1 will be seen to rotate. C. B.

--Contributed by H. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. Louis. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. A (a short spool. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. such as clothes lines. W. From a piece of thin . Mo. procure a wooden spool. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. This in turn will act on the transmitter. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. long.G. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. which allows the use of small sized ropes. but not on all. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. St. which accounts for the sound. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. as shown in the illustration.M. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. from the transmitter. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in.. To make this lensless microscope. produces a higher magnifying power).

if the distance is reduced to one-half. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. Fig. and at the center. cut out a small disk.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle.) But an object 3/4-in. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. To use this microscope. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. is made of iron. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. H. The spring. . D. can be made of brass and the armature. C. in which hay has been soaking for several days. place a small object on the transparent disk. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. held at arm's length. which are pieces of hard wood. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. reveals hundreds of little infusoria.. and look through the hole D. as in all microscopes of any power. The pivot. B. An innocent-looking drop of water. otherwise the image will be blurred. (The area would appear 64 times as large. the object should be of a transparent nature. A. fastened to a wooden base. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. and so on. E. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. the diameter will appear three times as large. D. is fastened at each end by pins. B. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. The lever. bent as shown. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. Viewed through this microscope.. by means of brads. 1. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. or 64 times. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. 3. C. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. which costs little or nothing to make. 2. e. darting across the field in every direction. the diameter will appear twice as large. i. if the distance is reduced to one-third. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible.

HH. wide. which are made to receive a pivot. A. Fig. wide and set in between sides AA. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. KEY-A. between the armature and the magnet. or taken from a small one-point switch. D. FF. D. . nail soldered on A. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. wood: F. DD. brass or iron soldered to nail. B. wood. brass: E. brass. long. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. thick. B. wood: C. Cut the top. 26 wire: E. fastened near the end. wide. Fig. D. and are connected to the contacts. similar to the one used in the sounder.SOUNDER-A. in length and 16 in. 16 in. is cut from a board about 36 in. C. connection of D to nail. C. 16 in. coils wound with No. can be made panel as shown. F. or a single piece. 2. K. long by 16 in. E. wide and about 20 in. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. brass: B. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. AA. The back. The binding posts. long and 14-1/2 in. binding posts: H spring The stop. wide. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. A switch. K. should be about 22 in. wide. soft iron. The door. The base of the key. 1. Each side. The binding posts are like those of the sounder.

The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. material. In operation. as shown. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. E. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. When the electrical waves strike the needle. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. with 3/4-in. Garfield.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . AA. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. Ill. 2 and made from 1/4-in. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. brads. 13-1/2 in. as shown in the sketch. cut in them.. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. Make 12 cleats. long. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above.

Ridgewood. in order to increase the surface. --Contributed by John Koehler. A. Fairport. Pushing the wire. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. down into the water increases the surface in contact. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. N. C. through which a piece of wire is passed. The cord is also fastened to a lever. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. A fairly stiff spring. F. A (see sketch). will give a greater speed. and thus decreases the resistance. A. filled with water. Y. B. when used with a motor. and. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. Brown.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. pulls down the armature. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. --Contributed by R. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . when the coil is not provided with a regulator. the magnet. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. E. J. N. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. When the pipe is used.

Borden. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. even those who read this description. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. if desired. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. Of course. --Contributed by Perry A. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. Gachville. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. N. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated.for the secret contact. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. B. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder .

From a piece of brass a switch. wide. as shown in Fig. from the bottom. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. J. where the other end of wire is fastened. Connect switch to post B. --Contributed by Dr. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. long and 5 in. Compton.whenever the bell rings. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. Nails for stops are placed at DD. C. for 10in. Cal. records and 5-5/8 in. H. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. The three shelves are cut 25-in. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. Mangold. D. C. for 6-in. deep and 3/4 in. --Contributed by H. N. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. 2.. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. thick and 12-in. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. wide. and on both sides of the middle shelf. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. Dobson. Two drawers are fitted in this space. records. With about 9 ft. The top board is made 28-in. in a semicircle 2 in. E. wide. East Orange. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. as shown in Fig. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. long and full 12-in. wide. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. wide. Jr. Washington. A. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. apart. . 1.

but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. Va. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. to which is fastened a cord. as shown in Fig. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. When the cord is passed over pulley C. Roanoke. B. A. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. which in operation is bent. E. as shown by the dotted lines. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. closed. 1. --Contributed by Douglas Royer.

they will let the air through. Bore two 1/4 in. These wheels should be 3/4 in. 1 in. Figs. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. in diameter. Notice the break (S) in the track. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. Now put all these parts together. In the sides (Fig. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. it too loose. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. but a larger one could be built in proportion. in diameter. B. as shown in the illustration. 3). long. deep. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. wide. CC.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. thick. one in each end. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. The crankpin should fit tightly. E. Do not fasten the sides too . If the wheels fit too tightly. Fig. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. deep and 1/2 in. Fig. Figs. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. Cut two grooves. 4 shows the wheel-holder. to turn on pins of stout wire. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. D. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. in diameter. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. 1 in. is compressed by wheels. In these grooves place wheels. through one of these holes. against which the rubber tubing. 3. excepting the crank and tubing. which should be about 1/2 in. apart. 1. Put the rubber tube. in diameter. Fig. thick (A. holes (HH. E. wide. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. 5) when they are placed. square and 7/8 in. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. they will bind.

Then turn the crank from left to right. 15 in. costing 10 cents. and 3-1/2 in. Cut six pieces. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. because he can . says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. To use the pump. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. The animal does not fear to enter the box. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. of material. from that mark the next hole. mark again. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. --Contributed by Dan H. A in Fig. 1. AA. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. Two feet of 1/4-in. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. as shown in Fig. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. from the bottom and 2 in. iron. If the motion of the wheels is regular. In the two cross bars 1 in. and mark for a hole. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. tubing. a platform should be added. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. from each end. beyond each of these two. from each end. Idana. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. the pump will give a steady stream. is all the expense necessary. 17-1/2 in. 1. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. 2. stands 20 in. AA. Fig.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. The screen which is shown in Fig. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. Take the center of the bar. 2. The three legs marked BBB. the other wheel has reached the bottom. 1. though a small iron wheel is better. Fig. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. Hubbard. B. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. mark for hole and 3 in. Fig. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. as it gives steadiness to the motion. Fig. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. from each end. 1. long. and are 30 in. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. Kan. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. For ease in handling the pump. 1.

stirring constantly. giving it a bright. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. If the battery has been used before. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. When through using the battery. 14 copper wire. The battery is now complete. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. shuts him in. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. If it is wet. . It is useful for running induction coils. rub the zinc well. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. Meyer. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. long having two thumb screws. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. --Contributed by H. take out the carbon and lower the zinc.see through it: when he enters. or. but if one casts his own zinc. 2). The battery is now ready for use. sulphuric acid. When the bichromate has all dissolved. silvery appearance. 4 oz. Philadelphia. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. 1) must be prepared. some of it should be poured out. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. add slowly. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. Place the carbon in the jar. C. acid 1 part). This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. until it is within 3 in. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. To cause a flow of electricity. or small electric motors. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. If the solution touches the zinc. potassium bichromate. and touches the bait the lid is released and. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. and the solution (Fig. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. of the top. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. The truncated. there is too much liquid in the jar. dropping. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. The mercury will adhere. of water dissolve 4 oz. however.

which opens the door. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. Madison. Wis. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. with slight changes.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. the jump-spark coil .. however. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. i. pressing the pedal closes the door. After putting in the coal. The price of the coil depends upon its size. the battery circuit.Fig. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. If. e. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. while the coal door is being opened. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal.

7. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. 5. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. as shown in Fig. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. which is made of light copper wire. as shown in Fig. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. made of No. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. 7. apart. W W. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. . coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. the full length of the coil. diameter. and closer for longer distances. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. in a partial vacuum. This coil. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. 6.described elsewhere in this book. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus.7. 7). in a straight line from top to bottom. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. 6. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. Fig. Change the coil described. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. coil. Now for the receiving apparatus. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. W W. This will make an excellent receiver. being a 1-in. while a 12-in. After winding. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in.

above the ground. A large cone pulley would then be required. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. but it could be run by foot power if desired. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. and hence the aerial line. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. being vertical. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. A. . How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). 1 to 4. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. Figs. after all. which will be described later. using an electric motor and countershaft. Run a wire from the other binding post. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. These circles. No. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. B the bed and C the tailstock. 90°. are analogous to the flow of induction. being at right angles. may be easily made at very little expense. but simply illustrates the above to show that. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. wireless is very simple when it is once understood.The aerial line.6 stranded. where A is the headstock. For an illustration. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. The writer does not claim to be the originator. as it matches the color well. 90°. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. I run my lathe by power. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. to the direction of the current. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. 1). in the air. at any point to any metal which is grounded. only.

making half of the square in each half of the bearing. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. 6 Headstock Details D. 5. To make these bearings. 5. 4. The bearing is then ready to be poured. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. on the under side of the bed. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. 2 and 3. pitch and 1/8 in. and it is well to have the shaft hot. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. If the bearing has been properly made. The bolts B (Fig. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. and runs in babbitt bearings. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. just touching the shaft. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. 4. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. Fig. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. but not hot enough to burn it. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. one of which is shown in Fig. The headstock. 6. Heat the babbitt well.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. deep. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. Fig. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. Fig. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . thick. B. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. steel tubing about 1/8 in. which are let into holes FIG. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. too. A. tapered wooden pin. After pouring. which pass through a piece of wood. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. and Fig. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. Fig.

The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. N.other machines. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. lock nut. and a 1/2-in. The tail stock (Fig. of the walk . This prevents corrosion. Ill. the alarm is easy to fix up. embedded in the wood. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. Newark. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. If one has a wooden walk. they may be turned up after assembling. FIG. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. Take up about 5 ft. If not perfectly true. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. so I had to buy one.J. A.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. B. Oak Park. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig.

copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. Then make the solution . so that they will not touch. Finally. to remove all traces of grease. Minneapolis. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. to roughen the surface slightly. before dipping them in the potash solution. of water. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. S. save when a weight is on the trap. water. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. To avoid touching it. silver or other metal. Minn. Fig. (A. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. Do not touch the work with the hands again. and the alarm is complete. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. clean the articles thoroughly. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. --Contributed by R. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. hang the articles on the wires. Connect up an electric bell. 2). add potassium cyanide again. Jackson. leaving a clear solution. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house.

light strokes. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished.up to 2 qt. use 2 volts for large articles. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. but opens the door. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. Make a somewhat larger block (E. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. and the larger part (F. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. make a key and keyhole. In rigging it to a sliding door. with water. 3) directly over the hole. If more solution is required. If accumulators are used. A (Fig. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. With an electric pressure of 3. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. with the pivot 2 in. The wooden catch. Fig. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. a hand scratch brush is good. 1). a circuit is completed. which is held by catch B. will serve for the key. when the point of the key touches the tin. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. from the lower end. lead. which . Can be made of a 2-in. Repeat six times. saw a piece of wood. Having finished washing the precipitate. silver can be plated direct. such metals as iron. Fig. 1 in. of clothesline rope and some No. must be about 1 in. The wooden block C. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. German silver. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. also. and then treated as copper. shaking. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. long. --Model Engineer. Then. Before silver plating. square. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. hole in its center. Fig. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. Take quick. To provide the keyhole. 1. of water. as shown in Fig. an old electric bell or buzzer. Screw the two blocks together. piece of broomstick. zinc. nickel and such metals. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. about 25 ft. 3) strikes the bent wire L. 3. 1). When all this is set up. with water. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. which is advised. Where Bunsen cells are used. and 4 volts for very small ones. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. as at F. copper. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. On brass. 18 wire. I. long. 1 not only unlocks. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. if one does not possess a buffing machine. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. pewter. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. A 1/4 in. This solution.5 to 4 volts. 10 in. thick by 3 in. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. B should be of the same wood. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. Fig. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts.

should be cut a hole. One thing changes to another and back again. the box should be painted black both inside and out. Fig. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. a few simple tools. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. top. On either side of the box. Receiving the bowl again. In front of you. with the lights turned low. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. . sides and end. The box must be altered first. Thus. heighten the illusion. 2. or cave. the illumination in front must be arranged. H. so much the better. between the parlor and the room back of it. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. Objects appear and disappear. such as forks. the requisites are a large soap box. spoons and jackknives. 0. The magician stands in front of this. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. in his shirt sleeves. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. New Jersey. surrounding a perfectly black space. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. and finally lined inside with black cloth. one-third of the length from the remaining end. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. H. Next. some black paint. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. He removes the bowl from the black box. and black art reigns supreme.. he points with one finger to the box. Next. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. --Contributed by E. 1. 2. Fig. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. Klipstein. floor. cut in one side. which unlocks the door. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. H. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. 116 Prospect St. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. although a little more trouble. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. 3. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. and hands its contents round to the audience. To prepare such a magic cave. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. some black cloth. Fig. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. One end is removed. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. shows catch B. The interior must be a dead black. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. enlarged. to throw the light toward the audience. B. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. he tosses it into the cave. Fig. is the cut through which the rope runs. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. with a switch as in Fig. and a slit. and plenty of candles. half way from open end to closed end. 1. Heavy metal objects. no painting inside is required. East Orange.

and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. was identical with this. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. The illusion. one on each side of the box. his confederate behind inserts his hand. and several black drop curtains. But illusions suggest themselves. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. and pours them from the bag into a dish. The audience room should have only low lights. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. and if portieres are impossible. only he. into the eyes of him who looks. of course. is on a table) so much the better. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. The exhibitor should be . which are let down through the slit in the top. if. in which are oranges and apples. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. which can be made to dance either by strings. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. the room where the cave is should be dark. had a big stage. Consequently. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. a screen must be used. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. of course. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. you must have an assistant. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. as presented by Hermann. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means.Finally. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant.

square. and a common screw. vice versa. b1. making contact with them. their one end just slips under the strips b1. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). A represents a pine board 4 in. and c4 + electricity. f2. respectively. c2. FIG. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. c1. 1. 2. held down on disk F by two other terminals. making contact with them as shown at y. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. A. d. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. held down by another disk F (Fig.a boy who can talk. b3. at L. 1. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . About the center piece H moves a disk. 2. as shown in Fig. terminal c3 will show +. c4.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. Finally. held down on it by two terminals. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. 2). b3. with three brass strips. so arranged that. is shown in the diagram. and c1 – electricity. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. Then. or b2. if you turn handle K to the right. respectively. b2. b2.. c3. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. e1 and e2. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. and c2 to the zinc. when handle K is turned to one side. respectively. terminal c3 will show . On the disk G are two brass strips.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. by means of two wood screws. by 4 in. Fig. or binding posts. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in.

Tuttle. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. from four batteries. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . and C and C1 are binding posts. 4. When switch B is closed and A is on No.. from three batteries. 5.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. 3. when on No. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. . Jr. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. when on No. jump spark coil. from five batteries. -Contributed by A. B is a onepoint switch. you have the current of one battery. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. E. Ohio. and then hold the receiver to your ear. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. 1. --Contributed by Eugene F. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. and when on No. Joerin. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. Newark. thus making the message audible in the receiver. when A is on No. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade).

then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. rule. When you do not have a graduate at hand. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. A. which may be a button or other small object. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. so one can see the time. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. The device thus arranged. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. mark. B. traveled by the thread. and supporting the small weight. and placed on the windowsill of the car. of Burlington. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. E. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. A. Redmond. A. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. per second for each second. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. Handy Electric Alarm . mark. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. Wis. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. over the bent portion of the rule. Thus. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid.. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. New Orleans. as shown in the sketch. is the device of H. La. P. per second.

Pa. Then if a mishap comes. C. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. but may be closed at F any time desired. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal.which has a piece of metal. which illuminates the face of the clock. Lane. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. . At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. --C. for a wetting is the inevitable result. and with the same result. B. Instead. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. soldered to the alarm winder. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. When the alarm goes off. Crafton. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. S. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. wrapping the wire around the can several times. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. --Contributed by Gordon T. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways.

The first thing to make is a molding bench. engines. whence it is soon tracked into the house. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. binding posts. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. bearings. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. when it is being prepared. models and miniature objects. battery zincs. as shown in Fig. small machinery parts. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. and many other interesting and useful articles. as shown. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. With the easily made devices about to be described. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. 1. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. L. Two cleats. A. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. 1 . The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. ornaments of various kinds. C. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . New York City. which may. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. --Contributed by A. and duplicates of all these. Macey. but it is a mistake to try to do this. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. If there is no foundry Fig. cannons. It is possible to make molds without a bench. AA. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. BE.

A wedge-shaped piece. 2." or lower part. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. J. D. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. The flask. by 8 in. CC. The cloth bag. II . and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. is shown more clearly in Fig. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. and the "drag. If the box is not very strong. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. is about the right mesh. but this operation will be described more fully later on. Fig. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. The rammer.near at hand. is filled with coal dust. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. which can be made of a knitted stocking. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. F. high. nailed to replace the bottom of a box." or upper half. is nailed to each end of the cope. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. A slight shake of the bag Fig. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. Fig. and saw it in half longitudinally. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. The dowels. and this. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. as shown.How to Make a Mold [96] . 1. It is made of wood and is in two halves. 1. and a sieve. makes a very good sieve. as shown. previous to sawing. white metal. 2 . try using sand from other sources. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. which should be nailed in. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. G. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. An old teaspoon. E. a little larger than the outside of the flask. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. is made of wood. say 12 in. If desired the sieve may be homemade. will be required. DD. by 6 in. H. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. and the lower pieces. which can be either aluminum. the "cope. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. A A. CC.

Place another cover board on top. It is then rammed again as before.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. or "cope. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. where they can watch the molders at work. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. or "drag. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. In finishing the ramming. The sand is then ready for molding. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. and by grasping with both hands. as shown at D. in order to remove the lumps. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. as shown at E. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. and thus judge for himself. as shown." in position. and scatter about 1/16 in. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. the surface of the sand at . It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. as described. everything will be ready for the operation of molding." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. as it is much easier to learn by observation. and if water is added. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. and then more sand is added until Fig. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. as shown at C. turn the drag other side up. After ramming.

The pattern is then drawn from the mold. to give the air a chance to escape. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. . which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. after being poured. the next operation is that of melting and pouring.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. made out of steel rod. in diameter. as shown in the sketch. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. wide and about 1/4 in. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. thus making a dirty casting. and then pour. place the cope back on the drag. as shown at J. in order to prevent overheating. Fig. This is done with a spoon. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. it shows that the sand is too wet. The "sprue. as shown at H. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. III. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. deep. is next cut. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. as shown at F. thus holding the crucible securely. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. Place a brick or other flat. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. 4 -Pouring the Metal If.E should be covered with coal-dust. as shown at G. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag." or pouring-hole. After drawing the pattern. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. as shown at H.

The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. In my own case I used four batteries. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. white metal and other scrap available. Although the effect in the illustration . and. may be used in either direction. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. but any reasonable number may be used. or from any adjacent pair of cells. used only for zinc. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. battery zincs. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. Referring to the figure. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. --Contributed by Harold S. Morton. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. Minneapolis. babbitt. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. and the casting is then ready for finishing. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. although somewhat expensive. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. 15% lead. If a good furnace is available. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. the following device will be found most convenient. is very desirable. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell.

taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. as shown in the illustration. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. backward. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. outward. If desired. Put a sharp needle point. A. Chicago.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. To make it take a sheet-iron band. connected by cords to the rudder. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. Make one of these pieces for each arm. Then replace the table. shaft made. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. The bearings. The brass rings also appear distorted. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. 2. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. Fig. --Contributed by Draughtsman. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. Then walk down among the audience. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. By replacing the oars with paddles. which will be sufficient to hold it. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. may be made of hardwood. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. B. 3/4 in. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. B. as shown at A. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table.

D. but when in motion. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. when it will again return to its original state. In the same way. 2 and 3. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. E. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. should be made of wood. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. It may seem strange that ice . 3. 1. 1. as shown in Fig. W. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed.melted babbitt. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. The covers. as shown in Fig. or under pressure. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. Fig. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. If galvanized iron is used. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. 1. If babbitt is used. Snow. 2. and a weight. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. A block of ice. The hubs. being simply finely divided ice. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. or the paint will come off. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. C. A. spoiling its appearance. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost.

or supporting it in some similar way. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . by 1/4. --Contributed by Gordon T. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. thus giving a high resistance contact. using a closed circuit or gravity battery.should flow like water. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. but by placing it between books. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. brass. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. which resembles ice in this respect. in. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. P. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. whenever there is any connection made at all. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. as per sketch. Pa. B. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. it will gradually change from the original shape A. The rate of flow is often very slow. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in.. by 1/2 in. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. sometimes only one or two feet a day. no matter how slow the motion may be. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. and assume the shape shown at B. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. but. by 5 in. by 2 in. square. as shown on page 65. Lane. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. Pressing either push button. Crafton. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax.

000 ft. The parts are: A. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. draft. G. Pa. J. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. horizontal lever. G. draft chain. and C. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. C. Ward. Wilkinsburg. K . and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. vertical lever. pulleys. wooden supports.thumb screws. cord. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. weight. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. B. alarm clock. B. D. E. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. the battery. and five dry batteries. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. F. I. furnace. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. about the size used for automobiles. the induction coil. as shown. A is the circuit breaker. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. Indianapolis. In the wiring diagram. The success depends upon a slow current. H. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. as shown. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. --Contributed by A.

The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. The frame (Fig. as well as the bottom. Mich. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. where house plants are kept in the home. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. material framed together as shown in Fig. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. 3. will fit nicely in them. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. 2 are dressed to the right angle. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. Kalamazoo. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. which will provide a fine place for the plants. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. Artistic Window Boxes The top. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. such as used for a storm window.

and a suitable source of power. i. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. by connecting them in series. 1 cp. where they are glad to have them taken away. since a battery is the most popular source of power. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. However. 1. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. Halifax.. and cost 27 cents FIG.. but maintain the voltage constant. and will give the . It must be remembered. e. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. --Contributed by Wm. in diameter. However. S. Grant. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. this must be done with very great caution. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. Canada. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs.. The 1/2-cp. Thus. so as to increase the current. W. N. a cork and a needle. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. in this connection. for some time very satisfactorily. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. This is more economical than dry cells. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. one can regulate the batteries as required. as if drawn upon for its total output. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. and the instrument will then be complete. A certain number of these. which sells for 25 cents. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. in any system of lamps. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. is something that will interest the average American boy. 1 each complete with base. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. multiples of series of three. can be connected up in series.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. as indicated by Fig. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. Push the needle into the cork. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. after a rest. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch.

especially those of low internal resistance. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. Thus. Thus. generates the power for the lights. In conclusion. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. by the proper combination of these. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. if wound for 6 volts. and for Christmas trees. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement.proper voltage. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. lamps. 18 B & S. and running the series in parallel. Chicago. although the first cost is greater. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. making. double insulated wire wherever needed. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. 1-cp. 2 shows the scheme. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. 3. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. FIG. where the water pressure is the greatest. to secure light by this method. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts.. for display of show cases. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. These will give 3 cp. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. each. 11 series. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. lamps. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. . So. as in Fig. If wound for 10 volts. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. However. Fig. lamp. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. and diffused light in a room. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. and then lead No. which is the same as that of one battery.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. according to the water pressure obtainable. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. we simply turn on the water. or 22 lights.

CC. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. . Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. are cut just alike. or from one pattern. we were not bothered with them. brushes of motor. DD. Ind. Santa Clara. or a tempting bone. as shown in the sketch. and the sides. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. and C. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. After I connected up my induction coil. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. a bait of meat. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. Cal. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. switch. center points of switch. Parker. Emig. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. AA. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. --Contributed by Leonard E. field of motor. B. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. bars of pole-changing switch. A indicates the ground. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. simply change the switch. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. Plymouth. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. To reverse the motor. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. thus reversing the machine. outside points of switch. the letters indicate as follows: FF. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. A. --Contributed by F. BB. B.

or would remain locked. A. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. Fry. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. Melchior. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. as it is the key to the lock. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. a piece of string. which is in the door. When the circuit is broken a weight.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. To unlock the door. a hammer. If it is not. Minn. one cell being sufficient. Cal. and a table or bench. merely push the button E. thus locking the door. The button can be hidden. San Jose. attached to the end of the armature B.. W. Hutchinson. 903 Vine St. -Contributed by Claude B. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. The experiment works best .

2.Contributed by F. 1). attached at the other end. 3. D. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. which pulls the draft open. forming a loop. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. C. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. Ontario. Tie the ends of the string together. Schmidt. P. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. as shown in Fig. When the alarm rings in the early morning. 4). Canada. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. Brockville. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. Crawford Curry. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. run through a pulley. the stick falls away. On another block of wood fasten two wires. Culebra. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. 18 Gorham St. A. the key turns. in the ceiling and has a window weight. -. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. Porto Rico. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. .An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. I. --Contributed by Geo. releasing the weight. the current flows with the small arrows. Madison. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. where it will remain suspended as shown. W. 3. Wis..

6 in. or from a bed of flowers.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. get two pieces of plate glass. Use a barrel to work on. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. Camden. The cut shows the arrangement. and the other to the battery. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. D. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. thence to a switch. and . N. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. including the mouthpiece. Jr. Connect two wires to the transmitter. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. which fasten to the horn. S. running one direct to the receiver. and break the corners off to make them round. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. thick. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. J. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. First. J. made with his own hands. square and 1 in. R. --Contributed by Wm.. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. Farley. or tree. and then to the receiver.

and is ready for polishing. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. 2. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. Fig. with pitch. 2. or it will not polish evenly. as in Fig. then take 2 lb. then 8 minutes. and a large lamp. melt 1 lb. 1. unless a longer focal length is wanted. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. the coarse grinding must be continued. wet till soft like paint. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. When polishing the speculum. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. wide around the convex glass or tool. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. Then warm and press again with the speculum. and spread on the glass. by the side of the lamp. a round 4-in. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. so the light . it should be tested with the knife-edge test. or less. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled.. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. twice the focal length away. spaces. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. in length. set the speculum against the wall. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. In a dark room. When done the glass should be semitransparent. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. using straight strokes 2 in. Have ready six large dishes. also rotate the glass. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in.. and label. while walking around the barrel. with 1/4-in. Use a binger to spread it on with. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. of water. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. A. When dry. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. Fasten. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. wetting it to the consistency of cream. Fig. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. and the under glass or tool convex. L. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light.

face down. The polishing and testing done. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. Then add 1 oz. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. in the bath and leave until the silver rises. 100 gr. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. Silver nitrate ……………………………. also how the rays R from a star . to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. Then add solution B.………………………………. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. 4 oz. 2. longer strokes... When the focus is found. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. Now add enough of the solution A. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. 840 gr. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. 25 gr. 39 gr. 4 oz. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. long to the back of the speculum. with distilled water. add the ammonia solution drop by drop.. then ammonia until bath is clear.…………….. Fig. and pour the rest into the empty dish. Fig. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside.. Fig. Two glass or earthenware dishes. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). Place the speculum. Alcohol (Pure) ……………. 2.. Place the speculum S. touched with rouge.. Solution D: Sugar loaf .. cement a strip of board 8 in.100 gr. that was set aside. the speculum is ready to be silvered. fill the dish with distilled water.. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. from the lamp. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. if a hill in the center. must be procured. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. If not. Nitric acid . The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water …………………………….……………………………. as in K. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. the speculum will show some dark rings. With pitch. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. deep. When dry. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. The knife should not be more than 6 in. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. or hills..

telescope can be made at home. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. Place over lens. Then I made the one described. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass.John E. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. long and cost me just $15. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. is a satisfactory angle. Thus an excellent 6-in. Mellish. two glass prisms. which proves to be easy of execution.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. and proceed as for any picture. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms.. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. My telescope is 64 in. deg. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. . using strawboard and black paper. About 20. cover with paper and cloth. slightly wider than the lens mount. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. stop down well after focusing. with an outlay of only a few dollars. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. The flatter they are the less they will distort. Make the tube I of sheet iron.

Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. then add a little sulphate of potash. The paper is exposed. The rays of the clear. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. -Contributed by A. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. Boody. . unobstructed light strike the mirror. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. instead of the contrary. but will not preserve its hardening. as shown in Fig. or powdered alum. A. B. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. 1. Fig. and reflect through the negative. D. complete the arrangement. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. To unlock. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. 2. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. push the button D.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. Ill. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. through the lens of the camera and on the board. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. Zimmerman. add the plaster gradually to the water. says the Master Painter. Do not stir it. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board.

Then blow through the spool. as at A and B. so that it can rotate about these points. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. 2. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. Fasten on the switch lever. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. use a string. To reverse. throw . 1). Connect the wires as shown in Fig. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. 3. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. as in Fig. also provide them with a handle. Fig. as shown in the sketch. but will remain suspended without any visible support.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. 2. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore.

Push one end of the tire into the hole. A is the electricbell magnet. carbon sockets. D. Tex. Go McVicker. North Bend. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. --Contributed by R. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. and E E. --Contributed by Geo. binding posts. San Antonio. carbons. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. rinse in alcohol. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. Take out. and rub dry with linen cloth.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. L. Thomas. Tex. In the sketch. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. the armature. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. Levy. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. Neb. B. wash in running water. . C C. -Contributed by Morris L. San Marcos. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. although this is not necessary. as shown in the sketch.

All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. 16 magnet wire. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. 36 magnet wire. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. Brooklyn. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . 14 or No. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. --Contributed by Joseph B. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. long or more.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. By means of two or more layers of No. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. Bell. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. wound evenly about this core. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy.

In shaping the condenser. hole is bored in the center of one end. After the core wires are bundled. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. Beginning half an inch from one end. about 6 in. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. in diameter. 4. as shown in Fig. then the strip of tin-foil. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper.which would be better to buy ready-made. diameter. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. a box like that shown in Fig. A 7/8-in. in length. which is desirable. the entire core may be purchased readymade. coil illustrates the general details of the work. making two layers. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. The primary is made of fine annealed No. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. one piece of the paper is laid down. 1. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. which is an important factor of the coil. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. wide. but if it is not convenient to do this work. The following method of completing a 1-in. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. When cut and laid in one continuous length. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. and the results are often unsatisfactory. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. This makes a condenser which may be folded. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. The condenser is next wrapped . with room also for a small condenser. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. long and 5 in. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. at a time. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. long and 2-5/8 in. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. No. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. 2 yd. and finally the fourth strip of paper. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. or 8 in. as the maker prefers. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in.

long to key. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. E. wide. switch. battery . copper lever with 1-in. V-shaped copper strip. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. round so that the inside . If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. F. and one from battery. ready for assembling. whole length. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. which is insulated from the first. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. A. shelf for clock. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. D. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in.securely with bands of paper or tape. one from bell. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. go. open switch C. B. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. flange turned on one side. lines H. forms the other pole or terminal. shows how the connections are made. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. I. the letters indicate as follows: A. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. Fig. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. long and 12 in.) The wiring diagram. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. and the other sheet. B. to the door. which allows wiring at the back. spark. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. The alarm key will turn and drop down. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. C. 4 in. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in.. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. by 12 in. bell. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. 3. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. G.

To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. of zinc sulphate. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. Line the furnace. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. If desired for use immediately. from the bottom. This is for blowing. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. and the battery is ready for use. Short-circuit for three hours.. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. do not shortcircuit. but add 5 or 6 oz. The circuit should also have a high resistance. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. London. and then rivet the seam. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. That is what they are for. instead of close to it. but with the circuit. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. says the Model Engineer.diameter is 7 in. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. 2 in. of blue stone. . Use a glass or metal shade.

One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. long.9 of a volt. thus producing two different vibrations. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. and then. imparting to them a violet tinge. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. or think they can do the same let them try it.. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. Ohio. porcelain and paper. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. oxygen to ozone. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. as in the other movement. To operate the trick. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. and therein is the trick. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. g. Try it and see. while for others it will not revolve at all. 1. the second finger along the side. If any or your audience presume to dispute. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. for others the opposite way. If too low. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. Enlarge the hole slightly. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. This type of battery will give about 0. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. grip the stick firmly in one hand. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. At least it is amusing. herein I describe a much better trick. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. Outside of the scientific side involved." which created much merriment. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. 2. affects . and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. for some it will turn one way. changes white phosphorus to yellow. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. below the bottom of the zinc. but the thing would not move at all. square and about 9 in.

but small flowers. a short-focus lens. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. and one of them is photomicrography. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. but this is less satisfactory. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. however. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. To the front board is attached a box. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. insects. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. and. a means for holding it vertical. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. if possible. an old tripod screw. chemicals. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. says the Photographic Times. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. but not essential. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. earth. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board.

CD. Madison. 179 11 lb. 6 ft. 9 ft. If the balloon is 10 ft. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. and a line. AB. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. Fig.--Contributed by George C. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. Mass. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. 268 17 lb. or 3 ft. in diameter. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. A line. The following table will give the size. Boston. Ft Lifting Power. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. 381 24 lb. in Cu. 5 ft. or 31 ft. 7-1/2 in. wide from which to cut a pattern. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. which is 15 ft. Divide one-quarter of the circle . 65 4 lb. 12 ft. balloon. 697 44 lb. 905 57 lb. 1. 7 ft. 10 ft 523 33 lb. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. while it is not so with the quill. 5 in. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. long and 3 ft. Cap. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. 11 ft. 7-1/2 in. 8 ft. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. 113 7 lb.

until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. keeping the marked part on the outside. and so on. 70 thread. of beeswax and boil well together. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. The pattern is now cut. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. Procure 1 gal. Repeat this operation four times. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. This test will show if the bag is airtight. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. of the very best heavy body. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. 4. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. making a double seam as shown in Fig. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. 3. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. using a fine needle and No. The cloth segments are sewed together. cutting all four quarters at the same time. on the curved line from B to C. The amounts necessary for a 10- . Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. 2. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing.

When the clock has dried. B. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. or dusting with a dry brush. The outlet.Green Iron ammonium citrate . 5. oil the spindle holes carefully. pipe. C. above the level of the water in barrel A. of sulphuric acid. balloon are 125 lb. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. leaving the hand quite clean. with 3/4in. . using a fine brush. All FIG. A. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. The 3/4-in. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. B. or a fan. this should be repeated frequently. 5 . if it is good it will dry off. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. . let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. as shown in Fig.. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. capacity and connect them. ]. of gas in one hour. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. In the barrel. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. which may sound rather absurd. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. with the iron borings.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. 150 gr. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. a clean white rag. A. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. it is not fit to use. with water 2 in. 1 lb. to the bag. Fill the other barrel. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. A. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. Water 1 oz. but if any grease remains on the hand. should not enter into the water over 8 in. until no more dirt is seen. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. of iron. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. C. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. 1 lb. of iron borings and 125 lb. B. Vegetable oils should never be used. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. of water will make 4 cu. by fixing. ft. About 15 lb.ft. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. After washing a part.

Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. or zinc.000 ft. Exposure. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. keeping the fingers out of the solution. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. This aerial collector can be made in . says the Moving Picture World. to avoid blackened skin. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. Dry the plates in the dark. toning first if desired. . This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. or battery. of any make. Dry in the dark. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. The positive pole. A cold. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. The miniature 16 cp. Sliver nitrate 50 gr.Water 1 oz. fix in hypo. dry atmosphere will give best results. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. 20 to 30 minutes. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. and keep in the dark until used.. Port Melbourne. and a vigorous negative must be used. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. at the time of employment. . Printing is done in the sun. The negative pole. A longer exposure will be necessary. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. or carbon. Bathe the plates 5 minutes.

holes . long. This will complete the receiving station. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. in diameter. making a ground with one wire. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. forming a cup of the pipe. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. when left exposed to the air. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. as described below. a positive and a negative. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. 5 in. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. lay a needle. If the waves strike across the needle. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. both positive and negative. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. the resistance is less. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. will soon become dry and useless. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. and have the other connected with another aerial line. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air.various ways. As the telephone offers a high resistance. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. If the wave ceases. and as less current will flow the short way. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. lead pipe. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. The storage cell.

of course. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. When mixing the acid and water. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. on each end. or tube B. Two binding-posts should be attached. namely: a square hole. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. This box can be square. does not need to be watertight. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. says the Pathfinder. by soldering the joint. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. or tube C. except for about 1 in. This support or block. B. The other plate is connected to the zinc. D. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. a round one. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. an oblong one and a triangular one.as possible. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. one to the positive. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. This. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. and the other to the negative. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block.

It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. 3. Ill. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. is built 15 ft.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. Only galvanized nails should be used. long. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. leaving about 1/16 in. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. as shown in Fig. 1. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. C. thick cut two pieces alike. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. wide. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. C. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. The third piece of brass. deep and 4 ft. . as it is not readily overturned. and has plenty of good seating capacity. about 20 in. all around the edge. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. 2. back and under. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. as shown in Fig. wide. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. were fitted by this one plug. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. 1. 2. A and B. This punt. and match them together. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. in place on the wood. Chicago. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in.

is cut 1 in. thick and 3-1/2 in. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. In Fig. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. A piece of 1/4-in. Tacoma. square (Fig 2). Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] .Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. gas pipe. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. B. A. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. Wash. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb.

without auxiliary phase. lamp. may be of interest to some of our readers." has no connection with the outside circuit. it had to be borne in mind that. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. and to consume. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. says the Model Engineer. which the writer has made.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. In designing. The winding of the armature. Wagner. which can be developed in the usual manner. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. no special materials could be obtained. no more current than a 16-cp. or "rotor. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. if possible. H. with the exception of insulated wire. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C.--Contributed by Charles H.

It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. They are not particularly accurate as it is. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. were then drilled and 1/4-in." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. this little machine is not self-starting. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. in diameter were drilled in the corners. and all sparking is avoided. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. holes. as shown in Fig. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. C. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. to be filed out after they are placed together. about 2-1/2 lb. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. 2. wrought iron. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. no steel being obtainable. also varnished before they were put in. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. The stator is wound full with No. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. bolts put in and tightened up. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. while the beginnings .the field-magnet. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. as shown in Fig. 5. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. with the dotted line. and filled with rivets. thick. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. Holes 5-32 in. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. being used. 4. 3. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. Unfortunately. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. A. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. or "stator. 1. After assembling a second time. B. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit.

film to film. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. 3-Contributed by C. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. The lantern slide is a glass plate. and the other by reduction in the camera. and as each layer of wire was wound. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. The rotor is wound with No. N. a regulating resistance is not needed. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. In making slides by contact. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. 1. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. having no commutator or brushes. Newark. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. and especially of colored ones. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. This type of motor has drawbacks. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. If too late for alcohol to be of use. as before stated. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid.. as shown in Fig. if applied immediately. The image should . depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. E. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. Jr. and would not easily get out of order. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. No starting resistance is needed. J. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. One is by contact. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. and as the motor runs at constant speed. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. McKinney. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. it would be very simple to build. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. as a means of illustrating songs. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. 2. and all wound in the same direction.

on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. 3. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. the formulas being found in each package of plates. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. Select a room with one window. as shown in Fig. over the mat. 4. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. also. Fig. to use a plain fixing bath. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. These can be purchased from any photo material store. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. A. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. except that the binding is different. as shown in Fig. C. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . B. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing.appear in. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. 1. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. and development should be over in three or four minutes. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. if possible. Draw lines with a pencil. they are much used by travelers. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. a little extra work will be necessary. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. 5. It is best. D. Being unbreakable. If the exposure has been correct. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. 2. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. about a minute. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. and then a plain glass. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle.

The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. Vt. long. while the dot will be in front of the other. 1. known as rods and cones. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. Fig. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. Hastings. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . These longer pieces can be made square. from the ends. long. wide and 50 in. Corinth. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. 1. as shown at A. A piece of canvas. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. as shown at B. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. is to be used for the seat. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. in diameter and 40 in. as shown in Fig. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. 2. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. in diameter and 20 in. Fig. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. from the center of this dot draw a star. 16 in. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. or other stout cloth. long. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. holes bored in the end pieces. from the end piece of the chair. If the star is in front of the left eye. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end.

The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. as shown in Fig. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. as shown in Fig. A belt. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. A disk 1 in. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. in thickness and 10 in. 2. Cal. made from an ordinary sash cord. Auburn. allowing the shaft to project through the holes.-Contributed by P. 1. O'Gara. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. J. per square inch. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. . as well as to operate other household machines. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk.

to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. direction. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. leaving it shaped like a bench. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. Bore a 1/4-in. says the Scientific American. divided by the number of threads to the inch. square for a support. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. fairly accurate. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. A simple. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. wide. or inconvenient to measure. it serves a very useful purpose. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. to the top of the bench. long. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. Cut out a piece from the block combination.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. with as fine a thread as possible. thick and 2-1/2 in. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. The part of a rotation of the bolt. then removing the object. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. and the construction is complete. Put the bolt in the hole. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. screwing it through the nut. 3/4 in. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. . Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. will be the thickness of the object. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object.

Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. material 12 ft. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. Place a 3/4-in. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. Bore a 3/4-in. long is used for the center pole. long.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. piece of wood 12 ft. The wheel should be open . --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. Santa Maria. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. which show up fine at night. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. beyond the end of the wood. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. bolt in each hole. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. globe that has been thrown away as useless. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. Oal. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform.

made of the same material. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. H and J. in diameter. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. long. Graham. The spool . The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. long. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft.Side and Top View or have spokes. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. thick. pieces used for the spokes. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. long. Tex. A cross bar. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. of the ends with boards. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. A piece of brass 2 in. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. which should be 1/4 in. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. L. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. wide and 1/8 in. thick. is soldered. B. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. square and 3 or 4 in. from the ends. and the lower part 61/2 in. to be operated by the magnet coil. A. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. C. at the top and 4 in. The coil.-Contributed by A. 1/2 in. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. The boards may be nailed or bolted. P. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. from the top end. and on its lower end a socket. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. at the bottom. wide and 1/8 in. O. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. thick is used for the armature. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. C. Fort Worth. long.

which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. --Contributed by Arthur D. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. C. At the bottom end of the frame.E. This tie can be used on grain sacks. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. When you slide the pencil along the casing. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. do it without any apparent effort. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. A. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. for insulating the brass ferrule.000 for irrigation work. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. R. Mass. and place it against a door or window casing. S.000. F. D and E. and directly centering the holes H and J. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. or a water rheostat heretofore described. Bradlev. 1. one without either rubber or metal end. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw.--A. is drilled. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. S. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. A soft piece of iron. long. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. and in numerous other like instances. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. The armature. by soldering. which may be had by using German silver wire. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. 2 the hat hanging on it. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. .is about 2-1/2 in. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied.J. This is a very neat trick if performed right. then with a firm. that holds the lower carbon. B. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. Randolph. 2. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil.

The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. Experiment with Heat [134] . The other primary wire is connected to a switch. wide. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. C. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. and the support C are made from thin spring steel.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. for adjustment. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. The coil ends are made from cardboard. and then 1. Fig. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. about 1 in. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. for the primary. mixed with water to form a paste. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. in diameter. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. with a 3/16-in. may be made from a 3/8-in. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. is constructed in the usual manner. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. in diameter and 1/16 in. About 70 turns of No. hole in the center. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. for the secondary. about 1/8 in. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. long and 1 in. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. The vibrator B. The vibrator. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. thick. from the core and directly opposite. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. is connected to a flash lamp battery. 2. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. in diameter. D. in diameter and 2 in. 1. The switch. S. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. S. leaving the projections as shown. 1. Fig. A. F. about 3/16 in. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. B. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. long.500 turns of No. The core of the coil. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support.

thick on the inside. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. in an ordinary water glass. The knob on the dial extends out too far. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. and the same distance inside of the new board. The tin is 4 in. it laps down about 8 in. wide. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. long and when placed over the board. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. . to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. with which to operate the dial. The lock. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. as shown in the sketch. and then well clinched. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. 2 to fit the two holes. was to be secured by only three brass screws. The three screws were then put in the hasp. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. 16 in. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. The hasp. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. Fig. 1. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. which seemed to be insufficient. as shown. board.Place a small piece of paper. brass plate. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. lighted. which is only 3/8-in. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. between the boards. 1. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. which is cut with two holes.

By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. but when the front part is illuminated. square and 8-1/2 in. When making of wood. or in the larger size mentioned. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. and the back left dark. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. not shiny. clear glass as shown. any article placed therein will be reflected in. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. high for use in window displays. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. When the rear part is illuminated. black color. square and 10-1/2 in. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. which completely divides the box into two parts. If the box is made large enough. the glass. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . one in each division. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp.

as it appears. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. When using as a window display. . Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. into the other.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. alternately. long and 1 ft. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. as shown in the sketch. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water.. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. a tank 2 ft. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. above the top of the tank. as shown at A in the sketch. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. and with the proper illumination one is changed. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. When there is no electric current available. wide will be about the right size. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

bit. The pieces can then be taken out. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. Iron sulphate. bore from each end. gauge for depth. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. radius. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. 2 ft.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. and a door in front. lines gauged on each side of each. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. square and 40 in. two pieces 1-1/8 in. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. This hole must be continued . time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. under sides together. Three windows are provided. is the green vitriol. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. 5 ft. and a solution of iron sulphate added. O. or ferrous sulphate. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. is built on the front. but with a length of 12 in. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. wide. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. then use a red-hot iron to finish. Shape the under sides first. 1 in. long. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. using a 3/4-in. with a length of 13 in. and boring two holes with a 1-in. square. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. hole. thick and 3 in. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. each. hole bored the full length through the center. This precipitate is then washed. Columbus. If a planing mill is near. high. 6 in. as shown. one for each side. from the ground. however. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. wide. long. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. dried and mixed with linseed oil. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. and 6 ft. A small platform. The 13-in.

When this is dry. The sketch shows one method of attaching. For art-glass the metal panels are . sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. When the filler has hardened." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. A better way. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. Directions will be found on the filler cans. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain.through the pieces forming the base. If the parts are to be riveted. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. hole in each block. thick and 3 in. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. apply two coats of wax. Electric globes--two. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. Saw the two blocks apart. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. if shade is purchased. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. square and drawing a diagonal on each. three or four may be attached as shown.

Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal.Construction of Shade . METAL SHADE .The Completed Lamp cut out. as brass. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. such as copper.

as in ordinary devices. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. the object and the background. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. The arms holding the glass. Figure 1 shows the side. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. one way and 1/2 in. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. and Fig. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. 2 the front view of this stand. as shown in the sketch.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. the other. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera.

These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. channel in the circumference of the ring. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. as it is very poisonous. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. wide and 11 in. in diameter for a base. about 1-1/4 in. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. Put the ring in place on the base. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. If the light becomes dim. pointing north and south. thus forming a 1/4-in. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. An ordinary pocket compass. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. Before mounting the ring on the base.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. uncork and recork again. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. and an inside diameter of 9 in. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. and swinging freely. long. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. as shown in the cut. in diameter. Cut another circular piece 11 in. outside diameter. as shown in the sketch. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. thick 5/8-in. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. wide and 6-5/16 in. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in.

Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in.600 . of the top. and north of the Ohio river.500 . CC.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. Place on top the so- . the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere.865 1. 1 oz. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. from the second to the third.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. AA. and mirrors.088 . are fitted at an angle of 45 deg.715 . The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. EE. black oxide of copper. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. above the half can. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. into these cylinders. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. B. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. to which a wire has been soldered for connections. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. in diameter and 8 in. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current.289 .420 . and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. The results given should be multiplied by 1. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders.182 . The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes . are mounted on a base. Corresponding mirrors. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings.

if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. University Park. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. Colo. Put the solution in a long. 62 gr. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. In Fig. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. alcohol. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. slender bottle. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. of pulverized campor. little crystals forming in the liquid. 31 gr. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. always remove the oil with a siphon. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. the wheel will revolve in one direction. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. which otherwise remains clear. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. then they will not rust fast. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. When renewing. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . says Metal Worker.

Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. --Contributed by C. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. about 1-1/4 in. Lloyd Enos. If zinc and copper are used. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. floating on a solution. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. Attach to the wires. on the under side of the cork.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. This is used in place of the spoon. will allow the magnet to point north and south. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. If two of them are floating on the same solution. A paper-fastener box. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. Solder in the side of the box . a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. If zinc and carbon are used.

3 in. one on each side of the board. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. B. Bore holes for binding-posts. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. Wind evenly about 2 oz. long for the base and fasten the coil to it.not shorter than 18 in. G--No. 1/2. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. D. D. The base. B. D. 1. A. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. 10 wire about 10 in.Contributed by J. To this standard solder the supporting wire. Use a board 1/2. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. of wire on each end extending from the coil. wide and 2-1/2 in. . long that has about 1/4-in.in. Put ends. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. Rhamstine. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. is made from a piece of No. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. H. long. as shown in Fig. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. The bottom of the box. The standard. 1-1/4 in. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. to it. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. away. hole. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. C. F. wide and 6 in. E. Thos. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. The spring should be about 1 in. 14 wire will do. and then solder on the cover. E. piece of 1/4-in. C. long. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. or made with a little black paint. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. thick. glass tubing . A circular piece of cardboard. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. brass tubing. A. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends.in. If the hose is not a tight fit. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. stained and varnished. can be made of oak. Take a small piece of soft iron. C. of No. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose.1-in. and on the other around the glass tube.

. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. is drawn nearer to the coil. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. Teasdale. four hinges. of No. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. long. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. of mercury will be sufficient. as shown in Fig. 3-in. long. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. of 8-oz. in diameter. When the glass becomes soft. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. long. 5. Y. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. Smith. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. two pieces 2 ft.of the coil. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. The iron plunger. long. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. N. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. long are used for the legs. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. square of which two pieces are 6 ft.--Contributed by R. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft.--Contributed by Edward M. 1. E. 2. D. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. about 1 in. Wis. Milwaukee. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. Cuba. About 1-1/2 lb. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. long. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. 3. 3 in. from the right hand. canvas.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. J. making a support as shown in Fig.

small aperture in the long tube. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. Take 1/2 in. Fig. The tube now must be filled completely. 3. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. Break off the piece of glass. 4. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. 5. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. expelling all the air. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. Can. thus leaving a. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. long. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. This tube as described will be 8 in. 2. 6.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. Keys. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. --Contributed by David A.. Toronto. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. leaving 8 in. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. Measure 8 in. of vacuum at the top. holding in the left hand. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand.. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in.

The base is made from a piece 3/4 in.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. as in Fig. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. 3 in. material 2 in.6 -. wide and 12 in. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. 3. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. as shown in Fig. 1 in. thick. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. as shown in Fig. with each projection 3-in.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. wide and 5 ft. wood screws. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. cut in the shape shown in Fig. in diameter. Fig. thick. wide and 5 ft. 7. long. This forms a slot. wide and 3 in. thick. and the single projection 3/4 in. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. FIG. but yellow pine is the best. The large pulley is about 14 in. 2. thick. 1. 9 in. 1 in. 6. from the end of same. long. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. long. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. Four blocks 1/4 in. These are bent and nailed. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. long. 4 in. 4. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. 5. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. 3 in. wide and 5 ft. joint be accurately put together. thick. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. and 1/4 in. A crosspiece 3/4-in. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in.

Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. Water 1 oz. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. first removing the crank. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. Manhattan. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. says Photography. R. attach runners and use it on the ice. Welsh. --Contributed by C. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. by 1-in. Kan.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. above the runner level. .

When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. and very much cheaper. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. Treasdale. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. 1 oz.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. from an ordinary clamp skate. as shown in Fig. of water. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. --Contributed by Wallace C. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. --Contributed by Edward M. 2. also. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. . Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. Printing is carried rather far. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. 1. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. Mass. 3. Leominster. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. Newton. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. The print is washed. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. This is done with a camel's hair brush. as shown in Fig.

A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. Take two glass tubes. high. Alexandria. 1. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. 1-1/2 ft. extending the width of the box. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. F. too. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. 1. Church. 1 ft. with about 1/8-in. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. Fig. Fig. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. causing the door to swing back and up. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. fasten a 2-in. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. hole. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. wide. and 3 ft. long. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. high for rabbits. from one end. say. 2. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. The thread is broken off at the . Then. as shown in the sketch. A. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. and bend them as shown in the sketch. which represents the back side of the door. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. square piece. --Contributed by H. Va. The swing door B. and to the bottom. Place a 10-in. about 10 in. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. wide and 4 in.

D. 3. as shown in Fig. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. -Contributed by William M. trolley cars. Take two pieces of pasteboard. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. Fig. shorter at each end. to be used as a driving pulley. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. . On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. Paste a piece of strong black paper. long. says Camera Craft. A and B. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. black surfaced if possible. camera and wish to use some 4. making the appearance of the ordinary stage.. 1 in. Jr. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage.by 5-in. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. plates. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. B. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. Chicago. 10 in. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. 1. Crilly. wide. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. Out two rectangular holes.proper place to make a small hole. Fig. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. C. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. This opening. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. in size.by 7-in. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. long. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. wide and 5 in. wide. from the edge on each side of these openings. Cut an opening in the other piece. say 8 in. automobiles. in size. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. shorter. horses and dogs. 2. being 1/8 in. and exactly 5 by 7 in. high and 12 in. but cut it 1/4 in. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. inside of the opening. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. and go in the holder in the same way.

. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. in diameter. if it has previously been magnetized.in. wide will be required. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. into which the dog is harnessed. making a . and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. The needle will then point north and south. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. A cell of this kind can easily be made. long and 6 in.

Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. sal ammoniac. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. in diameter and 6 in. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. 1/4 lb. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin.watertight receptacle. says Electrician and Mechanic. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. under the spool in the paraffin. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. long which are copper plated. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. only the joints. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. This makes the wire smooth. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. pine. 1 lb. short time. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. of water. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. of rosin and 2 oz. B is a base of 1 in. one that will hold about 1 qt. plaster of paris. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. Do not paint any surface. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. zinc oxide. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. pull out the wire as needed. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. in which P is the pan. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. . F is a spool. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. Place the pan on the stove. for a connection. leaving about 1/2-in. of the plate at one end. with narrow flanges. when the paraffin is melted. and a notch between the base and the pan. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. 3/4 lb. File the rods to remove the copper plate. Form a 1/2-in. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. beeswax melted together. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. filter. fuel and packing purposes. Pack the paste in. A is a block of l-in. of the top.in. fodder.

About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. square and about 9 in. If any of your audience presume to dispute.. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. Enlarge the hole slightly. thus producing two different vibrations. grip the stick firmly in one hand. long. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. and one friend tells me that they were . Ohio. Try it and see. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. but the thing would not move at all. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington." which created much merriment. for others the opposite way. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. g. At least it is amusing. or think they can do the same. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. from vexation. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. and therein is the trick. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. as in the other movement. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. and he finally. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. for some it will turn one way. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. while for others it will not revolve at all. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. by the Hindoos in India. 2. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. let them try it. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. Toledo.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. and then. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right.

The depth of the notches was also unimportant. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. 2. 3. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. To operate. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. and I think the results may be of interest. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. 6. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. secondly. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. by means of a center punch. The experiments were as follows: 1. rotation was obtained. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. 5. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. the rotation may be obtained.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago.100 r. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. no rotation resulted. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. Thus a circular or . if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. Speeds between 700 and 1. and. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. gave the best results. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. m. 4. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. A square stick with notches on edge is best. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. p. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. If the pressure was upon an edge. 7. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face.

. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. --Contributed by G. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. Lloyd. is proved by experiments 3 and 4." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. C. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. as shown. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. Duluth. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. at first. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. A wire is tied around the can. Minn. the upper portion is.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. if the pressure is from the left. it will be clockwise. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. is driven violently away. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. G. or greasy. so far as can be seen from the photographs. unwetted by the liquid. and the height of the fall about 6 in. Washington. and the resultant "basket splash. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. D. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. a piece of wire and a candle. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). --Contributed by M.D.. Ph. Sloan. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. the liquid is forced away from the sphere.. forming a handle for carrying. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. A. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

thick and 1 in. flange and a 1/4-in." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. as shown. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. long. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. about 2-5/8 in. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . 1. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. hole drilled in the center. as shown in Fig. Each wheel is 1/4 in. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. with a 1/16-in. axle. in diameter.

Fuller. bottom side up. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1.50. bent as shown. or main part of the frame. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. 6. each in its proper place. These ends are fastened together. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. 2. put together complete. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. The current. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. 3/4 in. A trolley. wide and 16 in. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . 1 from 1/4-in. wood. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. This will save buying a track. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. as shown in Fig. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. San Antonio. Texas. lamp in series with the coil. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. long. If the ends are to be soldered. The parts. 3. with cardboard 3 in. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. 4. 2. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. The motor is now bolted. Fig. which must be 110 volt alternating current. --Contributed by Maurice E. and the locomotive is ready for running. The first piece. is made from a piece of clock spring. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. is made from brass. as shown in Fig. of No. holes 1 in. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. Fig. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. are shown in Fig. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. 3. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. 5. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb.brass. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together.

Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. Fig 1. as shown in Fig. 3.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. but do not heat the center. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. The quarter will not go all the way down. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. O. Cincinnati. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. as shown in Fig. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. 1. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. 2. and holes drilled in them. When cold treat the other end in the same way. then continue to tighten much more. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. and as this end . Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. the length of a paper clip. Fig. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned.

and adjusted . or should the lathe head be raised. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. A pair of centers are fitted. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. When the cutter A. or apparent security of the knot. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. In the sketch. has finished a cut for a tooth. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. When the trick is to be performed. 2 and 1 respectively.

The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. gentleman's card case or bill book. dividing it into as many parts as desired.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. (3. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . (4.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. Fold over along these center lines. Bott.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. if four parts are to be alike. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. When connecting to batteries. book mark. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. Bunker. note book.to run true. blotter back. draw center lines across the required space. and a nut pick. trace the outline. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. holding it in place with the left hand. (1. Fig. --Contributed by Samuel C. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. Y. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. twisted around itself and soldered. long. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. lady's card case. Brooklyn. (6. tea cosey. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. Second row: -Two book marks. 2.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. tea cosey. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. watch fob ready for fastenings. swing lathe. if but two parts. coin purse. N. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. --Contributed by Howard S. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster.) Place the paper design on the leather and. such as brass or marble. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. lady's belt bag. The frame holding the mandrel. about 1-1/2 in. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. In this manner gears 3 in. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. above the surface. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). 1. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use.) Make on paper the design wanted. (5. (2. at the same time striking light. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. An ordinary machine will do. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. or one-half of the design.

some heavy rubber hose.How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. and an ordinary bottle. Secure .

The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. B. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. and bore a hole through the center. D. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. If the needle is not horizontal. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. Florida. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. where it condenses. a distance of 900 miles. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. and push it through a cork. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground.C. from Key West.. A. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. Thrust a pin. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. into which fit a small piece of tube. The electrodes are made .Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. C.

C. If 20-ft. 1. Connect as shown in the illustration. lumber cannot be procured. as shown in Fig. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. apart and extend 1 ft. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. long for the body of the operator. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. thick. both laterally and longitudinally. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. long. 2 arm sticks 1 in. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. The operator can then land safely and . and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. long. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. long. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. using a high resistance receiver. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. which is tacked to the front edge. 1. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. 1/2. wide and 4 ft long. wide and 4 ft. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. take the glider to the top of a hill. free from knots. slacken speed and settle. as shown in Fig. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. --Contributed by Edwin L. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. thick. To make a glide. and also to keep it steady in its flight. 3/4 in. 1-1/2 in. or flying-machine. 12 uprights 1/2 in. long. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. wide and 3 ft. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. 1. by 3/4 in. D. square and 8 ft long. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. All wiring is done with No. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. wide and 4 ft. Powell. 16 piano wire. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. lengths and splice them. thick. wide and 20 ft. 2 in. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. thick. long. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. use 10-ft. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. wide and 3 ft. 1-1/4 in. 3. Washington. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig.in. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. 2. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. Four long beams 3/4 in. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. 2.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. thick. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. several strips 1/2 in. as shown in Fig.

gently on his feet. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. Great care should be . but this must be found by experience. Glides are always made against the wind. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. Of course. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes.

Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. --Contributed by L. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. Bellingham. M. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. When heated a little. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. 2. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. as shown in Fig. half man and half horse. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. 1. a creature of Greek mythology. which causes the dip in the line. Olson.exercised in making landings.

When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. a piece of brass or steel wire. long and about 3/8 in. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. about the size of door screen wire. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. of small rubber tubing. 14 in. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. this will cost about 15 cents. square. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. will complete the material list. making it 2-1/2 in. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. about the size of stove pipe wire. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. While at the drug store get 3 ft. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. long. outside the box.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. The light from the . The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. in diameter. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. at the other.

This is very simple when you know how. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. as shown in Fig. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. as shown in Fig. while others will fail time after time. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. --Photo by M. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. O. as shown in the sketch. Dayton. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. If done properly the card will flyaway. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. M. Hunting. 1. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. . After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. 2.

This game is played by five persons. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. as shown. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. as described. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax." or the Chinese students' favorite game. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. as before. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. closing both hands quickly. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. If a certain color is to be more prominent. hold the lump over the flame. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. Cool in water and dry. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. place the other two. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. When the desired shape has been obtained. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. then put it on the hatpin head. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger.

Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. distribute electric charges . Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. passing through neutralizing brushes. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. or more in width.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. these sectors.

wide at one end. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. as shown in Fig. in diameter. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. These pins. Two solid glass rods. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. and pins inserted and soldered. and 4 in. 2. in diameter. in diameter. material 7 in. The fork part is 6 in. to which insulating handles . are made from solid. Fig. 1-1/2 in. in diameter and 15 in. 1. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. long and the standards 3 in. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. The two pieces. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. and this should be done before cutting the circle. The drive wheels. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. from about 1/4-in. long and the shank 4 in. 3. in diameter. and the outer end 11/2 in. long. in diameter. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. GG. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. are made from 7/8-in. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. 1 in. Fig. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. C C. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. Two pieces of 1-in. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. The plates. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. after they are mounted. free from wrinkles. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. long. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. in diameter. turned wood pieces. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. EE. wide. 3. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. The collectors are made. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. as shown in Fig. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. 3/4 in. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. brass tubing and the discharging rods.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. The plates are trued up. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. RR. D. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. 4. the side pieces being 24 in. or teeth. at the other. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. and of a uniform thickness. The hole is to be made 3/4 in.

Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. 12 ft. in diameter. --Contributed by C. wide and 22 ft. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. ball and the other one 3/4 in..are attached. Colo. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. one having a 2-in. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . which are bent as shown. D. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. long. and the work was done by themselves. Colorado City. Lloyd Enos. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. KK. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines.

The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. using a 1-in. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. pens . deep. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread.is a good one. They can be used to keep pins and needles. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. yet such a thing can be done. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. and bore a hole 1/2 in. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. The key will drop from the string. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. string together. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. as at A. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. bit.

Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. flat and round-nosed pliers. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. Inside this oblong. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. inside the first on all. slim screw. 5. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. 3. or cigar ashes. 7. 23 gauge. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. above the work and striking it with the hammer. This is to make a clean. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. extra metal on each of the four sides. Use . Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. 9. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. stamp the background promiscuously. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. Having determined the size of the tray. etc. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. file. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. 4. unless it would be the metal shears. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. 6. they make attractive little pieces to have about. also trace the decorative design. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. and the third one 1/4 in. screw-driver and sheet copper of No.. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. inside the second on all. Proceed as follows: 1. etc. Draw one-half the design free hand. using a nail filed to chisel edge. The second oblong was 3/4 in. sharp division between background and design.. They are easily made. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. above the metal. very rapid progress can be made. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. 8. two spikes. then the other side. 2. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in.and pencils. about 3/4-in. Raise the ends. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. When the stamping is completed.

but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. 8. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. and fourth fingers. and the effect will be most pleasing. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. second fingers. 10. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. 9. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . first fingers. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. 7. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. third fingers. In the first numbering. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. The eyes. 6. Bradley All machinists use mathematics.

first fingers. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. 11. Still. viz. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. 600. which would be 70. above 15 times 15 it is 200.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. Let us multiply 12 by 12. or the product of 6 times 6.. the product of 12 times 12. or the product of 8 times 9. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. there are no fingers above. or 80. In the second numbering. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. 400. which tens are added. Two times one are two.. renumber your fingers. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. but being simple it saves time and trouble. etc. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. thumbs. or 60. 12. or numbers above 10. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. etc. 2 times 2 equals 4. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. if we wish. 25 times 25. which would be 16. At a glance you see four tens or 40. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. as high as you want to go. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. and the six lower fingers as six tens. etc. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. above 20 times 20.. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. Put your thumbs together. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. . Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. and 20 plus 16 equals 36.

whether the one described in second or third numbering. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. forties. And the lump sum to add. For figures ending in 6. 8. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. as one might suppose. and so on. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. thumbs. about a vertical axis. the lump sum to add. the value of the upper fingers being 20. the inversion takes place against his will. Proceed as in the second lumbering. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. further. however. 75 and 85. at the will of the observer. being 80). adding 400 instead of 100. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. and. any two figures between 45 and 55. or from above or from below. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. Take For example 18 times 18. etc. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. It takes place also. in the case of a nearsighted person. 2. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. 3. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. 7. first fingers 22. when he removes his spectacles. beginning the thumbs with 16. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. 21. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. thirties. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. . For example. twenties. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. The inversion and reversion did not take place. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. or what.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. first finger 17. not rotation.. the revolution seems to reverse. the value which the upper fingers have. lastly. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. which is the half-way point between the two fives.

Looking at it in semidarkness. as . and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. tee.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. when he knows which direction is right. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. and putting a cork on the point. A flat slide valve was used. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. the other appearance asserts itself. sometimes the point towards him. The ports were not easy to make.

How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. saw off a section of a broom handle. Springfield. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. and make in one end a hollow. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. about 2 in. While this engine does not give much power. inexpensive. Fasten the block solidly. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. . deep. Beating copper tends to harden it and. If nothing better is at hand. The tools are simple and can be made easily. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. secure a piece of No. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. across the head. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. bottom side up. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends.. pipe. pipe 10 in. apart. Ill. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. as in a vise. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. it is easily built. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. Kutscher. in diameter. if continued too long without proper treatment. across and 1/2 in. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. The steam chest is round. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. The eccentric is constructed of washers. such as is shown in the illustration. -Contributed by W. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. Next take a block of wood. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. H.

holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. Camden. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. This process is called annealing. Hay. O. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. To produce color effects on copper. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. as it softens the metal. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. --Contributed by W. the other to the left.will cause the metal to break. S. Vinegar. To overcome this hardness. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. especially when the object is near to the observer. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. and. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . C. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated.

as for instance red and green. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. while both eyes together see a white background. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. It is just as though they were not there. So with the stereograph. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. the further from the card will the composite image appear. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. however. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. The further apart the pictures are. they must be a very trifle apart. that for the right. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. with the stereograph. The red portions of the picture are not seen. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. . each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. and lies to the right on the picture. and without any picture. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. In order to make them appear before the card. only the orange rays may pass through. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. not two mounted side by side. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. orange." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture.stereoscope. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. although they pass through the screen. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. from the stereograph. in the proper choice of colors. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. the left eye sees through a blue screen. because. the one for the left eye being blue. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. disappears fully. because of the rays coming from them. diameter. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. it. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. would serve the same purpose. But they seem black. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself.

A small round bottle about 1/2 in. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. in the shape of a crank. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. wide and 1 in. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. San Francisco. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. Place a NO. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. wireless. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. in diameter. 1/4 in. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. etc. Cal. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. thick. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. The weight of the air in round . The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. or the middle of the bottle. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. 12 gauge wire. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. long and a hole drilled in each end. This should only be bored about half way through the block. A No. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles.

so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. a bottle 1 in. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. but before attempting to put in the mercury. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. . or. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. When the tube is filled to within 1 in.6) 1 in. 30 in. square. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. But if a standard barometer is not available. pine 3 in. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. long. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. a glass tube 1/8 in. long. inside diameter and 2 in. square. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. thick. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. will calibrate itself. or a column of mercury (density 13. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. In general. if you choose. 34 ft. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. and a slow fall. Before fastening the scale. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather.. the instrument. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. The 4 in. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. high. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. high. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are.numbers is 15 lb. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. long. wide and 40 in. the contrary. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. if accurately constructed. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. high. internal diameter and about 34 in. Only redistilled mercury should be used. wide and 4 in. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow.

5. a cover from a baking powder can will do. Mark out seven 1-in. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. thick. the size of the outside of the bottle.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. 1. 3. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. Procure a metal can cover. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. Number the pieces 1. and place them as shown in Fig. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. wide and 10 in. long. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. which is slipped quickly over the end. 6 and 7. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. 2.

as well as for a boy's camping outfit. 2 over No. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. Move 12-Jump No. 3. procure unbleached tent duck. This can be done on a checker board. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. L. Move 4-Jump No. 1.J. 1 into No. Move 9-Jump No. 6. as shown in Fig. 5 over No. 3. Woolson. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. 3 to the center. in diameter. 7 over No. Move ll-Jump No. Move 5-Jump No. l over No. 2. Move 15-Move No. Move 6-Move No. 6. 7's place. N. 5's place. 7 over No. 6 over No. long and 2 ft. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places.Position of the Men move only one at a time. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. 7. 5 over No. 2 . while paint requires recovering three or four times a year.-Contributed by W. Move 8-Jump No. Move 7-Jump No. 6 to No. 1 to No. 2's place. 2 over No. 2. using checkers for men. 6 in. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. Move 10-Move No. To make such a tent. 5. Move 3-Move No. 6 into No. 2's place. 1. Make 22 sections. 5's place. each 10 ft. 3 over No. Move 2-Jump No. 3 into No. Cape May Point. Move 14-Jump No. which is the very best material for the purpose. Move 13-Move No. 3. shaped like Fig.

As shown in the sketch. diameter.. Punch holes in the brass in . to a smooth board of soft wood. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. high. about 9 in. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. wide at the bottom. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. 6. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. 5) stuck in the ground. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. round galvanized iron. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. in diameter. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. 9 by 12 in. will do. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. These are ventilators. 6-in. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. long and 4 in. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. wide at the bottom. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. made in two sections. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. Have the tent pole 3 in. added. Nail a thin sheet of brass. leaving the rest for an opening. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. fill with canvas edging. 2 in. as in Fig. Fig. Tress. long. wide by 12 in. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in.in. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. After transferring the design to the brass. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. Pa. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. 3 in. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. Emsworth. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. 2. from the top. 5. Fig. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. --Contributed by G. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. Use blocks.J. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. In raising the tent.

The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. around the outside of the pattern. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. excepting the 1/4-in. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. When all the holes are punched. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. Corr. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. cut out the brass on the outside lines.the spaces around the outlined figures. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. but before punching the holes. When the edges are brought together by bending. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. It will not. The pattern is traced as before. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. bend into shape. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. Chicago. apart. . I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in.

These pipes are . or. Que. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. Oregon. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. or center on which the frame swings. Mayger. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. Badger. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. better still. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. E. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. partially filled with cream. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. --Contributed by Geo. --Contributed by H. If a wheel is selected.. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. Dunham. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. allowing 2 ft. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. pipe. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. A cast-iron ring. A 6-in. between which is placed the fruit jar. or less. pipe is used for the hub. G. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. Stevens.however. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in.

The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. bent to the desired circle. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. pipe. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. Four braces made from 1/2-in. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. An extra wheel 18 in. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. pipe clamps. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange.

The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. while doing this. which was placed in an upright position. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. The performer. as shown in Fig. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. 1. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. 3. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. and the guide withdrawn. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. and dropped on the table. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can.

The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. and second. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. Denver. in a half circle. White. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. --Contributed by H. 2. Colo. it requires no expensive condensing lens. The box can be made of selected oak or . Harkins. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. first. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. 1. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. Mo. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. in diameter on another piece of tin. Louis. D. F. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. -Contributed by C. St.

A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. focal length. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. AA. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. This will be 3/4 in. fit into the runners. high and must . high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. as shown in Fig. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. 2.mahogany. 1. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. wide and 5 in. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. from each end. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. The door covering this hole in the back. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. high and 11 in. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. 5-1/2 in. long and should be placed vertically. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. long. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. If a camera lens is used. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. Two or three holes about 1 in. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. but not tight. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. 3-1/2 in. long. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. and 2 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. wide. represented by the dotted line in Fig. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. and. wide by 5 in. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. from each end of the outside of the box. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. An open space 4 in.

calling this February. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. --Contributed by Chas. and so on. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. Bradley..Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. C. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia." etc. as it requires an airtight case. calling that knuckle January. and extending the whole height of the lantern. Ohio. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. West Toledo. provided it is airtight. This process is rather a difficult one. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. 1. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. June and November. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. April. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. then the second knuckle will be March. the article may be propped up .

giving it an occasional stir. N. 1 and 2. in. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. but waxed. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. Schenectady. Y. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. Crawford. 1. or suspended by a string. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated.with small sticks. The top of a table will do. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. In each place two electrodes. . The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. H. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. fruit jars are required. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. 2. running small motors and lighting small lamps. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. In both Fig. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. Pour in a little turpentine. one of lead and one of aluminum. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. --Contributed by J. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. the lid or cover closed. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. and the lead 24 sq. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. taking care to have all the edges closed. and set aside for half a day. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. in.

--Contributed by Cyril Tegner. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. as well as others. you remove the glass. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. he throws the other. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . He. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. Cleveland. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. as you have held it all the time. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up.. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. which you warm with your hands. You have an understanding with some one in the company. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. After a few seconds' time. O. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. This trick is very simple.

Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. if any snags are encountered. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. near a partition or curtain. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. . How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. Victor. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use.take the handiest one. on a table. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. in diameter in the center. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. Colo. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. put it under the glass. Be sure that this is the right one. Pull the ends quickly. but by being careful at shores.-Contributed by E. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. Crocker. but in making one. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. J. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole.

1 in. 50 ft. 1 in. of rope. clear pine. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . 2 in. 1 mast. long. for the stern piece.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. by 16 ft. of 1-1/2-yd. wide and 12 ft. and. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. wide and 12 ft. for cockpit frame. The keelson. drilled and fastened with screws. and fastened with screws. for center deck braces. from each end to 1 in. by 2 in.. long. Paint. 7 ft. 1 piece. Fig. is 14 ft. 1 in. 8 yd. thick and 3/4 in. Both ends are mortised. 1 in. one 6 in. by 8 in. screws and cleats. 3 in. of 1-yd. 14 rib bands. wide 12-oz. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. by 12 in. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. wide unbleached muslin. at the ends. 8 in. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. 3 in. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. for the bow. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. and is removed after the ribs are in place. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. from the stern.. 9 ft. square by 16 ft. the smaller is placed 3 ft. selected pine. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. 4 outwales. by 2 in. 1 piece. 1/8 in. as illustrated in the engraving. and the other 12 in. 2 gunwales. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. long. from the bow and the large one. apart. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. by 15 ft. ducking. 2 and braced with an iron band. 1. wide. 11 yd. long. are as follows: 1 keelson. 1/4 in. 3 and 4. by 16 ft. by 10 ft. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown.

wide and 24 in. thick. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. from the bow. long. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. thick and 1/2 in. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. length of canvas is cut in the center. also. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. A seam should be made along the center piece. 1 in. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. thick. 6. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. 7 and 8. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. long is well soaked in water. Fig. The block is fastened to the keelson. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. gunwales and keelson. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. The trimming is wood. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. in diameter through the block. doubled.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. A piece of oak. They are 1 in. Braces. 5. A 6-in. wide. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. wood screws. screws. Before making the deck. These are put in 6 in. is cut to fit under the top boards. 3-1/2 ft. is a cube having sides 6 in. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. corner braces. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. thick and 12 in. This block. a piece 1/4 in. 1/4 in. A block of pine. wide. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. wide and 14 in. 6 in. long. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. thick 1-1/2 in. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. 9. long. 1 in. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. wide and 3 ft. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. . 6 and 7. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. The 11-yd. 4 in. apart. Figs. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. The deck is not so hard to do. Fig. and fastened to them with bolts. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow.

The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. 12. wide. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. Tronnes. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. in diameter and 10 ft. 11. The keel. Ill. --Contributed by O. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. . The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. wide at one end and 12 in. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. The mast has two side and one front stay. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. is 6 in. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. Wilmette. A strip 1 in. at the other. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. each 1 in. 10 with a movable handle. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. long. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. long. Fig. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. apart in the muslin. E. The house will accommodate 20 families. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. are used for the boom and gaff. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. The sail is a triangle. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. thick by 2 in. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin.

taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. long and five 1/2-in. 4. square. wide and 30 in. and 3 ft. about 5/16 in. 2 in. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. thick. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. long. wide and 2 ft. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. 2-1/2 in. Fig. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. as shown in Fig. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better.into two 14-in. with the ends and the other side rounding. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. Bevel both sides of the pieces. flat-headed screws. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. one 11-1/2 in. long. five 1/2-in. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. 1. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. thick. and the other 18 in. Wilmette. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. Tronnes. 5. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. 1 yd. flat headed screws. wide. flat on one side. --Contributed by O. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. 2. E. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. thick. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. 3. Cut the maple. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. Ill. wide. long. 2-1/2 in. Take this and fold it over . The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one.

B. wide and 2-3/4 in. is set. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. 3-1/4 in. 5 from 1/16-in. pieces 2-5/8 in. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. Another piece. F. the top and bottom. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. long. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. and take care that the pieces are all square. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. 3/8 in. leaving a small opening at one corner. Bliss. wide and 6-1/2 in. Cut another piece of board. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. long. wide . Make a double stitch all around the edge. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. as well as the edges around the opening. of each end unwound for connections. about 3/8 in. Louis. the mechanical parts can be put together. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. long. then centered. soaked with water and blown up. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. D. After the glue. --Contributed by W. long. C. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. When the glue is set. E. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. 6-1/2 in. Mo. 2 and 3. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. long. wide and 5 in. A.once. square. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. Figs. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. long. thick. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. 3 in. are rounded. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. 1-1/4 in. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. The bag is then turned inside out. thick. The sides are 3-1/4 in. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. 1. A. wide and 2-1/2 in. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. About 1/2 in. Wind three layers of about No. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. and make a turn in each end of the wires. wide and 4-1/2 in. wide and 6-3/4 in. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. long. The front. wide and 3 ft. Glue a three cornered piece. but can be governed by circumstances. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. C. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. thick and 3 in. square. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. forming an eye for a screw. Fig. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. St. and the four outside edges. this square box is well sandpapered. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. long. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. If carefully and neatly made.

that has the end turned with a shoulder. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center.S. 5. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place.A. 1/16 in. the part carrying the pointer moves away. wide and 2-1/2 in. --Contributed by George Heimroth. F. Another strip of tin. and as the part Fig. I. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. showing a greater defection of the pointer. long. in diameter. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. thick. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. When the current flows through the coil. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. 4 is not movable. the same size as the first. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. 4. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. Place the tin. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. bored in the back. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. Chapman. A pointer 12 in. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. 5-1/2 in. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. 4. Austwick Hall. The resistance is now adjusted to show . A brass tube having a 1/4-in. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. G. hole is fastened to the pointer. These wires should be about 1 in.and 2-5/8 in. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. and the farther apart they will be forced. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. so it will just clear the tin. Fig. board. Richmond Hill. 1/4 in. wide and 9 in. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. Fig. The end of the polar axis B. from the spindle. L. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. The base is a board 5 in. The stronger the current. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. Yorkshire. C. long. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. from one end. R. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. W. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. long. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. Like poles repel each other.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. and fasten in place.R. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass.

say Venus at the date of observation. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. The following formula will show how this may be found. A. 30 min.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. and vice . Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. M. 1881. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. at 9 hr. 10 min. shows mean siderial. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. thus: 9 hr. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. 10 min. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21.

Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. New Haven. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. owing to the low internal resistance.f. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. Conn. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. and then verify its correctness by measurement. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. Hall. if one of these cannot be had. --Contributed by Robert W. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. or. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. .m. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches.

Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. When the follower is screwed down. 1. 3/8 in. leaves or bark. Then. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. of alum and 4 oz. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. long. thick. put the fish among the ashes. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. Fig. Wet paper will answer. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. fresh grass. arsenic to every 20 lb. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. 1-3/4 in. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. The boring bar.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . and heap the glowing coals on top. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. inside diameter and about 5 in. cover up with the same. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. as shown in the accompanying picture. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. especially for cooking fish.

to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. thick. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. pipe. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. fastened with a pin. when they were turned in. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. and threaded on both ends. about 1/2 in. pipe. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. pipe were fitted to these holes so that.

It . but never one which required so little material. If the valve keeps dripping. 30 in. wide. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. as the one illustrated herewith. a jump spark would be much better. 4. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. 5. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. and which gave such satisfactory results. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. A 1-in. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. Fig. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. thick and 3 in. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. labor and time. square iron. Clermont. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. 3. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. however. then it should be ground to a fit. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft.valve stems. 2. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. long. bent in the shape of a U. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. The rough frame. was then finished on an emery wheel. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. Fig. Fig. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. Iowa. the float is too high. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. This plate also supports the rocker arms. --Contributed by Peter Johnson.

long. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. and a little junk. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. completes the merry-go-round. so it must be strong enough. It looks like a toy. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. square and 5 ft. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. butting against short stakes. strong clear material only should be employed." little and big. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. extending above. --Contributed by C. Use a heavy washer at the head. A malleable iron bolt. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. with no trees or buildings in the way. rope is not too heavy.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. no matter what your age or size may be. in fact. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. long. 3/4 in. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. in the ground with 8 ft. square. If it is to be used for adults. The illustration largely explains itself. The seats are regular swing boards. The crosspiece is 2 in. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. This makes an easy adjustment. long. hole bored in the post. from the center. long is the pivot. timber. W. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. being held in position by spikes as shown. A 3/4 -in. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. square and 2 ft. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. for the "motive power" to grasp. from all over the neighborhood. Nieman. set 3 ft. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. and. 12 ft. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. in diameter and 15 in. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. strengthened by a piece 4 in. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . As there is no bracing. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around.

The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down.the fingers.2 emery. a wreck. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. square. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. A reel is next made.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. 1. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. one for the backbone and one for the bow. if nothing better is at hand. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. Both have large reels full of . After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. To wind the string upon the reel. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. 4. These ends are placed about 14 in. The backbone is flat. The bow is now bent. away. 2. then it is securely fastened. light and strong. and sent to earth. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. long. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. 1/4 by 3/32 in. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. Having placed the backbone in position. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. and 18 in. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly.

The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. Y. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. Newburyport. The handle end is held down with a staple.-Contributed by S. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . Moody. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. the balance. common packing thread. First. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. If the second kite is close enough. --Contributed' by Harry S. Mass. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. C. often several hundred yards of it. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. N. or glass-covered string. Bunker. he pays out a large amount of string. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it.string. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. Brooklyn.

Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. Corinth. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. then a dust protector. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . Vt. each the size of half the table top. length of 2-in. If the table is round. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. square (Fig. --Contributed by Earl R. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. such as mill men use. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. then draw the string up tight. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. lengths (Fig. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. cutting the circular piece into quarters. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. Hastings. make the pad as shown in the illustration. must be attached to a 3-ft.

Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. and E to G. E. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. from E to F. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. from C to D. 17-1/2 in.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. Wharton. Calif.-Contributed by H. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. 16-1/4 in. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern.. trace the design carefully on the leather. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. hard pencil. which spoils the leather effect. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture.. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. G to H. Moisten the . Oakland. 6-1/4 in.. Use a smooth. 2-1/4 in.9-1/4 in. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. .

A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. with the rounded sides of the tools. G-J. I made this motor . apart. wide. if not more than 1 in. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. Now cut narrow thongs. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. Cut it the same size as the bag. get something with which to make a lining. To complete the bag. and E-G. also lines A-G.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. H-B. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. and lace through the holes. Trace the openings for the handles. is taken off at a time. and corresponding lines on the other side. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. place both together and with a leather punch. about 1/8 in. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag.

each being a half circle. long. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. --Contributed by J. Pasadena. . The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. 1. Shannon. Calif. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts.M. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. as shown in Fig. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. in length. iron. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. 2. of No. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. 24 gauge magnet wire. 1. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. 2-1/4 in. B. D. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained.

will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. and the gores cut from these. 1. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. are the best kind to make. The gores for a 6-ft. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. balloon should be about 8 ft. from the bottom end. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. high. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. pasted in alternately. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. near the center. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon.

The boat soon attains considerable speed. lap on the edges. saturating it thoroughly. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. In removing grease from wood. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. Staunton. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. leaving the solution on over night. 2. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. In starting the balloon on its flight. 3. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. somewhat larger in size. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. 5. --Contributed by R. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. 4. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. B. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. These are to hold the wick ball. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. After washing. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. If the gores have been put together right. as shown in Fig. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. after which the paint will adhere permanently. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. A. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together.widest point. 1. As the boat is driven forward by this force. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. E. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. Fig. coming through the small pipe A. in diameter. leaving a long wake behind. as shown in Fig. using about 1/2-in. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. so it will hang as shown in Fig. The steam. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface.

one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. The blocks are about 6 in. in bowling form. if you have several copies of the photograph. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. apart on these lines. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. Second. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. 1. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. long and each provided with a handle. Third. as is shown in Fig. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. high and 8 in. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . There are three ways of doing this: First. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. In using either of the two methods described. wide by 6 in. long.

Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. thick. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. N. Rinse the plate in cold water. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. Hellwig. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. being careful not to dent the metal. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. Y. not pointed down at the road at an angle. 2. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. Albany. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. --Contributed by John A. Fig. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board.Fig. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal.

wide and of any desired height. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. thick. long for the base. CC. In Fig. A circular piece of wood. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. wide and 8 in. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. S. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . Paine. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. in diameter. and. B. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. Corner irons. 6 in. Richmond. A. 2 the front view. and Fig. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. Va. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. with a set screw. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost.upon any particular object. 1 Fig. which is 4 in. and not produce the right sound. are screwed to the circular piece. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. through which passes the set screw S. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. A. --Contributed by R. 5 in. is fastened to a common camera tripod. These corner irons are also screwed to. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. With this device. Break off the frame. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF.

and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. Ill. This will make a very compact electric horn. Lake Preston. This horn. Kidder. thus producing sound waves. pine boards. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. as only the can is visible. -1. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. S. La Salle. D. in diameter of some 1-in. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. I made a wheel 26 in. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. . R. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained.

B. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. thick and 12 in. --Contributed by James R. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. The frame is made of a heavy card. A. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. Kane. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . Fig. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. If there is a large collection of coins. 1. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. O. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. Feet may be added to the base if desired. Ghent. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. If the collection consists of only a few coins. 1. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. Doylestown. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. 2. the same thickness as the coins. Purdy. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. square. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. --Contributed by C.

A rivet punch is desirable. a hammer or mallet. Milwaukee. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. though not absolutely necessary. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. If desired. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. plus a 3/8-in. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. for after the slides have been shown a few times. --Contributed by R. --Contributed by August T. Noble. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. cut and grooved. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. It will hold 4 oz. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. A lead pencil. One Cloud. several large nails. they become uninteresting. Cal. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. into which to place the screws . Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner.E. Neyer. Toronto. melted and applied with a brush. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. and then glued together as indicated. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. --Contributed by J. Canada. thick. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. of developer. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. Wis.J. border all around. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. Smith. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. The material required is a sheet of No.

never upon the metal directly. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. screws placed about 1 in. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. like the one shown. Take the nail. both outline and decoration. using 1/2-in. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. draw one part. There are several ways of working up the design. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. Remove the screws. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . and file it to a chisel edge. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board.

is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. About 1/2 yd. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. long. of 11-in. square. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. The pedal. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. up from the lower end. Provide four lengths for the legs. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. l-1/8 in. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. 2. 1. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. each 1 in. in the other. Do not bend it over or flatten it. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. being ball bearing. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. Rivet the band to the holder. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. for the top. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. using a 1/2in. 3. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. 3/4 in. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. as shown in Fig. and two lengths. for the lower rails. square and 11 in. long. two lengths.wall. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. . long. square and 181/2 in. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid.

Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. New York City. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. F. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. --Contributed by W. having quite a length of threads. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. Attalla. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. --Contributed by John Shahan. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. Quackenbush. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . Ala.

Ironwood. D. long. in depth. college or lodge colors. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. stitched on both edges for appearance. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. Two pieces of felt. using class. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. from the end. and the other 2-3/4 in. wide and 8-1/4 in. each 1-1/4 in. making a lap of about 1 in. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. Purchase a 1/2-in. initial. long. from one end. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid.. The desired emblem.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. and 3/8 in. and two holes in the other. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. the end of the other piece is folded over. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. Assemble as shown in the sketch. Luther. something that is carbonated. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. wide and 4-1/4 in. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. one about 1 in. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. Mich. long. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . --Contributed by C.

in diameter and 2 in. if desired by the operator. Indianapolis. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. Fig. This method allows a wide range of designs. 1/4 in. or a pasteboard box. as shown in the sketch. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. in the cover and the bottom. as shown at B. from the center and opposite each other. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. Schatz. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. A piece of lead. 2. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. about 2 in. or more in height. Ind. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. which can be procured from a plumber. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. and the cork will be driven out. --Contributed by John H. Punch two holes A. 1.

The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. 1. on both top and bottom. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. Columbus. 4. are turned up as in Fig. or marble will serve.Rolling Can Toy lead. as shown in Fig. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. Fig. A piece of thick glass. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. 5. O. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. and the ends of the bands looped over them. it winds up the rubber band. The pieces of tin between the holes A. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. metal. When the can is rolled away from you. allowing the two ends to be free. putting in the design. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. 3. . --Contributed by Mack Wilson. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level.

A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. Next place the leather on the glass. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. face up. I secured a board 3/4 in. mark over the design. 1 in. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. deep in its face. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. wide and 20 in. thicker than the pinion. long and bored a 1/2-in. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. or more thick on each side. The edges should be about 1/8 in. from each end. New York City. 3 in. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. thick. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. hole through it. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . If it is desired to "line" the inside. After this has been done. A pencil may be used the first time over. and.

3 by 3 by 36. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. Rice. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. 1 screw block. 3 by 3 by 20 in. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. 1 by 12 by 77 in. --Contributed by A. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. and fit it in place for the side vise. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . N. 1 piece for clamp. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. 1 piece. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. in diameter. M. pieces for the vise slides. 2 by 12 by 77 in. 1 by 9 by 80 in. 4 guides. thick top board. 2 side rails. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. Syracuse. Brooklyn. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. lag screws as shown. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. much of the hard labor will be saved. 2 by 2 by 18 in. Fig. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. Y. New York. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. 1 back board. 2 crosspieces. Now fit up the two clamps. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. 1 top board. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. 1 top board. 2 end rails. 3 by 3 by 6 in. countersinking the heads of the vise end. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. 1 piece for clamp. Cut the 2-in. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. 1. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. Make the lower frame first. 2.in the board into the bench top. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side.

. 1 compass saw. 1 bench plane or jointer. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. 24 in. They can be purchased at a hardware store. 1 cross cut saw. 3 and 6 in. 24 in. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work.screws. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. 1 pocket level. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. 1 nail set. 1 jack plane or smoother. Only the long run. as well as the pattern maker.. 1 pair pliers. 1 set chisels. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. 1 monkey wrench. 1 2-ft. If each tool is kept in a certain place.. 1 claw hammer. 1 countersink. 2 screwdrivers.. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. 1 pair dividers. 1 brace and set of bits. in diameter. 1 wood scraper. The amateur workman. 1 set gimlets. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. 1 marking gauge. rule. The bench is now complete. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. it can be easily found when wanted. 1 rip saw.

after constant use. try square. No. becomes like A. 2. Fig. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. 1. 1. Fig. The calf skin. Kane.1. 3. Fig. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. will sink into the handle as shown at D. 2 and 00 sandpaper. ---Contributed by James M. Fig. being softer. Doylestown. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. 1 oilstone. will be easier to work. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. but will not make . and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness.1 6-in. Pa. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. the projecting point A.

will do just as well. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. cover it completely with water enamel and. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. water or heat will not affect. Turn the leather. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. then prepare the leather. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. Having prepared the two sides. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. First draw the design on paper. when dry. secure a piece of modeling calf. -Contributed by Julia A. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape.as rigid a case as the cow skin. After the outlines are traced. but a V-shaped nut pick. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. the same method of treatment is used. If cow hide is preferred. and the length 6-5/8 in. New York City. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. . Two pieces will be required of this size. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. White. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. such as copper or brass. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. which steam. The form can be made of a stick of wood. If calf skin is to be used. lay the design on the face. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather.

it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. as shown in the sketch. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. Cobb. C. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. A. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. New York City. Richmond. Jaquythe. --Contributed by Chas. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. Herrman. Maine. and an adjustable friction-held loop. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. . Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. Cal. Portland. --Contributed by Chester L. --Contributed by W.

Roberts. . Cambridge. Conn. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. Wright. --Contributed by Wm. for instance. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. --Contributed by Geo. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. Middletown. an inverted stewpan. Mass. A thick piece of tin. B..Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. was marked out as shown. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. This was very difficult. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction.

With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. Bone.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. apply powdered calcined magnesia. There was no quicklime to be had. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. --Contributed by Paul Keller. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. If the article is highly polished. pulverized and applied. --Contributed by C. Illinois. and quite new. well calcined and powdered. of boiling water. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. If any traces of the grease are left. but only an odor which soon vanished.. used as part of furniture. Indianapolis. on a clear piece of glass. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. When dry. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. and the grease will disappear. . as shown. F. Herbert. but not running over. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. face down. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. The next morning there was no trace of oil. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. L. so some bones were quickly calcined. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. Ind. A beautifully bound book. Chicago. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. which has been tried out several times with success. such as chair seats. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned.

It is constructed of a good quality of pine. 6 in. set and thumbscrews. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. Howe. says Scientific American. thick. high and are bolted to a block of wood. deep and 5 in. --Contributed by Geo. New York. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in.. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. If properly adjusted. A. This coaster is simple and easy to make.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. the pieces . soft steel with the opening 6 in. wide and 12 in. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. Tarrytown. 2 in.. long. The pieces marked S are single.

During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes .Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. to the underside of which is a block. no doubt. they will look remarkably uniform. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. A sharp knife. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. If the letters are all cut the same height. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. E. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. says Camera Craft. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. The seat is a board. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. albums and the like. for sending to friends. Their size depends on the plate used. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed.

A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. So arranged. using care to get it in the right position. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. In cutting out an 0. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. for example. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. The puzzle is to get . and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. So made.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. mount them on short pieces of corks. after. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. photographing them down to the desired size. pasting the prints on some thin card. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. and. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table.

of its top. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. He smells the bait. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . so they will lie horizontal. with the longest end outside. G. snow or anything to hide it. Cape May Point. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. says the American Thresherman. Old-Time Magic . hung on pivots. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week.J. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. squeezes along past the center of the tube. Bayley. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. long that will just fit are set in.-Contributed by I. A hole 6 or 7 in. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. N. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row.

Rhode Island. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole.faced up. --Contributed by L. E. Press the hands together. Pocatello. Parker. --Contributed by Charles Graham. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. then spread the string. Y. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. then expose again. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. Pawtucket. N. Szerlip. or rub the hands a little before doing so. Idaho. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. Brooklyn. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. --Contributed by L.

1. narrower. The blade should be about 27 in.Genuine antique swords and armor. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. near the point end. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. 2 Fig. 4 on the blade. in building up his work from the illustrations. The handle is next made. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle.. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. When the whole is quite dry. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot.. or a complete suit of armor. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. whether he requires a single sword only. long. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. thick. Glue the other side of the blade. wide and 2 in. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. When the glue is thoroughly dry. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. they will look very much like the genuine article. and if carefully made. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. end of the blade. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. 1 Fig. full size. wipe the blade . The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. dark red. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. in width. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. says the English Mechanic. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. using a straightedge and a pencil. The pieces. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. 3 Fig. if any. or green oil paint.

Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. 2. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. Fig.with light strokes up and down several times. This sword is about 68 in. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. 3. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. In the finished piece.. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. 4. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. allowing for a good hold with both hands. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. follow the directions as for Fig. about 1-1/2 in. the other is flat or half-round. and 3 in. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. should be about 9 in. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. Both edges of the blade are sharp. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. In making this scimitar. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. 1/8 in. in the widest part at the lower end. shows only two sides. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel.. in diameter. preferably of contrasting colors. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. 1. as it is . In making. The length of the handle. the illustration. not for use only in cases of tableaux. 1. 1. take two pieces of wood. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. 1. square and of any length desired. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. 3. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. the other is flat or halfround. the other two are identical. thick and 5 in. long. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. 2. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. the length of the blade 28 in. of course.

Y. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. square. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. and if so. about 3/8 in. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. Syracuse. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. --Contributed by Katharine D. as there was some at hand. as shown in the sketch. Morse. On each edge of the board. long. Franklin. Mass. It is made of a plank. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. The thinness of the plank. Both can be made easily. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. A cold . 2 in. A piece of mild steel. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. Doctors probed for the button without success. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. --Contributed by John Blake. and. or an insecure fastening. at the lower end. each about 1 ft. as can the pitch bed or block.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. however. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. in an attempt to remove it. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. N. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. piping and jackets by hard water. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel.

chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. tallow. design down. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. on the pitch.. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. plaster of Paris. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. To remedy this. When this has been done. 18 gauge. 5 lb. using a small metal saw. To put it in another way. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb.. secure a piece of brass of about No. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. a file to reduce the ends to shape. When the desired form has been obtained. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. 5 lb. Trim up the edges and file them . Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils.

in the center. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. 1) and the other 12 in. and hang a bird swing. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. lb. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. Clean the metal thoroughly. A. to keep it from floating. lb. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. . Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. one 18 in. Fill the 3-in. 1 ft. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. it may be well to know what horsepower means.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. That is lifting 33. 30 ft. make an unusual show window attraction. --Contributed by Harold H. in diameter (Fig.000 lb. living together in what seems like one receptacle. but not to stop it. over the smaller vessel. Fig. Cutter. per minute. This in turn divided by 33. space between the vessels with water. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. in diameter (Fig. or fraction of a horsepower. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. 1 ft.000 ft. in one minute or 550 lb. in one second. or 550 ft. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. per second.smooth. using powdered pumice with lye. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. Before giving the description. The smaller is placed within the larger. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. 2). Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. and still revolve. 3. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. which divided by 1/6 gives 180.

by L. 1 Fig. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes.18 in. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . 2 Fig. --Contributed by J. Diameter Fig. or on a pedestal. Mass. N. Y. Campbell. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. Somerville.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. Szerlip. Brooklyn. The effect is surprising. --Contributed. Diameter 12 in.3 Fig. F.

This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. and then. to keep the metal from tarnishing. away from the edge. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. after which it is ready for use. using any of the common metal polishes. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. Do not be content merely to bend them over. In riveting. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. often render it useless after a few months service. as a rule. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. then by drawing a straightedge over it. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. and the clay . A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. and cut out the shape with the shears. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. keeping the center high. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. is. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. which. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. Polish both of these pieces. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. the same as removing writing from a slate. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. unsatisfactory.copper of No. which may be of wood or tin. with other defects. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. Rivet the cup to the base. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. with the pliers. This compound is impervious to water. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer.

DeLoof. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. . 2. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. Dunlop. A. 1. in diameter and 5 in. --Contributed by John T. Mich. Scotland. -Contributed by Thos. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. Northville. It is made of a glass tube. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. Grand Rapids.can be pressed back and leveled. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. --Contributed by A. Mich. long. Houghton. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. the device will work for an indefinite time. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. Shettleston. The siphon is made of glass tubes. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air.

1.1 FIG. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. London. stilettos and battle-axes. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. in width and 2 in. long with the crossguard and blade of steel. long. As the handle is to . The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in.FIG. This sword is 4 ft. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. put up as ornaments. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords.

10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. When the whole is quite dry. firmly glued on. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. sometimes called cuirass breakers. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. with both edges sharp. studded with brass or steel nails. Cut two strips of tinfoil. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. This weapon is also about 1 ft. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. 3 is shown a claymore. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. the axe is of steel. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. This stiletto has a wood handle. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. which is about 2-1/2 ft. one about 1/2 in. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. 6. 8. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. This weapon is about 1 ft. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. A German stiletto. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. The sword shown in Fig. then glued on the blade as shown. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. Both handle and axe are of steel. The lower half of the handle is of wood. 5. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. long with a dark handle of wood. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. in length. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. These must be cut from pieces of wood. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. with wire or string' bound handle. wood with a keyhole saw. The handle is of wood. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. In Fig. 7. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. paint it a dark brown or black. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. This axe is made similar to the one . the ornamentations can be built up of wire.represent copper. string. 20 spike. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. This sword is about 4 ft. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. narrower. When dry. the upper part iron or steel. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. Three large. The crossbar and blade are steel. 11 were used. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. small rope and round-headed nails. In Fig. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. glue and put it in place. A German poniard is shown in Fig. When the glue is thoroughly dry. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. very broad. 9. is shown in Fig. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. In Fig. long. 4. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. sharp edges on both sides. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. with both edges of the blade sharp. in width. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. in length. The ball is made as described in Fig. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. the same as used on the end of the handle. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top.

will pull where other belts slip.described in Fig. When wrapped all the way around. Old-Time Magic . Davis. 10. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. . W.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. This will make a very good flexible belt. --Contributed by E. 2. Chicago. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. high. such as braided fishline. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. so the contents cannot be seen. together as shown in Fig. the ends are tied and cut off. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig.

The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. These wires are put in the jar. apparently. held in the right hand. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. Bridgeton. --Contributed by A. with the circle centrally located. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. four glass tumblers. about one-third the way down from the top. Calif. 2. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. an acid. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. causing the flowers to grow. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. filled with water. Macdonald. There will be no change in color.J. some of the liquid. Oakland. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. S. The dotted lines in Fig. 1 and put together as in Fig. Before the performance. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. To make the flowers grow in an instant. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. As zinc is much lighter than iron. in a few seconds' time. or using small wedges of wood. N. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks.

The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. and kept ready for use at any time. This outlines the desired opening. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. not only because of the fact just mentioned. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. When many slides are to be masked. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. A. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. Cal. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] .It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. unless some special device is used. which are numbered for convenience in working. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. --Contributed by W. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. and equally worthy of individual treatment. Richmond. 4 for width and No. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. 2 for height. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. If the size wanted is No. practical and costs nothing. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. Jaquythe. says a correspondent of Photo Era. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks.

which is dangerous. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. Draw a design. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. but they can be easily revived. Secure a sheet of No. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. is about right for the No. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. the paper is folded along the center line. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. The decoration. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. paint the design. not the water into the acid. and the extreme length 7 in. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. or. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. the margin and the entire back of the metal. or a pair of old tongs. With a stick. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. 16 gauge. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. The one shown is merely suggestive. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. too. about half and half. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. When etched to the desired depth. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. and do not inhale the fumes. This done. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. possibly. a little less acid than water. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. using the carbon paper. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. may be changed.

A. 3. 2. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. 2. attached to a post at each end. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. Nail a board. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. 0 indicates the batteries. so that when it is pressed down. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. Fig. as shown in the illustration. and bore two holes. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. as in Fig. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. to the table. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. about 2-1/2 in. about 3 ft. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. . and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. Then get two posts. It may be either nailed or screwed down. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. in diameter and 1/4 in. C and D. The connections are simple: I. 2. about 1 in. with the wires underneath. long. it will touch post F. and about 2-1/2 ft. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. the bell will ring. 3/8 in.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. Fig. Fig. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. 5. repeat as many times as is necessary. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. wide and of the same length as the table. When the button S is pressed. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. 5. J is another wire attached in the same way. Cut out a piece of tin. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. through it. as at H. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. high. Fig. wide. thick. long and 1 ft. or more wide. 1. about 8 in. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. Paint the table any color desired. 4. Fig. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. 24 parts water.

is to appear as steel. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. long. 2. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. long serves as the dowel. such as . An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts.Imitation Arms and Armor .. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. After the glue is dry. The imitation articles are made of wood. These rings can be carved out. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. The entire weapon.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. says the English Mechanic. handle and all. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. The circle is marked out with a compass. the wood peg inserted in one of them. but they are somewhat difficult to make. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. thick. A wood peg about 2 in. This weapon is about 22 in. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. 1. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings.

the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. used at the end of the fifteenth century. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. 3. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. with a sharp carving tool. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. This weapon is about 22 in. 6. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. long. as described in Fig. The entire handle should be made of one piece. 2. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. 8. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. 5. as shown. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. The axe is shown in steel. studded with large brass or steel nails. The lower half of the handle is wood. covered with red velvet. or the amateur cannot use it well. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. is shown in Fig. as before mentioned. The handle is of steel imitation. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails.ornamental scrolls. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. The handle is of wood. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. also. The upper half of the handle is steel. the hammer and spike. leaves. etc. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. If such a tool is not at hand. . The spikes are cut out of wood. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. All of these axes are about the same length. flowers. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. Its length is about 3 ft. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. the base having a brad to stick into the ball.

then the other plays. 4). and so on for nine innings. . 1. The knife falling on its side (Fig. 2. 3. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. calls for a home run. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. Each person plays until three outs have been made. as in Fig. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. 6. 5. as shown in Fig. Chicago. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. Fig. the knife resting on its back. 7) calls for one out.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. a three-base hit.

with the rope laced in the cloth. one of them burning . Somerville. 1. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. while the committee is tying him up. Campbell. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. Mass. hypo to 1 pt. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make.-Contributed by J. as shown in Fig. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. 3. as shown in Fig. If it is spotted at all. Old-Time Magic . When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. of water for an hour or two. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. This he does. F. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. It may be found that the negative is not colored. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. of the rope and holds it. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. 2. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through.

A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. of turpentine. Evans. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. New York City. Lebanon. etc. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. Ky. Brown. Thome. Ky. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe.Contributed by Andrew G. with which he is going to light the other candle. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. showing that there is nothing between them. --Contributed by C. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. 4 oz. invisible to them (the audience). and. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands.. bolt. . Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. He then walks over to the other candle. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. the other without a light. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. Drill Gauge screw. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. --Contributed by L. 4 oz. of plumbago.brightly. 3/4 in. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. The magician walks over to the burning candle. of sugar. B. of water and 1 oz. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. thus causing it to light. shades the light for a few seconds. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. thick. Louisville. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions.

Its current strength is about one volt. Pulteney. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. or blotting paper. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. Do not add water to the acid. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. diameter. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. In making up the solution. Y. for the material. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. Denniston. N. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. steady current. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. long. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. which will give a strong. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. 5 in. but is not so good. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. thick. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. --Contributed by C. H. To make the porous cell. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. about 5 in. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. into a tube of several thicknesses. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in.

The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. but somewhat lighter. one drawing them together. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in.station. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. One hole was bored as well as possible. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. steel. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. a positive adjustment was provided. the other holding them apart. After much experimentation with bearings. steel. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in.) may be obtained. carrying the hour circle at one end. The . The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. To insure this. long with a bearing at each end. As to thickness. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. while the other end is attached by two screws. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. steel. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. Finally. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument.

The pointer is directed to Alpha. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. When properly set it will describe a great circle. once carefully made. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. is provided with this adjustment. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. and if it is not again directed to the same point.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. Declination is read directly. If the result is more than 24 hours. are tightened. All these adjustments. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. The aperture should be 1/4 in. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. To locate a known star on the map. To find a star in the heavens. Instead. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. excepting those on the declination axis. All set screws. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. The pole is 1 deg. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis.. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. Point it approximately to the north star. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result." Only a rough setting is necessary. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration." When this is done. in each direction from two points 180 deg. and 15 min. Each shaft. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. Cassiopiae.. subtract 24. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. turn the pointer to the star. Set the declination circle to its reading. save the one in the pipe. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. need not be changed. It is. 45 min. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. apart.

the others . Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. long. a great effect will be produced. add a little more benzole. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. Ohio. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. If this will be too transparent. In reality the first ball. taking care not to add too much. La. -Contributed by Ray E. 3 or 4 in. benzole. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. is folded several times. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan.. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. is the real cannon ball. New Orleans. of ether. The dance will begin. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. Strosnider. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. The ball is found to be the genuine article. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. then add 1 2-3 dr. Plain City. which is the one examined. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. cannon balls. as shown in the sketch. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes.

Fig. Cal. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. --Contributed by J. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. F. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. 2. San Francisco. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. without taking up any great amount of space. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box.. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. In boxes having a sliding cover. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. Milwaukee. Return the card to the pack. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. Wis. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. etc. small brooches. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. as shown in the illustration. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. Mass. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. taps. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. Somerville. Campbell. 1). Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills.

the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. slides and extra brushes. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. Beller. from the bottom of the box. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. Hartford. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. This box has done good service. thus giving ample store room for colors. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. prints. round pieces 2-1/4 in. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. . which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. Connecticut. as shown in the illustration.

Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. holes in the bottom of one. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. West Lynn. FIG. 1). will answer the purpose. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. Darke. Mass. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. O.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. or placed against a wall. When the ends are turned under. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. Fill the upper tub. . with well packed horse manure. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. tacking the gauze well at the corners. -Contributed by C. 2). costing 5 cents. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. about threefourths full.

A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. and each bundle contains . when they are raised from the pan. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. if this is not available. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. cutting the cane between the holes. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. M. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. Chicago. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. oil or other fluid. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. they should be knocked out. Eifel. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. --Contributed by L. If plugs are found in any of the holes. If the following directions are carried out.

In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. held there by inserting another plug. put about 3 or 4 in. as shown in Fig. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. and. then across and down. as it must be removed again. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. it should be held by a plug. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. In addition to the cane. a square pointed wedge. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. after having been pulled tight. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. 1. No plugs . Whenever the end of one strand is reached. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs.

it is 4. From table No. trim off the surplus rosin. 1. 1. This will make three layers. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. using the same holes as for the first layer. the height of which is taken from table No. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . the height of the line BC. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig.15+. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. Fig. and the one we shall describe in this article. 5. as shown in Fig. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. It consists of a flat circular table. 40°. stretch the third one.2+. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. Detroit. 5 in. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. we have 4. No weaving has been done up to this time. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. the next smallest. R. -Contributed by E.42 in. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. 3. --Contributed by M. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts.5 in. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. If handled with a little care. 41 °-30'. W. All added to the lesser or 40°. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. Their difference is . They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. and for lat. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. called the gnomon. or the style. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. and for 1° it would be . The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand.= 4. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. The style or gnomon. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. During the weaving. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. Even with this lubrication. lat. If you have a table of natural functions. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. There are several different designs of sundials. 1. Patrick. for 2°. 1 lat.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. as it always equals the latitude of the place.15 in. 41°-30'. Fig. When cool.2 in. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. as for example. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed.3 in. 3.075 in. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place.075 in. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. as the height of the line BC for lat. as shown in Fig. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. is the base (5 in. After completing the second layer. in this case) times the . After finishing this fourth layer of strands. 42° is 4. D. is the horizontal dial. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. 4. but the most common. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. Michigan.

66 1.27 2. Chords in inches for a 10 in.29 4-30 7-30 3. and perpendicular to the base or style. Draw the line AD.18 28° 2. or more.16 1.06 2.30 1. base.42 1.57 3.81 4. .66 latitude. 2.38 .82 5. according to the size of the dial.96 32° 3.76 1. 1. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in.10 6. To layout the hour circle.19 1. Fig. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed.89 50° 5. gives the 6 o'clock points. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in.14 5.46 3.49 30 .63 56° 7.66 48° 5.16 40 .82 3. long. an inch or two.42 45 .87 1.77 2.79 4. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 . if of metal.41 38° 3.tangent of the degree of latitude. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No.00 40° 4. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style. circle Sundial. and for this size dial (10 in.46 .39 . 2. or if of stone.12 52° 6.03 3.85 1.91 58° 8.57 1.40 1.02 1. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial.23 6. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No.87 4.55 46° 5.85 35 . Draw two semi-circles.55 4.20 60° 8. draw two parallel lines AB and CD. with a radius of 5 in.94 1. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight. 2 for given latitudes. Its thickness.33 42° 4. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown.83 27° 2.49 3.07 4. For latitudes not given.28 . Table NO.44 44° 4.55 5.33 .40 34° 3.68 5-30 6-30 5.55 30° 2.32 6.93 2. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2.37 5.50 26° 2.37 54° 6.97 5 7 4.26 4.93 6.82 2. which will represent the base in length and thickness.99 2.64 4 8 3.88 36° 3.56 . and intersecting the semicircles.59 2.30 2. A line EF drawn through the points A and C. Height of stile in inches for a 5in.11 3.42 . using the points A and C as centers.

89 3.24 5. 3. and on these dates the dial needs no correction. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. This correction can be added to the values in table No.50 55 . or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time. adding to each piece interest and value.87 6. 2 and Dec. The + means that the clock is faster.01 1. if west. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen. As they are the genuine reproductions. each article can be labelled with the name.10 4. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3. Sun time to local mean time. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality. June 15. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached. will enable one to set the dial. --Contributed by J. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time.from Sundial lime. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds. Each weapon is cut from wood.77 3.53 1.46 5.79 6. E.means that the dial is faster than the sun.93 6. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face. London.14 1.19 2. Sept.12 5. An ordinary compass.30 2. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid.49 3. April 16. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker.50 . 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position.34 5.82 3.71 2.46 4. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the .08 1. says the English Mechanic.98 4. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15.63 1. Iowa. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole.52 Table No.06 2. and for the difference between standard and local time. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No.add those marked + subtract those Marked . 25.57 1. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon.37 2. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco. 900 Chicago.60 4. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year.54 60 .21 2. Sioux City. Mitchell. 3.49 5.. and the . then the watch is slower.72 5.68 3. after allowing for the declination. it will be faster. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west. 3 Corrections in minutes to change.

long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. 3. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. . The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. The spear head is of steel about 15 in.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in.. Partisan. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. When putting on the tinfoil. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. 1. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. the length of which is about 5 ft.

The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. 7. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. about 4 in. 5. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. long with a round wooden handle. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. This weapon is about 6 ft. long. the holes being about 1/4 in. long with a round staff or handle. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. The length of this bar is about 5 in. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. press it well into the carved depressions. sharp on the outer edges. which are a part of the axe. . long. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. A gisarm or glaive.. in diameter. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. used about the seventeenth century. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. The spear is steel. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods.which is square. The extreme length is 9 ft. It is about 6 ft. 6 ft. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. The edges are sharp. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. 8. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. is shown in Fig. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in.

are less durable and will quickly show wear. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. used for spacing and binding the whole together. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. the cross cords. Loudonville. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. Workman. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. This is important to secure neatness. H. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. In Figs. The twisted cross cords should . 1. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. are put in place. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove.-Contributed by R. 4. Ohio. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. Cut all the cords the same length. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. apart. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. B. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. 2 and 3. They can be made of various materials. 5. Substances such as straw. or in holes punched in a leather strap. as shown in Fig. the most durable being bamboo.

The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. M. below the top to within 1/4 in. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. of the bottom. Lockport.be of such material. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. To remedy this. Four V-shaped notches were cut. for a length extending from a point 2 in. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. The first design shown is for using bamboo. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. A slit was cut in the bottom. -Contributed by Geo. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 3 in. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. Harrer. New Orleans. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. This was turned over the top of the other can. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. in which was placed a piece of glass. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. bamboo or rolled paper. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. wide. shaped as shown at C. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. New York. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. as shown at B. La.

--Contributed by Joseph H. Shay. the brass is loosened from the block. do not throw away the gloves. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. about 1/16 in. --Contributed by W. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. and two along the side for attaching the staff. is shown in the accompanying sketch. Cal. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. Ill. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. This plank. Newburgh. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . It would be well to polish the brass at first. Pasadena. H. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. N. turned over but not fastened. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. Y. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. --Contributed by Chas. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. wide. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. After this is finished. giving the appearance of hammered brass.tape from sticking to the carpet. Schaffner. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. Sanford. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. Maywood. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. This should be done gradually.

the pendulum swings . This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. Ill. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. bent as shown. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. in diameter. A.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. Cal. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. Oak Park. -Contributed by W. Richmond. Jaquythe. Marshall. K. Unlike most clocks. --E.

thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. about 12 in. The construction is very simple. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. long and at each side of this. high. away. A. B. Two uprights. the center one being 2-3/4 in. 7-1/2 in. are secured in the base bar. high and 1/4 in. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip.. about 6 in. Metzech. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. Chicago. 3/4 in. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. such as this one. In using this method. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. bearing on the latter. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. in diameter. is an electromagnet. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. on the board B. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. Secure a board. to the first one with screws or glue. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. and the other two 2-5/8 in. wide. . The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. high. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. Now place the board to be joined. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. 5/16 in.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. C. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. by 1-5/16 in. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. only have the opposite side up. thick. high. bar. says the Scientific American. Fasten another board. wide that is perfectly flat. 6 in. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. --Contributed by V. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod.

long. Fig. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. The trigger. 2. 1. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. 1. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. Fig. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. 1. as shown at A. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. square inside. Vanderslice. wide and 1 in. by driving a pin through the wood. or more. whose dimensions are given in Fig. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. --Contributed by Elmer A. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. wide and 5 in. Pa.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. 4. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. . from one end. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. 3. plates should be made 8 in. Phoenixville. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. square. is fastened in the hole A. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger.

are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down.A. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. -Contributed by J. by weight. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. Ohio. 2 parts of whiting. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. as shown in the illustration. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. which allows 1/4 in. square. Fostoria. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. if only two bands are put in the . one-half the length of the side pieces.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. Simonis. 5 parts of black filler. rubbing varnish and turpentine. 3 parts of stiff keg lead.

Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. deep. -Contributed by Abner B. DeLoof. and the picture can be drawn as described. A piece of metal. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. In use. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. Mass. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. keeps the strong light out when sketching. is set at an angle of 45 deg. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. G. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. 1.lower strings. A double convex lens. In constructing helmets. A mirror. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. 8 in. London. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. II. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. preferably copper. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. It must be kept moist and well . If a plain glass is used. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. Dartmouth. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. says the English Mechanic. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. is necessary. which may be either of ground or plain glass. in the opposite end of the box. Michigan. place tracing paper on its surface. --Contributed by Thos. Shaw. long. No. wide and about 1 ft. as shown in Fig. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. Grand Rapids. and it may be made as a model or full sized.

The clay. and continue until the clay is completely covered. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. After the clay model is finished. take. the clay model oiled. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. on which to place the clay. and the deft use of the fingers. joined closely together. as shown in Fig. This being done. 3. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. and over the crest on top. brown. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. with a keyhole saw. 1. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling.kneaded. and left over night to soak. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. as in bas-relief. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. or some thin glue. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. 2. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. All being ready. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. Scraps of thin. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. will be necessary. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. 1. a few clay-modeling tools. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. shown in Fig. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion.

Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. When perfectly dry. The whole helmet. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. In Fig. and the ear guards in two pieces. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. 5. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. --Contributed by Paul Keller. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. In Fig. which should be no difficult matter. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. as shown: in the design. and so on. They are all covered with tinfoil. 1. make holes with a small awl at equal distances.as possible. then another coating of glue. a crest on top. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. a few lines running down. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. with the exception of the vizor. should be modeled and made in one piece. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. When the helmet is off the model. as seen in the other part of the sketch. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. This contrivance should be made of wood. the skullcap. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. 7. When dry. Before taking it off the model. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. The band is decorated with brass studs. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. one for each side. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. Indianapolis. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. or. the piecing could not be detected. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. 9. will make it look neat. owing to the clay being oiled. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. The center of the ear guards are perforated. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. square in shape. Indiana. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century.

or. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. about 80 ft. and C. each 4-1/2 in. Fig. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. for connections. Fig. JJ. 2. one fuse block. which can be bought from a local druggist. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. when they are placed in opposite positions. 3 in. of No. AA. Fig. of mineral wool. Fig. 1. E and F. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. and. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. the holes leading to the switch. Fig. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base.same size. GG. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. one small switch. the fuse block. screws. The plate. This will make an open space between the plates. The reverse side of the base. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. AA. Fig. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. 1. in diameter and 9 in. if the measurements are correct. above the collar. If a neat appearance is desired. wide and 15 in. of fire clay. 4. thick. The mineral wool. If asbestos is used. and two large 3in. are allowed to project about 1 in. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. of the top. long. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. is then packed down inside the collar. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. if this cannot be obtained. as shown in Fig. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. long. 3. A round collar of galvanized iron. one oblong piece of wood. two ordinary binding posts. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. with slits cut for the wires. AA. as shown in Fig. Fig. as shown in Fig. also the switch B and the fuse block C. about 1 lb. 1. until it is within 1 in. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. is shown in Fig. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. 22 gauge resistance wire. Fig. German-silver wire is better. 4. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. 2. 4 lb. 2. 1 in. The two holes. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. Fig. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. should extend about 1/4 in. This will allow the plate. about 1/4 in. long. 12 in. Fig. The holes B and C are about 3 in. 4. Fig. 4. high. Fig. as it stands a higher temperature. 4. Fig. 4. 1. to receive screws for holding it to the base. 4. 1. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. FF. 1. thick sheet asbestos. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . one glass tube.

4. Richmond. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. will slip and come in contact with each other. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. apart. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. more wire should be added. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. --Contributed by W. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. it leaves a gate for the metal. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. St. allowing a space between each turn. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. as the turns of the wires. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. When this is done. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. when heated. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. A file can be used to remove any rough places. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. Catherines. Jaquythe. and pressed into it. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. causing a short circuit. This point marks the proper length to cut it. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. While the clay is damp. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . H. If this is the case. 2. II. KK. It should not be left heated in this condition. steam will form when the current is applied. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. then. Can. Cal. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. Next. Cover over about 1 in. It should not be set on end. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. above the rim. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. A. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. so that the circuit will not become broken. As these connections cannot be soldered. The clay. deep. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. Cut a 1/2-in. This completes the stove. Fig. When the tile is in place. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. when cool. --Contributed by R. Cnonyn. Fig. using care not to get it too wet. If it is not thoroughly dry.

is large enough. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. the air can enter from both top and bottom. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. Thorne. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. constructed of 3/4-in. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. Ky. square material in any size. Louisville. --Contributed by Andrew G. but 12 by 24 in. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. as shown. Then clip a little off the ." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. and the prints will dry rapidly. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. the pie will be damaged. and the frame set near a window. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. says the Photographic Times.

22 gauge magnet wire. allowing each end to project for connections. 2-1/2 in. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. as shown. 14 in. -Contributed by S. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. 1. 1 and 3. Le Mars. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. long. each 1 in. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. high. 1. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. long. high. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. The board can be raised to place . A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. each 1/2 in. wide and 7 in. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. The upright B. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. causing a break in the current. Figs. W. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. 4 in. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. which gives the shaft a half turn. 3. An offset is bent in the center. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. thick. As the shaft revolves. Iowa. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. 1/2 in. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. high. Fig. long. Fig. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. thick and 3 in. in diameter. for the crank. at GG. open out. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. Fig. 1/2 in. slip on two cardboard washers. 1. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. Two supports.Paper Funnel point. The connecting rod E. The connections are made as shown in Fig. wide and 3 in. wide. Herron. which are fastened to the base. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. thereby saving time and washing. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. A 1/8-in. 2. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. thick and 3 in. in diameter and about 4 in. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. long. 1. The driving arm D. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes.

and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. in height. Dorchester. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. One or more pots may be used. Stecher. 3 in. Place the pot. making a framework suitable for a roost. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. --Contributed by William F. In designing the roost. Mass. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. . or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. bottom side up. as shown in the sketch. on a board. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft.

common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. Wind the . will produce the pattern desired. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. ordinary glue. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. in diameter.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. etc. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. and give it time to dry. when combined. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. adopt the method described.. preferably. Fig. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. F. shelves. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin.. if it is other than straight lines. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. as shown in Fig. grills and gratings for doors. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. The materials required are rope or. odd corners. The bottom part of the sketch. without any corresponding benefit. that it is heated. windows. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. 1. paraffin and paint or varnish. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. F. 1.

Fig. Lockport. -Contributed by Geo. 2.Fig. N. six designs are shown. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. M. Y. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . cut and glue them together. Harrer.

The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. As the . chips of iron rust. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support.. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. London. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. but no farther.. 1. and the sides do not cover the jaws. when it will be observed that any organic matter.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it.. will be retained by the cotton. etc. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. etc. which was used in front of a horse's head. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. This piece of horse armor. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. says the English Mechanic. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in.

but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. 4. which is separate. and the clay model oiled. but for . For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. as shown in the sketch. then another coat of glue. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. which can be made in any size. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. This can be made in one piece. All being ready. but the back is not necessary.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. An arrangement is shown in Fig. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. In Fig. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. as the surface will hold the clay. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. and will require less clay. the same as in Fig. 2. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. This triangularshaped support. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. the rougher the better. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. except the thumb and fingers. This being done. This will make the model light and easy to move around. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. with the exception of the thumb shield. 8. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. and therefore it is not described. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. 2. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. The armor is now removed from the model. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. 6 and 7. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible.

The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. Redondo Beach. the foils will not move. 9. running down the plate. --Contributed by John G. A piece of board. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. in depth. two for the jaws and one a wedge. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. Goshen. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. N. and the instrument is ready for use. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. La Rue. the two pieces of foil will draw together. 2. long. are glued to it. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. . 1/2 in. Y. Buxton. If it does not hold a charge. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. When locating the place for the screw eyes. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. cut into the shape shown in Fig. are better shown in Fig. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. will be about right. two in each jaw. The two pieces of foil. Calif. the top of the rod. Fasten a polished brass ball to. but 3-1/2 in. --Contributed by Ralph L. wide and 1/2 in. fastened to the rod. each about 1/4 in. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw.

Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. --Contributed by Mrs. is made of a 1/4-in. Bryan. as this will cut under the water without splashing. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. hole bored through it. A. from the smaller end.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. When a fish is hooked. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. The can may be bronzed. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. M. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. 2-1/2 in. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. silvered. as shown in the illustration. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. long. At a point 6 in. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. enameled or otherwise decorated. Corsicana. pine board. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. about 15 in. as indicated in the . Texas.

punch the holes. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. thick.Match Holder accompanying sketch. 22 is plenty heavy enough. and trace upon it the design and outline. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. Any kind of wood will do. take a piece of thin wood. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. using powdered pumice and lye. put a coat or two of wax and polish . Next prepare the metal holder. or even pine. will do as well as the more expensive woods. 3/8 or 1/4 in. wide by 6 in. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. Having completed the drawing. Basswood or butternut. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. If soft wood. such as basswood or pine was used. then with a nail. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. Polish the metal. using a piece of carbon paper. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. When it has dried over night. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. long over all. as shown. A good size is 5 in. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red.

Jaquythe. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. It is useful for photographers. A. 1/2 in. If carving is contemplated. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. 2 in. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. wide and 5 in.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. long. Cal. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. If one has some insight in carving. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. Richmond. each 1 in. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. thick. can be made on the same standards. the whole being finished in linseed oil. is used for the base of this instrument. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. long. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. . --Contributed by W. Two wire nails. of pure olive oil. Instead of the usual two short ropes. are used for the cores of the magnets.

the paper covering put on. acts as a spring to keep the key open. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. says the English Mechanic. About 1 in. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. at A. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. 1. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. in the shape shown in the sketch. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. except that for the legs. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. as shown by the dotted lines. 3. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. 25 gauge. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. Lynas. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. H. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. cloth or baize to represent the legs. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. then covered with red. All of the parts for the armor have been described. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. --Contributed by W. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. when the key is pushed down. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. as shown in Fig. about No. London. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. cut in the shape of the letter T. . The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. similar to that used in electric bells. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. leaving about 1/4 in. A piece of tin. A rubber band.

apart. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. Fig. A 1/4-in. 1 and drill a 1/4in. Take the piece shown in Fig. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. Instead of using brass headed nails. apart. In one end of the piece. 3 in. flat headed carriage bolt. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. The two pieces are bolted together. drill six 1/4-in. 1 in. make the same series of eight small holes and. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. in the other end. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. Silver paper will do very well. So set up. By moving the position of the bolt from. says Camera Craft. can be made in a few minutes' time. These can be purchased at a stationery store. Secure two strips of wood. 2. long. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. one to another . hole in the center. or ordinary plaster laths will do. and eight small holes. at each end. completes the equipment. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. about 1 in. Cut them to a length or 40 in.. for the sake of lightness. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. holes. not too tight.

but instead of reversing . Then draw all four ends up snugly. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. taking the same start as for the square fob. 2. and lay it over the one to the right. In this sketch. for instance. C over D and B. then B over C and the end stuck under A. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. and the one beneath C. Fig. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. Then take B and lay it over A. in Fig. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. 4. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. Start with one end. of the ends remain unwoven.of the larger holes in the strip. long. A is the first string and B is the second. as in portraiture and the like. the one marked A. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. doubled and run through the web of A. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. as shown in Fig. 2. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. 2. lay Cover B and the one under D. 1. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. D over A and C. A round fob is made in a similar way. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions.

The round fob is shown in Fig. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. as B. 5.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. especially if silk strings are used. is to be made of leather. Monroeville. is left out at the center before starting on one side. over the one to its right. 1-1/2 in. Other designs can be made in the same manner. always lap one string. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. the design of which is shown herewith. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. 3. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. Rupp. long. as in making the square fob. Ohio. A loop. --Contributed by John P. as at A in Fig. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied.

When the supply of wax is exhausted. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. beeswax or paraffin. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. A. door facing or door panel. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. Houghton. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. Mich. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. such as a nut pick. . filling them with wax. it can be easily renewed. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. pressing it against the wood. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. Any smooth piece of steel. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. -Contributed by A. using the reverse side. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. Northville. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred.

The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. leaving about 1/4 in. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. Y. long. E and F. apart and driven in only part way. Fold together on lines C. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. . but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. and after wetting. D. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. remaining above the surface of the board. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. if blueprints are used. says Photographic Times. The tacks should be about 1 in. --Contributed by O. Thompson. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. J. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. place it face down in the dish. and about 12 in. but any kind that will not stick may be used. thick. Select the print you wish to mount. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. N. although tin ones can be used with good success. Enough plaster should. Petersburg. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. those on matte paper will work best. Ill. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. it is best to leave a plain white margin. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. New York. Platinum or blueprint papers work well.

bell flowers. filling the same about onehalf full. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. without mixing the solutions.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. violets. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. roses. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. will be rendered perfectly white. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble.. Lower into the test tube a wire. as shown at the left in the sketch. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. as shown in the right of the sketch. One of the . etc. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution.

is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking.. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. The diaphragm. The first point should be ground blunt. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. The sound box. should be soldered to the box. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . thick. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. but which will not wobble loose. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. L. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. Fig. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. and at the larger end. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. not too tightly. 1-7/8 in. to keep the core from coming off in turning. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. turned a little tapering. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. as shown. South Dakota. long. shading. A rod that will fit the brass tube. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. 2. is about 2-1/2 in. 1. Shabino. --Contributed by L. When soldering these parts together.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. in diameter and 1 in. The tin horn can be easily made. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. as shown in the sketch. 3. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. about 1/8s in. Millstown. made of heavy tin. or delicate tints of the egg. long and made of wood. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in.

put a board on top. says the Iowa Homestead. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. Gold. Jr. Chicago. E. and. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. Victor. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. wondering what it was. is to take a knife with two blades at one end.Contributed by E. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. mice in the bottom. Ill. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. Colo. and weighted it with a heavy stone. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway.

Ottawa. --Contributed by Lyndwode. N. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. Buffalo. . Pereira. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. Can. Y.

Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. This cart has no axle. Mich. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. --Contributed by Thos. as it can be made quickly in any size. a piece of tin. Cal. by means of a flatheaded tack. Grand Rapids. as shown. through which several holes have been punched. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. above the end of the dasher. Jaquythe. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. Richmond. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. --Contributed by W. longer than the length of the can. Put a small nail 2 in. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. cut round. De Loof. and at one end of the stick fasten. A. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so .

and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood.1. 1/4 in. 2. Pa. wide and 1/8 in. --Contributed by James M. 2. wide. were below the level of the bullseye. deep and 3 in. 2. New Orleans. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. screwed it on the inside of a store box. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. wide and as long as the box.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. board. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. cut in the center of the rounding edge. La. of course. Notches 1/8 in. The baseboard and top are separable. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. long. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. A wedge-shaped piece of . The wires are set in the 1/8-in. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. 1-1/2 in. Doylestown. apart. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The candles. Fig. I reversed a door gong. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. 1 ft. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. Kane. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. thick. as shown. 1. 2 in. wide and 3 ft.

--Contributed by Nellie Conlon. Needles. For the handle. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. by cutting away the ends. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. scissors. can be picked up without any trouble. Ia. wide rubber bands or felt. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. 3. will. The block can also be used as a paperweight. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. to prevent its scratching the desk top. After completing the handle. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. Mass. Worcester. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. dressing one surface of each piece. it can be removed without marring the casing. After the glue has dried. stone or wood. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. wide into each side of the casing. etc. Cover the block with rubber. When not in use. as shown in Fig. the blade is put back into the groove . A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. take two pieces of hard wood. when placed as in Fig. the shelf could not be put on the window. West Union. This device is very convenient for invalids. 1. Wood. the reason being that if both were solid. A.Book Back Holders metal.. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. --Contributed by G. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together.

If desired. Hutchins. Mass. A notch is cut in one side. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. Pa. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. --Contributed by H. Cleveland. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. --Contributed by Maud McKee. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. thus carrying the car up the incline. S. is shown in the accompanying sketch. Malden. long. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. -Contributed by W. Ohio.and sharpened to a cutting edge. Jacobs. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. 1. 1 in. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. as shown in Fig. . square and 4 in. A. as shown in Fig. Each one is made of a hardwood block. 2. Erie.

A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. will be needed.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. This will insure having all parts alike. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first.J. If one such as is shown is to be used. a board on which to work it. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. The letters can be put on afterward. . Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. Cape May Point. N. Prepare a design for the front. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. 6 by 9-1/2 in. One sheet of metal.. and an awl and hammer.

2 parts white vitriol. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. behind or through the center of a table leg. mandolin or guitar. 3/4 part. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. . On the back. in the waste metal. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. If any polishing is required. The stick may be placed by the side of. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. but weird and distant. or. applied by means of a brush. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. only the marginal line is to be pierced. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. One coat will do. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. 1 part. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. flat brush. a violin. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. placed on a table.Fasten the metal to the board. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. to right angles. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. turpentine. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. that can be worked in your own parlor. 1/4 part. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. as shown. paste the paper design right on the metal. varnish." In all appearance. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. So impressive are the results. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. says Master Painter. The music will not sound natural. Remove the metal. if desired. which is desirable. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal.

says Work. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. Two pairs of feet. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. long and measuring 26 in. With proper tools this is easy. long and spread about 8 in.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. long. and is easy to construct. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. each 6 in. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. thick by 1/2 in. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. 2. . apart. London. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. square bar iron. 3. is bent square so as to form two uprights. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. wide. without them. The longest piece. each 28 in. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. round-head machine screws. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. across the top. are shaped as shown in Fig. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. it might be difficult. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in.

or. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. 7. Fig. B. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. Fig. While the piece of lead D. in the grooves of the borders. better still. using rosin as a flux. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. C. 5. and the base border. Place the corner piece of glass. special flux purchased for this purpose. lead. The glass. 6. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. The design is formed in the lead. D. After the joints are soldered. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. cut a long piece of lead. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. The brads are then removed. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. is held by the brads. After the glass is cut. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. 4. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. as shown in Fig. A. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. on it as shown. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. the latter being tapped to . 5. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points.

. The center pin is 3/4-in. one on each side and central with the hole. This ring can be made of 1-in. in diameter and 1/4 in. not less than 4 in. N. and two wood blocks. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. This . The post is now ready to be set in the ground. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. long. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. plank about 12 ft. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. Make three washers 3-in. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. H. bolt. then drill a 3/4-in. Jr. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. and round the corners of one end for a ring. plates. --Contributed by W. wood screws in each washer. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. A and B. Dreier. Two styles of hand holds are shown. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. Fasten the plates to the block B. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. thick and drill 3/4-in. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. Camden. Secure a post.the base of the clip. 8. then flatten its end on the under side. rounded at the top as shown. holes through their centers. in diameter and about 9 in. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. as shown in Fig. Bore a 3/4-in. J. rocker bolt. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. square and of the length given in the drawing. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. Bore a 5/8-in. bolt. long. long.

1-1/4in. apart for a distance of 3 ft. square by 9-1/2 ft. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. La. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. 4 filler pieces. 7 in. 2 by 4 in. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. 1. 9 in.will make an excellent cover for a pot. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. maple. 1/2 in. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. horse and rings. 3/4 by 3 in. boards along the side of each from end to end. 16 screws. square by 5 ft. Draw a line on the four 7-in. shanks. chestnut or ash. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. by 6-1/2 ft. To substitute small. because it will not stand the weather. straight-grained hickory. 4 pieces. 2-1/2 in. If trees are convenient. screws. bit. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. long. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. can make a first class gymnasium. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . 1 by 7 in. long. 3 in. and some one can swing an axe. long. long. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. bolts and rope. by 2 ft. the money outlay will be almost nothing. 4 in. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. hickory. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. New Orleans. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. 50 ft. The four 7-in. 4 pieces. in diameter and 7 in. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. from one edge. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. long. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. of 1/4-in. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. 4 in. long and 1 piece. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. by 3 ft. long.

The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft.. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. 8 in. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather.bored. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . boards coincide. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. so the 1/2-in. Bore a 9/16-in. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. deep and remove all loose dirt. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel.. 2. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. apart. piece of wood. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. apart. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. from the end. at each end. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. each 3 ft.

after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. about 100 ft. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. and materially heightened the illusion. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. and then passes in a curve across the base. . In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. passing through a screweye at either end. and ascends the stem. disappearing only to reappear again. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in." which skimmed along the distant horizon. it is taken to the edge of the foot. And all he used was a black thread. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. W. was at its height.. not much to look at in daytime. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. which at once gathered. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. but most deceptive at dusk. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. He stretched the thread between two buildings. If the tumbler is rotated.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. just visible against the dark evening sky. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. the effect is very striking. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. apart. not even the tumbler. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. When the interest of the crowd. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. in an endless belt. it follows the edge for about 1 in. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals.

7 in. 4 in. long. so the point will be on top. Bevel the ends of . by 3 ft. 4 wood screws. and turned in a spiral D. by 10 ft. 6 in. by 2 ft. Fig. 8 in. 8 in. 2 by 4 in. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. wide and 1 in. deep. large spikes. 8 in. preferably cedar. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. square and 51/2 ft. 8 bolts. 1. Chisel out two notches 4 in. long. long. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. long. 2 side braces. by 7 ft. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. To make the apparatus. long. 4 bolts. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. The cork will come out easily. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. from either side of the center. New Orleans. long and 1 doz. 2 base pieces. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. 4 in. 2 by 4 in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 2 in.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. long. A wire about No. 2 cross braces. beginning at a point 9 in. 2 by 3 in. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. 2 by 4 in. long. 4 knee braces. long. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. La. square and 6 ft.

shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups.the knee braces. Two endpieces must be made. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view.. but even unpainted they are very durable. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. jellies. so the bolts in both will not meet. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. Jaquythe. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. If using mill-cut lumber. --Contributed by W. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. A large sized ladle. which face each other. Cal. Richmond. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. These will allow the ladle to be turned. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. leave it undressed. A. . additional long. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. etc. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. except the bars. of 7 ft. and countersinking the heads. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. equipped with a strainer. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. screws. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. After the trenches are dug. leaving the strainer always in position.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. ( To be Continued. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. as shown in the diagram. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. save the bars. The wood so treated will last for years. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. using four of the 7-in bolts.

it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. milling machine. In order to accomplish this experiment. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. Oil. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. thus holding the pail as shown. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. partly a barrier for jumps. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. of sufficient 1ength.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. which seems impossible. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. or various cutting compounds of oil. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. A. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. . it is necessary to place a stick. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. drill press or planer.

wood yard or from the woods. stud cut rounding on one edge. long. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. 4 in. long.. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. from each end. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. long. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. bolts. projections and splinters. 2 bases. to fasten the knee braces at the top. 1 in. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. 4 knee braces. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. 1 cross brace. These are well nailed in place. and free from knots. 2 by 4 in. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. 7 in. apart in a central position on the horse. ten 1/2-in. long.. apart. two 1/2-in. The material required is as follows: Two posts. 3 in.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. 4-1/2 in. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. by 3 ft. To construct. long. is a good length. but 5 ft. 4 in. bolts. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. beginning 1-1/2 in. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. long. bolts. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . square by 5-1/2 ft. 4 in. in the ground. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. piece of 2 by 4-in. long. by 3 ft. in diameter--the larger the better. 2 by 4 in. 2 by 4 in. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. The round part of this log must be planed. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. long. by 3 ft. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. Hand holds must be provided next. Procure from a saw mill. 2 adjusting pieces. bolt. These are placed 18 in. square by 5 ft.

such as a dent. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. but nevertheless. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. no one is responsible but himself. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. Jaquythe. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. A. Also. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. over and around. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. Richmond. Cal.--Contributed by W. it is caused by some obstruction. it is caused by an overloaded shell. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. then bending to the shape desired. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. water. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. snow. pipe and fittings. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. etc. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. Such a hand sled can be made in a .horse top. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead.

1. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. Paris. is much better than a wood sled. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. Noble. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. will give the length. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. when straightened out. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. which. --Contributed by Arthur E. Toronto. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. thick. The end elevation. These. . W. 1/4 or 3/16 in. Ontario. France. Joerin. Vener. are all the tools necessary. Boston. --Contributed by James E. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. when complete. --Contributed by J. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. Mass. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. then run a string over each part. 2.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. in width and 1/32 in. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. at E and F.

The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. nor that which is partly oxidized. It is best to use soft water. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. are nailed. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. The method shown in Figs. . Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. 4. and the latter will take on a bright luster. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. 3. AA and BB.

1). 2. . Broad lines can be made. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. 8 and 9. class ice-yacht. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. 4. as shown in Fig. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. 3. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. Percy Ashley in Rudder. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. 2. as shown in Fig. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. The materials used are: backbone. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. or unequal widths as in Fig. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. or various rulings may be made. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

Fig. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. The headstock is made of two tees. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. pipe. a tee and a forging. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. about 30 in. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. A good and substantial homemade lathe. Both the lower . The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. bent and drilled as shown. pins to keep them from turning. but if it is made much longer. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. The point should extend about 11/2 in. 1. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. It can be made longer or shorter. out from the collar. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. 1-Details of Lathe sort. a larger size of pipe should be used. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. long. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee.

--Contributed by W. It is about 1 in. 1. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. Indiana. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. thick as desired. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. as shown in Fig. Fruitvale. UpDeGraff. M. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. Man. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. a straight line should be scratched Fig. 3/4 or 1 in. 2. or a key can be used as well. else taper turning will result. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. --Contributed by W. Cal. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. To do this. 2. a corresponding line made on this. and will answer for a great variety of work. Held. Boissevain. Musgrove. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. W. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. 2. Laporte. . Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. but also their insulating properties. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. --Contributed by M. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw.

Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. --Contributed by E. Smith. The handle is of pine about 18 in. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . To obviate this. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. Ft. Cline. as shown. J. long. In use. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. Ark.

Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. if this method is followed: First. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. and when once in true up to its size. which should be backed out of contact. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. --Contributed by Walter W. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. face off the end of the piece. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. La. centering is just one operation too many. Colo. take . White. Denver.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. After being entered. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. the drill does not need the tool. on starting the lathe. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. New Orleans. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. This prevents the drill from wobbling.

and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. shown at C. a bout 1/2 in. shorter t h a n the wand. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. and can be varied to suit the performer. and this given to someone to hold. unknown to the spectators. After the wand is removed. is put into the paper tube A. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. as shown in D. The glass tube B. In doing this. the cap is placed over the paper tube. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. says the Sphinx. a long piece of glass tubing. vanishing wand. all the better. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. It can be used in a great number of tricks.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. after being shown empty. The handkerchief rod. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. by applying caustic soda or . so that the handkerchief rod now is within it.

giving it an old-fashioned appearance. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. The sides. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. End. 1. as shown by K. 1 Bottom. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. cut to any shape desired. As the cement softens. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. This dimension and those for the frets . 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. The brace at D is 1 in. 3/16. across the front and back to strengthen them. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. preferably hard maple. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. 1 End. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. long. and if care is taken in selecting the material.potash around the edges of the letters. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. by 14 by 17 in. 1 Neck. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. square and 1-7/8 in. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. Cut a piece of hard wood. With care and patience. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. can be made by the home mechanic. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. thick. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. and glue it to the neck at F. 1/4 in. 2 Sides. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. Glue the neck to the box. Glue strips of soft wood. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. with the back side rounding.

wide and 11-1/2 ft. O. 1) on which to stretch the paper. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. E. in diameter. Frary. Six holes. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig.Pa. 3/16 in. but it is not. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. Stoddard. Carbondale. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. toward each end. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. A board 1 in. When it is completed you will have a canoe. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. or backbone.should be made accurately. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. long is used for a keel. -Contributed by J. and beveled . Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. Norwalk. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. H. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. --Contributed by Chas. thick and about 1 ft.

b. 2. with long stout screws. In drying. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. by means of a string or wire. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. Fig. For the gunwales (a. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. as shown in Fig. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. buy some split cane or rattan. and. Fig. These are better. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. 3. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. will answer nearly as well. as shown in Fig. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. Osiers probably make the best ribs. and so. 3. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. The cross-boards (B. apart. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. such as hazel or birch. Fig. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. but before doing this. Fig. two strips of wood (b. in thickness and should be cut. 2). thick. Fig. or other place. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. two twigs may be used to make one rib. as they are apt to do. 3/8 in. long. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. b. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. The ribs. thick. Green wood is preferable. long are required. when made of green elm. Fig. 3). b. Fig. the loose strips of ash (b. procure at a carriage factory. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. Any tough. 3). such as is used for making chairbottoms. in such cases. 13 in. 4. 2). as before described. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. B. . 1. slender switches of osier willow. probably. wide by 26 in. 1 and 2. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. C. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C.. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. C. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. which are easily made of long. Fig. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. Shape these as shown by A. some tight strips of ash. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. and notched at the end to receive them (B. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. but twigs of some other trees. are next put in.) in notches. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. Fig. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. twigs 5 or 6 ft. 4). or similar material. and are not fastened. a.

if it has been properly constructed of good material. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. but with less turpentine. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. Fig. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. however. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. If the paper be 1 yd. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. It should be smooth on the surface. and steady in the water. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. wide. of very strong wrapping-paper. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. and as soon as that has soaked in. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. When the paper is dry. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. The paper is then trimmed. If not. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. preferably iron. Being made in long rolls. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. 5). Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. You may put in . It should be drawn tight along the edges. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. apply a second coat of the same varnish. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. and light oars. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. B. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. and held in place by means of small clamps. When thoroughly dry. but neither stiff nor very thick. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. Then take some of the split rattan and. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. after wetting it. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. and very tough. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. tacking it to the bottom-board.

and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. 2. 5). Drive the lower nail first. 5. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. Fig. Fig. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. We procured a box and made a frame.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. 1 and the end in . they will support very heavy weights. fore and aft. 1. and make a movable seat (A.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. and if driven as shown in the cut. Fig. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. to fit it easily. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries.

and the glass. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass.Fig. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. being softer where the flame has been applied. 4. This is an easy . is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. Close the other end with the same operation. 3. Pittsburg. Pa. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. A good way to handle this work. This way has its drawbacks. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. this makes the tube airtight. 5. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. and the result is. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast.

stamp the background of the design promiscuously. very rapid progress can be made. four. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. fourth. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. with a piece of carbon paper. 23 gauge. Give the metal a circular motion. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. file. rivet punch. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. third. extra metal all around. flat and round-nosed pliers. or six arms. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. three. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off.way to make a thermometer tube. second. -Contributed by A. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. thin screw. Oswald. After the bulb is formed. above the work and striking it with the hammer. fifth. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. The candle holders may have two. above the metal. Sixth. also trace the decorative design. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. then reverse. Seventh. metal shears.

Having pierced the bracket. Metal polish of any kind will do. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. drip cup. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . Small copper rivets are used.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. and holder. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration.

This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. smooth it down and then remove as before. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. Heat 6-1/2 oz. on a water bath. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. Mother let me have a sheet. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. sugar 1 part. and water 24 parts. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. Twenty cents was all I spent. is a broomstick. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. if it has not absorbed too much ink. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. The boom. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. all the rest I found. thus it was utilized. alcohol 2 parts. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. and brace and bit were the tools used. winding the ends where they came together with wire. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. I steer with the front wheel. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. and it will be ready for future use. and other things as they were needed. Shiloh. glycerine 4 parts. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. Fifty. when it will be ready for use. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. except they had wheels instead of runners. and add the gelatine. they were like an ice boat with a sail. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. Soak 1 oz. A saw. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. The gaff. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. hammer. F. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. using a steel pen. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. deep. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. of glycerine to about 200 deg. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. J. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. and in a week . N. the stick at the bottom of the sail. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge.

Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up. a projecting lens .Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly.

and a projecting lens 2 in. and the lens slide. wide and 15 in. wire brads. or a lens of 12-in. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. The board is centered both ways. 8 in. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. at a distance of 24 ft. and the work carefully done. slide to about 6 ft. 1. about 2 ft. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. and 14 in. are .. and. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. provided the material is of metal. If a small saw is used. well seasoned pine. thick. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. above the center. The slide support. A and B. at a point 1 in. E. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. high. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. but if such a box is not found. describe a 9-in. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. wide. G. focus enlarging a 3-in. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. Fig. 1/2 to 3/4 in. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. DD. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. long. This ring is made up from two rings.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. as desired. 3. or glue. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. A table. H.

All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. of safe. Minn. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. and when the right position is found for each. should the glass happen to upset. Small strips of tin. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. St. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. E. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. P. A sheet .constructed to slip easily on the table. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. but not long enough. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. JJ. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. B. placed on the water. To reach the water. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. light burning oil. apply two coats of shellac varnish. the strips II serving as guides. The arrangement is quite safe as. the water at once extinguishes the flame.-Contributed by G. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. Paul. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in.

as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. by 12 ft.. If one of these clips is not at hand. Schenectady. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. Fig.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . form a piece of wire in the same shape. 12 ft. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. 1. to cover the mattresses. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. 4. from a tent company. Crawford. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. Y. 3. 3 in. --Contributed by J. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. I ordered a canvas bag. then the corners on one end are doubled over. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. 2. 9 in. N. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. Fig. 3.H.

Warren. 3 to swing freely on the tack. wide. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. Fig. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. Pa. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. White. 1. as shown in Fig. An arc is cut in the paper. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. through which the indicator works.each edge. --Contributed by Walter W. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. 2. D. thick. 2. Colo. for amperes and the other post. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. long and 3/16 in. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. A Film Washing Trough [331] . Denver. Teasdale. holes in the edge. 1/2 in. drill two 3/16 in. 2. insulating them from the case with cardboard. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. 1/2 in. apart. Attach a piece of steel rod. first mark the binding-post A. so as to form two oblong boxes. A rubber band. in the center coil. Do not use too strong a rubber. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. and insert two binding-posts. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. to keep it from unwinding. V. 1. To calibrate the instrument. long. 3/4 in. C. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. to the coil of small wire for volts. 3/4 in. open on the edges. Fasten the wire with gummed label. Fig. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. --Contributed by Edward M. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. Fold two strips of light cardboard.

Hunting. with the large hole up. Cut a 1/4-in. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. Wood Burning [331] . large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. as shown.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. M. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. Place this can on one end of the trough. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. O. Dayton. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. --Contributed by M.

a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. mouth downward. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. then into this bottle place.Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids.

2. provided the bottle is wide. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. long. If the small bottle used is opaque. thick. --Contributed by John Shahan. 1. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. N. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. --Contributed by Fred W. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. but not very thick. If the cork is adjusted properly. Upper Troy. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. as shown in the sketch. Place the small bottle in as before. Ala. wide and 4 in. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. Whitehouse. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. 3/4 in. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system .Y. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. many puzzling effects may be obtained. This will make a very pretty ornament.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. Auburn. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water.

They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. iron rod. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. --Contributed by D. Fig. The bearing blocks were 3 in. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. 1. in diameter and 1 in. pulley F. thick. On a 1000-ft. Its smaller parts. The wire L was put . line. G. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. Fig. If a transmitter is used. W. Milter. Both bearings were made in this manner. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. even in a light breeze. The shaft C. Fig. which was nailed to the face plate. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. by the method shown in Fig. was 1/4in. The 21/2-in. pulley. which extended to the ground. 4. to the shaft. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. or ordinary telephone transmitters. Fig. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. K. 1. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. were constructed of 1-in. 1 in. was keyed to shaft C. thick. as shown in Fig. wide. which gave considerable power for its size. 3. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. B. 1. 2 ft. 1. 1. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. I. 2. long. high without the upper half. sugar pine on account of its softness. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. thick and 3 in. Fig. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. which was 6 in. such as blades and pulleys. A staple.

The smaller one. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. long and bend it as . Fig. apart in the tower. and was cut the shape shown. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. 1. with all parts in place. To lessen the friction here. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. There a 1/4-in. 1) 4 in. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. The other lid. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. Fig. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. This board was 12 in. G. Two washers were placed on shaft C. 6. To make the key. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. in the center of the board P. The power was put to various uses. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. through the latter. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. when the windmill needed oiling. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. square to the board P at the top of the tower. 1. hole for the shaft G was in the center. across the thin edge of a board. providing one has a few old materials on hand. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. H. 1. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. 1. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. wide and 1 in. 2. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. If you have no bell. a 1/2-in. in diameter. cut out another piece of tin (X. as. for instance. Fig. was tacked. Fig. was 2 ft. 5. pine 18 by 12 in. washers were placed under pulley F. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. 3 in. 25 ft. with brass headed furniture tacks. 0. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. This completes the receiver or sounder. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. 6. Fig. Fig. long and 1/2 in. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. long and 3 in. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. The bed plate D. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. This fan was made of 1/4-in. hole was bored for it. long. long. long and bend it as shown at A. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. top down also. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. Fig. so that the 1/4-in. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. R. strips. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans.

as shown at Water. 1. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. at the front. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. By adjusting the coils. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. like many another device boys make. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. fitted with paddles as at M. The rear barrels are. Thus a center drive is made. although it can be made with but two. Before tacking it to the board. Going back to Fig. McConnell. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. causing a buzzing sound. leaving the other wire as it is. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. after the manner of bicycle wheels. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. When tired of this instrument. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. -Contributed by John R.shown. and. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. 2. Now. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. using cleats to hold the board frame. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . as indicated.

seat yourself on the bicycle seat. can be built. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. There is no danger. 3. The speed is slow at first. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. feet on the pedals. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. copper piping and brass tubing for base. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. 1. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. or even a little houseboat. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. which will give any amount of pleasure. If the journals thus made are well oiled. there will not be much friction. as shown in Fig. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . To propel it. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond.

and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. B. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. Fig. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. C. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. Fig. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder.of pleasure for a little work. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. Fig. 2. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. then the glass disc and then the other ring. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. 1. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. and so creating a false circuit. Fig. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. 2. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. If it is desired to make the light very complete. D. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. If magnifying glass cannot be had. 1. A. Then melt out the rosin or lead. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. or it may be put to other uses if desired. Shape small blocks of boxwood. 2. 1. Turn a small circle of wood. Place one brass ring in cylinder. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it.

while lying in bed. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. Throw lever off from the right to center. after setting alarm. or 1/4in. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. E. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. brass strip. shelf. S. 4 in. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. --Contributed by Geo. contact post.india rubber tubing. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. dry batteries. if too small. after two turns have been made on the key. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. key of alarm clock. C. To operate this. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. 5-1/4 by 10 in. switch. wire from batteries to switch. bracket. Brinkerhoff. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. wide and 1/16 in. long. 4-1/2 in. Ogden. brass rod. C. Pa. near the bed. To get the cylinder into its carriage. Swissvale. thick. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . F. H. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. and pulled tight. copper tubing. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. D. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. G. bell. Utah. which stops bell ringing. B. set alarm key as shown in diagram. The parts indicated are as follows: A. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . Chatland. wire from light to switch. --Contributed by C. I. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. To throw on light throw levers to the left. When alarm goes off. some glue will secure them. J. T. X. In placing clock on shelf. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. by having the switch on the baseboard. 3/8 in. such as is used for cycle valves. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. wire from bell to switch. long..

which can be made of an old can. about 3-1/2 in. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. Lanesboro. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. 1/4 in. 2. about 6 in. for instance. will do the heating. 4 in. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. 1. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. as at A. Make a shoulder. All that is required is a tin covering. S. wide. This is to form the fuse hole. Chapman. from one end. letting it extend 3/4 in. 1. --Contributed by Chas. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. beyond the end of the spindle. Fig. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. as . in diameter. in diameter. 2. as at A. place stick and all in a pail of sand. Fig. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. Fig. 3. being careful not to get the sand in it. gives the heater a more finished appearance. making it as true and smooth as possible. A flannel bag. Make the spindle as in Fig. A small lamp of about 5 cp. Minn. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. long. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. Pull out the nail and stick. Having finished this. a bed warmer. as in Fig. as at B.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand.

6 in. wide and 3 ft. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. ash. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. spring and arrows. The illustration shows how this is done. A piece of tin. 5/8 in. wide and 6 ft. wide and 3/8 in. long. The material must be 1-1/2 in. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. 3/8 in. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . thick.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. --Contributed by Arthur E. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. thick. long. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. good straight-grained pine will do. will be sufficient to make the trigger. this is to keep the edges from splitting. A piece of oak. long. thick. Joerin. or hickory. 11/2 in. 1. deep. 1 in. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. but if this wood cannot be procured.

is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. Wilmette. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. as shown in Fig. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. or through the necessity of. better still. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. 8. it lifts the spring up. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. 9. Ill. from the opposite end. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by O. 6. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. thick. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. The stick for the bow. from the end of the stock. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. E. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. in diameter. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. The trigger. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. wide at each end. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. place the arrow in the groove. Trownes. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. A spring. Fig. To shoot the crossbow. 4. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. The bow is not fastened in the stock. which is 1/4 in. 2. Fig. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. To throw the arrow. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. and one for the trigger 12 in. having the latter swing quite freely. When the trigger is pulled. 7. Such a temporary safe light may be . 3. Fig.

Branches and brush can easily be piled up. from the ground. Moreover. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. says Photo Era. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. make the frame of the wigwam. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. The cut should be about 5 ft. apart. from the ground. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. and nail it in position as shown at A. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. is used as a door. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. or only as a camp on a short excursion. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. This lamp is safe. Remove the bottom of the box. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. and replace as shown at B. By chopping the trunk almost through. The hinged cover E. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. respectively. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. making lighting and trimming convenient. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. it is the easiest camp to make. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. Remove one end. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. C. since the flame of the candle is above A. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. the bark lean-to is a .

A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. deep and covered with blankets. are a convenient size for camp construction. and split the tops with an ax. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. Sheets of bark. 6 ft. . The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. long. wide and 6 ft. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. a 2-in. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. make the best kind of a camp bed. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. 3 ft. For a permanent camp. Tongs are very useful in camp. selecting a site for a camp. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. and when the camp is pitched. long and 2 or 3 ft. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. will dry flat. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. piled 2 or 3 ft. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. nails are necessary to hold it in place. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. makes a good pair of tongs. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. spruce. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. long and 1-1/2 in. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. For a foot in the middle of the stick. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. wide. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. In the early summer. and cedar. Where bark is used. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. thick. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. A piece of elm or hickory.

and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. or even a rough lock for the camp larder. and affording accommodation for several persons.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. . hinges.

deep and 4 in. changing the water both morning and night. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. Fig. Doylestown. Pa. and provide a cover or door. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. about 4 in. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. 1. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. Kane. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. I drove a small cork. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. B. A. wide. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. --Contributed by James M. to another . The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. B.. the interior can.

until. 3. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. E. Fig. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. C. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. if necessary. This makes . to pass through an increasing resistance. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. The current is thus compelled. for instance. fused into one side. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. for instance. such as ether. limit. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. a liquid. 2. 2. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. 4 and 5). Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. which project inside and outside of the tube.glass tube. The diagram.

3. If the thickness is sufficient. therefore. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. thick. making it 1/16 in. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. hole is . A. The bearing studs are now made. tap. or even 1/16 in. Then the field can be finished to these marks. When the frame is finished so far. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. Fig. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. 4-1/2 in. to allow for finishing. when several pieces are placed together. thick. bent at right angles as shown. drill the four rivet holes. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. in diameter. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. on a lathe. larger than the dimensions given. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. mark off a space. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. A 5/8in. is composed of wrought sheet iron. After the template is marked out. as shown in the left-hand sketch. Michigan. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. as shown in Fig. and for the outside of the frame. clamp the template. two holes. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. After cleaning them with the solution. they will make a frame 3/4 in. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. but merely discolored. 2. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. 3-3/8 in. which may be of any thickness so that. cannot be used so often. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. Before removing the field from the lathe. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. in diameter. These holes are for the bearing studs. which will make it uniform in size. screws. set at 1/8 in. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. Fig. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. between centers. 1. assemble and rivet them solidly. 3-3/8 in. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. brass. brass or iron. by turning the lathe with the hand. Alpena. thicker. or pattern.

soldered into place. or otherwise finished. is turned up from machine steel. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. into which a piece of 5/8-in. When the bearings are located. brass rod is inserted. and build up the solder well. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. solder them to the supports. 4. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . and drilled to receive the armature shaft. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. The shaft of the armature.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. file them out to make the proper adjustment. Fig.

Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. Armature-Ring Core.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron.. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. brass rod. When this is accomplished. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. thick. thick and 1/4 in. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. thick are cut like the pattern. After they . as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. inside diameter. When annealed. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. After the pieces are cut out. then drill a 1/8-in. as shown m Fig. 3. Procure 12 strips of mica. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. 8. wide. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. 3/4 in. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. washers. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. The pins are made of brass. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. by 1-1/2 in. The sides are also faced off and finished. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. 1-1/8 in. Make the core 3/4 in. threaded. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. holes through them for rivets. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. 1/8 in. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. and held with a setscrew. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. hole and tap it for a pin. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. being formed for the ends. deep and 7/16 in. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. 3. Rivet them together. 9. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. sheet fiber. wide. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. and then they are soaked in warm water. as shown in Fig. or segments. thick. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. 5. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. Find the centers of each segment at one end. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. thick. to allow for finishing to size. 6. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. 6. 7. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. 3/4 in.

or side. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. In starting to wind. When the glue is set. The two ends are joined at B. The winding is started at A. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. and bring the end of the wire out at B. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. 8 in. All connections should be securely soldered. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. 1. and wind on four layers. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. Run one end of the field wire. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. 6 in. after the motor is on the stand. 5. This winding is for a series motor. sheet fiber. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. of No. After one coil. they are glued to the core insulation. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. the two ends of the wire. of the end to protrude. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. Fig. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. yet it shows a series of . thick. The field is wound with No. To connect the wires. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. until the 12 slots are filled. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. are soldered together. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. of the wire. being required. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. which will take 50 ft. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. about 100 ft. shown at B. by bending the end around one of the projections. wide and 1 in. The source of current is connected to the terminals. long. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. 1. shown at A. sheet fiber.have dried. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. Fig.

Nine wires run from the timer. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. and one.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. or. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. which serves as the ground wire. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. as in the case of a spiral. still more simply. is fastened to the metallic body. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. A 1/2-in. one from each of the eight contacts. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses.

Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. It should be . board. 6 in. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. long. 45 deg. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. of the dial. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it.The Wind Vane. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. Covering these is a thin. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. circle. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. thus giving 16 different directions. Without this attachment. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing.

The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. or. Blackmer. also a piece of new carpet. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. Before tacking the fourth side. To work these outlines. Cut 3-in. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. To make it. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. will answer the purpose just as well. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. will be sufficient. if not too high. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. is most satisfactory. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. and securely nail on the top of the box. -Contributed by James L. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. called a chip carving knife. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. Fill the box with any handy ballast. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. Y. high. Buffalo. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. and about 6 in. however. . making it heavy or light." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. Place the leather on some level.about 6 ft. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. 14 by 18 in. though a special knife. will be enough for the two sides. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. long to give the best results. according to who is going to use it. N. thus making a universal joint.

Paste the silk plush to the inner side. A good leather paste will be required. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. An ordinary sewing-machine .

Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show.will do if a good stout needle is used. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. Y. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. square and tying a piece of . especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. rather than the smooth side. of common salt and 10 lb. of water. N. can be thrown away when no longer needed. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. Syracuse. and fasten the feathers inside of it. --Contributed by Katharine D. temporary lameness. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. away from it. as in cases of a sprained ankle. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. If a fire breaks out. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. and tie them together securely at the bottom. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. B. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. a needle and some feathers. or a hip that has been wrenched. Morse. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use.

the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. letting it go at arm's length. and a coil of wire. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. --Contributed by J. The diaphragm C. A. 1/8 in. which is the essential part of the instrument. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. wide and 1/16 in. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. A small wooden or fiber end.J. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. etc. Y. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. long. B. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. The strings should be about 15 in. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. The body of the receiver. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. This not only keeps the rats out. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. The end is filed to an edge. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. deep. and the receiver is ready for use. E. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. as shown. Wis. setting traps. board all around the bottom on the inside. wound on the head end. long. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. but not sharp. the corners being wired. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. high. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. cut to the length of the spool. . N. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. thus helping the rats to enter.. made up of four layers of No. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. Hellwig. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. Albany. F.string to each corner. Gordon Dempsey. There is a 1-in. and tacked it to the boards. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. is cut on the wood. Ashland. --Contributed by John A. The coil is 1 in. N. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. One end is removed entirely. laying poisoned meat and meal. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. commonly called tintype tin. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. G. Paterson.

A single line will be sufficient. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. Take a piece of string or. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. to . gold.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. The vase is to have three supports. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. a piece of small wire. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. wide. and bend each strip in shape. begin with the smallest scrolls. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. To clean small articles. better still.

then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. using a duller point of the tool. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. 3-1/4 in.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. After taking off the pattern. as shown in the sketch.. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. . retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. through which to slip the fly AGH. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. 3-1/2 in. from E to F. 4-1/4 in. 6-3/8 in. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. from C to D. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. Trace also the line around the purse. sharp pencil. Work down the outside line of the design. Fold the leather on the line EF. from the lines EF on the piece. About 1 in. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. and does not require coloring. Press or model down the leather all around the design. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. wide when stitching up the purse. thus raising it. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather..which the supports are fastened with rivets.

2. 1. and the projections B. and which will be very interesting. This also should be slightly beveled. 1 was cut. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. by 12 ft. Now take another piece of wood. then place the square piece out of which Fig. long.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. When it is finished. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. It is neat and efficient. leaving the lug a. b. and. around the wheel. the "open" side. thick. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. Make the lug 1/4 in. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. Then nail the wheel down firmly. as shown in Fig. 3. then nail it. deep. being cast in wooden molds. Fit this to the two . deep. all the way around. and cut it out as shown in Fig. First. square. with a compass saw. Cut off six pieces 12 in. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. as well as useful. and cut out a wheel. with the open side down. and tack the other piece slightly. with the largest side down. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. following the dotted lines. It can be made without the use of a lathe. and a model for speed and power. 1/2 in. with pins or small nails. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind.

as shown by the black dots in Fig. 4. hole bored through its center. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. square pieces of wood. Now take another of the 12-in. slightly beveled. and clean all the shavings out of it. Take the mold apart. square pieces of wood. hole 1/4 in. holes through it. then bolt it together. deep. and lay it away to dry. hole entirely through at the same place. and bore six 1/4-in. one of which should have a 3/8-in. 1. Now put mold No. place it between two of the 12-in.pieces just finished. and boring a 3/8-in. and cut it out as shown in Fig. in the center of it. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. bolts. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. as shown by the . After it is finished.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise.

This will cast a paddle-wheel. screw down. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. fasten a 3/8-in. the other right-handed. Then bolt the castings together. A piece of mild steel 5 in. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. b. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. see that the bolts are all tight. true it up with a square.1. Commencing 1-1/2 in. 6. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. one in the projections. where the casting did not fill out. place it under the drill. This is mold No. Let it stand for half an hour. and connect to the boiler. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. until it is full.black dots in Fig. After it is fitted in. one in the lug.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. Find the center of the paddle-wheel.2. long. holes at d. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. 6. and pour babbitt metal into it. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. Fig. and the other in the base. over the defective part. Now take mold No. This is the same as Fig. place the entire machine in a vise. and lay it away to dry. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. as shown by the black dots in Fig. wide and 16 in. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. and 3/8-in. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. so that it will turn easily. and the exhaust hole in projection b. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. and two 1/4-in. and pouring metal in to fill it up. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. only the one is left-handed. and bore three 1/4-in. 4. Using the Brace .2. holes. as shown in illustration. d. and drill it entirely through. drill in it. Put this together in mold No. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. put the top of the brace through this hole. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. from the one end. lay it on a level place.1. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. This is for a shaft. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. Pour metal into mold No. take an ordinary brace. and run in babbitt metal again. long. B. Now cut out one of the 12-in. instead of the right-handed piece. 1. 5. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. and drill them in the same manner. in diameter must now be obtained.

bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. turn the wheel to the shape desired. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate.. while it is running at full speed.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. At each end of the 6ft. will do good service. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. and the other 8 ft. Then take a knife or a chisel. and. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. Plan of Ice Boat . fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. one 6 ft. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. and with three small screw holes around the edge. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. piece and at right angles to it. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. with a boss and a set screw. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. long. and if instructions have been carefully followed. Your turbine engine is now ready for work.

1. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. long and 2-1/2 in. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. piece and at right angles to it. as the runners were fastened. This fits in the square hole. at the end. 1. which may come in handy in heavy winds. in the top before the skate is put on. 2 by 3 in. long. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. in front of the rudder block. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. boards to make the platform. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. at the top. plank nail 8-in. On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in. The spar should be 9 ft. leaving 1 ft. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. projecting as in Fig. distant. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. Fig. in diameter in the center. The tiller. 3. To the under side of the 8-ft. Over the middle of the 6-ft. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. Fig. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . tapering to 1-1/2 in. Run the seam on a machine. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. bolt the 8-ft. in diameter at the base. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. at the butt and 1 in. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. 8 a reef point knot.These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. Make your runners as long as possible. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. should be of hardwood. in diameter. plank. and about 8 in. where they often did considerable damage. so much the better will be your boat. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. long.

block of wood nailed to A. P. two pieces of sheet brass about 1/4 in. Its parts are as follows: A. B. The arrangement proved quite too effective. P. Comstock. R. Simple Fire Alarm When the stove becomes too hot the wax will melt at the ends. so that they come in contact at C. allowing the springs to contact at C. Pa. for after a week the rats all departed and the boys all regretted that their fun was at an end.another from the zinc plate through the intervening yard and into the shop. but one that will afford any amount of amusement. small piece of wood. When these parts have been put together in the manner described. It is quite evident that when a rat put its two fore feet on the edge of the pan in order to eat the mush which it contained. --Contributed by J. wide. and the alarm bell will ring. --Contributed by John D. The . Mechanicsburg. Phoenix. A good sized induction coil was through connected with these wires and about six dry batteries were used to run the induction coil whenever a push button was manipulated. binding-posts fastening the springs S S. and when we pushed the button up in the shop the rat would be thrown 2 or 3 ft. Adams. S S. that an electrical connection would be made through the body of the rat. in the air and let out a terrific squeak. and place it behind a stove. W is a piece of wax crayon just long enough to break the contact at C when inserted as shown in the illustration. to block B. Electric Rat Trap How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359] A fire alarm which is both inexpensive and simple in construction is shown in the illustration. To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359] This is a very simple device. connect the device in circuit with an electric bell. bent into a hook at each end. Ariz.

dial and works out of the shell and cut some pieces out of the metal so that when the pieces left are turned back it will have the appearance as in Fig. An old wheel is mounted at the top of the pole. including the . Put the works back in the metal shell and solder it to the frying pan by the pieces turned out as in Fig. Gild the pan all over. Arbor Wheels [359] Emery wheel arbors should be fitted with flanges or washers having a slight concave to their face. A passenger rides in each seat and the motorman takes his station at the middle. high. 6 in. Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360] An inexpensive and easy way to make an unique ornament of a clock The Clock with Holder for kitchen use is to take an old alarm clock or a new one if preferred. The center pole should be 10 ft.center post rests in an auger hole bored in an old stump or in a post set in the grou