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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial

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08/17/2011

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Sections

  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother

THE BOY MECHANIC VOLUME I

Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)

BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I

THE

700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
HOW TO CONSTRUCT
WIRELESS OUTFITS, BOATS, CAMP EQUIPMENT, AERIAL. GLIDERS, KITES, SELF-PROPELLED VEHICLES ENGINES, MOTORS, ELECTRICAL APPARATUS, CAMERAS
AND

HUNDREDS OF OTHER THINGS WHICH DELIGHT EVERY BOY

WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
COPYRIGHTED, 1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO

POPULAR MECHANICS CO.
PUBLISHERS

A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. away. Noble. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. 2. 1. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. long will make six boomerangs. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. Toronto. as shown in Fig.Fig. E. To throw a boomerang. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. apart. Fig. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. as shown in Fig. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. 2 -. A piece of plank 12 in. 2. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. It is held in this curve until dry. --Contributed by J. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . 1. distant. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. Ontario. grasp it and hold the same as a club. until it is bound as shown in Fig. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. The pieces are then dressed round. wide and 2 ft. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. 1. with the hollow side away from you. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve.

and with a movable bottom. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. blocks . the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. and it may be necessary to use a little water. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. A wall. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. which makes the building simpler and easier. long. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. it is not essential to the support of the walls. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. made of 6-in. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. A very light. First. high and 4 or 5 in. the block will drop out. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. or rather no bottom at all. minus the top. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. but about 12 in. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. The top will then have a uniform inward slant.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. 6 in. thick. however. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. one inside of the circle and the other outside. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. forcing it down closely. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. If the snow is of the right consistency. dry snow will not pack easily. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall.

1. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. wide. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. 3 -. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. is 6 or 8 in. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. 2. It also keeps them out. Fig.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. which is about 1 ft. A nail. C. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. or an old safe dial will do. The piece of wood. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. and the young architect can imitate them. a. D. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. Fig. 3. long and 1 in. which can be made of wood. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. Fig. Ore. above the ground. --Contributed by Geo. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. There is no outward thrust. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. 2. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. Goodbrod. Union. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. 1. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door.

The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. Merrill. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. as the weight always draws them back to place. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. the box locked . it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. --Contributed by R. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. says the Sphinx. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. Syracuse. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. If ordinary butts are used.When taking hot dishes from the stove. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. one pair of special hinges. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. S. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. New York. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes.

Make allowance for flaps on two sides. as shown. 1. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. When the sieve is shaken. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. With the metal shears. If they do not. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. allowing each coat time to dry. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. smooth surface. -Contributed by L. Ga. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. All . about 1-32 of an inch. on drawing paper. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish.and the performer steps out in view. proceed as follows: First. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. Place the piece in a vise. Augusta. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. 3. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. If the measuring has been done properly. draw one-half of it. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. 2. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. as shown in Fig. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. Fig. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. To make a design similar to the one shown. It remains to bend the flaps. one for each corner. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. Alberta Norrell. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. as shown in Fig. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes.

C. The current. A resistance. --Contributed by R. in diameter. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. about 6 in. as shown at AA. which is about 6 in. In boring through rubber corks.the edges should be left smooth. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. To keep the metal from tarnishing. Colo. causing it to expand. heats the strip of German-silver wire. and in the positions shown in the sketch. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. if rolled under the shoe sole. A piece of porcelain tube. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. H. should be in the line. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. 25 German-silver wire. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. is fitted tightly in the third hole. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. After this has dried. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. If a touch of color is desired. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. Galbreath. long. in passing through the lamp. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. from the back end. of No. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. used for insulation. B. Denver. R. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. 25 gauge German-silver wire. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. When the current is turned off. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . The common cork.

Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. 3. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. leaving a space of 4 in. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. as shown in Fig. 1. . with thin strips of wood. 2. Mo. Purchase two long book straps. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle.bottom ring. Fig. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. Kansas City. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. --Contributed by David Brown. between them as shown in Fig.

Fig. to form a handle. long. 1. 4. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. A. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. are mounted on the outside of the box. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. one weighing 15 lb. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. When the aeroplane tips. Fig. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. having a gong 2-1/2 in. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. N. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end.An ordinary electric bell. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. and tack smoothly.. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. Y. Morse. 3. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. 2. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. The folds are made over the string. 36 in. The string is then tied. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. Doylestown. which is the right weight for family use. 1. Syracuse. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. --Contributed by James M. just the right weight for a woman to use. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. as . These are shown in Fig. C. Pa. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. Two strips of brass. in diameter. and one weighing 25 lb. --Contributed by Katharine D. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. Kane.. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. 1. Fig. and a pocket battery.

1. long.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. The saw. N. machine screws. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. 2. Floral Park. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. Frame Made of a Rod . then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. such as brackets. bent as shown in Fig. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. 2. four washers and four square nuts. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. 3/32 or 1/4 in. --Contributed by Louis J. if once used. Y. and many fancy knick-knacks. Day. two 1/8 -in. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. AA. in diameter.

though almost any color may be obtained. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades.may be made of either brass. If it colors the metal red. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. the most expensive. or silver. of course. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. use them in place of the outside nuts. The buckle is to be purchased. Watch Fob For coloring silver. of water. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. using a swab and an old stiff brush. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in.. of water in which dissolve. as well as brass and copper. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. Drying will cause this to change to purple. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. In the design shown. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. copper. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. Rub off the highlights. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. treat it with color. if copper or brass. therefore. Apply two coats. An Austrian Top [12] . first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. green and browns are the most popular. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. For etching. Of the leathers. 1 part nitric acid. it has the correct strength. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. Scranton. Detroit. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. Silver is the most desirable but. allowing each time to dry. as well as the depth of etching desired. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. be covered the same as the back. A. File these edges. 1 part sulphuric acid. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. Michigan. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. after breaking up. --Contributed by W.

hole in this end for the top. Parts of the Top To spin the top. When the shank is covered. wide and 3/4 in. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. allowing only 1-1/4 in.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. --Contributed by J. 3/4 in. hole. 5-1/4 in. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. Ypsilanti. Bore a 3/4-in. thick. starting at the bottom and winding upward. in diameter. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. A handle. A 1/16-in. 1-1/4 in.F. pass one end through the 1/16-in. long. set the top in the 3/4 -in. The handle is a piece of pine. Tholl. . Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. long. is formed on one end. Michigan. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way.

Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. --Contributed by Miss L. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. Alberta Norrell. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. --A. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. . tarts or similar pastry. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. Ga. For black leathers. Houghton. Mich. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. having no sides. The baking surface. A. Augusta. Northville. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan.

then solder cover and socket together. Mo. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. glass fruit jar. the same as shown in the illustration. two turns will remove the jar. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. Centralia. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . says Studio Light. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. Stringing Wires [13] A. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. When you desire to work by white light. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper.

1/4 by 1 by 65 in. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. square by 12 in. Wis. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. square by 62 in. 16 Horizontal bars. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. They are fastened. . The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. Janesville. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. 4 Braces. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. as shown in the cross-section sketch. 1-1/4 in. so it can be folded up.for loading and development. 4 Vertical pieces. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. 1-1/4 in. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. and not tip over.

New York. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. C. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. after filling the pail with water. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. If the loop is tied at the proper place. The front can be covered . The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. and a loop made in the end. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. Rosenthal. from scrap material. --Contributed by Dr. Cincinnati. H. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. After rounding the ends of the studs. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. The whole. Phillipsburg.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. O. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. -Contributed by Charles Stem. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath.

1 FIG. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. principally mayonnaise dressing. sickly one. you are. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. either for contact printing or enlargements.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. Baltimore. and. Md. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. if you try to tone them afterward. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. The results will be poor. Wehr. --Contributed by Gilbert A. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. thoroughly fix. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. the mouth of which rests against a. by all rules of the game. In my own practice. the color will be an undesirable. The . If the gate is raised slightly. Develop them into strong prints. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. By using the following method. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. FIG. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath.

.." Cyanide of potassium .. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes......... in this solution. but.. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects.. without previous wetting.. 20 gr.. Gray... The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished.. wide and 4 in.. Place the dry print....... Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper.. The blotting paper can .... This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print... Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig... A good final washing completes the process... long to admit the angle support. 2.. 5 by 15 in..... when it starts to bleach.. preferably the colored kind.. 2 oz. to make it 5 by 5 in. Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete. --Contributed by T. L.. Water . where it will continue to bleach... three times. When the desired reduction has taken place... as it will appear clean much longer than the white.. Cal.. this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain.. San Francisco.. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper. 1 and again as in Fig.bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison.. Put one on each corner of the blotting paper. in size.. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table.. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder.. An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in. transfer it to a tray of water. It will bleach slowly and evenly.. With a little practice.. The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone. Iodide of potassium . The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper. thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses.... 16 oz. etc.... stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax.

Monahan. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. wide below the . Canada. 20 gauge. --Contributed by J. the shaft 1 in. and a length of 5 in. --Contributed by L.J. having a width of 2-1/4 in. 3. the head of which is 2 in. Oshkosh. wide. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. Wilson Aldred Toronto. Make a design similar to that shown. Wisconsin. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. Corners complete are shown in Fig.

FIG. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. Trace the design on the metal. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. 4. being held perpendicular to the work. With files. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. freehand. 1 part nitric acid. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. The metal must be held firmly. Fig. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. For coloring olive green. using a small metal saw. but use a swab on a stick. 1 part sulphuric acid. which gives the outline of the design Fig. using carbon paper. Pierce a hole with a small drill. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. Make one-half of the design. . Allow this to dry. 3. Do not put the hands in the solution. then trace the other half in the usual way. After this has dried. With the metal shears. then coloring. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. after folding along the center line. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. 1 Fig. After the sawing. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. deep. using turpentine. 2. as shown in Fig. 1. then put on a second coat. Apply with a small brush. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum.

Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. then stain it a mahogany color. After the stain has dried. Burnett. New York. When this is cold. Syracuse. attach brass handles. on a chopping board. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. . The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. Richmond. Conn. --Contributed by Katharine D. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. --Contributed by H. Carl Cramer. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. it does the work rapidly. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. as shown. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. thick. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. --Contributed by M. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. Cal.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. East Hartford. Ii is an ordinary staple. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. Morse. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. M.

holes. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. 4. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. square. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. A. 53 steel pens. about 3/16 in. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. or tin. also locate the drill holes. as shown in Fig. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. L. thick. H. Richmond. indicating the depth of the slots. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. as shown at A. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. brass. Jaquythe. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. not over 1/4 in. some pieces of brass. two enameled. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. Cal. one shaft. --Contributed by W. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. . 1/4 in. machine screws. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. Fig. --Contributed by Mrs. 1. thick and 4 in. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in.. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. Kissimmee. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. saucers or pans. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. Florida. and several 1/8-in. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. in width at the shank. WARNECKE Procure some brass. Atwell.

3. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. A 3/4-in. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. using two nuts on each screw. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. with the face of the disk. brass and bolted to the casing. Fig. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. and the ends filed round for the bearings. long and 5/16 in. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. each about 1 in. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. 2. Bend as shown in Fig. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other.. lead should be run into the segments. Fig. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. as shown. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. These are connected to a 3/8-in. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. supply pipe.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. with a 3/8-in. If the shaft is square. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. wide and bend as shown in Fig. a square shaft used. 5. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. in diameter and 1/32 in. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. as shown in Fig. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. hole in the center. 6. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. machine screws. 2. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. Fig. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. hole. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. 7. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. 3. There should be a space of 1/16 in. thick. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. The shaft hole may also be filed square. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. and pins inserted. hole is drilled to run off the water. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. as in Fig. into the hole. long by 3/4 in. wide. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. 1. can be procured. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. with 1/8-in. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. thick. machine screws and nuts. If metal dishes. about 1/32 in.

Ill. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. The lower part. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. Smith. deep and 1-1/4 in. La Salle. Canada. The four legs are each 3/4-in. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. Stain the wood before putting in the . from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. Be sure to have the cover. three of which are in the basket. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. Hamilton. we will call the basket. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. Now you will have the box in two pieces. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. V. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. make these seams come between the two back legs. long. Cooke. from the top of the box. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. screws. high and 15 in. from the bottom end of the legs. and the smaller part will be known as the tray.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. to make the bottom. --Contributed by S. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. using four to each leg. When assembling. Fasten with 3/4-in. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. or more in diameter. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. --Contributed by F. deep over all. With a string or tape measure. 8-1/2 in. square and 30-1/2 in.

edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. wide and four strips 10 in. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. you can. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. The side. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. If all the parts are well sandpapered. wide. Cover them with the cretonne. The folded part in the center is pasted together. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. 2.lining. sewing on the back side. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. -Contributed by Stanley H. Baltimore. Mass. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. --also the lower edge when necessary. Sew on to the covered cardboards. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. Packard. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. When making the display. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. and gather it at that point. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. Fig.2 Fig. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. Boston. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. as shown in the sketch. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. 1. Md.

Gloversville. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. L. --Contributed by B. Mo. Fig. N. Cross Timbers. It is not difficult to . Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. 3. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. saving all the solid part. Crockett. and. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. with slight modifications. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. Orlando Taylor. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. --Contributed by H. Y. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. When through using the pad. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. It is cleanly.

Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. Mass. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. Both of these methods are wasteful. After stirring. or if desired. --Contributed by Edith E. Bourne. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. Texas. Lowell. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . and secure it in place with glue or paste. Lane. After this is done. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. If a file is used. remove the contents. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. are shown in the diagram. and scrape out the rough parts. El Paso. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. across the face. -Contributed by C. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. it should be new and sharp. S. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton.

Ill. The process works well and needs no watching. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. Oak Park. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. As these were single-faced disk records. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. Those having houses . Greenleaf. --Contributed by Marion P. Turl. The illustration shows a rack for postcards.cooking utensil. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. --Contributed by Loren Ward. Iowa. Oregon. Wheeler. A Postcard Rack [25]. circled over the funnel and disappeared. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. He captured several pounds in a few hours. Des Moines. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. Canton. The insects came to the light. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. --Contributed by Geo. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. F. After several hours' drying. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. Ill. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel.

the height to the eaves being 6 ft. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. 6 in. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. by 2 ft. The single boards can then be fixed. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. will do as well. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. Conn. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in.. the bottom being 3/8 in. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. one on each side of what will be the . plane and pocket knife. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. boards are preferable. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. Rosenberg.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. and both exactly alike. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. Worcester. but for cheapness 3/4 in. Mass.. 6 in. and as they are simple in design. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. material. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. and the second one for the developing bench. not even with the boards themselves. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. Both sides can be put together in this way. --Contributed by Wm. the best material to use being matched boards. Glenbrook. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. Dobbins. --Contributed by Thomas E. Only three pieces are required. thick. Lay the floor next. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight.

Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. At the top of the doorway. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. and to the outside board of the sides. wide. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. brown wrapping paper. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs.. hinged to it. and the top as at C in the same drawing. 9). 10). 2 in section. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. 6 and 9. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig.doorway. below which is fixed the sink. 5. nailing them to each other at the ridge. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. so that the water will drain off into the sink. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. the closing side as at B. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. as shown in Figs. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. of the top of the door for the same reason. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. which is fixed on as shown .. The developing bench is 18 in. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. It is shown in detail in Fig. 11. so that it will fit inside the sink. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. In hinging the door. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. is cut. 7. Fig.. 6. 8. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. and should be zinc lined. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. The roof boards may next be put on. 6. and act as a trap for the light. and in the middle an opening. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. 3 and 4. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. by screwing to the floor. 9 by 11 in. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. etc.

Details of the Dark Rook .

It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. Pennsylvania. Fig. Fig. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. 13. as in Fig. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. these being shown in Fig. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. The handle should be at least 12 in. screwing them each way into the boards. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. which makes it possible to have white light. 15. 6. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. as shown in Fig. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. it is better than anything on the market. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. Karl Hilbrich. Fig. as shown in the sections. 18. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. or the room may be made with a flat roof. In use. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. Erie. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. 2. hole bored in the center for a handle. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. --Contributed by W. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. but not the red glass and frame. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. though this is hardly advisable. preferably maple or ash. A circular piece about 2 in. 16. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. or red light as at K. four coats at first is not too many. For beating up an egg in a glass. and a tank stand on it. as at I. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . and a 3/8-in. Fig. 16. The house will be much strengthened if strips. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. 13. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. 19. 20. 17. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. 14. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. as at M. are fastened in the corners inside. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. after lining with brown paper. if desired. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle.in Fig. 1. mixing flour and water. or stirring cocoa or chocolate.

for a handle. long.copper should be. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. Mitchell. when put together properly is a puzzle. Smith. Yonkers. --Contributed by L. Schweiger. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. Ark. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. To operate. Kansas City. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. -Contributed by E. Eureka Springs. L. G. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. Mo. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. about 3/8 in. New York. D. --Contributed by Wm. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . as shown in the sketch. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. which.

Each cork is cut as in Fig. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. in order to thoroughly preserve it. need them. for the moment. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. as shown in Fig. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. A number of 1/2-in. The corks in use are shown in Fig. 3. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. . 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. especially for filling-in purposes. holes should be drilled in the bottom. If the sill is inclined. which binds them together. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. 1. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. the box will require a greater height in front. as well as improve its appearance. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. the rustic work should be varnished. to make it set level. as is usually the case. The design shown in Fig. 2. as shown in Fig. 3. After the box is trimmed. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. Having completed the bare box. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads.

etc. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. too dangerous. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. Traps do no good.. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. cabbages. Each long projection represents a leg. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. 2. being partly eaten into. drilled at right angles. . 4. 1. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. and observe results. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. When the corn is gone cucumbers. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. life in the summer time is a vexation. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. it's easy. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. as shown in Fig. But I have solved the difficulty. 3. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. share the same fate. can't use poison. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal.

About 9-1/2 ft. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. Iowa. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. of No. cut some of it off and try again. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. . If. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. and made up and kept in large bottles. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. the coil does not heat sufficiently. The solution can be used over and over again. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. long. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. strips. cut in 1/2-in. -. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. by trial.

. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. Fig 2. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. Dallas. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. In cleaning silver. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. of whiting and 1/2 oz. as shown in the sketch. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. 1) removed. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. coffee pot. --Contributed by Katharine D. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. Kane. Do not wash them. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. Stir and mix thoroughly. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. Morse. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. Syracuse. C. N. Texas. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. it falls to stop G. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. forks. but with unsatisfactory results. Doylestown. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. Pa. Y. D. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. to cause the door to swing shut. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. is a good size--in this compound. Knives. of gasoline. hot-water pot. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. and a strip. --Contributed by James M. of oleic acid with 1 gal. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow.

later fixed and washed as usual. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. . Harrisburg. which is. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. --Contributed by Oliver S. --Contributed by Theodore L. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. negatives. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. using the paper dry. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. Ill. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. Pa. La. Waverly. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. but unfixed. of course. Sprout. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. New Orleans.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. Fisher.

The harmonograph. In this uncertainty lies the charm. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. Fig. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. metal. 1. then . the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. a harmonograph is a good prescription.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. To obviate this difficulty. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in.

the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. Gaffney. Ingham. is attached as shown at H. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. as shown in Fig. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. J. to prevent any side motion.. as shown in the lower part of Fig. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. A weight. Punch a hole. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. A pedestal.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. that is. is about right for a 10-ft. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. Arizona.. which can be regulated. as long as the other. A length of 7 ft. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. in the center of the circle to be cut. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. K. such as a shoe buttoner. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. G. 1-3/4 by 2 in. in diameter. A small table or platform. makes respectively 3. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. ceiling. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. one-fourth. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. Another weight of about 10 lb. 1. Rosemont. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. with a nail set or punch. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. etc.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. what is most important. A small weight. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. one-fifth. --Contributed by Wm. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. exactly one-third. and unless the shorter pendulum is. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. R. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. provides a means of support for the stylus. for instance. The length of the short pendulum H. or the lines will overlap and blur. 1. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . Holes up to 3 in. of about 30 or 40 lb. --Contributed by James T. Chicago.

of course. The two key cards are made alike. and 4 as in Fig. 1.J.H. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. Morey. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. 5. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. Cape May City. one for the sender and one for the receiver. distributing them over the whole card. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. 3. then 3 as in Fig. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. 2. N. -Contributed by W.J. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. a correspondent of . --Contributed by J. 4. Chicago. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. 6. The capacity of the vise. Cruger. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. Fig. dividing them into quarters. then put 2 at the top. Fig. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. and proceed as before. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual.

Wind the successive turns of .the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. long. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. of the uprights. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. --Contributed by L. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. Asbestos board is to be preferred. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. remove the prints. from the top and bottom. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. of 18-per-cent No. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. respectively. drill 15 holes. Alberta Norrell. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. deep. If constructed of the former. citrate of iron and ammonia. Ga. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. 22 gauge German-silver wire. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. 6 gauge wires shown. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. of water. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. the portion of the base under the coil. To assemble. 30 gr. sheet of well made asbestos paper. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. Cut through the center. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. says Popular Electricity. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. After securing the tint desired. 1/4 in. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. Augusta. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. wood-screws. of ferricyanide of potash. After preparing the base and uprights. acetic acid and 4 oz. 1/2 oz. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes.

which.. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. Small knobs may be added if desired. 16 gauge copper wire. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. then fasten the upright in place. etc. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. as they are usually thrown away when empty. Ampere. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. N. cut and dressed 1/2 in. The case may be made of 1/2-in. if one is not a smoker. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. Ward. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. but these are not necessary. 14 gauge.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. rivets. Y. Labels of some kind are needed. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. screws. square. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. --Contributed by Frederick E.

B. G. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. as shown in the sketch. the pure muriatic acid should be used. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. and rub the point of the copper on it. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. or has become corroded. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. .. tin. A. then to the joint to be soldered. Kenosha. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. of water. --C. This is considerable annoyance. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. Eureka Springs. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. brass. lead. sandpaper or steel wool. California. and labeled "Poison. tinner's acid. particularly so when the iron has once been used. of glycerine to 16 oz. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. galvanized iron. --Contributed by W. E and F. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. C. S. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. and one made of poplar finished black. The material can be of any wood. especially if a large tub is used. Larson. Copper. --Contributed by A. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. In soldering galvanized iron. Heat it until hot (not red hot). zinc. If the soldering copper is an old one. Richmond. The parts are put together with dowel pins.14 oz. D. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. Jaquythe. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. Ark. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. it must be ground or filed to a point. Wis. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. being careful about the heat. a piece of solder. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac.

Fig. 1. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. The punch A. D. The disk will come out pan shaped. Fig. with good results. in diameter. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. thick and 1-1/4 in. a ring may be made from any metal. I bind my magazines at home evenings. and drill out the threads. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. 7/8 in. Troy. 2. however. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. The covers of the magazines are removed. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. which gives two bound volumes each year. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. C. Six issues make a well proportioned book.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. This will leave a clear hole. such as copper. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. Brass rings can be plated when finished. wide. This completes the die. W. B. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. N. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. Apart from this. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. -Contributed by H. round iron. brass and silver. in diameter. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. Place the band. nut. Hankin. Y. The dimensions shown in Fig. Take a 3/4-in. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring.

and then to string No. is nailed across the top. Place the cardboard covers on the book. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. using . is used for the sewing material. then back through the notch on the right side. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. If started with the January or the July issue. size 16 or larger. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. 5. of the ends extending on each side. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. The string No. 1 in Fig. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. 2. C. Start with the front of the book. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. threaded double. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. These sections are each removed in turn from the others.4. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. 2. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. After drawing the thread tightly. which is fastened the same as the first. 1. . Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. The sections are then prepared for sewing. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. deep. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. Coarse white thread. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. through the notch on the left side of the string No. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. 1. as shown in Fig. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. and a third piece. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. 1. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. The covering should be cut out 1 in. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. on all edges except the back. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. allowing about 2 in. and place them against the strings in the frame. The covering can be of cloth. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. 1/8 in. Five cuts. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge.

Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. on which to hook the blade. at opposite sides to each other. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. and mark around each one. College View. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. Tinplate. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. Cal. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. Place the cover on the book in the right position. Divine. round iron. Encanto. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. and. Nebr. --Contributed by Clyde E. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. For the blade an old talking-machine . bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal.

A. -Contributed by Willard J. thick. as shown. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. fuse hole at D. in order to drill the holes in the ends. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. Summitville. by 4-1/2 in. and another piece (B) 6 in. as it is sometimes called.. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. long. Hays. Then on the board put . thick. at the same end. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. by 1 in. with a steel sleeve. and 1/4 in. On the upper side. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. with 10 teeth to the inch.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. and 1/4 in. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. bore. hydraulic pipe. Make the blade 12 in. C. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). B. Ohio. Miss. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. and file in the teeth. E. Moorhead. F.. or double extra heavy. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. and a long thread plug. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in.

Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. --Contributed by Chas. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. using about 8 in. H. and some No. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. If you are going to use a current of low tension. of wire to each coil. Connect up as shown. of rubber-covered wire. as from batteries. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. some sheet copper or brass for plates. Philadelphia.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. the jars need not be very large. about 5 ft. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. A lid may be added if desired. high around this apparatus. Boyd. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. 4 jars. 18 gauge wire for the wiring.

and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. thick. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. Equip block X with screw eyes. The sled completed should be 15 ft. sheet brass 1 in. 2 and 3.. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. Use no screws on the running surface. and bolt through. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. 16-1/2 in. oak boards.. 2 in. steel rod makes a good steering rod. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. In proportioning them the points A. two pieces 34 in. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. A 3/4-in. by 1 in. 5 on switch. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. square by 14 ft. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. wide by 3/4 in. wide. 34 in. The stock required for them is oak. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. See Fig. An iron washer. To wire the apparatus. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. by 2 in. 2. The current then will flow through the motor. by 5 in. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. 1 on switch. is used to reduce friction. apart. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. with the cushion about 15 in. two pieces 30 in. are important. wide and 3/4 in. by 6 in. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. long. long by 22 in. above the ground.. and for the rear runners: A. 4 in. 1 is connected to point No. 7 in. & S. A variation of 1/16 in. . 3 in. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. B. long. Put arm of switch on point No. First sandpaper all the wood. by 5 in. 3. 3 and No. long. on No. Z.. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in.the way. B and C. 30 in. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. Fig. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. For the brass trimmings use No. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. and four pieces 14 in. The top disk in jar No. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. as they "snatch" the ice. Construct the auto front (Fig. by 1-1/4 in.. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. The connection between point No. 15-1/2 in. 2.. two pieces 14 in. 2 is lower down than in No. 4) of 3/4-in. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. as they are not substantial enough. 11 in. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. gives full current and full speed. wide and 2 in. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. long. by 2 in. making them clear those in the front runner. two for each jar. then apply a coat of thin enamel. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. however. and plane it on all edges. B. direct to wire across jars. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft.. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. thick. 2. No. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. C. C. or source of current. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. Use no nails. 27 B. For the front runners these measurements are: A. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. The illustration shows how to shape it. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. by 1-1/4 in. 1 and so on for No. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. beginning at the rear. Their size also depends on the voltage. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. At the front 24 or 26 in. 4. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. 1. On the door of the auto front put the .

a number of boys may share in the ownership. etc. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. by 30 in.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. cheap material. Fasten a horn. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. or with these for $25. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. a brake may be added to the sled. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. If the expense is greater than one can afford. brass plated. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. such as burlap. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. If desired. may be stowed within. cutting it out of sheet brass. which is somewhat moist. such as used on automobiles. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. lunch. to the wheel. overshoes. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. The best way is to get some strong. long. Then get some upholstery buttons. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . parcels. to improve the appearance. by 1/2 in. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. If desired. fasten a cord through the loop.

--Contributed by Stewart H. Leland. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. Lexington. . the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. Ill.tree and bring.

How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. will be over the line FG. FC. the same diameter as the wheel. The first tooth may now be cut. outside diameter and 1/16 in. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. from F to G. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. though more difficult. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. 3. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. a compass. 1. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. say 1 in. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. 2. made from 1/16-in. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. This guide should have a beveled edge. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. with twenty-four teeth. The straight-edge. thick. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. Fig. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. A small clearance space. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. by drawing diameters. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. mild steel or iron. With no other tools than a hacksaw. Fig. First take the case of a small gearwheel. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. CD. some files. when flat against it. Fig. sheet metal. so that the center of the blade. Draw a circle on paper. The Model Engineer. the cut will be central on the line. E. 4). and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. which. London. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread.

This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. ground it with a large piece of zinc. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. 2. 1. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide.Four Photos on One Plate of them. A bright. as shown in Fig. transmitter. each in the center. B. B. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. No shock will be perceptible. hold in one hand. Focus the camera in the usual manner. . substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. 1. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. If there is no faucet in the house. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. Then take one outlet wire. or several pieces bound tightly together. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. Make a hole in the other. either the pencils for arc lamps. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. and the other outlet wire. R. some wire and some carbons. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. electric lamp.

But in this experiment. at each end for terminals. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. J. D D are binding posts for electric wires. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. leaving about 10 in. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. by 12 in. Dry batteries are most convenient. under the gable. 36 wire around it. and about that size.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. are also needed. as shown. one at the receiver can hear what is said. They have screw ends. Emsworth. If desired. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. B. a transmitter which induces no current is used. Pa. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. and will then burn the string C. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. of course. One like a loaf of bread. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. serves admirably. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. --Contributed by Geo. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. For a base use a pine board 10 in. Wrenn. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. Ohio. Several battery cells. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. by 1 in. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. as indicated by E E. Then set the whole core away to dry. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. A is a wooden block. Slattery. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. or more of the latter has been used. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. Ashland. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. and again wind the wire around it. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire.

connecting lamp receptacles. 1. At one side secure two receptacles. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles.wire. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. while C is open. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. run a No. Fig. B B. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. C. The oven is now ready to be connected. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. and one single post switch. and switch. Place 16-cp. First make a support. D. From the other set of binding-posts. as shown. Newark. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. Jr. 12 or No. The apparatus is now ready for operation. as shown. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. for the . in series with bindingpost. B B. E. These should have hollow ends. The coil will commence to become warm. Turn on switch. C.. D. 2. and the lamps. F. Ohio. 14 wire. Fig. the terminal of the coil. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. Connect these three to switch. in parallel. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. until the hand points to zero on the scale. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian.

1/4 in. inside measurements. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . drill through the entire case and valve. wind with plenty of No.or 4-way valve or cock. remove the valve. It is 1 in. 4 in. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. 4 amperes. high. C. 2. long. 1/2 in. Mine is wound with two layers of No. a standard ammeter. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. and D. although brass is better. long and make a loop. 1. wide and 1-3/4 in. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand.. --Contributed by J. Fig. If for 3-way. 10 turns to each layer. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. although copper or steel will do. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. Fig. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. Fig. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. from the lower end. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. This is slipped on the pivot. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. as shown in the cut. The pointer or hand. Montreal. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. A wooden box. At a point a little above the center. Continue in this way with 2 amperes.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. 5. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. but if for a 4way. a battery. This may be made of wood. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. After drilling. Fig. thick. is then made and provided with a glass front. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. a variable resistance. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. D. Dussault. E. D. until the scale is full. 5. 14. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. 14 wire. is made of iron. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. The core. drill a hole as shown at H. The box is 5-1/2 in. deep. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. wide and 1/8 in. drill in only to the opening already through. 3 amperes. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. where A is the homemade ammeter. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. 1. 6. 3.E. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. 36 magnet wire instead of No. To make one. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. B. long. 4.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. is made of wire. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. 7. to prevent it turning on the axle. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. etc.

it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. E. B. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. provided with a rubber stopper. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. as shown. By connecting the motor. making two holes about 1/4 in. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. and the arc light. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. A. F. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. which is used for reducing the current. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. One wire runs to the switch. This stopper should be pierced. in diameter. To start the light. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. and the other connects with the water rheostat. in thickness . How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. and a metal rod. D.performing electrical experiments. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. high.

Fig. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. Turn on the current and press the button. as shown in C. A. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. If all adjustments are correct. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. Y. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. Fig. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. B. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. 2. 1. Fig. A piece of wood. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. If the interrupter does not work at first. Carthage. Having fixed the lead plate in position. As there shown. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. where he is placed in an upright open . 1. N. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. --Contributed by Harold L. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. 1. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. long. Fig. To insert the lead plate. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. Having finished the interrupter. as shown in B. 2. Jones. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel.

L and M. The lights. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view.. until it is dark there. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. They need to give a fairly strong light. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. by 7 in. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass.coffin. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. high. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. loosejointed effect. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. If everything is not black. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. should be miniature electric lamps. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. inside dimensions. The skeleton is made of papier maché. A. the illusion will be spoiled. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. giving a limp. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. and can be bought at Japanese stores. with the exception of the glass. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. All . is constructed as shown in the drawings. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. which can be run by three dry cells. The model. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. from which the gong has been removed. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. dressed in brilliant. light-colored garments. figures and lights. The glass should be the clearest possible. Its edges should nowhere be visible. as the entire interior. to aid the illusion. A white shroud is thrown over his body. If it is desired to place the box lower down. especially the joints and background near A. should be colored a dull black. especially L. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. and wave his arms up and down. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. could expect from a skeleton. by 7-1/2 in. and must be thoroughly cleansed. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. within the limits of an ordinary room.

fat spark. Fry. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. Cal. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. square block. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. If a gradual transformation is desired. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. after which it assumes its normal color. as shown in the sketch. San Jose. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. Two finishing nails were driven in. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. W. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. placed about a foot apart. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. --Contributed by Geo. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for .that is necessary is a two-point switch.

One of these plates is connected to metal top. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. into the receiver G. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. by small pieces of wood. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. Cohen. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. In Fig. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. F. In Fig. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. If a lighted match . which is filled with melted rosin or wax. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. to make it airtight. and should be separated about 1/8 in.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. with two tubes. or a solution of sal soda. as shown. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. the remaining space will be filled with air. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. 1. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. hydrogen gas is generated. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. This is a wide-mouth bottle. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. soldered in the top. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. B and C. The plates are separated 6 in. A (see sketch). which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. New York. -Contributed by Dudley H. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling.

then a suitable burner is necessary. A. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. as is shown in the illustration. The distance between the nipple. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. Fig. says the Model Engineer. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. by means of the clips. from the bottom. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. which should be magnetized previous to assembling.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. If desired. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. A nipple. either by passing a current of electricity around it. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. Fig. 2 shows the end view. C C. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. is then coiled around the brass tube. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. N. long. 1. 1-5/16 in. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. in diameter and 6 in. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . 1/2 in. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. A. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. is made by drilling a 1/8in. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. which is plugged up at both ends. A piece of 1/8-in. copper pipe. One row is drilled to come directly on top. long. of No. or by direct contact with another magnet. and the ends of the tube. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. 36 insulated wire. A. which forms the vaporizing coil. N. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. P. London. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. should be only 5/16 of an inch. copper pipe. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. B. A 1/64-in. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. A.

lamp cord. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. trim both ends and the front edge. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. but if the paper knife cannot be used. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. at the front and back for fly leaves. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. longer and 1/4 in. duck or linen. 1. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). Cut four pieces of cardboard. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. leaving the folded edge uncut. Turn the book over and paste the other side. this makes a much nicer book. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. Fig. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. taking care not to bend the iron. boards and all. Take two strips of stout cloth. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. Fig. smoothly. Fig. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. about 8 or 10 in. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. 1/4 in. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. 2). A disk of thin sheet-iron. 3. larger all around than the book. fold and cut it 1 in. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. with a fine saw. cut to the size of the pages. should be cut to the diameter of the can. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out.

Noble. Another can. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. Another tank. the joint will be gas tight. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. or rather the top now. is turned on it. D. is fitted in it and soldered. Parker. A. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. H. C. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. A gas cock. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. Toronto. . deep. B. as shown in the sketch. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. In the bottom. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. and a little can. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. This will cause some air to be enclosed. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. without a head. Bedford City. pasting them down (Fig. Ont. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. --Contributed by James E. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. which will just slip inside the little can. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. is soldered onto tank A. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. of tank A is cut a hole. is perforated with a number of holes. is made the same depth as B. as shown. in diameter and 30 in. --Contributed by Joseph N. 18 in. E. but its diameter is a little smaller. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. 4). This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. Va.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back.

should be 3/8 in. 2. and the four diagonal struts. Beverly. The bridle knots. B. The small guards. -Contributed by H. C. which may be either spruce. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. Fig. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. The longitudinal corner spines. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. If the back armature. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. with an electric-bell magnet. which moves to either right or left. and about 26 in. E. basswood or white pine. B. D. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. fastened in the bottom. If the pushbutton A is closed. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. as shown at C.. Bott. J.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. D. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. square by 42 in. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. shows how the connections are to be made. Fig. 1. to prevent splitting. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. The armature. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. should be 1/4 in. The diagonal struts. N. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. A. B. long. tacks. S. The wiring diagram. are shown in detail at H and J. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. should be cut a little too long. by 1/2 in. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. H is a square knot. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. when finished. long. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. making the width. exactly 12 in. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. and sewed double to give extra strength. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. thus adjusting the . A A. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position.

Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. the batteries do not run down for a long time. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. D. Closing either key will operate both sounders. shift toward F. --Contributed by Edw. for producing electricity direct from heat. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. to prevent slipping.lengths of F and G. and. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. thus shortening G and lengthening F. Chicago. --Contributed by A. with gratifying results. Clay Center. however. and if a strong wind is blowing. Kan. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. E. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. Stoddard. A bowline knot should be tied at J. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. can be made of a wooden . Harbert. as shown. that refuse to slide easily. If the kite is used in a light wind. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G.

C. A. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. which conducts the current into the cannon. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. B.frame. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. A. 16 single-covered wire. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. A. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. --Contributed by A. in position. with a number of nails. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. D. or parallel with the compass needle. Chicago. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. C. and also holds the pieces of wood. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. E. placed on top. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. and the current may then be detected by means. 14 or No. A and B. spark. E. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore.. The wood screw. Fasten a piece of wood. When the cannon is loaded. F. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. to the cannon. with a pocket compass. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. by means of machine screws or. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. Then. C.

Before putting the reverse block on the motor. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. square and 3/8 in. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. Bend the strips BB (Fig. within the reach of the magnet. Connect as shown in the illustration. Ohio. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. in this position the door is locked. Keil. --Contributed by Joseph B. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. 1. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. A and S. where there is a staple. Chicago. Fig. A. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. A hole for a 1/2 in. To unlock the door. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. 1. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. to receive the screw in the center. Big Rapids. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. 1. when in position at A'. In Fig. B. Fig. now at A' and S'. requiring a strong magnet. but no weights or strings. --Contributed by Henry Peck. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. with the long arm at L'. . remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. L. press the button. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. To reverse. To lock the door. A and S. Marion. Mich.the current is shut off. screw is bored in the block. H. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest.

West Somerville. put in the handle. pipe with 1-2-in. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. hole. Thread the other end of the pipe. gas-pipe. if enameled white on the concave side. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. --Contributed by C. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. and if desired the handles may . J. and C is a dumbbell. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. and may be made at very slight expense. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. are enameled a jet black. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. or for microscopic work. Rand. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. The standard and base. long. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. Mass. When ready for use. about 18 in. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. When the holes are finished and your lines set. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings.

high by 1 ft. Fig. B. Make a cylindrical core of wood. as shown at A in the sketch. Mass. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. E. D. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . with a cover.be covered with leather. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. M. Any old pail which is thick enough will do.. 1. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. across. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. 8 in. Fig. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. North Easton. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. This peculiar property is also found in ice. Warren. A. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. --Contributed by C. across. long and 8 in. inside the pail. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. 1. which shall project at least 2 in.

in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. about 1 in. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. After removing all the paper. the point of the blue flame. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. and 3/8 in. pipe. of fine wire.. Wind about 1/8 in. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. if you have the materials. It is placed inside the kiln. or make one yourself. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. let this dry thoroughly. and your kiln is ready for business. in diameter. C. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. and with especial caution the first time. make two wood ends. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. say 1/4 in. W. L. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. Whatever burner is used. 60%. sand. if there is to be any glazing done. wider than the kiln. 1330°. thick. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. passing wire nails through and clinching them. and on it set the paper wrapped core. layer of the clay mixture. 15%. and 3/4 in. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. which is the hottest part. pack this space-top. as dictated by fancy and expense. E. long. strip of sheet iron.mixture of clay. cutting the hole a little smaller. in diameter. bottom and sides. to hold the clay mixture. Line the pail. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen.. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. 1). Set aside for a few days until well dried. carefully centering it. Cover with paper and shellac as before. and varnish. 25%. the firing should be gradual. but it will burn a great deal of gas. projecting from each end (Fig. If the cover of the pail has no rim. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. thick. full length of iron core. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. 1390°-1410°. Fig. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. hotel china. When lighted. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. and cut it 3-1/2 in. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. but will be cheaper in operation. long over the lid hole as a chimney. The 2 in. Fit all the parts together snugly. and graphite. as is shown in the sketch.-G. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. 1). shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. 2. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. diameter.. pipe 2-ft. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. C. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. hard porcelain. This done. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. After finishing the core. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. such . 3) with false top and bottom. C. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. 2 in.

and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. --Contributed by J. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. You can display either color called for. square them up. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. 2). and divide it into two piles. Washington. red and black. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. Then. as shown in the sketch herewith. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. 8 in. around the coil. Chicago. C. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. B. C. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. procure a new deck.53 in. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich.. length of . square them up and place in a vise. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. Next restore all the cards to one pack. about 1/16 in. and so on. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. and discharges into the tube. C. the next black. taking care to have the first card red. R. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. bind tightly with black silk. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. A. T. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. overlaps and rests on the body. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. and plane off about 1/16 in. . 1. Then take the black cards. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. every alternate card being the same color. Of course. with a plane. as in Fig. 2. D. as in Fig. The funnel. Take the red cards. 2. diameter. leaving long terminals. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. all cards facing the same way.

This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. and then the frame is ready to assemble. B. Fig. E. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. Let . pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. the same ends will come together again. of the frame. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. A. To find the fall of snow. The cement. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. The bottom glass should be a good fit.. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. stove bolts. about 20 in. 1 gill of fine white sand. the first thing to decide on is the size. so that when they are assembled. to form a dovetail joint as shown. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. A. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. It should be placed in an exposed location. C.C. as the difficulties increase with the size. B. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. F. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. B. The upright pieces. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. Long Branch. 1. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. All the horizontal pieces. Drill all the horizontal pieces. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. 1 gill of litharge. thus making all the holes coincide. When the glass is put in the frame a space. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. angle iron for the frame.J. through the holes already drilled. E. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. N. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. and this is inexpensive to build. stove bolts. D.

In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. a centerpiece (A. having a swinging connection at C.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. and. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. on the door by means of a metal plate. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. if desired. Aquarium Finished If desired. B. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . D. Fig. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. Fasten the lever. to the door knob. A.

and another. Fig. to form the main supports of the frame. 3 shows one of the paddles. 1. A small piece of spring brass. Fig. 2 is an end view. to keep the frame from spreading. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. Two short boards 1 in. which is 15 in. from the outside top of the frame. long. hoping it may solve the same question for them. 2 ft. Do not fasten these boards now. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. screwed to the door frame. Cut two pieces 30 in. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. and Fig. long. --Contributed by Orton E. long. N. B. wide . soldered to the end of the cylinder. will open the door about 1/2 in. another. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. to form the slanting part. approximately 1 ft. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. I referred this question to my husband. AA. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. long. according to the slant given C. Fig. F. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. Fig. 1 is the motor with one side removed. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. another.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. Fig. with a water pressure of 70 lb. Cut two of them 4 ft. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. To make the frame. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. C. thus doing away with the spring. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. 1 . 6 in. They are shown in Fig. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. 2 at GG. E. Fig. but mark their position on the frame. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. showing the paddle-wheel in position. Y. White. as at E. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. Buffalo. for the top. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. wide by 1 in. 1. PAUL S. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles.. several lengths of scantling 3 in. D. 26 in.

Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. remove the cardboard. tapering from 3/16 in. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. hole through their sides centrally. iron 3 by 4 in. hole through them. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. after which drill a 5/8 in. hole to form the bearings. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. Drill 1/8-in. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. Next secure a 5/8-in. Fig. GG. 24 in. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. Fig. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. steel shaft 12 in. Now block the wheel. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. iron. (I. 4. that is. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. Tack one side on. and drill a 1/8-in. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. hole through its center. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. Make this hole conical. take down the crosspieces. as shown in Fig. Fig. by 1-1/2 in. When it has cooled. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. thick. and a 1/4 -in. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). Take the side pieces. then drill a 3/16-in. These are the paddles. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. with the wheel and shaft in place.along the edges under the zinc to form . This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. pipe. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. long to the wheel about 8 in. hole from the tops to the 1-in. thick (HH. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. long and filling it with babbitt metal. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. Fasten them in their proper position. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. and drill a 1-in. hole through the exact center of the wheel. 2) form a substantial base. holes. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. 2) with a 5/8-in.burlap will do -. to a full 1/2 in. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. in diameter. 1. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. 2) and another 1 in. from one end by means of a key. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer.

shutting out all light from above and the sides. or what is called a process plate. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. it would be more durable. drill press. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. Focus the camera carefully. If sheet-iron is used.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. sewing machine. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. light and the plate. . This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. place the outlet over a drain. says the Photographic Times. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. but now I put them in the machine. start the motor. of course. and the subject may move. Correct exposure depends. any window will do. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. remove any white curtains there may be. but as it would have cost several times as much. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. Darken the rest of the window. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. Drill a hole through the zinc.a water-tight joint. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. and as near to it as possible. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. as this makes long exposure necessary. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. It is obvious that. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. and leave them for an hour or so. Raise the window shade half way. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. ice-cream freezer. Do not stop down the lens. The best plate to use is a very slow one. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. If the bearings are now oiled. on the lens. as shown in the sketch at B.

reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. a core. A.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. without detail in the face. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. the core is drawn down out of sight. an empty pill bottle may be used. 2. and a base. which is made of iron and cork. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. or an empty developer tube. D. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. by twisting. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. The current required is very small. C. as a slight current will answer. The glass tube may be a test tube. full of water. 2. as shown in Fig. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. and without fog. or wood. a glass tube. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. On completing . Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. with binding posts as shown. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. until the core slowly rises. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. or can be taken from an old magnet. The core C. B. With a piece of black paper. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. hard rubber.

Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. finest graphite. water and 3 oz. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. 1 lb. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. This is a mysterious looking instrument. and one not easy to explain. according to his control of the current. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. and are changed by reversing the rotation. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. and make a pinhole in the center. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. 1. white lead. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . The colors appear different to different people. is Benham's color top. whale oil. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. 1 pt. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig.

This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. nearly every time. As this device is easily upset. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. A. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. fan-like. deuce. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. especially if the deck is a new one. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. C. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. before cutting. B.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. In making hydrogen. or three spot. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant.. In prize games. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. Chicago. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. thus partly filling bottles A and C. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more.B. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. -Contributed by D. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B.L. when the action ceases. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words.

2 is also an enlarged sketch. 4. 12 in.. 10 in. Make a 10-sided stick. long. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. Detroit. Dak. . that will fit loosely in the tube A. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. 3).requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. Form a cone of heavy paper. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. Fig. --Contributed by C. in diameter. long and 3 in. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. --Contributed by F. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. Jr. in length and 3 in. S. W. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. 1. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue.. Huron. S. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. as shown in Fig. J. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. 2. 9 in. Detail of Phonograph Horn . Bently. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. (Fig. Fig.

long. making it three-ply thick. it is equally easy to block that trick.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. bend it at right angles throughout its length. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. push back the bolt. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. about the size of a leadpencil. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. Cut out paper sections (Fig. --Contributed by Reader. Denver. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. C. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. A. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. allowing 1 in. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. with a pin driven in each end. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. A second piece of silk thread. will cause an increased movement of C. E. on one side and the top. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. and walk in. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. Fig. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. Remove the form. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. but bends toward D. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. A piece of tin. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. 6. Fortunately.

. The reverse switch. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. A. Jr. B. The feet. is connected each point to a battery. are made 2 by 4 in. --Contributed by J. The upper switch. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. Two wood-base switches. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. W. Paul. S. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. S S. By this arrangement one. posts.strip. Minn. The 2 by 4-in. Fremont Hilscher. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . R. as shown. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. B. are 7 ft. 4 ft. and rest on a brick placed under each end. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. will last for several years. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire.. S. or left to right. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. put together as shown in the sketch. while the lower switch. long. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. West St. long.

FF. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. The base is made of wood. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. and a cylindrical . and in Fig. The valve motion is shown in Figs. which will be described later. pulley wheel. 1. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. or anything available. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. The piston is made of a stove bolt. which is made of tin. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. The hose E connects to the boiler. cut in half. thick. and the crank bearing C.every house. the other parts being used for the bearing B. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. with two washers. is an old bicycle pump. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. and has two wood blocks. In Fig. H and K. E. Fig. 2. either an old sewing-machine wheel. Fig. and valve crank S. 2 and 3. 3/8 in. The steam chest D. the size of the hole in the bearing B.

to receive the connecting rod H. 3. using the positive wire as a pen. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. or galvanized iron. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. J. This is wound with soft string. W. 4. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. First. Fig. powder can. and a very amusing trick. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. Cal. G. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. as shown in Fig. San Jose. and the desired result is obtained. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. as it is merely a trick of photography.piece of hard wood. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. Fry. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. --Contributed by Geo. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. 1. This engine was built by W. The valve crank S. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. is cut out of tin. Schuh and A. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. and saturated with thick oil. . Eustice. C. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. Wis. at that. Fig. The boiler. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. can be an old oil can. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. G. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. of Cuba.

They may be of any size. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. and place a bell on the four ends. 1 by covering up Figs. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. C. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. Fig. B. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. as shown at AA. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. When turning. and Fig. Fig. Cut half circles out of each stave. Fig. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. as shown. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. B. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. The smaller wheel. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. 1 will be seen to rotate. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. diameter. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. and pass ropes around . first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. to cross in the center.

To make this lensless microscope. long. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. produces a higher magnifying power). W. This in turn will act on the transmitter. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. A (a short spool. which accounts for the sound.G. From a piece of thin . and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. as shown in the illustration. --Contributed by H. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. which allows the use of small sized ropes.M. Mo.. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. but not on all. from the transmitter. such as clothes lines. procure a wooden spool. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. Louis. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. St. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E.

is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. bent as shown. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. D. which costs little or nothing to make. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye.) But an object 3/4-in. darting across the field in every direction. is fastened at each end by pins.. Viewed through this microscope. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. B. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. To use this microscope. fastened to a wooden base. i. A. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. C. is made of iron. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. if the distance is reduced to one-half. the object should be of a transparent nature. The pivot. and look through the hole D. E. 1. which are pieces of hard wood. held at arm's length. place a small object on the transparent disk. H. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. (The area would appear 64 times as large. and at the center. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size.. C. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. cut out a small disk. the diameter will appear three times as large. D. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. if the distance is reduced to one-third. otherwise the image will be blurred. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. the diameter will appear twice as large. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. and so on. as in all microscopes of any power. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. B. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. An innocent-looking drop of water. can be made of brass and the armature. or 64 times. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. Fig. in which hay has been soaking for several days. . The lever. e. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. 2. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. 3. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. by means of brads. The spring.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica.

wood: F. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. brass: E. B. 26 wire: E. Fig. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. wide. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. KEY-A. brass or iron soldered to nail. or a single piece. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. The base of the key. binding posts: H spring The stop. wood: C. fastened near the end. long. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. wide. Fig. wood. is cut from a board about 36 in. or taken from a small one-point switch. K. C. wide. brass: B. should be about 22 in. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. can be made panel as shown. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. B. Cut the top. connection of D to nail. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. D. thick. The door. wide and set in between sides AA. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. and are connected to the contacts. wide and about 20 in. AA. E. The back. F. D. which are made to receive a pivot. A switch. brass. 16 in. between the armature and the magnet. coils wound with No. nail soldered on A. A. K.SOUNDER-A. The binding posts. FF. 2. Each side. 1. long by 16 in. in length and 16 in. soft iron. D. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. wide. long and 14-1/2 in. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. C. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. HH. similar to the one used in the sounder. 16 in. . DD.

This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. long. material. In operation.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. with 3/4-in. cut in them. 2 and made from 1/4-in. AA. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. 13-1/2 in. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. Ill. When the electrical waves strike the needle. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver.. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. Make 12 cleats. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. Garfield. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. as shown in the sketch. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. brads. E. as shown. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire .

E. in order to increase the surface. and thus decreases the resistance. Y. through which a piece of wire is passed. B. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. Brown. C. N. N. Ridgewood. and. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. The cord is also fastened to a lever. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. A (see sketch). the magnet.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. down into the water increases the surface in contact. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. A. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. Pushing the wire. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . pulls down the armature. filled with water. When the pipe is used. A. A fairly stiff spring. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. --Contributed by R. Fairport. J. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. will give a greater speed. F. when used with a motor. --Contributed by John Koehler.

while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. --Contributed by Perry A. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. B. Gachville. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. even those who read this description. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. Of course. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram.for the secret contact. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. N. Borden. if desired. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7.

long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. in a semicircle 2 in. C. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. E. The top board is made 28-in. Connect switch to post B. D. and on both sides of the middle shelf. deep and 3/4 in. From a piece of brass a switch. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. for 10in. for 6-in. long and full 12-in. --Contributed by H. 1. With about 9 ft. Cal. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. records. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. Dobson. wide. records and 5-5/8 in. wide. Washington. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. thick and 12-in. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. wide. Jr. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. --Contributed by Dr. J. C. Two drawers are fitted in this space. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. The three shelves are cut 25-in. wide. Nails for stops are placed at DD. wide bore holes about 1/4 in.whenever the bell rings. where the other end of wire is fastened. as shown in Fig. long and 5 in. apart. from the bottom. wide. H. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. East Orange. Compton. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. as shown in Fig. 2.. A. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. N. . long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. Mangold.

Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . Roanoke. which in operation is bent. to which is fastened a cord. closed. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. A. as shown in Fig. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. Va. E. as shown by the dotted lines. When the cord is passed over pulley C. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. --Contributed by Douglas Royer.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. B. 1.

against which the rubber tubing. The crankpin should fit tightly. is compressed by wheels. Fig. deep and 1/2 in. Fig. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. through one of these holes. E. long. E. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. 3. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. they will bind. excepting the crank and tubing. deep. holes (HH. wide. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. 1. Notice the break (S) in the track. Fig. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. Bore two 1/4 in. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. In these grooves place wheels. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. Do not fasten the sides too . Cut two grooves. B. 4 shows the wheel-holder. Figs. 1 in. but a larger one could be built in proportion. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. wide. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. apart. thick (A. in diameter. Figs. one in each end. If the wheels fit too tightly. CC. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. which should be about 1/2 in. Put the rubber tube. D. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. 3). 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. in diameter. These wheels should be 3/4 in. to turn on pins of stout wire. In the sides (Fig. thick. as shown in the illustration. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. in diameter. in diameter. 1 in. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. square and 7/8 in. it too loose. 5) when they are placed. they will let the air through. Now put all these parts together.

1. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. tubing. 1. mark again. as shown in Fig. A in Fig. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. Fig. Fig. The animal does not fear to enter the box. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. a platform should be added. Fig. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. Kan. long. 2. as it gives steadiness to the motion. 17-1/2 in. AA. beyond each of these two. is all the expense necessary. 1. 1. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. mark for hole and 3 in. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. costing 10 cents. because he can . 2. AA. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. iron. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. B. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. from each end. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. --Contributed by Dan H. the other wheel has reached the bottom. In the two cross bars 1 in. from that mark the next hole. from each end. and 3-1/2 in. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. 15 in. The three legs marked BBB. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. and mark for a hole. The screen which is shown in Fig. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. For ease in handling the pump. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. Take the center of the bar. from each end. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. from the bottom and 2 in. Hubbard. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. If the motion of the wheels is regular. To use the pump. Then turn the crank from left to right. though a small iron wheel is better. 1. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. the pump will give a steady stream. of material. Fig.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. stands 20 in. Two feet of 1/4-in. and are 30 in. Idana. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. Cut six pieces.

however. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. When through using the battery. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. sulphuric acid. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. of the top. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. stirring constantly. If the solution touches the zinc. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. When the bichromate has all dissolved. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. Philadelphia. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. of water dissolve 4 oz. add slowly. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. Meyer. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. If it is wet. 14 copper wire. or. there is too much liquid in the jar. 4 oz. potassium bichromate. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. giving it a bright. and touches the bait the lid is released and. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. The truncated. shuts him in. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. The battery is now complete. 1) must be prepared. Place the carbon in the jar. The mercury will adhere. or small electric motors. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. If the battery has been used before. long having two thumb screws. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. The battery is now ready for use. and the solution (Fig. To cause a flow of electricity. .see through it: when he enters. some of it should be poured out. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. It is useful for running induction coils. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. dropping. 2). --Contributed by H. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. acid 1 part). it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. silvery appearance. until it is within 3 in. rub the zinc well. but if one casts his own zinc. C. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. Next procure what is known as a wire connector.

Wis. i. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. Madison. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. the battery circuit. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W.. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. e. After putting in the coal. while the coal door is being opened. pressing the pedal closes the door. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. The price of the coil depends upon its size. with slight changes. however. If. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use.Fig. which opens the door. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. the jump-spark coil .

and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. This coil. Fig. as shown in Fig. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. while a 12-in. 6. After winding. coil. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. 6. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. made of No. Now for the receiving apparatus. in a straight line from top to bottom. in a partial vacuum. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. being a 1-in. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit.7. . 7. and closer for longer distances. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. W W. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. 5. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. W W. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. as shown in Fig. Change the coil described. This will make an excellent receiver. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. which is made of light copper wire. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. apart. the full length of the coil. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. diameter. 7.described elsewhere in this book. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. 7).

using an electric motor and countershaft. and hence the aerial line. in the air. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. . attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. and for best results should extend up 50 ft.6 stranded. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. may be easily made at very little expense. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No.The aerial line. A. 1). A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. No. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. 90°. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. where A is the headstock. Figs. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. only. For an illustration. These circles. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. The writer does not claim to be the originator. 1 to 4. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). 90°. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. at any point to any metal which is grounded. after all. as it matches the color well. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. I run my lathe by power. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. but simply illustrates the above to show that. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. being at right angles. which will be described later. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. are analogous to the flow of induction. A large cone pulley would then be required. but it could be run by foot power if desired. to the direction of the current. above the ground. Run a wire from the other binding post. B the bed and C the tailstock. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. being vertical.

Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. 4. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. but not hot enough to burn it. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. The bolts B (Fig. on the under side of the bed. pitch and 1/8 in. Heat the babbitt well. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. 2 and 3. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. Fig. Fig. which are let into holes FIG. too. If the bearing has been properly made. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . 5. and Fig. B. To make these bearings. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. one of which is shown in Fig. deep. tapered wooden pin. A. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. After pouring. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. The headstock. 4. and runs in babbitt bearings. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. thick. 6 Headstock Details D. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. The bearing is then ready to be poured. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. 5. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. just touching the shaft. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. Fig. and it is well to have the shaft hot. Fig. steel tubing about 1/8 in. which pass through a piece of wood. 6.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft.

they may be turned up after assembling. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. Ill. lock nut. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. so I had to buy one. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. and a 1/2-in. Oak Park. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. If not perfectly true. The tail stock (Fig.J. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. Newark.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. the alarm is easy to fix up. This prevents corrosion. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. N. Take up about 5 ft. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue.other machines. B. of the walk . A. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. If one has a wooden walk. embedded in the wood. FIG.

Minneapolis. to roughen the surface slightly. To avoid touching it. save when a weight is on the trap. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. of water. so that they will not touch. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. Jackson. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. Minn. --Contributed by R. Finally. to remove all traces of grease. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. add potassium cyanide again. 2). American ash in 1-1/2 pt. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. before dipping them in the potash solution. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. Fig. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. (A. clean the articles thoroughly. leaving a clear solution. Then make the solution . by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. hang the articles on the wires. S. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. and the alarm is complete. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. water. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. Do not touch the work with the hands again. silver or other metal. Connect up an electric bell. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder.

Then. 3) strikes the bent wire L. To provide the keyhole. 3. light strokes. when the point of the key touches the tin. silver can be plated direct. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. saw a piece of wood. On brass. Fig. from the lower end. as at F. 18 wire. with water. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. lead. I. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. If accumulators are used. such metals as iron. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. pewter. The wooden block C. 10 in. shaking. 1). with water. Fig. Where Bunsen cells are used. German silver. a circuit is completed. with the pivot 2 in. A 1/4 in. 1 not only unlocks. Screw the two blocks together. thick by 3 in. as shown in Fig. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. In rigging it to a sliding door. and 4 volts for very small ones. and then treated as copper. will serve for the key. but opens the door. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. Fig. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. Take quick. This solution. must be about 1 in. make a key and keyhole. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. which . and the larger part (F.up to 2 qt. which is advised. copper. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt.5 to 4 volts. Before silver plating. 1 in. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. If more solution is required. Make a somewhat larger block (E. Repeat six times. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. which is held by catch B. an old electric bell or buzzer. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. B should be of the same wood. long. long. zinc. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. nickel and such metals. if one does not possess a buffing machine. of water. A (Fig. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. use 2 volts for large articles. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. When all this is set up. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. a hand scratch brush is good. Having finished washing the precipitate. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. The wooden catch. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. 3) directly over the hole. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. Fig. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. square. With an electric pressure of 3. piece of broomstick. about 25 ft. hole in its center. 1). of clothesline rope and some No. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. --Model Engineer. also. 1. Can be made of a 2-in. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys.

H. which unlocks the door. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. although a little more trouble. he tosses it into the cave. enlarged. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. Fig. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. cut in one side. 2. is the cut through which the rope runs. H. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. 3. and black art reigns supreme. the illumination in front must be arranged. he points with one finger to the box.. and a slit. the requisites are a large soap box. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. top. to throw the light toward the audience. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. sides and end. shows catch B. 1. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. between the parlor and the room back of it. and plenty of candles. East Orange. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. The interior must be a dead black. To prepare such a magic cave. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). so much the better. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. and finally lined inside with black cloth. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. Fig. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. Klipstein. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. New Jersey. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. no painting inside is required. One end is removed. floor. or cave. Fig. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. with the lights turned low. 116 Prospect St. On either side of the box. The box must be altered first. with a switch as in Fig. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. half way from open end to closed end. 1. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. surrounding a perfectly black space. one-third of the length from the remaining end. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. Thus. In front of you. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. 2. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. should be cut a hole. a few simple tools. and hands its contents round to the audience. Receiving the bowl again. the box should be painted black both inside and out. The magician stands in front of this. such as forks. B. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. --Contributed by E. some black cloth. in his shirt sleeves. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. . fly about in the box at the will of the operator. H. heighten the illusion. Fig. One thing changes to another and back again. some black paint. Objects appear and disappear. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. spoons and jackknives. Heavy metal objects. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. He removes the bowl from the black box. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. Next. 0. Next.

and several black drop curtains. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm.Finally. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. Consequently. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. only he. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. which are let down through the slit in the top. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. if. The exhibitor should be . and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. you must have an assistant. The audience room should have only low lights. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. and pours them from the bag into a dish. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. which can be made to dance either by strings. and if portieres are impossible. as presented by Hermann. was identical with this. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. had a big stage. is on a table) so much the better. of course. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. The illusion. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. into the eyes of him who looks. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. a screen must be used. his confederate behind inserts his hand. of course. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. But illusions suggest themselves. in which are oranges and apples. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. one on each side of the box. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. the room where the cave is should be dark. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant.

so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . respectively. FIG. Then. so arranged that. c3.a boy who can talk. square. d. if you turn handle K to the right. 1. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. held down on it by two terminals. or binding posts. or b2. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. b3. and c4 + electricity. and c1 – electricity. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. and c2 to the zinc. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. at L. their one end just slips under the strips b1. by means of two wood screws. held down on disk F by two other terminals. f2.. and a common screw. A represents a pine board 4 in. when handle K is turned to one side. b2. respectively. c4. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. 2. with three brass strips. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. e1 and e2. by 4 in. as shown in Fig. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. A. making contact with them.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. vice versa. b2. terminal c3 will show . Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. b3. c2. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. Fig. terminal c3 will show +. respectively. 2. making contact with them as shown at y. is shown in the diagram. On the disk G are two brass strips. b1. c1. 1.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). About the center piece H moves a disk. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. held down by another disk F (Fig. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. Finally. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. 2).

Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. When switch B is closed and A is on No. Joerin. from four batteries. E. -Contributed by A. 3. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. from five batteries. you have the current of one battery. 1. thus making the message audible in the receiver. when on No. 4. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. when on No. B is a onepoint switch. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. 5. jump spark coil. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. from three batteries. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. and then hold the receiver to your ear. --Contributed by Eugene F. Newark. and when on No. when A is on No. Jr.. . Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. Ohio. and C and C1 are binding posts. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. Tuttle. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b.

of Burlington. When you do not have a graduate at hand. and placed on the windowsill of the car. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. mark. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. over the bent portion of the rule. E. A. as shown in the sketch. P. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. traveled by the thread. A. per second for each second.. mark. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. Redmond. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. is the device of H. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. A. and supporting the small weight. B. La. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. Wis. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. The device thus arranged. so one can see the time. Thus.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. per second. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. rule. New Orleans. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. Handy Electric Alarm . which may be a button or other small object.

I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. B. --Contributed by Gordon T. but may be closed at F any time desired. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. Instead. C. Pa.which has a piece of metal. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. Then if a mishap comes. Lane. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. which illuminates the face of the clock. S. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. wrapping the wire around the can several times. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. --C. When the alarm goes off. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. soldered to the alarm winder. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. . Crafton. for a wetting is the inevitable result. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. and with the same result. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward.

whence it is soon tracked into the house. ornaments of various kinds. The first thing to make is a molding bench. engines. L. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. as shown. cannons. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. as shown in Fig. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. New York City. small machinery parts. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. 1 . The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. which may. A. Macey. AA. when it is being prepared. With the easily made devices about to be described. It is possible to make molds without a bench. battery zincs. C. and duplicates of all these. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. models and miniature objects. Two cleats. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. binding posts. 1. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. --Contributed by A. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. If there is no foundry Fig.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. BE. and many other interesting and useful articles. bearings. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. but it is a mistake to try to do this.

Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. by 6 in. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. but this operation will be described more fully later on. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. which can be either aluminum. 1. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. Fig. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. The flask." or upper half. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. is shown more clearly in Fig. which should be nailed in. A A. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. If the box is not very strong. Fig. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. The rammer. G. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. 2.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. the "cope. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. If desired the sieve may be homemade. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. and this. high. and saw it in half longitudinally. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. try using sand from other sources. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. and the "drag. and the lower pieces. D. An old teaspoon. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. say 12 in. A slight shake of the bag Fig. which can be made of a knitted stocking. makes a very good sieve. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. and a sieve. The dowels. is filled with coal dust. The cloth bag. is about the right mesh. by 8 in. It is made of wood and is in two halves. previous to sawing. is nailed to each end of the cope. as shown. J. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. F. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. CC. II . which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. as shown. 1. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. a little larger than the outside of the flask. E. A wedge-shaped piece. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. 2 . H.How to Make a Mold [96] . CC." or lower part. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. DD.near at hand. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. is made of wood. will be required. white metal.

The sand is then ready for molding. as shown at C. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. turn the drag other side up. In finishing the ramming. as shown. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. After ramming. and by grasping with both hands. as shown at E.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. and scatter about 1/16 in. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. where they can watch the molders at work. as described. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. and if water is added. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. and then more sand is added until Fig. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. as shown at D. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle." in position. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. and thus judge for himself. in order to remove the lumps. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. or "cope. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. or "drag. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. It is then rammed again as before. Place another cover board on top. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. as it is much easier to learn by observation. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. the surface of the sand at ." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A.

from the surface of the mold to the pattern. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. III. as shown at J. Place a brick or other flat. Fig. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. as shown at H. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. After drawing the pattern. place the cope back on the drag. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. in diameter. This is done with a spoon. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. as shown at G. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. thus holding the crucible securely. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. wide and about 1/4 in. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. The "sprue. in order to prevent overheating. deep. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. and then pour. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. thus making a dirty casting. as shown in the sketch. as shown at H. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. made out of steel rod. it shows that the sand is too wet. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. is next cut. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. as shown at F. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire." or pouring-hole. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. . after being poured. to give the air a chance to escape. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag.E should be covered with coal-dust. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern.

but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. and. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. or from any adjacent pair of cells. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. may be used in either direction. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. babbitt. Although the effect in the illustration . The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. although somewhat expensive. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. and the casting is then ready for finishing. battery zincs. used only for zinc. Referring to the figure. Morton. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. the following device will be found most convenient. In my own case I used four batteries. but any reasonable number may be used. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. 15% lead. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. white metal and other scrap available. is very desirable. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. Minneapolis. --Contributed by Harold S. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. If a good furnace is available.

split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. Chicago. To make it take a sheet-iron band. Make one of these pieces for each arm. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. --Contributed by Draughtsman. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. Then walk down among the audience. outward. as shown in the illustration. B. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. 2. shaft made. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. B. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. If desired. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. as shown at A. The brass rings also appear distorted. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. which will be sufficient to hold it. 3/4 in. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. A. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. By replacing the oars with paddles. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. The bearings. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. may be made of hardwood. Then replace the table. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. connected by cords to the rudder. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . Put a sharp needle point. Fig. backward.

1. when it will again return to its original state. E. 2 and 3. If galvanized iron is used. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. In the same way. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. 1. or under pressure. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. 3. 1. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. Fig. should be made of wood. and a weight. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. A block of ice. spoiling its appearance. C. or the paint will come off. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. A. Snow. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. 2. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. W. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. The hubs. If babbitt is used.melted babbitt. The covers. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. but when in motion. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. being simply finely divided ice. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. D. It may seem strange that ice .

makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. whenever there is any connection made at all. --Contributed by Gordon T. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. by 5 in. but. as per sketch. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. by 1/4. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. or supporting it in some similar way. Pa. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. B. as shown on page 65. brass. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. Pressing either push button. thus giving a high resistance contact. square. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. The rate of flow is often very slow. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight.should flow like water. P. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown.. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. by 1/2 in. by 2 in. sometimes only one or two feet a day. Crafton. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. but by placing it between books. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. no matter how slow the motion may be. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. in. Lane. it will gradually change from the original shape A. and assume the shape shown at B. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. which resembles ice in this respect.

horizontal lever. C. G. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. weight. D. as shown. the battery. In the wiring diagram. E. J. as shown. I. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. G. B. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. about the size used for automobiles. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. K . Wilkinsburg. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. vertical lever. draft. the induction coil. and five dry batteries. draft chain. and C.thumb screws. Pa. F. B. The success depends upon a slow current. cord. Ward. --Contributed by A. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. Indianapolis. A is the circuit breaker. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. wooden supports. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. H. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. alarm clock. pulleys. furnace. The parts are: A. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit.000 ft.

A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. as well as the bottom. Artistic Window Boxes The top. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. The frame (Fig. where house plants are kept in the home. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. such as used for a storm window. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. which will provide a fine place for the plants. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. material framed together as shown in Fig. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. 3. Kalamazoo. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. 2 are dressed to the right angle. will fit nicely in them. How to Make an Electroscope [103] .shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. Mich.

as indicated by Fig. and cost 27 cents FIG.. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. in any system of lamps. multiples of series of three. which sells for 25 cents.. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. However. this must be done with very great caution. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. by connecting them in series. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. so as to increase the current. 1. and a suitable source of power. and the instrument will then be complete. This is more economical than dry cells. --Contributed by Wm. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. A certain number of these. N. It must be remembered. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. 1 cp. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. but maintain the voltage constant. where they are glad to have them taken away. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. Push the needle into the cork. a cork and a needle. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. one can regulate the batteries as required. in this connection. e.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. as if drawn upon for its total output. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. Canada. i. The 1/2-cp. S. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. is something that will interest the average American boy. can be connected up in series. However. Halifax. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. W. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. for some time very satisfactorily. Thus. since a battery is the most popular source of power.. in diameter. 1 each complete with base. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. after a rest. Grant. and will give the . It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it.

The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. 1-cp. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. . for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. However. double insulated wire wherever needed. If wound for 10 volts. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. and diffused light in a room. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. each. In conclusion. especially those of low internal resistance. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. 2 shows the scheme. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. if wound for 6 volts. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. Fig. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. or 22 lights. and for Christmas trees.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. Chicago. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. as in Fig. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. lamps. Thus. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. for display of show cases. which is the same as that of one battery. 11 series. These will give 3 cp. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. 3. 18 B & S. although the first cost is greater. to secure light by this method. according to the water pressure obtainable. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. and running the series in parallel. we simply turn on the water. where the water pressure is the greatest. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. lamps. by the proper combination of these. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. making. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. and then lead No. or 1-1/4 cents per hour.proper voltage. lamp. FIG.. generates the power for the lights. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. Thus. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. So.

Plymouth. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. the letters indicate as follows: FF. Santa Clara. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. field of motor. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. or a tempting bone. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. Parker. simply change the switch. as shown in the sketch. Ind. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. and C. A indicates the ground. DD. thus reversing the machine. a bait of meat. . BB. After I connected up my induction coil. outside points of switch. we were not bothered with them. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. --Contributed by Leonard E. A. B. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. center points of switch. bars of pole-changing switch. brushes of motor. and the sides. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. switch. Emig. AA. or from one pattern. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. Cal. B. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. To reverse the motor. are cut just alike. CC. --Contributed by F. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one.

the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. When the circuit is broken a weight. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. Minn. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo.. thus locking the door. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. merely push the button E. The button can be hidden. The experiment works best . a piece of string. San Jose. A. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. and a table or bench. Hutchinson. Cal. To unlock the door. 903 Vine St. Melchior. W. a hammer. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. as it is the key to the lock. one cell being sufficient. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. which is in the door. or would remain locked. -Contributed by Claude B. attached to the end of the armature B. If it is not. Fry.

3. On another block of wood fasten two wires. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. -. Ontario. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. Tie the ends of the string together. 3. attached at the other end. Madison. the current flows with the small arrows. Porto Rico. which pulls the draft open. A. Culebra. as shown in Fig. forming a loop. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. Canada. W. 1). The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. the key turns. --Contributed by Geo. where it will remain suspended as shown.Contributed by F. When the alarm rings in the early morning. releasing the weight. in the ceiling and has a window weight. C. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. 2. Wis. Brockville. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. Schmidt. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. 4)..An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. . run through a pulley. P. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. D. 18 Gorham St. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. Crawford Curry. I. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. the stick falls away. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square.

The cut shows the arrangement. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. N. or tree. running one direct to the receiver. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. thence to a switch. made with his own hands. D. --Contributed by Wm. 6 in. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. which fasten to the horn. thick. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. S. Use a barrel to work on. J. square and 1 in. Farley. and then to the receiver. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. R. and the other to the battery. and break the corners off to make them round. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. Camden. J. or from a bed of flowers.. and . For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. Jr. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. including the mouthpiece. First. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. Connect two wires to the transmitter. get two pieces of plate glass.

Fasten.. as in Fig. 2. L. Use a binger to spread it on with. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. also rotate the glass. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. Have ready six large dishes. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. by the side of the lamp. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. with pitch. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. Fig. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. with 1/4-in. wide around the convex glass or tool. wetting it to the consistency of cream. and is ready for polishing. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. Then warm and press again with the speculum.. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. and spread on the glass. 1. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. the coarse grinding must be continued. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. twice the focal length away. unless a longer focal length is wanted. and label. so the light . or it will not polish evenly. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. a round 4-in. while walking around the barrel. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. or less. spaces. then 8 minutes. set the speculum against the wall. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. Fig. When dry. When polishing the speculum. A. When done the glass should be semitransparent. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. wet till soft like paint. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. in length. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. melt 1 lb. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. using straight strokes 2 in. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. 2. In a dark room. then take 2 lb. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. of water. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. and a large lamp. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. and the under glass or tool convex. which is necessary to make it grind evenly.

……………………………. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. 2. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. 4 oz. Solution D: Sugar loaf . pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. in the bath and leave until the silver rises. If not. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. add the ammonia solution drop by drop.……………. must be procured. Now add enough of the solution A. 39 gr. 840 gr. long to the back of the speculum. the speculum is ready to be silvered.. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. Then add 1 oz. With pitch... and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. Two glass or earthenware dishes. from the lamp. Fig. if a hill in the center.100 gr. 100 gr. fill the dish with distilled water. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark.. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. Nitric acid .. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. also how the rays R from a star . the speculum will show some dark rings. face down.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. When dry. 2.………………………………. The knife should not be more than 6 in. Place the speculum. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. longer strokes. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. Alcohol (Pure) ……………. as in K. Solution B: Distilled water …………………………….. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. 25 gr. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film.. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. or hills. 4 oz. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). then ammonia until bath is clear. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. Place the speculum S. Fig. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. with distilled water. cement a strip of board 8 in. Silver nitrate ……………………………. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp... Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. When the focus is found. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. and pour the rest into the empty dish. Then add solution B. deep. Fig. touched with rouge. The polishing and testing done. that was set aside..

I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass.John E. The flatter they are the less they will distort. About 20. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. telescope can be made at home.. with an outlay of only a few dollars. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. Then I made the one described. slightly wider than the lens mount. and proceed as for any picture. stop down well after focusing.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. using strawboard and black paper. . two glass prisms. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. deg. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. Place over lens. Make the tube I of sheet iron. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. long and cost me just $15. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. Thus an excellent 6-in. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. My telescope is 64 in. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. is a satisfactory angle. cover with paper and cloth. which proves to be easy of execution. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. Mellish.

A. add the plaster gradually to the water. Zimmerman. instead of the contrary. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. D. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. 2. push the button D. then add a little sulphate of potash. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. unobstructed light strike the mirror. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. B. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. through the lens of the camera and on the board. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. -Contributed by A. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. complete the arrangement. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. and reflect through the negative. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. Ill. or powdered alum. Do not stir it. . which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. To unlock. The paper is exposed. but will not preserve its hardening. 1. The rays of the clear. says the Master Painter. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. Boody. as shown in Fig. Fig. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera.

throw . 1). Then blow through the spool. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. but will remain suspended without any visible support. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. 2. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. To reverse.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. as shown in the sketch. 2. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. so that it can rotate about these points. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. Fasten on the switch lever. Fig. use a string. as at A and B. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. as in Fig. also provide them with a handle. 3. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over.

North Bend. carbon sockets. wash in running water. Tex. In the sketch. Push one end of the tire into the hole. D. Levy. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. although this is not necessary. binding posts. rinse in alcohol. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. Neb. Tex. C C. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. B. carbons. -Contributed by Morris L. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. L. San Antonio.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. --Contributed by R. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. Go McVicker. San Marcos. the armature. and rub dry with linen cloth. --Contributed by Geo. and E E. Take out. Thomas. as shown in the sketch. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. A is the electricbell magnet. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. .

wound evenly about this core. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. long or more. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. By means of two or more layers of No. --Contributed by Joseph B. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. Brooklyn. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. Bell. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . 16 magnet wire.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. 14 or No. 36 magnet wire. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made.

hole is bored in the center of one end. This makes a condenser which may be folded. in length. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. one piece of the paper is laid down. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. No. which is an important factor of the coil. diameter. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. making two layers. 2 yd. the entire core may be purchased readymade. After the core wires are bundled. at a time. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. 1. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. in diameter. and finally the fourth strip of paper. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. then the strip of tin-foil. as shown in Fig. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. but if it is not convenient to do this work. When cut and laid in one continuous length. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. The condenser is next wrapped . then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. In shaping the condenser. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. The following method of completing a 1-in. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. long and 2-5/8 in. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. A 7/8-in. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. which is desirable. coil illustrates the general details of the work. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. wide. 4. as the maker prefers. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. a box like that shown in Fig. and the results are often unsatisfactory. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. Beginning half an inch from one end. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in.which would be better to buy ready-made. about 6 in. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. The primary is made of fine annealed No. or 8 in. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. with room also for a small condenser. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. long and 5 in. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine.

Fig. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. ready for assembling. lines H. wide. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. C. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. by 12 in. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. battery . and the other sheet. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. E. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. long to key. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. A.) The wiring diagram. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. whole length. copper lever with 1-in. the letters indicate as follows: A. B. one from bell. to the door. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. which allows wiring at the back. shows how the connections are made. open switch C. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. G. F. B. shelf for clock. 4 in. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. I. long and 12 in. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell.securely with bands of paper or tape. forms the other pole or terminal. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. D. which is insulated from the first. flange turned on one side.. 3. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. and one from battery. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. switch. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. V-shaped copper strip. The alarm key will turn and drop down. round so that the inside . One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. spark. go. bell.

and the battery is ready for use. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. and then rivet the seam. Use a glass or metal shade. Short-circuit for three hours. says the Model Engineer. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. London. That is what they are for. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. This makes it impractical for running fan motors.. of zinc sulphate. Line the furnace. . 2 in.diameter is 7 in. The circuit should also have a high resistance. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. from the bottom. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. If desired for use immediately. instead of close to it. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. This is for blowing. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. of blue stone. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. but add 5 or 6 oz. but with the circuit. do not shortcircuit. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries.

the second finger along the side. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. 1. If too low. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. g. Outside of the scientific side involved. as in the other movement. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. or think they can do the same let them try it.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. and therein is the trick. This type of battery will give about 0. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. Ohio. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. while for others it will not revolve at all. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in." which created much merriment. Enlarge the hole slightly. If any or your audience presume to dispute. below the bottom of the zinc. for others the opposite way. long. thus producing two different vibrations. imparting to them a violet tinge. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. square and about 9 in. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. To operate the trick. At least it is amusing. but the thing would not move at all.. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. grip the stick firmly in one hand. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. for some it will turn one way. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig.9 of a volt. and then. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. herein I describe a much better trick. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. affects . oxygen to ozone. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. porcelain and paper. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. changes white phosphorus to yellow. Try it and see. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. 2.

insects. says the Photographic Times. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. To the front board is attached a box. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. but small flowers. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. a short-focus lens. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. if possible.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. a means for holding it vertical. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. but this is less satisfactory. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. earth. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. an old tripod screw.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. but not essential. chemicals. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. and one of them is photomicrography. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. however. and.

Fig. or 31 ft. 12 ft. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. 7 ft. 9 ft. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. If the balloon is 10 ft. 65 4 lb. in Cu. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. 1. 7-1/2 in. wide from which to cut a pattern. balloon. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. 8 ft. 179 11 lb. Divide one-quarter of the circle . The following table will give the size. while it is not so with the quill. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. 6 ft. CD. and a line. A line. 113 7 lb. 268 17 lb. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. 5 in. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. which is 15 ft. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. 905 57 lb. 11 ft. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. 5 ft. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. AB. 381 24 lb.--Contributed by George C. 697 44 lb. Ft Lifting Power. 10 ft 523 33 lb. in diameter. Boston. or 3 ft. Madison. Mass. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. long and 3 ft. Cap. 7-1/2 in.

70 thread. 4. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. on the curved line from B to C. Repeat this operation four times. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. The pattern is now cut. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. using a fine needle and No. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. This test will show if the bag is airtight. cutting all four quarters at the same time. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. making a double seam as shown in Fig. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. The cloth segments are sewed together. 2. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. The amounts necessary for a 10- . The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. keeping the marked part on the outside. Procure 1 gal. and so on. of beeswax and boil well together.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. 3. of the very best heavy body.

in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. of sulphuric acid. B. 5 . to the bag. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. 150 gr. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. oil the spindle holes carefully. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. with water 2 in.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. C. until no more dirt is seen. ]. The 3/4-in. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. it is not fit to use. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. this should be repeated frequently. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. a clean white rag. ft. . of gas in one hour. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand.Green Iron ammonium citrate . by fixing. 1 lb. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. above the level of the water in barrel A. with 3/4in. 5. When the clock has dried. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. B. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. C. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. . Vegetable oils should never be used. which may sound rather absurd. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. leaving the hand quite clean. B. of water will make 4 cu. but if any grease remains on the hand. Fill the other barrel. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. or a fan. of iron.. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. or dusting with a dry brush. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. After washing a part. should not enter into the water over 8 in. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. pipe. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler.ft. if it is good it will dry off. capacity and connect them. 1 lb. of iron borings and 125 lb. Water 1 oz. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. About 15 lb. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. In the barrel. All FIG. A. A. The outlet. as shown in Fig. with the iron borings. A. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. using a fine brush. balloon are 125 lb.

fix in hypo. Dry the plates in the dark. of any make. and a vigorous negative must be used.Water 1 oz. Dry in the dark. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper.000 ft. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. Printing is done in the sun. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. 20 to 30 minutes. to avoid blackened skin. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. Port Melbourne. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. This aerial collector can be made in . JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. or zinc. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. dry atmosphere will give best results. or battery. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. The negative pole. Exposure. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. or carbon. A cold. A longer exposure will be necessary. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. keeping the fingers out of the solution. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. The positive pole. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. at the time of employment. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. .. . This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. The miniature 16 cp. says the Moving Picture World. toning first if desired. and keep in the dark until used.

As the telephone offers a high resistance. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. This will complete the receiving station. If the waves strike across the needle. lead pipe. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. a positive and a negative. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. lay a needle. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. the resistance is less. and have the other connected with another aerial line. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water.various ways. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. long. The storage cell. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. holes . How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. when left exposed to the air. in diameter. will soon become dry and useless. If the wave ceases. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. and as less current will flow the short way. making a ground with one wire. 5 in. forming a cup of the pipe. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. both positive and negative. as described below. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air.

a round one. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. or tube B. or tube C. says the Pathfinder. namely: a square hole. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. an oblong one and a triangular one. B. The other plate is connected to the zinc. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. and the other to the negative. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. on each end. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. of course. This. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . D.as possible. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. Two binding-posts should be attached. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. This support or block. one to the positive. by soldering the joint. This box can be square. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. except for about 1 in. When mixing the acid and water. does not need to be watertight.

using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. wide. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. Ill. C. . This punt. as shown in Fig. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. all around the edge. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. Chicago. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. and match them together. were fitted by this one plug. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. A and B. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. about 20 in. leaving about 1/16 in. 3. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. is built 15 ft. Only galvanized nails should be used. as shown in Fig. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. long. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. deep and 4 ft. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. 1. 2. C. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. in place on the wood. and has plenty of good seating capacity. back and under. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. 2. 1. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. thick cut two pieces alike. as it is not readily overturned. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. The third piece of brass. wide.

thick and 3-1/2 in. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. B. In Fig. square (Fig 2). Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. Tacoma.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. A piece of 1/4-in. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. A. gas pipe. is cut 1 in. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. Wash.

Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. lamp. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. or "rotor. The winding of the armature. says the Model Engineer.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. it had to be borne in mind that. which can be developed in the usual manner.--Contributed by Charles H. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. no special materials could be obtained. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. Wagner. no more current than a 16-cp. In designing. without auxiliary phase. which the writer has made. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. H." has no connection with the outside circuit. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . with the exception of insulated wire. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. if possible. and to consume. may be of interest to some of our readers. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit.

an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. to be filed out after they are placed together. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. this little machine is not self-starting. no steel being obtainable. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. with the dotted line. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. were then drilled and 1/4-in. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. Holes 5-32 in. 5. and filled with rivets. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. as shown in Fig. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. A. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. holes. or "stator. thick." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. bolts put in and tightened up. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. while the beginnings . which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. The stator is wound full with No. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. in diameter were drilled in the corners. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. being used. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. and all sparking is avoided. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. They are not particularly accurate as it is. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. 4. also varnished before they were put in.the field-magnet. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. wrought iron. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. 1. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. 2. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. Unfortunately. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. B. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. C. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. about 2-1/2 lb. After assembling a second time. 3.

. McKinney. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. and the other by reduction in the camera. a regulating resistance is not needed. No starting resistance is needed. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. and as each layer of wire was wound. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. The rotor is wound with No. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. N. and all wound in the same direction. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. If too late for alcohol to be of use. if applied immediately. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. E. as shown in Fig. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. The image should . Fold the paper on the long dotted line. One is by contact. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. 1. it would be very simple to build. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. as before stated. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. Jr. This type of motor has drawbacks. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. and especially of colored ones. The lantern slide is a glass plate. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. and as the motor runs at constant speed. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. film to film. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. 2. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. and would not easily get out of order. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. as a means of illustrating songs. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. having no commutator or brushes. Newark. 3-Contributed by C. In making slides by contact. J. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density.

outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. A. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. over the mat. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. as shown in Fig. If the exposure has been correct. also. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. It is best. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. Select a room with one window.appear in. B. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. 3. Fig. they are much used by travelers. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. the formulas being found in each package of plates. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. and then a plain glass. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. a little extra work will be necessary. as shown in Fig. Being unbreakable. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. 2. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. if possible. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. D. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. about a minute. Draw lines with a pencil. 5. to use a plain fixing bath. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. 4. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. except that the binding is different. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . These can be purchased from any photo material store. C. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. 1. and development should be over in three or four minutes. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film.

The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. Hastings. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. These longer pieces can be made square. 2. long. long. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. Fig. 1. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. is to be used for the seat. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. Corinth. Vt. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. Fig. while the dot will be in front of the other. long. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. wide and 50 in. from the center of this dot draw a star. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. in diameter and 40 in. in diameter and 20 in. holes bored in the end pieces. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. known as rods and cones. from the end piece of the chair. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. as shown at B. from the ends.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. or other stout cloth. as shown at A. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. 1. as shown in Fig. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. A piece of canvas. If the star is in front of the left eye. 16 in.

A disk 1 in. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. O'Gara. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. 2. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. 1. . which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. as shown in Fig. made from an ordinary sash cord. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. in thickness and 10 in. as well as to operate other household machines. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. Auburn. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. per square inch. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. Cal. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. J.-Contributed by P. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. as shown in Fig. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. A belt. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block.

and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. 3/4 in. Cut out a piece from the block combination. to the top of the bench. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. leaving it shaped like a bench. then removing the object. square for a support. The part of a rotation of the bolt. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. . wide. Put the bolt in the hole. will be the thickness of the object. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. with as fine a thread as possible. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. or inconvenient to measure. fairly accurate. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. says the Scientific American. and the construction is complete. direction. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. A simple. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. screwing it through the nut. thick and 2-1/2 in. Bore a 1/4-in. long. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. divided by the number of threads to the inch. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. it serves a very useful purpose.

long is used for the center pole. globe that has been thrown away as useless. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. piece of wood 12 ft. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. Oal. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. bolt in each hole. which show up fine at night. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. material 12 ft. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. Santa Maria. Bore a 3/4-in.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. Place a 3/4-in. long. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. The wheel should be open . When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. beyond the end of the wood. from the end that is to be used for the bottom.

1/2 in.Side and Top View or have spokes. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. pieces used for the spokes. A cross bar. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. in diameter. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. B. The boards may be nailed or bolted. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. O. wide and 1/8 in. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. A piece of brass 2 in. Graham. thick is used for the armature. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. C. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. thick. at the top and 4 in. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. long. which should be 1/4 in. A. is soldered. from the top end. and the lower part 61/2 in. to be operated by the magnet coil. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. Tex. thick. C. long. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. The spool . H and J. long. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. at the bottom. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. P. from the ends. square and 3 or 4 in. L. Fort Worth. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. of the ends with boards. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. The coil. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. wide and 1/8 in. made of the same material. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. and on its lower end a socket.-Contributed by A. long.

and in numerous other like instances.is about 2-1/2 in. S. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. is drilled. and place it against a door or window casing. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. A. that holds the lower carbon. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. .000. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. This is a very neat trick if performed right. or a water rheostat heretofore described. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil.E. long. --Contributed by Arthur D. do it without any apparent effort. one without either rubber or metal end. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. B. The armature. D and E. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. and directly centering the holes H and J.--A. 2 the hat hanging on it. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. Bradlev. When you slide the pencil along the casing. At the bottom end of the frame. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. C.J. which may be had by using German silver wire. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. F. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. Mass. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. S. by soldering. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. This tie can be used on grain sacks.000 for irrigation work. 2. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. Randolph. A soft piece of iron. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. R. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. 1. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. for insulating the brass ferrule. then with a firm. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post.

The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. 1. The vibrator B. with a 3/16-in. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. F.500 turns of No. The core of the coil. in diameter. The vibrator. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. for the primary. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. long. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. wide. in diameter. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. thick. long and 1 in. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. and then 1. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. 2. is connected to a flash lamp battery. in diameter and 2 in. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. D. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. for the secondary. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. S. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. about 1/8 in. Fig. Fig. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. A. about 3/16 in. from the core and directly opposite. for adjustment. B.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. hole in the center. about 1 in. may be made from a 3/8-in. About 70 turns of No. is constructed in the usual manner. C. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. S. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. leaving the projections as shown. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. The coil ends are made from cardboard. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. mixed with water to form a paste. The switch. 1. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. Experiment with Heat [134] . in diameter and 1/16 in.

as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. as shown. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. The hasp. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. between the boards. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. brass plate. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. which seemed to be insufficient. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. . with which to operate the dial. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. which is only 3/8-in.Place a small piece of paper. it laps down about 8 in. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. and then well clinched. 2 to fit the two holes. wide. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. 1. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. Fig. thick on the inside. which is cut with two holes. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. The three screws were then put in the hasp. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. in an ordinary water glass. 16 in. The lock. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. lighted. long and when placed over the board. 1. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. as shown in the sketch. The tin is 4 in. board. The knob on the dial extends out too far. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. was to be secured by only three brass screws. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. and the same distance inside of the new board.

high for use in window displays. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. and the back left dark. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. one in each division. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. or in the larger size mentioned. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. clear glass as shown. square and 8-1/2 in. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. not shiny. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. the glass. any article placed therein will be reflected in. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. which completely divides the box into two parts. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. When making of wood. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. but when the front part is illuminated. When the rear part is illuminated. black color. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. If the box is made large enough. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. square and 10-1/2 in.

as shown at A in the sketch. When using as a window display. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in.. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. a tank 2 ft. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. . When there is no electric current available. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. wide will be about the right size.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. as it appears. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. and with the proper illumination one is changed. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. alternately. above the top of the tank. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. long and 1 ft. into the other. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. as shown in the sketch.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. one for each side. Three windows are provided. The pieces can then be taken out. square. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. high. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. each. then use a red-hot iron to finish. The 13-in. wide. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. dried and mixed with linseed oil. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. Iron sulphate. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. gauge for depth. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. as shown. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. but with a length of 12 in. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. radius. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. hole bored the full length through the center. Columbus. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. hole. long. however. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. and 6 ft. 2 ft. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. square and 40 in. thick and 3 in. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. bore from each end. This hole must be continued . each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. This precipitate is then washed. If a planing mill is near. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. using a 3/4-in. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. 5 ft. is built on the front. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. is the green vitriol. with a length of 13 in. A small platform. under sides together. long. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. two pieces 1-1/8 in. bit. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. wide. O. and a solution of iron sulphate added. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. 1 in. Shape the under sides first.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. and boring two holes with a 1-in. 6 in. lines gauged on each side of each. or ferrous sulphate. and a door in front. from the ground. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through.

if shade is purchased. For art-glass the metal panels are . To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. A better way. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. thick and 3 in. Directions will be found on the filler cans. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright.through the pieces forming the base. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. If the parts are to be riveted." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. When this is dry. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. apply two coats of wax. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. hole in each block. square and drawing a diagonal on each. Electric globes--two. three or four may be attached as shown. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. When the filler has hardened. The sketch shows one method of attaching. Saw the two blocks apart. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp.

Construction of Shade . and reinforcing and riveting with another metal.The Completed Lamp cut out. such as copper. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. as brass. Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal. METAL SHADE .

The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. and Fig. Figure 1 shows the side. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. the other. one way and 1/2 in. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. 2 the front view of this stand. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. as in ordinary devices. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. the object and the background. as shown in the sketch. The arms holding the glass. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera.

The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. Cut another circular piece 11 in. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. and swinging freely. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. in diameter. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. wide and 11 in. outside diameter. thick 5/8-in. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. in diameter for a base. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. wide and 6-5/16 in. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. and an inside diameter of 9 in. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. Before mounting the ring on the base. as shown in the sketch. as it is very poisonous. about 1-1/4 in. channel in the circumference of the ring. An ordinary pocket compass. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. long. Put the ring in place on the base. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. as shown in the cut. pointing north and south. thus forming a 1/4-in. uncork and recork again. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. If the light becomes dim. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out.

from the second to the third. into these cylinders.500 . 1 oz. of the top. to which a wire has been soldered for connections. B. are mounted on a base. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. and mirrors. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. Corresponding mirrors. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings. EE. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. AA. and north of the Ohio river. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through.420 .600 . For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes . in diameter and 8 in. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work.715 . are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders.865 1.088 . and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders. CC. above the half can. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils.289 . The results given should be multiplied by 1. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. Place on top the so- . Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. black oxide of copper.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other.182 .

if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. little crystals forming in the liquid. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. In Fig. University Park. When renewing. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . alcohol. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. 62 gr. 31 gr. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. of pulverized campor. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. slender bottle. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. Put the solution in a long. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. the wheel will revolve in one direction. says Metal Worker. always remove the oil with a siphon. then they will not rust fast. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. Colo. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. which otherwise remains clear. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. -Contributed by Robert Canfield.

with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. If two of them are floating on the same solution. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. Attach to the wires. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. Solder in the side of the box . A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. A paper-fastener box. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. --Contributed by C. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. Lloyd Enos. This is used in place of the spoon. on the under side of the cork. If zinc and carbon are used. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. floating on a solution. If zinc and copper are used. will allow the magnet to point north and south. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. about 1-1/4 in.

piece of 1/4-in. A. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. H. D. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. If the hose is not a tight fit. and then solder on the cover. wide and 6 in. as shown in Fig. is made from a piece of No. long that has about 1/4-in. B. The bottom of the box.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft.not shorter than 18 in. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. Wind evenly about 2 oz. . E. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. G--No. long. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. long. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. hole. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. Bore holes for binding-posts. B. can be made of oak.Contributed by J.in. Thos. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring.1-in. A circular piece of cardboard. and on the other around the glass tube. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. To this standard solder the supporting wire. C. glass tubing . Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. D. A. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. to it. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. Take a small piece of soft iron. The base. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. brass tubing. 1/2. E. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . stained and varnished. 10 wire about 10 in.in. of No. wide and 2-1/2 in. The standard. C. Put ends. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. F. The spring should be about 1 in. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. 1-1/4 in. 3 in. 1. away. D. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. C. one on each side of the board. or made with a little black paint. of wire on each end extending from the coil. Rhamstine. 14 wire will do. thick. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. Use a board 1/2.

pieces of wood as shown in Fig. Milwaukee. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. About 1-1/2 lb. 2.--Contributed by Edward M. two pieces 2 ft. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts.--Contributed by R. 3-in. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. long. as shown in Fig. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. 5. 1.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. D. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. When the glass becomes soft.of the coil. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. long. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. Wis. is drawn nearer to the coil. E. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. Cuba. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. of 8-oz. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. Y. 3. about 1 in. long. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. long. Teasdale. . and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. Smith. N. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. The iron plunger. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. in diameter. long are used for the legs. canvas. of No. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. making a support as shown in Fig. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. J. from the right hand. of mercury will be sufficient. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. long. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. 3 in. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. four hinges. four pieces 1-1/2 ft.

Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. --Contributed by David A. Can. 4. expelling all the air. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. small aperture in the long tube. 3. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. Keys. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. thus leaving a.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. long. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. Break off the piece of glass. Take 1/2 in. of vacuum at the top.. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. 6. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. 2. Toronto. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. 5. This tube as described will be 8 in. holding in the left hand. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. Measure 8 in. leaving 8 in.. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. Fig. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. The tube now must be filled completely. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle.

in diameter. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . A crosspiece 3/4-in. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. wide and 12 in.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. This forms a slot. wide and 5 ft. Fig. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. 6. long. 4 in. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. material 2 in. 3. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. 5. from the end of same. thick. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom.6 -. 1. long. 2. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. 1 in. 1 in. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. but yellow pine is the best. FIG. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. thick. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. thick. joint be accurately put together. wide and 5 ft. thick. 9 in. wide and 3 in. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. thick. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. cut in the shape shown in Fig. 4. 3 in. with each projection 3-in. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. long. long. and the single projection 3/4 in. These are bent and nailed. wide and 5 ft. 3 in. The large pulley is about 14 in. as in Fig. 7. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. Four blocks 1/4 in. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. as shown in Fig. wood screws. and 1/4 in.

Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. by 1-in. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. attach runners and use it on the ice. above the runner level. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. . The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. says Photography. R. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. Kan. Welsh. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. first removing the crank. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. Manhattan. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. Water 1 oz. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. --Contributed by C. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string.

and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. . How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. also. from an ordinary clamp skate. as shown in Fig. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. Newton. 2. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. --Contributed by Wallace C. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. 1 oz. of water. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. 1. Leominster. Printing is carried rather far. Treasdale. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. This is done with a camel's hair brush. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. 3. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. --Contributed by Edward M. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. as shown in Fig. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. The print is washed. and very much cheaper. Mass.

square piece. Church. with about 1/8-in. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. long. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. A. from one end. The thread is broken off at the . which represents the back side of the door. F. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. high for rabbits. 2. Fig. Va. high. and 3 ft. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. 1. 1 ft. Fig. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. Alexandria. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. fasten a 2-in. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. extending the width of the box. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. and bend them as shown in the sketch. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. and to the bottom. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. The swing door B. 1. about 10 in. Take two glass tubes. Place a 10-in. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. Then. hole. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. --Contributed by H. wide. wide and 4 in. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. as shown in the sketch. causing the door to swing back and up. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. say. too. 1-1/2 ft.

Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. 1 in. 1. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. in size. wide and 5 in. 3. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. Crilly. being 1/8 in. This opening. automobiles. says Camera Craft. Cut an opening in the other piece. black surfaced if possible. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape.by 7-in. high and 12 in. Fig. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. from the edge on each side of these openings.proper place to make a small hole. plates. say 8 in.by 5-in. Paste a piece of strong black paper. Take two pieces of pasteboard. A and B. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. long. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. and exactly 5 by 7 in. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. and go in the holder in the same way. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. D. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. Chicago. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. Jr. as shown in Fig. camera and wish to use some 4.. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. . On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. trolley cars. 10 in. long. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. shorter at each end. C. in size. -Contributed by William M. to be used as a driving pulley. Fig. wide. 2. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. horses and dogs. shorter. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. wide. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. but cut it 1/4 in. B. Out two rectangular holes. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. inside of the opening. Cut a piece of thin black cloth.

A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. The needle will then point north and south. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. in diameter. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. if it has previously been magnetized. making a . A cell of this kind can easily be made. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. long and 6 in.. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2.in. into which the dog is harnessed.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. wide will be required. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon.

layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. when the paraffin is melted. long which are copper plated. in which P is the pan. pull out the wire as needed. A is a block of l-in. B is a base of 1 in. fuel and packing purposes. one that will hold about 1 qt. beeswax melted together. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. under the spool in the paraffin. of the top. 1 lb. says Electrician and Mechanic. 1/4 lb. leaving about 1/2-in. with narrow flanges. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. in diameter and 6 in. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. . pine. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. zinc oxide. Form a 1/2-in. of the plate at one end. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. and a notch between the base and the pan. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. of water. sal ammoniac. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. This makes the wire smooth. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. fodder. filter. F is a spool. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. short time. Do not paint any surface. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. Pack the paste in. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. only the joints. for a connection. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a.watertight receptacle. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. File the rods to remove the copper plate. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt.in. 3/4 lb. plaster of paris. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. Place the pan on the stove. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. of rosin and 2 oz.

for others the opposite way. let them try it. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. thus producing two different vibrations. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. At least it is amusing. as in the other movement. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. and therein is the trick. square and about 9 in. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee.. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. long. If any of your audience presume to dispute. Enlarge the hole slightly. grip the stick firmly in one hand. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. while for others it will not revolve at all. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. Try it and see. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. or think they can do the same. and he finally. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. by the Hindoos in India. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. but the thing would not move at all. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. from vexation." which created much merriment. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. Ohio. for some it will turn one way. and then. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. and one friend tells me that they were . One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. g. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. 2. Toledo. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm.

2. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. and I think the results may be of interest. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. and. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. 6. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. rotation was obtained. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. Thus a circular or . this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. A square stick with notches on edge is best. p. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. secondly. 5. the rotation may be obtained. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. m. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. by means of a center punch. The experiments were as follows: 1. Speeds between 700 and 1. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. 4.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. gave the best results. To operate. 3. no rotation resulted. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. 7.100 r. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. If the pressure was upon an edge. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands.

Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. G. . while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. Lloyd." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. a piece of wire and a candle.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. Ph. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. A.. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. and the resultant "basket splash. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. so far as can be seen from the photographs. as shown.. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. --Contributed by G. A wire is tied around the can. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. forming a handle for carrying. --Contributed by M. Minn. Washington. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. C. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). the upper portion is. Sloan. it will be clockwise. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. Duluth. or greasy. D. and the height of the fall about 6 in.D. is driven violently away. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. if the pressure is from the left. at first. unwetted by the liquid. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. flange and a 1/4-in. hole drilled in the center. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. as shown in Fig. long. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . with a 1/16-in. thick and 1 in. in diameter. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. axle.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. 1. as shown." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. Each wheel is 1/4 in. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. about 2-5/8 in. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal.

A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. Fig. A trolley. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. which must be 110 volt alternating current.brass. --Contributed by Maurice E. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. San Antonio. as shown in Fig. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. 4. 1 from 1/4-in. 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. Texas. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. or main part of the frame. of No. wood. holes 1 in. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. long. The first piece. 6. are shown in Fig. wide and 16 in. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. 2. 2. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. bottom side up. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . bent as shown. These ends are fastened together. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. lamp in series with the coil. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. and the locomotive is ready for running. The motor is now bolted. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. put together complete. with cardboard 3 in. If the ends are to be soldered. Fig. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. is made from brass. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. The current. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. each in its proper place. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. This will save buying a track. 5. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. 3. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. Fuller. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. is made from a piece of clock spring. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. before doing so drill four 1/4-in.50. 3. The parts.

trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. 3. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. 1. Cincinnati. but do not heat the center. Fig. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. O. then continue to tighten much more. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. as shown in Fig. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. The quarter will not go all the way down. 2. When cold treat the other end in the same way. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. Fig 1. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. and as this end . Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. and holes drilled in them. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. the length of a paper clip. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. as shown in Fig.

which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. has finished a cut for a tooth. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. and adjusted . One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. A pair of centers are fitted. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. or apparent security of the knot. When the cutter A. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. When the trick is to be performed. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. In the sketch. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. or should the lathe head be raised. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. 2 and 1 respectively.

gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. swing lathe. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. N.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. Y. gentleman's card case or bill book.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. Fold over along these center lines. dividing it into as many parts as desired. or one-half of the design. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). With such objects as coin purses and card cases. coin purse. 1. --Contributed by Howard S. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. long. such as brass or marble. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. blotter back. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. tea cosey. (3. (6. if four parts are to be alike. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. trace the outline. The frame holding the mandrel. book mark. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. draw center lines across the required space. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. twisted around itself and soldered. --Contributed by Samuel C. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). about 1-1/2 in.) Make on paper the design wanted. lady's belt bag. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. Bunker. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in.to run true. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire.) Place the paper design on the leather and. watch fob ready for fastenings. Bott. at the same time striking light. holding it in place with the left hand. above the surface. In this manner gears 3 in. Fig. lady's card case. When connecting to batteries. if but two parts. Second row: -Two book marks. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. (2. (4. (5. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. 2. An ordinary machine will do. Brooklyn. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. (1. tea cosey. and a nut pick.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. note book.

How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. some heavy rubber hose. and an ordinary bottle. Secure .

Thrust a pin. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. B. The electrodes are made . into which fit a small piece of tube. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. where it condenses. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water.C. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. and bore a hole through the center. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. and push it through a cork. from Key West. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. If the needle is not horizontal. a distance of 900 miles. D. C. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. A. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass.. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. Florida.

or flying-machine. thick. 1/2. 2. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. 3/4 in. use 10-ft. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. free from knots. and also to keep it steady in its flight. 1. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. long. long. wide and 3 ft. If 20-ft. thick. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. which is tacked to the front edge. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. 12 uprights 1/2 in. thick. 1. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. 2. thick. lengths and splice them.in. wide and 4 ft. All wiring is done with No. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. long. lumber cannot be procured. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. as shown in Fig. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. wide and 4 ft. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. long. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. apart and extend 1 ft. both laterally and longitudinally. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. by 3/4 in. 1-1/4 in. 1-1/2 in. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. several strips 1/2 in. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. 2 in. long. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. Powell. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. --Contributed by Edwin L. 16 piano wire. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. To make a glide. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. Four long beams 3/4 in. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. The operator can then land safely and . propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. Washington. D. 2 arm sticks 1 in. wide and 3 ft. slacken speed and settle. take the glider to the top of a hill. 3. as shown in Fig. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. 1. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. long for the body of the operator. Connect as shown in the illustration. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. C. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. thick. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. wide and 4 ft long. as shown in Fig. wide and 20 ft. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. square and 8 ft long. using a high resistance receiver.

Of course. but this must be found by experience. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. Glides are always made against the wind. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. Great care should be . The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing.gently on his feet.

The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. 2. a creature of Greek mythology.exercised in making landings. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. Bellingham. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. as shown in Fig. When heated a little. 1. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. M. Olson. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. half man and half horse. --Contributed by L. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. which causes the dip in the line.

The light from the . Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. While at the drug store get 3 ft. making it 2-1/2 in. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. about the size of stove pipe wire. in diameter. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. square. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. of small rubber tubing. outside the box. will complete the material list. a piece of brass or steel wire. at the other. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. this will cost about 15 cents. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. about the size of door screen wire. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. 14 in. long. long and about 3/8 in. Cut a strip of tin 2 in.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows.

A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. --Photo by M. as shown in Fig. Hunting. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. M. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. This is very simple when you know how. as shown in the sketch. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. 1. Dayton. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. . while others will fail time after time. If done properly the card will flyaway. as shown in Fig.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. 2. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. O.

place the other two. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. Cool in water and dry. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin." or the Chinese students' favorite game. then put it on the hatpin head. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. When the desired shape has been obtained. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. This game is played by five persons. as before. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. as described. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. closing both hands quickly. If a certain color is to be more prominent. as shown. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. hold the lump over the flame. while the one in the right shall have disappeared.

Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. passing through neutralizing brushes. distribute electric charges . these sectors. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. or more in width. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through.

in diameter. are made from solid. or teeth. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. RR. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. The fork part is 6 in. Two solid glass rods.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. long. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. 4. D. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. are made from 7/8-in. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. and pins inserted and soldered. Fig. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. in diameter. 1. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. GG. and the outer end 11/2 in. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. Two pieces of 1-in. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. and of a uniform thickness. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. 3. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. 3/4 in. and 4 in. as shown in Fig. the side pieces being 24 in. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. free from wrinkles. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. in diameter. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. as shown in Fig. in diameter. from about 1/4-in. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. wide at one end. 3. Fig. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. long and the shank 4 in. in diameter. wide. long and the standards 3 in. 1-1/2 in. after they are mounted. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. 1 in. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. long. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. and this should be done before cutting the circle. turned wood pieces. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. The two pieces. 2. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. C C. These pins. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. EE. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. to which insulating handles . brass tubing and the discharging rods. material 7 in. The collectors are made. The drive wheels. The plates. at the other. in diameter. in diameter and 15 in. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. The plates are trued up. close grained wood turned in the shape shown.

Lloyd Enos. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . Colo. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results.are attached. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. one having a 2-in. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. KK. wide and 22 ft. long. ball and the other one 3/4 in. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. in diameter. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. which are bent as shown. D. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes.. Colorado City. --Contributed by C. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. and the work was done by themselves. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. 12 ft. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete.

fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. pens . Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. string together. deep. The key will drop from the string. bit. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. They can be used to keep pins and needles. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. yet such a thing can be done. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. and bore a hole 1/2 in.is a good one. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. as at A. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. using a 1-in. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded.

The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. two spikes. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. The second oblong was 3/4 in. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. 6. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. they make attractive little pieces to have about. 7. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. above the metal. 9. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. When the stamping is completed. very rapid progress can be made. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. Use . flat and round-nosed pliers. slim screw.. inside the second on all. 2. sharp division between background and design. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. or cigar ashes. unless it would be the metal shears. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. and the third one 1/4 in. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. 4. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. etc. 5. inside the first on all. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. using a nail filed to chisel edge. etc.. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. then the other side. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. 3. stamp the background promiscuously. Having determined the size of the tray. Draw one-half the design free hand. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. Inside this oblong. This is to make a clean. about 3/4-in. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. also trace the decorative design. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. They are easily made. Proceed as follows: 1. 23 gauge. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. Raise the ends. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. above the work and striking it with the hammer. extra metal on each of the four sides.and pencils. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. 8. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. file. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch.

Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . The eyes. 10. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. and the effect will be most pleasing. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. 6. 8. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. 7. third fingers. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. and fourth fingers. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. second fingers. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. In the first numbering. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. first fingers. 9.

or 60. Let us multiply 12 by 12. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. 600.. 12. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. . The addition of 100 is arbitrary. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. renumber your fingers. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. or 80. which tens are added.. At a glance you see four tens or 40. 11. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. Put your thumbs together. etc. In the second numbering. there are no fingers above. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. thumbs. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. etc. but being simple it saves time and trouble. 400. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. 25 times 25. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. or the product of 8 times 9. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. and the six lower fingers as six tens. Still. or numbers above 10. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. 2 times 2 equals 4. Two times one are two. which would be 16. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. first fingers. etc. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties.. if we wish. which would be 70. viz. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. above 15 times 15 it is 200. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. above 20 times 20. the product of 12 times 12. as high as you want to go. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. or the product of 6 times 6. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether.

such as an used for lighting gas-burners. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. . Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. not rotation. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. first finger 17. any two figures between 45 and 55. at the will of the observer. It takes place also. or what. whether the one described in second or third numbering. Take For example 18 times 18. or from above or from below. in the case of a nearsighted person.. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. forties. 7. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. about a vertical axis. And the lump sum to add. adding 400 instead of 100. and. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. being 80). The inversion and reversion did not take place. however. lastly. For example. For figures ending in 6. further. the lump sum to add. the revolution seems to reverse. the value of the upper fingers being 20. 3. first fingers 22. as one might suppose. which is the half-way point between the two fives. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. twenties. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. thirties. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. 21. 8. when he removes his spectacles. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. 75 and 85. and so on. Proceed as in the second lumbering. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. the value which the upper fingers have. 2. the inversion takes place against his will.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. etc. thumbs. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. beginning the thumbs with 16. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before.

sometimes the point towards him. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. when he knows which direction is right. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. the other appearance asserts itself. A flat slide valve was used. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. tee. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. The ports were not easy to make. Looking at it in semidarkness. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. as . and putting a cork on the point. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls.

If nothing better is at hand. Fasten the block solidly. -Contributed by W.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. if continued too long without proper treatment. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired.. Next take a block of wood. about 2 in. . These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. pipe 10 in. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. While this engine does not give much power. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. and make in one end a hollow. Ill. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. saw off a section of a broom handle. bottom side up. The eccentric is constructed of washers. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. Beating copper tends to harden it and. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. The steam chest is round. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. Springfield. secure a piece of No. such as is shown in the illustration. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. apart. inexpensive. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. across the head. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. across and 1/2 in. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. in diameter. Kutscher. The tools are simple and can be made easily. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. deep. pipe. it is easily built. H. as in a vise.

In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. especially when the object is near to the observer. as it softens the metal. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. C. To overcome this hardness. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. --Contributed by W. and. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the .will cause the metal to break. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. S. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. To produce color effects on copper. the other to the left. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. Vinegar. Hay. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. O. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. Camden. This process is called annealing. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good.

the further from the card will the composite image appear. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide.stereoscope. . Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. In order to make them appear before the card. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. from the stereograph. disappears fully. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. It is just as though they were not there. and without any picture. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. with the stereograph. The red portions of the picture are not seen. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. the left eye sees through a blue screen. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. The further apart the pictures are. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. in the proper choice of colors. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. although they pass through the screen. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. because of the rays coming from them. would serve the same purpose. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. because. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. orange. as for instance red and green. But they seem black. and lies to the right on the picture. the one for the left eye being blue. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. only the orange rays may pass through. however. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. So with the stereograph. while both eyes together see a white background. diameter. they must be a very trifle apart. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. not two mounted side by side. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. it. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. that for the right.

Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. A No. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. 12 gauge wire. Cal. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. in the shape of a crank. thick. wireless. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. etc. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. Place a NO. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. long and a hole drilled in each end. The weight of the air in round . How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. 1/4 in. San Francisco. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. This should only be bored about half way through the block. or the middle of the bottle. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. in diameter. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. wide and 1 in. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire.

The 4 in. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost.numbers is 15 lb. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. a bottle 1 in. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. or a column of mercury (density 13. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. But if a standard barometer is not available. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. if you choose. wide and 4 in. square. internal diameter and about 34 in. will calibrate itself. . square. pine 3 in. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. high. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. if accurately constructed. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. Before fastening the scale. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. and a slow fall. 34 ft.. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. high. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. the contrary. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. a glass tube 1/8 in. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. In general.6) 1 in. 30 in. Only redistilled mercury should be used. long. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. high. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. thick. but before attempting to put in the mercury. wide and 40 in. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. the instrument. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. long. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. inside diameter and 2 in. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. or. long. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame.

thick. long. 5.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. which is slipped quickly over the end. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . wide and 10 in. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. a cover from a baking powder can will do. Procure a metal can cover. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. Number the pieces 1. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. 1. 6 and 7. Mark out seven 1-in. the size of the outside of the bottle. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. 2. and place them as shown in Fig. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. 3.

N. Move 2-Jump No. 7 over No. 2 over No. L. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. 7's place. 1. Move 7-Jump No. 3 to the center. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. To make such a tent. l over No. Move 4-Jump No. Move 6-Move No. 5 over No. 2's place. Move 9-Jump No. Move 5-Jump No. 3.-Contributed by W. 1. Move 8-Jump No. 3. Move 12-Jump No. 7. 5 over No. 1 into No. Make 22 sections. Move 10-Move No. 6.J. 2. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. shaped like Fig. 6 over No. 6 in. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. 1 to No. 3 into No. Move 15-Move No. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. Move ll-Jump No. 3 over No. 6 into No. Woolson. using checkers for men. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. Cape May Point. each 10 ft. 2's place. 5's place. 7 over No. 2 over No. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. Move 3-Move No. which is the very best material for the purpose. long and 2 ft. 6 to No. 3. 5's place. 2. procure unbleached tent duck. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. Move 13-Move No. in diameter. as shown in Fig. This can be done on a checker board.Position of the Men move only one at a time. 2 . Move 14-Jump No. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. 5. 6.

making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. Fig. Have the tent pole 3 in. round galvanized iron. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. wide by 12 in. long and 4 in. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. to a smooth board of soft wood. fill with canvas edging. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. added. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. high. Fig. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. as in Fig. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. As shown in the sketch. will do. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in.in. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. long. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. Punch holes in the brass in . Emsworth.J. in diameter. After transferring the design to the brass. leaving the rest for an opening. Pa. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. from the top. 9 by 12 in. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. diameter. wide at the bottom. 5) stuck in the ground. These are ventilators. In raising the tent. 5. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. made in two sections. Tress. wide at the bottom. 2 in. 3 in. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. Use blocks. Nail a thin sheet of brass. 6-in. about 9 in. 2. --Contributed by G. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. 6..

When all the holes are punched. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. cut out the brass on the outside lines. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty.the spaces around the outlined figures. excepting the 1/4-in. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. Chicago. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. It will not. The pattern is traced as before. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. apart. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. When the edges are brought together by bending. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. . but before punching the holes. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. Corr. around the outside of the pattern. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. bend into shape.

These pipes are . or. Mayger. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. A cast-iron ring. pipe. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. Sometimes the cream will accumulate.however. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. better still. If a wheel is selected. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. Que. G. or less. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. A 6-in. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. pipe is used for the hub. Oregon. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. or center on which the frame swings. Dunham. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. between which is placed the fruit jar. E. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. --Contributed by Geo. allowing 2 ft. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. partially filled with cream. Stevens. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. --Contributed by H. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph.. Badger.

Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. An extra wheel 18 in. pipe clamps. Four braces made from 1/2-in. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. pipe. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. bent to the desired circle. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in.

The performer. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. while doing this. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. 1. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. as shown in Fig. and dropped on the table.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. which was placed in an upright position. 3. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. and the guide withdrawn.

the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. --Contributed by H. White. D. F. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. first. Denver. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. Mo. in diameter on another piece of tin. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. -Contributed by C. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. in a half circle. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. St. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. Harkins. Louis.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. The box can be made of selected oak or . These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. and second. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. Colo. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. 1. it requires no expensive condensing lens. 2. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives.

Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. 5-1/2 in. wide by 5 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. An open space 4 in. as shown in Fig. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. Two or three holes about 1 in. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. long. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. long and should be placed vertically. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. and 2 in. long. This will be 3/4 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. from each end. The door covering this hole in the back. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. AA. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. fit into the runners. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. high and must . deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. represented by the dotted line in Fig. 2. wide and 5 in. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. and. focal length. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. If a camera lens is used. 3-1/2 in. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. wide.mahogany. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. from each end of the outside of the box. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. but not tight. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. 1. high and 11 in. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent.

Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. Ohio. Bradley. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece." etc. West Toledo.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. and extending the whole height of the lantern. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. 1. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. April. provided it is airtight. calling this February. --Contributed by Chas. C. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. then the second knuckle will be March.. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. as it requires an airtight case. the article may be propped up . Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. calling that knuckle January. This process is rather a difficult one. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. and so on. June and November. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct.

The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. and set aside for half a day. one of lead and one of aluminum. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. or suspended by a string. but waxed. the lid or cover closed. In both Fig. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. fruit jars are required. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. Y. running small motors and lighting small lamps. --Contributed by J. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. in. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. In each place two electrodes. giving it an occasional stir. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. . The top of a table will do. N.with small sticks. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. and the lead 24 sq. Crawford. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. taking care to have all the edges closed. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. 1 and 2. Pour in a little turpentine. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. 2. Schenectady. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. H. 1. in. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration.

at the time of request for handkerchiefs. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. After a few seconds' time. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . O. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. which you warm with your hands. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. This trick is very simple. as you have held it all the time. Cleveland. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. as well as others. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. You have an understanding with some one in the company. He. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. he throws the other. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. you remove the glass. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow..

wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. near a partition or curtain. Crocker. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. Victor. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. put it under the glass. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again.-Contributed by E. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint.take the handiest one. but by being careful at shores. if any snags are encountered. on a table. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. in diameter in the center. J. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. but in making one. . Be sure that this is the right one. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. Colo. Pull the ends quickly. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters.

they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. is 14 ft. of 1-yd. 1 in. 1 in. 3 in. 14 rib bands. long. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. 1 in. one 6 in. wide 12-oz. drilled and fastened with screws. at the ends. 1/8 in. 1 mast. of 1-1/2-yd. by 2 in. and. 1 piece. for the stern piece. 4 outwales. from the stern. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. 2 gunwales. 1 piece. 2 in. long. the smaller is placed 3 ft. 3 in. of rope. for center deck braces. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. Paint. 11 yd. by 12 in. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. 3 and 4. Fig. for the bow. and the other 12 in. selected pine. 8 in. screws and cleats. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. wide and 12 ft. 1 in. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. Both ends are mortised. for cockpit frame. thick and 3/4 in. 2 and braced with an iron band. clear pine. by 2 in. 9 ft. 50 ft. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. are as follows: 1 keelson. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together.. wide and 12 ft. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. from the bow and the large one. from each end to 1 in. and is removed after the ribs are in place. 1/4 in. and fastened with screws. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown.. long. long. as illustrated in the engraving. apart. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. 1. by 10 ft. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . by 16 ft. by 15 ft. by 16 ft. The keelson. ducking. 8 yd. wide. by 8 in. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. square by 16 ft. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. wide unbleached muslin. 7 ft.

These are put in 6 in. A seam should be made along the center piece. 9. A piece of oak. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. screws. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. 1 in. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. 4 in. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. Braces. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. 5. wide. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. thick. This block. Before making the deck. wide. in diameter through the block. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. gunwales and keelson. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. They are 1 in. thick and 12 in. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. A block of pine. long. also. The deck is not so hard to do. Fig. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. A 6-in. length of canvas is cut in the center. is a cube having sides 6 in. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. wide and 3 ft. long is well soaked in water. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. 6 in. corner braces. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. The trimming is wood. doubled. thick and 1/2 in. Fig. and fastened to them with bolts. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. a piece 1/4 in. 3-1/2 ft.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. apart. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. Figs. 7 and 8. is cut to fit under the top boards. thick. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. thick 1-1/2 in. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. long. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. wide and 24 in. wood screws. 6 and 7. wide and 14 in. 6. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. from the bow. long. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. The block is fastened to the keelson. 1 in. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. . a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. 1/4 in. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. The 11-yd.

A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. apart in the muslin. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. 10 with a movable handle. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. The house will accommodate 20 families. are used for the boom and gaff. 12. in diameter and 10 ft. Fig.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. A strip 1 in. is 6 in. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. Tronnes. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. Ill. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. The keel. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. Wilmette. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. each 1 in. . 11. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. wide. thick by 2 in. E. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. wide at one end and 12 in. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. long. long. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. at the other. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. --Contributed by O. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. The sail is a triangle. The mast has two side and one front stay. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring.

long. Cut the maple. thick.into two 14-in. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. 2. 1 yd. square. long. 1. thick. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. five 1/2-in. 2-1/2 in. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. wide and 30 in. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. with the ends and the other side rounding. one 11-1/2 in. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. Ill. 3. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. flat-headed screws. long and five 1/2-in. flat on one side. and the other 18 in. wide. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. wide. wide and 2 ft. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. 2-1/2 in. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. Fig. as shown in Fig. Bevel both sides of the pieces. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. Wilmette. Tronnes. and 3 ft.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. 5. E. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. flat headed screws. 4. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. 2 in. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. --Contributed by O. long. Take this and fold it over . The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. thick. about 5/16 in. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang.

and make a turn in each end of the wires. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. are rounded. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. long. wide and 4-1/2 in. Bliss. long. wide and 6-1/2 in. B. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. long. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. St. 5 from 1/16-in. thick. 1. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. wide and 5 in. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. thick. long. Wind three layers of about No. is set. C. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. Figs. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. Fig. about 3/8 in. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. A. The sides are 3-1/4 in. wide . About 1/2 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. but can be governed by circumstances. long. wide and 6-3/4 in. pieces 2-5/8 in. long. 3-1/4 in. After the glue. 3 in. A. 6-1/2 in. When the glue is set. the mechanical parts can be put together. and take care that the pieces are all square. 2 and 3. thick and 3 in. The front.once. as well as the edges around the opening. soaked with water and blown up. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. wide and 2-3/4 in. F. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. leaving a small opening at one corner. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. this square box is well sandpapered. the top and bottom. and the four outside edges. Glue a three cornered piece. long. Cut another piece of board. forming an eye for a screw. Another piece. E. D. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. long. wide and 3 ft. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. 1-1/4 in. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. C. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. square. If carefully and neatly made. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. Louis. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. Make a double stitch all around the edge. then centered. of each end unwound for connections. Mo. --Contributed by W. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. square. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. The bag is then turned inside out. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. 3/8 in.

1/4 in. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. long.R. Fig.A. A pointer 12 in. board. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . Austwick Hall. W. F. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. showing a greater defection of the pointer. Richmond Hill. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. G. The base is a board 5 in. The stronger the current.and 2-5/8 in. the part carrying the pointer moves away. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. in diameter. 5-1/2 in. thick. --Contributed by George Heimroth. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. long. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. Chapman. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. hole is fastened to the pointer.S. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. 4. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. R. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. I. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. Yorkshire. and the farther apart they will be forced. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. Place the tin. Like poles repel each other. and as the part Fig. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. from the spindle. L. 4. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. wide and 9 in. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. The resistance is now adjusted to show . A brass tube having a 1/4-in. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. 4 is not movable. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. When the current flows through the coil. from one end. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. wide and 2-1/2 in. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. bored in the back. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. 5. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. that has the end turned with a shoulder. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. The end of the polar axis B. the same size as the first. and fasten in place. long. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. These wires should be about 1 in. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. Fig. C. 1/16 in. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. Another strip of tin. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. so it will just clear the tin. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left.

1881. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. The following formula will show how this may be found. A. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. 10 min. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. shows mean siderial. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. 10 min. thus: 9 hr. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. and vice . There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. say Venus at the date of observation. M. at 9 hr. 30 min. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock.

The connections are made from the zinc and carbon.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Robert W. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. Hall. . or. owing to the low internal resistance. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell.m. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. New Haven. Conn. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid.f. and then verify its correctness by measurement. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. if one of these cannot be had. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery.

leaves or bark. 3/8 in. especially for cooking fish. cover up with the same. and heap the glowing coals on top. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. 1. put the fish among the ashes. as shown in the accompanying picture. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. arsenic to every 20 lb. inside diameter and about 5 in. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. When the follower is screwed down. The boring bar. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . thick. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. Fig. Wet paper will answer. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. fresh grass. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. long. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. 1-3/4 in. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. of alum and 4 oz. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. Then.

bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. fastened with a pin. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. pipe. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . pipe were fitted to these holes so that. about 1/2 in. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. pipe. when they were turned in. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. and threaded on both ends. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. thick. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel.

A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. 2. Fig. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. Fig. square iron. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. but never one which required so little material. then it should be ground to a fit. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. and which gave such satisfactory results. thick and 3 in. was then finished on an emery wheel. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. 3. It . Iowa. A 1-in. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. however. as the one illustrated herewith. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. 5. the float is too high. wide. Fig. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. a jump spark would be much better. labor and time. The rough frame. 30 in. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. bent in the shape of a U. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place.valve stems. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. If the valve keeps dripping. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. Clermont. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. 4. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. long. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. This plate also supports the rocker arms. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves.

and a little junk. extending above. 3/4 in. no matter what your age or size may be. for the "motive power" to grasp. square. Use a heavy washer at the head. A malleable iron bolt. in diameter and 15 in. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. The crosspiece is 2 in. rope is not too heavy. It looks like a toy. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. --Contributed by C. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. strengthened by a piece 4 in. from the center. in the ground with 8 ft." little and big. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. 12 ft. The illustration largely explains itself. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. Nieman. As there is no bracing. set 3 ft. square and 2 ft. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. long is the pivot. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. long. W. being held in position by spikes as shown. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. hole bored in the post. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. butting against short stakes. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. in fact. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. completes the merry-go-round. long. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. long. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. A 3/4 -in. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . and. If it is to be used for adults. The seats are regular swing boards. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. This makes an easy adjustment. from all over the neighborhood. square and 5 ft. so it must be strong enough. with no trees or buildings in the way." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. timber. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. strong clear material only should be employed.

paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. Both have large reels full of . This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. The backbone is flat. 1. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. These ends are placed about 14 in. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. then it is securely fastened. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. if nothing better is at hand. a wreck. 1/4 by 3/32 in. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching.the fingers. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line.2 emery. The bow is now bent. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. To wind the string upon the reel. away. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. as shown in Fig. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. light and strong. 2. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. long. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. square. A reel is next made. one for the backbone and one for the bow. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. and sent to earth. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. Having placed the backbone in position. 4. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. and 18 in. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well.

Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. Brooklyn. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. N. Mass. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. or glass-covered string. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. Newburyport. the balance.string. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. If the second kite is close enough. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. The handle end is held down with a staple. he pays out a large amount of string. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. often several hundred yards of it. Y. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. common packing thread. C. Bunker. First. --Contributed' by Harry S. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. Moody.-Contributed by S.

A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. --Contributed by Earl R. then draw the string up tight. each the size of half the table top. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. Vt. cutting the circular piece into quarters. such as mill men use. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. Hastings. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. lengths (Fig. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. length of 2-in. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. square (Fig. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. If the table is round. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. make the pad as shown in the illustration. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. then a dust protector. must be attached to a 3-ft. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. Corinth. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening.

This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. from E to F. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. from C to D.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. 2-1/4 in. Wharton.9-1/4 in. G to H. and E to G.. trace the design carefully on the leather. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. 17-1/2 in. 6-1/4 in. Oakland. . Use a smooth.. Moisten the . The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. hard pencil. Calif. 16-1/4 in. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. E. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. which spoils the leather effect.-Contributed by H..

apart. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. wide. and lace through the holes. is taken off at a time. Now cut narrow thongs. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. and corresponding lines on the other side. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. To complete the bag. place both together and with a leather punch. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. and E-G. I made this motor . G-J. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. Trace the openings for the handles. H-B. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. get something with which to make a lining.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. also lines A-G. about 1/8 in. Cut it the same size as the bag. if not more than 1 in. with the rounded sides of the tools.

D. 2-1/4 in. as shown in Fig. Calif. 24 gauge magnet wire. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. 2. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth.M. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. 1.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. of No. long. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. --Contributed by J. Shannon. Pasadena. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. B. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. 1. . The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. iron. in length. each being a half circle. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass.

or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. near the center. are the best kind to make. high. pasted in alternately. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. and the gores cut from these. The gores for a 6-ft. 1. balloon should be about 8 ft. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. from the bottom end. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical.

having the ends bent into hooks as shown. In removing grease from wood. The boat soon attains considerable speed. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. The steam. as shown in Fig. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. E. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. 4. --Contributed by R. in diameter. Fig. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . B. as shown in Fig.widest point. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. Staunton. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. A. so it will hang as shown in Fig. 3. These are to hold the wick ball. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. 5. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. 2. leaving a long wake behind. after which the paint will adhere permanently. In starting the balloon on its flight. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. If the gores have been put together right. As the boat is driven forward by this force. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. After washing. saturating it thoroughly. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. leaving the solution on over night. somewhat larger in size. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. 1. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. lap on the edges. using about 1/2-in. coming through the small pipe A.

carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. high and 8 in. if you have several copies of the photograph. There are three ways of doing this: First. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. long. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. wide by 6 in. Third. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. The blocks are about 6 in. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. long and each provided with a handle. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . In using either of the two methods described. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. in bowling form. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. Second. apart on these lines. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. as is shown in Fig. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. 1. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely.

The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. not pointed down at the road at an angle. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. N. Rinse the plate in cold water. 2. Hellwig.Fig. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. Y. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. Fig. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. --Contributed by John A. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. being careful not to dent the metal. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. Albany. thick. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching.

A. in diameter. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. thick. wide and of any desired height. which is 4 in. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns.upon any particular object. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. wide and 8 in. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. and Fig. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . Break off the frame. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. with a set screw. With this device. are screwed to the circular piece. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. 5 in. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. 2 the front view. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. CC. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. In Fig. long for the base. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. and not produce the right sound. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. Corner irons. B. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. Va. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. through which passes the set screw S. is fastened to a common camera tripod. S. and. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. --Contributed by R. 1 Fig. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. A. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. Richmond. A circular piece of wood. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. 6 in. Paine. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. These corner irons are also screwed to.

La Salle. Kidder. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. as only the can is visible. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. This will make a very compact electric horn. This horn. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. pine boards. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. Ill. I made a wheel 26 in. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. -1. thus producing sound waves.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. S. R. D. Lake Preston. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. in diameter of some 1-in. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. . then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained.

Kane. thick and 12 in. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. 2. If the collection consists of only a few coins. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. B. 1. The frame is made of a heavy card. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. Purdy. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. If there is a large collection of coins. Fig. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. Feet may be added to the base if desired. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. --Contributed by C. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. A. square. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. the same thickness as the coins. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. Doylestown. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. 1. O. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. --Contributed by James R. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. Ghent.

E. Milwaukee. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. into which to place the screws . they become uninteresting. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. A lead pencil. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. It will hold 4 oz. cut and grooved. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. Neyer. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. for after the slides have been shown a few times. though not absolutely necessary. Noble. If desired. a hammer or mallet. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. several large nails. Toronto. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. border all around. One Cloud. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. thick. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. plus a 3/8-in.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. and then glued together as indicated.J. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. --Contributed by August T. of developer. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. --Contributed by J. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. Canada. Wis. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. Cal. The material required is a sheet of No. --Contributed by R. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. Smith. A rivet punch is desirable. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. melted and applied with a brush.

The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. screws placed about 1 in. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. draw one part. both outline and decoration. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. Remove the screws. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. There are several ways of working up the design. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. like the one shown. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . never upon the metal directly. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. and file it to a chisel edge. Take the nail. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. using 1/2-in. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper.

Do not bend it over or flatten it.wall. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. 3/4 in. using a 1/2in. The pedal. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. 2. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. Provide four lengths for the legs. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. for the top. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. for the lower rails. 3. in the other. About 1/2 yd. Rivet the band to the holder. l-1/8 in. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. . up from the lower end. 1. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. long. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. square and 11 in. long. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. as shown in Fig. and two lengths. square and 181/2 in. of 11-in. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. square. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. each 1 in. long. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. two lengths. being ball bearing.

they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. F. --Contributed by John Shahan. having quite a length of threads. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. --Contributed by W. Ala. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. Quackenbush. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. New York City. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. Attalla.

Luther. wide and 8-1/4 in. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. something that is carbonated. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. long. the end of the other piece is folded over. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. Mich.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. --Contributed by C. each 1-1/4 in. college or lodge colors. in depth. initial. Assemble as shown in the sketch. using class. wide and 4-1/4 in. from the end. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. The desired emblem. from one end. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. one about 1 in. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. long.. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. D. and the other 2-3/4 in. making a lap of about 1 in. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. Purchase a 1/2-in. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. and two holes in the other. and 3/8 in. Two pieces of felt. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. Ironwood. long. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . stitched on both edges for appearance.

Ind. in diameter and 2 in.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. and the cork will be driven out. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. 1. as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by John H. Punch two holes A. Fig. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . which can be procured from a plumber. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. from the center and opposite each other. This method allows a wide range of designs. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. 1/4 in. as shown at B. or more in height. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. A piece of lead. or a pasteboard box. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. 2. Schatz. if desired by the operator. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. in the cover and the bottom. about 2 in. Indianapolis. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other.

non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. 5. . These tools can be bought for this special purpose. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. are turned up as in Fig. 4.Rolling Can Toy lead. A piece of thick glass. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. as shown in Fig. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. on both top and bottom. 1. O. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. 3. and the ends of the bands looped over them. The pieces of tin between the holes A. it winds up the rubber band. allowing the two ends to be free. When the can is rolled away from you. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. putting in the design. Fig. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. Columbus. or marble will serve. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. metal.

from each end. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. face up. 3 in. If it is desired to "line" the inside. long and bored a 1/2-in. After this has been done. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. or more thick on each side. Next place the leather on the glass. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. mark over the design. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. I secured a board 3/4 in. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. hole through it. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. 1 in. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . The edges should be about 1/8 in. deep in its face. and. New York City. thick. wide and 20 in. A pencil may be used the first time over. thicker than the pinion. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed.

3 by 3 by 36. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. New York. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. N. 1 by 12 by 77 in. 2 by 2 by 18 in. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. Brooklyn. 1 back board. 1 piece for clamp. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. 3 by 3 by 6 in. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. in diameter. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . much of the hard labor will be saved. M. thick top board. lag screws as shown. and fit it in place for the side vise. 2 side rails. 2 end rails. 1. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. Now fit up the two clamps. Fig. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. 1 top board. Cut the 2-in. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. 2. pieces for the vise slides. 1 screw block. 1 piece for clamp. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. 1 piece. Rice. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. 4 guides. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. countersinking the heads of the vise end. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. 1 top board. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. 3 by 3 by 20 in. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. --Contributed by A. 1 by 9 by 80 in. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. Y. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. 2 crosspieces. Make the lower frame first.in the board into the bench top. Syracuse. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. 2 by 12 by 77 in.

1 pocket level.. it can be easily found when wanted. 1 monkey wrench. 1 set chisels. 1 wood scraper. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. If each tool is kept in a certain place. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used.. 3 and 6 in. . put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. 1 cross cut saw. 1 compass saw. 1 marking gauge. The amateur workman. 1 jack plane or smoother. 1 2-ft. The bench is now complete. 1 brace and set of bits. in diameter. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. Only the long run. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. 1 pair dividers.. 1 pair pliers.screws. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. 1 set gimlets. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. 24 in. 2 screwdrivers. as well as the pattern maker. 1 claw hammer. They can be purchased at a hardware store. 24 in. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. rule. 1 rip saw. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. 1 bench plane or jointer. 1 nail set. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. 1 countersink.

Fig. try square. ---Contributed by James M. the projecting point A. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. 1. Fig. The calf skin. Kane. Doylestown.1 6-in. will sink into the handle as shown at D. Fig. 3. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. 2. 2 and 00 sandpaper. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. No. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. after constant use. Pa. becomes like A. being softer. will be easier to work.1. 1 oilstone. Fig. but will not make . 1.

if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. secure a piece of modeling calf. After the outlines are traced. If cow hide is preferred. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. . such as copper or brass. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. when dry. and the length 6-5/8 in. Two pieces will be required of this size. lay the design on the face. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. the same method of treatment is used. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. The form can be made of a stick of wood. New York City. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. Having prepared the two sides. If calf skin is to be used. cover it completely with water enamel and. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. then prepare the leather. First draw the design on paper. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface.as rigid a case as the cow skin. White. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. water or heat will not affect. will do just as well. -Contributed by Julia A. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. Turn the leather. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. but a V-shaped nut pick. which steam. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow.

Jaquythe.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. . if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. Maine. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. C. Cal. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. and an adjustable friction-held loop. Richmond. --Contributed by Chas. New York City. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. A. as shown in the sketch. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. Portland. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. --Contributed by Chester L. Cobb. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. Herrman. --Contributed by W.

the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones.. Mass. A thick piece of tin. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. Wright. Conn. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. Cambridge. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. was marked out as shown. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. for instance. B.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. --Contributed by Geo. --Contributed by Wm. Roberts. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. Middletown. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. an inverted stewpan. . 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. This was very difficult. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in.

and the grease will disappear. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. Indianapolis. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned.. and quite new. but not running over. --Contributed by Paul Keller. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. as shown. --Contributed by C. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. which has been tried out several times with success.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. Herbert. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. Illinois. Chicago. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. well calcined and powdered. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. of boiling water. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. apply powdered calcined magnesia. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. on a clear piece of glass. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. Bone. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. face down. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. such as chair seats. L. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. If the article is highly polished. F. Ind. used as part of furniture. but only an odor which soon vanished. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. When dry. pulverized and applied. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. so some bones were quickly calcined. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. . There was no quicklime to be had. The next morning there was no trace of oil. If any traces of the grease are left. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. A beautifully bound book. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane.

. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. the pieces . Howe. deep and 5 in. set and thumbscrews. thick. This coaster is simple and easy to make. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner.. New York. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. 6 in. says Scientific American. --Contributed by Geo. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. Tarrytown. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. A. soft steel with the opening 6 in. long. If properly adjusted. The pieces marked S are single. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. wide and 12 in.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. high and are bolted to a block of wood. 2 in. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel.

says Camera Craft. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. Their size depends on the plate used. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. no doubt. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. A sharp knife. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. albums and the like. E. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. they will look remarkably uniform. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. If the letters are all cut the same height. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. The seat is a board. for sending to friends. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. to the underside of which is a block.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts.

So made. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. using care to get it in the right position. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. after. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. photographing them down to the desired size. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. for example. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. pasting the prints on some thin card. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. and. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. mount them on short pieces of corks. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. So arranged. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. The puzzle is to get . Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. In cutting out an 0.

The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. with the longest end outside. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. of its top. so they will lie horizontal. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . Bayley. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. says the American Thresherman. hung on pivots. long that will just fit are set in. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. He smells the bait. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. Old-Time Magic .-Contributed by I. A hole 6 or 7 in.J. snow or anything to hide it. Cape May Point. N. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. G. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. squeezes along past the center of the tube. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in.

Idaho. or rub the hands a little before doing so. Brooklyn. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. N. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. Press the hands together. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. Y. --Contributed by Charles Graham.faced up. --Contributed by L. then spread the string. Pocatello. Parker. --Contributed by L. Szerlip. Rhode Island. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. then expose again. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. E. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. Pawtucket. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through.

The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. near the point end. or green oil paint. full size. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. narrower. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. says the English Mechanic. if any. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. The blade should be about 27 in. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. using a straightedge and a pencil. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. in width. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. and if carefully made. Glue the other side of the blade.Genuine antique swords and armor. The pieces. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel.. dark red. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. long. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. in building up his work from the illustrations. whether he requires a single sword only. When the whole is quite dry. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. wide and 2 in. 1. When the glue is thoroughly dry. they will look very much like the genuine article. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. 4 on the blade. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. or a complete suit of armor. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. wipe the blade . Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in.. 3 Fig. thick. end of the blade. The handle is next made. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade.

The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. follow the directions as for Fig. Both edges of the blade are sharp. 4. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. should be about 9 in. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. the other is flat or halfround. square and of any length desired. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. the other two are identical. 1. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. not for use only in cases of tableaux. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. shows only two sides. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. The length of the handle. the other is flat or half-round. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. in the widest part at the lower end. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. In making. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig.. 1/8 in. as it is .. preferably of contrasting colors. 2. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. of course. about 1-1/2 in. 1. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. 2. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. 3. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. 3. take two pieces of wood. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. Fig. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. In the finished piece. in diameter. the illustration. and 3 in.with light strokes up and down several times. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. In making this scimitar. 1. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. long. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. allowing for a good hold with both hands. the length of the blade 28 in. 1. This sword is about 68 in. thick and 5 in. using a soft and dry piece of cloth.

as can the pitch bed or block. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. Morse. On each edge of the board. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. N. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. Franklin. It is made of a plank. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. Doctors probed for the button without success. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. Syracuse. 2 in. Y. square. at the lower end. however. piping and jackets by hard water. Both can be made easily. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. about 3/8 in. as shown in the sketch.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. A cold . The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. A piece of mild steel. or an insecure fastening. --Contributed by John Blake. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. as there was some at hand. Mass. in an attempt to remove it. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. and. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. --Contributed by Katharine D. and if so. The thinness of the plank. each about 1 ft. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. long.

Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. To remedy this. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. using a small metal saw. a file to reduce the ends to shape. design down. When the desired form has been obtained. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. plaster of Paris. When this has been done. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. 18 gauge. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. To put it in another way.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. on the pitch. 5 lb. Trim up the edges and file them .. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. 5 lb.. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. tallow. secure a piece of brass of about No. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees.

or 550 ft.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. lb. space between the vessels with water. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. Clean the metal thoroughly. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. 1 ft.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. but not to stop it. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. The smaller is placed within the larger. in one minute or 550 lb. 2). and still revolve. make an unusual show window attraction. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. --Contributed by Harold H. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. it may be well to know what horsepower means. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor.000 lb. in one second. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. 3. Fig. Fill the 3-in. A. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. 30 ft. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. . Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. and hang a bird swing. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. 1 ft. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered.000 ft. using powdered pumice with lye.smooth. Before giving the description. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. in the center. over the smaller vessel. per second. lb. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. 1) and the other 12 in. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. per minute. one 18 in. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. in diameter (Fig. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. in diameter (Fig. This in turn divided by 33. to keep it from floating. That is lifting 33. Cutter. or fraction of a horsepower. living together in what seems like one receptacle.

Y. --Contributed by J.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. 2 Fig. Diameter Fig. N. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. 1 Fig. Brooklyn.18 in. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. Szerlip. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. or on a pedestal. Campbell. The effect is surprising. Mass. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. F. Somerville. --Contributed. Diameter 12 in.3 Fig. by L.

A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. which. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. which may be of wood or tin. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. away from the edge. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. is. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. as a rule. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. with the pliers. after which it is ready for use. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. keeping the center high. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. the same as removing writing from a slate. Rivet the cup to the base.copper of No. using any of the common metal polishes. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. to keep the metal from tarnishing. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. Do not be content merely to bend them over. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. and then. and the clay . In riveting. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. This compound is impervious to water. unsatisfactory. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. with other defects. then by drawing a straightedge over it. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. Polish both of these pieces. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. often render it useless after a few months service. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. and cut out the shape with the shears.

Mich. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. 1. A. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. 2. -Contributed by Thos.can be pressed back and leveled. in diameter and 5 in. Dunlop. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. Scotland. Shettleston. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. --Contributed by John T. as shown in Fig. 3/4 in. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. DeLoof. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. It is made of a glass tube. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. Northville. Grand Rapids. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. Houghton. . Mich. long. The siphon is made of glass tubes. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. --Contributed by A. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. the device will work for an indefinite time.

stilettos and battle-axes. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. long.1 FIG. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic.FIG. put up as ornaments.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. long with the crossguard and blade of steel. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. As the handle is to . This sword is 4 ft. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. in width and 2 in. London. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. 1. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig.

in length. sometimes called cuirass breakers. long. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. in width. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. The lower half of the handle is of wood. In Fig. with both edges of the blade sharp. This sword is about 4 ft. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. string. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. with wire or string' bound handle. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. The sword shown in Fig. narrower. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. These must be cut from pieces of wood. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. then glued on the blade as shown. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. The handle is of wood. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. 20 spike. A German poniard is shown in Fig. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. 5. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. This axe is made similar to the one . The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. long with a dark handle of wood. 3 is shown a claymore. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. This weapon is about 1 ft. This stiletto has a wood handle. The ball is made as described in Fig. the axe is of steel.represent copper. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. firmly glued on. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. paint it a dark brown or black. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. 7. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. The crossbar and blade are steel. one about 1/2 in. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. Cut two strips of tinfoil. very broad. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. 8. In Fig. In Fig. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. 11 were used. This weapon is also about 1 ft. the upper part iron or steel. 9. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. 6. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. studded with brass or steel nails. glue and put it in place. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. When dry. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. is shown in Fig. wood with a keyhole saw. A German stiletto. 4. which is about 2-1/2 ft. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. sharp edges on both sides. Three large. with both edges sharp. small rope and round-headed nails. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. the same as used on the end of the handle. in length. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. When the whole is quite dry. Both handle and axe are of steel. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. When the glue is thoroughly dry. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade.

. 10. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. high. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. W. This will make a very good flexible belt. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. together as shown in Fig. Old-Time Magic . will pull where other belts slip. Davis. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. such as braided fishline. the ends are tied and cut off.described in Fig. 2. --Contributed by E. When wrapped all the way around.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. Chicago. so the contents cannot be seen. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper.

An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. To make the flowers grow in an instant. about one-third the way down from the top. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. Oakland. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. Before the performance. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. 1 and put together as in Fig. As zinc is much lighter than iron.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. There will be no change in color.J. N. filled with water. --Contributed by A. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. S. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. with the circle centrally located. These wires are put in the jar. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. an acid. 2. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. causing the flowers to grow. or using small wedges of wood. Macdonald. Bridgeton. four glass tumblers. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. some of the liquid. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. apparently. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. Calif. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. in a few seconds' time. held in the right hand. The dotted lines in Fig.

but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. This outlines the desired opening. Richmond. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. 2 for height. A. not only because of the fact just mentioned. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. Cal. practical and costs nothing. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. --Contributed by W. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. unless some special device is used. If the size wanted is No. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. When many slides are to be masked. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. says a correspondent of Photo Era. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. 4 for width and No. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. and kept ready for use at any time.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. Jaquythe. and equally worthy of individual treatment. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. which are numbered for convenience in working.

Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. using the carbon paper. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. The decoration. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. the margin and the entire back of the metal. a little less acid than water. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. the paper is folded along the center line. and do not inhale the fumes. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. Secure a sheet of No. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. may be changed. 16 gauge. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. not the water into the acid. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . Trace the design and outline upon the metal. is about right for the No. about half and half. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. or. With a stick. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. This done. The one shown is merely suggestive. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. When etched to the desired depth. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. possibly.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. which is dangerous. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. or a pair of old tongs. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. Draw a design. paint the design. but they can be easily revived. and the extreme length 7 in. too.

apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. Fig. about 1 in. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. high. 5. 2. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. or more wide. J is another wire attached in the same way. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. the bell will ring. Cut out a piece of tin. Fig. Nail a board. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. 5. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. as at H. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. When the button S is pressed. long and 1 ft. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. to the table. C and D. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. about 8 in. in diameter and 1/4 in. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. wide. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. 24 parts water. thick. A. so that when it is pressed down. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. 2. The connections are simple: I. 2. Then get two posts. 3/8 in. long. about 3 ft. . as shown in Fig. Paint the table any color desired. 0 indicates the batteries. and about 2-1/2 ft. wide and of the same length as the table. as in Fig. attached to a post at each end. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. it will touch post F. Fig. Fig. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. about 2-1/2 in. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. with the wires underneath. Fig. as shown in the illustration. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. repeat as many times as is necessary. through it. 4. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. 3. It may be either nailed or screwed down. 1. and bore two holes. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table.

handle and all. 2. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks.. This weapon is about 22 in. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. the wood peg inserted in one of them. The imitation articles are made of wood. After the glue is dry. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. The circle is marked out with a compass. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. is to appear as steel. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. but they are somewhat difficult to make. long serves as the dowel. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. such as . thick. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. The entire weapon. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. 1. long. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. These rings can be carved out. A wood peg about 2 in. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. says the English Mechanic.Imitation Arms and Armor . the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool.

or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. covered with red velvet. The axe is shown in steel. This weapon is about 22 in. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. 6. The spikes are cut out of wood. The entire handle should be made of one piece. 3. The handle is of wood. flowers. also.ornamental scrolls. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. The upper half of the handle is steel. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. All of these axes are about the same length. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. . sharp-pointed and coneshaped. 8. as before mentioned. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. If such a tool is not at hand. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. The lower half of the handle is wood. Its length is about 3 ft. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. 2. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. used at the end of the fifteenth century. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. with a sharp carving tool. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. as shown. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. 5. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. as described in Fig. is shown in Fig. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. leaves. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. the hammer and spike. The handle is of steel imitation. or the amateur cannot use it well. long. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. studded with large brass or steel nails. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. etc. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used.

as in Fig. 3. Fig. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. Chicago. 5. then the other plays. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. Each person plays until three outs have been made. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. calls for a home run. a three-base hit. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. and so on for nine innings. 6. . 1. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. 2. the knife resting on its back. The knife falling on its side (Fig.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. as shown in Fig. 4). The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. 7) calls for one out.

F. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. Somerville. Mass. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. 2. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. hypo to 1 pt. as shown in Fig. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. with the rope laced in the cloth. as shown in Fig. If it is spotted at all. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. 1. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig.-Contributed by J.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. It may be found that the negative is not colored. 3. of the rope and holds it. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. Old-Time Magic . Campbell. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. This he does. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. of water for an hour or two. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. one of them burning . The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. while the committee is tying him up.

but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. Evans. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. 4 oz. --Contributed by L. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. of turpentine. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles.. with which he is going to light the other candle. The magician walks over to the burning candle. 4 oz. B. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. He then walks over to the other candle. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. Brown. Drill Gauge screw. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. --Contributed by C. and. thick. of water and 1 oz. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. 3/4 in. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way.brightly. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. Thome. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. Ky. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. Lebanon. bolt. Ky. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. of plumbago. the other without a light. invisible to them (the audience). showing that there is nothing between them. of sugar. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. etc. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. thus causing it to light. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush.Contributed by Andrew G. shades the light for a few seconds. Louisville. New York City. .

and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. 5 in.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. In making up the solution. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. long. Pulteney. thick. into a tube of several thicknesses. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. To make the porous cell. for the material. steady current. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. Y. Its current strength is about one volt. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. --Contributed by C. diameter. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. Do not add water to the acid. about 5 in. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. N. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. Denniston. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. or blotting paper. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. which will give a strong. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. but is not so good. H. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water.

long with a bearing at each end. Finally. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. a positive adjustment was provided. After much experimentation with bearings. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. One hole was bored as well as possible. The . steel. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. steel. carrying the hour circle at one end. one drawing them together. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground.) may be obtained. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. As to thickness. To insure this.station. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. while the other end is attached by two screws. steel. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. the other holding them apart. but somewhat lighter. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces.

axis is adjusted by turning these screws. save the one in the pipe. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. To find a star in the heavens. need not be changed. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. To locate a known star on the map. All set screws. excepting those on the declination axis. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . when the pointer should again cut at the same place. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. is provided with this adjustment. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. 45 min. The aperture should be 1/4 in.. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. Each shaft. subtract 24. The pointer is directed to Alpha. once carefully made. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. Cassiopiae." Only a rough setting is necessary. It is. Set the declination circle to its reading. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. and if it is not again directed to the same point. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so." When this is done. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. When properly set it will describe a great circle. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. apart. Declination is read directly. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. turn the pointer to the star. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. are tightened." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. in each direction from two points 180 deg. and 15 min. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. If the result is more than 24 hours. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum.. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. The pole is 1 deg. All these adjustments. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. Point it approximately to the north star. Instead. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph.

Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. is the real cannon ball. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. which is the one examined. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. Ohio. New Orleans. benzole. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. La. Strosnider. a great effect will be produced. long. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. the others . If this will be too transparent. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. of ether. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. cannon balls. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. then add 1 2-3 dr. is folded several times. -Contributed by Ray E. 3 or 4 in. Plain City. The dance will begin. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water.. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. The ball is found to be the genuine article. In reality the first ball. taking care not to add too much. add a little more benzole. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day.

The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. as shown in the illustration. Wis. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. In boxes having a sliding cover. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. F. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. Milwaukee. taps. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. 1). Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. without taking up any great amount of space.. Mass. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. San Francisco. --Contributed by J. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. Cal. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. Fig. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. Return the card to the pack. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. small brooches. etc. 2. Campbell. Somerville.

and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. Hartford. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. Connecticut. thus giving ample store room for colors. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. as shown in the illustration. Beller. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. round pieces 2-1/4 in. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. prints. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. from the bottom of the box. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. slides and extra brushes. . This box has done good service.

and especially are the end pieces objectionable. -Contributed by C. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. costing 5 cents. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. West Lynn. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. When the ends are turned under. . Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. Fill the upper tub. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. Mass. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. about threefourths full. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. or placed against a wall. will answer the purpose. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. holes in the bottom of one. FIG. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. with well packed horse manure. O. 2). Darke. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. 1). then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. tacking the gauze well at the corners.

Eifel. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. when they are raised from the pan. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. M. --Contributed by L. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. cutting the cane between the holes. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. If the following directions are carried out. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. they should be knocked out. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. If plugs are found in any of the holes. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. oil or other fluid. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. and each bundle contains . The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. if this is not available. Chicago. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and.

and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. 1. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. held there by inserting another plug. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. it should be held by a plug. after having been pulled tight. and. then across and down. as shown in Fig. a square pointed wedge. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. put about 3 or 4 in. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. In addition to the cane. No plugs . Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. as it must be removed again.

At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. the height of which is taken from table No. as it always equals the latitude of the place. stretch the third one. -Contributed by E. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. All added to the lesser or 40°. as the height of the line BC for lat. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. 42° is 4. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. called the gnomon. and for lat. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. the height of the line BC. as shown in Fig. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. and the one we shall describe in this article. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. --Contributed by M. is the base (5 in. It consists of a flat circular table. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. for 2°. 1. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. we have 4. Their difference is . a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. There are several different designs of sundials. The style or gnomon. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. 3. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving.5 in. D. If you have a table of natural functions. After completing the second layer. If handled with a little care. or the style. Patrick. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. 1. 1 lat. Start at one corner and weave diagonally.075 in.= 4.2 in. Fig. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . in this case) times the .3 in. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case.15 in. R. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude.075 in. 1. Detroit.2+. 3. as for example. 41 °-30'. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. 41°-30'. From table No. 5 in.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. W. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. trim off the surplus rosin. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. the next smallest.15+. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. lat. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. This will make three layers. 40°. is the horizontal dial. Fig.42 in. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. and for 1° it would be . 5. it is 4. During the weaving. using the same holes as for the first layer. but the most common. No weaving has been done up to this time. 4. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. as shown in Fig. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. Michigan. Even with this lubrication. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. When cool.

The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks.64 4 8 3. using the points A and C as centers. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in.39 .02 1.41 38° 3.33 42° 4.49 30 . and perpendicular to the base or style.96 32° 3.94 1.44 44° 4. Height of stile in inches for a 5in.28 . The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed.30 2.82 3.20 60° 8.11 3.18 28° 2. Draw two semi-circles.12 52° 6. 2 for given latitudes.68 5-30 6-30 5. Its thickness.79 4.49 3.16 1.66 1.87 4.99 2. an inch or two. To layout the hour circle.42 45 .37 5.85 35 .26 4.23 6.55 4. For latitudes not given.77 2. Table NO.38 .40 1. or if of stone.66 latitude.81 4. or more.85 1.14 5.42 . gives the 6 o'clock points.16 40 .29 4-30 7-30 3. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No.97 5 7 4.57 3. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown.03 3.93 2. which will represent the base in length and thickness.55 46° 5. 1.50 26° 2.32 6. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in.37 54° 6.76 1.10 6.46 3.55 5. base.56 . if of metal. circle Sundial.63 56° 7.46 . 2. long. with a radius of 5 in.40 34° 3.82 5. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style.83 27° 2.88 36° 3.66 48° 5. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2.57 1.89 50° 5. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial.55 30° 2.00 40° 4.42 1.27 2. Chords in inches for a 10 in. 2.87 1.tangent of the degree of latitude.19 1.30 1. Draw the line AD.06 2. and intersecting the semicircles.59 2. and for this size dial (10 in. according to the size of the dial.91 58° 8. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points. draw two parallel lines AB and CD. A line EF drawn through the points A and C.82 2. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No.33 . . Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 . Fig.93 6.07 4.

Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York.14 1. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time. it will be faster. after allowing for the declination. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco.12 5. 2 and Dec. London. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3. 3.79 6.57 1. Iowa.52 Table No. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality.63 1. This correction can be added to the values in table No.89 3. will enable one to set the dial. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen. Each weapon is cut from wood.82 3. Sun time to local mean time.53 1.means that the dial is faster than the sun. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon.71 2. adding to each piece interest and value. Mitchell.add those marked + subtract those Marked .21 2.93 6.19 2. and on these dates the dial needs no correction. --Contributed by J. June 15. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No. and the .from Sundial lime. Sept.24 5. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached. if west. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face. The + means that the clock is faster. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time. April 16. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15.87 6.54 60 . 3. As they are the genuine reproductions.46 5.49 5. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year.01 1. each article can be labelled with the name. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid. 900 Chicago.30 2.72 5.49 3. and for the difference between standard and local time.50 55 .46 4.10 4.08 1.98 4. 3 Corrections in minutes to change. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west. then the watch is slower.68 3.34 5. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the .. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. E.50 . reducing the answer to minutes and seconds. 25. Sioux City. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker. An ordinary compass. says the English Mechanic.06 2.77 3.37 2.60 4.

1. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. When putting on the tinfoil. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. 3. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. Partisan. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. the length of which is about 5 ft. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color..swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. . This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil.

sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands.. It is about 6 ft. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. 8. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. 7. used about the seventeenth century. 6 ft. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. press it well into the carved depressions. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. long. is shown in Fig. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. long with a round wooden handle. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. which are a part of the axe. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. . Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. the holes being about 1/4 in. The edges are sharp. long with a round staff or handle. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in.which is square. long. about 4 in. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. The extreme length is 9 ft. 5. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. The spear is steel. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. sharp on the outer edges. A gisarm or glaive. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The length of this bar is about 5 in. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. in diameter. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. This weapon is about 6 ft. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in.

apart. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. 1. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. Loudonville. 4. 5. They can be made of various materials. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. This is important to secure neatness. In Figs. used for spacing and binding the whole together. are less durable and will quickly show wear.-Contributed by R. Cut all the cords the same length. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. Workman. H. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. are put in place. the cross cords. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. 2 and 3. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. as shown in Fig. or in holes punched in a leather strap. B. Ohio. The twisted cross cords should . Substances such as straw. the most durable being bamboo.

New York. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. -Contributed by Geo. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. shaped as shown at C. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. La. of the bottom. for a length extending from a point 2 in. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. New Orleans. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. A slit was cut in the bottom. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . 3 in.be of such material. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. wide. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. Four V-shaped notches were cut. as shown at B. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. below the top to within 1/4 in. Lockport. bamboo or rolled paper. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. This was turned over the top of the other can. in which was placed a piece of glass. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. To remedy this. M. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The first design shown is for using bamboo. Harrer. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing.

which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. turned over but not fastened. --Contributed by W. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. Y. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. This should be done gradually. do not throw away the gloves. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. It would be well to polish the brass at first. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. wide. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. --Contributed by Chas. After this is finished. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. Cal. Shay. giving the appearance of hammered brass. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. H. Pasadena. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. --Contributed by Joseph H. and two along the side for attaching the staff. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. Sanford. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. Newburgh. the brass is loosened from the block. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. Maywood.tape from sticking to the carpet. Ill. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. This plank. N. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. Schaffner. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. about 1/16 in. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. is shown in the accompanying sketch.

Marshall. Ill. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. in diameter. Cal. Unlike most clocks. the pendulum swings . A. -Contributed by W. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. --E. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. Richmond. Oak Park. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. Jaquythe.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. K. bent as shown.

bar. A. 7-1/2 in. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. C.. bearing on the latter. are secured in the base bar. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. Metzech. to the first one with screws or glue. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. Secure a board. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. such as this one. In using this method. by 1-5/16 in. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. Two uprights. says the Scientific American. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. high and 1/4 in. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. high. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. Fasten another board. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. in diameter. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. only have the opposite side up. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. wide that is perfectly flat. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. . 5/16 in. about 12 in. about 6 in. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. on the board B. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. --Contributed by V. Now place the board to be joined. B. the center one being 2-3/4 in. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. away. high. and the other two 2-5/8 in. long and at each side of this. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. high. 6 in. 3/4 in. is an electromagnet. Chicago. The construction is very simple. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. thick. wide.

long. or more. 1. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. by driving a pin through the wood. wide and 5 in. Pa. 1. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. wide and 1 in. Fig. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. square. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. Vanderslice. 3. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. plates should be made 8 in. 2. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. as shown at A. from one end. 1. The trigger. --Contributed by Elmer A. 4. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. Phoenixville. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. square inside. is fastened in the hole A. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. . whose dimensions are given in Fig. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. Fig.

which allows 1/4 in. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. 5 parts of black filler. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. as shown in the illustration.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. Fostoria. 2 parts of whiting. square. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. if only two bands are put in the . rubbing varnish and turpentine. -Contributed by J. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. Simonis.A. by weight. Ohio. one-half the length of the side pieces. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take.

and it may be made as a model or full sized. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. It must be kept moist and well . -Contributed by Abner B. and the picture can be drawn as described. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. keeps the strong light out when sketching. DeLoof. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. Shaw. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. --Contributed by Thos. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. which may be either of ground or plain glass. In constructing helmets. Michigan. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. Mass. G. wide and about 1 ft. says the English Mechanic. as shown in Fig. A double convex lens. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. in the opposite end of the box. A mirror. Dartmouth. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. A piece of metal. London. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. Grand Rapids. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. long. No. preferably copper. If a plain glass is used. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. II. is set at an angle of 45 deg. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. deep. 1. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. 8 in.lower strings. is necessary. place tracing paper on its surface. In use.

with a keyhole saw. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. 3. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. 1. 2. take. The clay. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. the clay model oiled. 1. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. as shown in Fig. on which to place the clay. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. a few clay-modeling tools. Scraps of thin.kneaded. or some thin glue. All being ready. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. and continue until the clay is completely covered. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. and the deft use of the fingers. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. and left over night to soak. joined closely together. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. shown in Fig. brown. After the clay model is finished. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. This being done. will be necessary. and over the crest on top. as in bas-relief. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred.

The band is decorated with brass studs. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. 9. square in shape. The center of the ear guards are perforated. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. This contrivance should be made of wood. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. the piecing could not be detected. When perfectly dry. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. or. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. Indiana. and the ear guards in two pieces. They are all covered with tinfoil. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . When dry. In Fig. one for each side. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. a few lines running down. will make it look neat. a crest on top. as shown: in the design. the skullcap. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife.as possible. When the helmet is off the model. Indianapolis. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. then another coating of glue. 1. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. as seen in the other part of the sketch. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. --Contributed by Paul Keller. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. Before taking it off the model. should be modeled and made in one piece. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. with the exception of the vizor. In Fig. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. and so on. 7. The whole helmet. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. which should be no difficult matter. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. 5. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. owing to the clay being oiled.

about 1 lb. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. 4. If asbestos is used. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. This will allow the plate. one oblong piece of wood. 4. 3. 2. The two holes. 1. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. two ordinary binding posts. should extend about 1/4 in. 1. Fig. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. of No. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. If a neat appearance is desired. Fig. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. long. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. also the switch B and the fuse block C. Fig. the fuse block. each 4-1/2 in. of fire clay. Fig. long. Fig. Fig. one small switch. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. high. 4. AA. about 1/4 in. This will make an open space between the plates. Fig. as shown in Fig. 1. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. Punch holes in one of the pie plates.same size. when they are placed in opposite positions. FF. to receive screws for holding it to the base. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . which can be bought from a local druggist. long. as shown in Fig. 1 in. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. The mineral wool. and. The reverse side of the base. in diameter and 9 in. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. screws. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. 12 in. A round collar of galvanized iron. 22 gauge resistance wire. E and F. thick sheet asbestos. 1. Fig. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. 4. 1. German-silver wire is better. 4. of mineral wool. and two large 3in. 4. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. about 80 ft. The holes B and C are about 3 in. 3 in. if the measurements are correct. AA. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. with slits cut for the wires. AA. wide and 15 in. for connections. 4 lb. and C. 1. one glass tube. are allowed to project about 1 in. 4. is then packed down inside the collar. is shown in Fig. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. Fig. 2. if this cannot be obtained. or. 2. the holes leading to the switch. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. thick. The plate. as it stands a higher temperature. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. as shown in Fig. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. Fig. until it is within 1 in. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. Fig. of the top. GG. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. Fig. JJ. Fig. one fuse block. above the collar. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate.

KK. above the rim. 2. This point marks the proper length to cut it. A. Cnonyn. using care not to get it too wet. steam will form when the current is applied. deep. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. Jaquythe.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. as the turns of the wires. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. Can. Fig. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. It should not be set on end. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. If this is the case. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. causing a short circuit. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. The clay. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. so that the circuit will not become broken. Cover over about 1 in. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . Richmond. A file can be used to remove any rough places. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. H. then. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. Next. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. Catherines. While the clay is damp. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. allowing a space between each turn. --Contributed by W. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. Fig. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. it leaves a gate for the metal. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. When this is done. Cut a 1/2-in. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. will slip and come in contact with each other. II. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. and pressed into it. When the tile is in place. This completes the stove. St. apart. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. when heated. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. when cool. 4. more wire should be added. If it is not thoroughly dry. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. It should not be left heated in this condition. --Contributed by R. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. As these connections cannot be soldered. Cal. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay.

the air can enter from both top and bottom. Thorne. and the frame set near a window. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. constructed of 3/4-in. Ky. says the Photographic Times. --Contributed by Andrew G. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. but 12 by 24 in.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. is large enough. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. the pie will be damaged. as shown. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. square material in any size. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. Louisville. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. and the prints will dry rapidly. Then clip a little off the . Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit.

The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. 1. long. at GG. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. causing a break in the current. 1. long. in diameter and about 4 in. thick and 3 in. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. 1. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. Fig. Fig. 2. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. high. wide and 7 in. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. Figs. thereby saving time and washing. An offset is bent in the center.Paper Funnel point. -Contributed by S. A 1/8-in. 3. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. thick. which gives the shaft a half turn. W. Le Mars. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. which are fastened to the base. 1 and 3. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. for the crank. The board can be raised to place . Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. 2-1/2 in. The driving arm D. high. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. 22 gauge magnet wire. allowing each end to project for connections. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. each 1 in. slip on two cardboard washers. The connecting rod E. each 1/2 in. 1/2 in. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. As the shaft revolves. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. thick and 3 in. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. 1. Two supports. Iowa. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. long. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. open out. 14 in. Fig. high. wide and 3 in. 1/2 in. as shown. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. The connections are made as shown in Fig. long. Herron. The upright B. 4 in. wide. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. in diameter. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft.

Stecher. Mass. One or more pots may be used. . In designing the roost. bottom side up. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. 3 in.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. Place the pot. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. making a framework suitable for a roost. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. in height. as shown in the sketch. Dorchester. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. on a board. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. --Contributed by William F.

. will produce the pattern desired. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. as shown in Fig. Fig. 1. windows. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. The materials required are rope or. in diameter. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. odd corners. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. ordinary glue. paraffin and paint or varnish. F. shelves. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. and give it time to dry. preferably. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. etc. 1. Wind the . without any corresponding benefit. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. when combined. F. adopt the method described. that it is heated. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. The bottom part of the sketch. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. if it is other than straight lines. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. grills and gratings for doors..

Y. Fig. six designs are shown. Lockport. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. cut and glue them together. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. M. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . N. Harrer. -Contributed by Geo.Fig. 2.

. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. and the sides do not cover the jaws. which was used in front of a horse's head.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. etc. etc. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular.. As the .. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. but no farther. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. London. will be retained by the cotton. 1. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. says the English Mechanic. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. chips of iron rust. This piece of horse armor. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. when it will be observed that any organic matter. Pour the water in until the filter is filled.

2. This triangularshaped support. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. This being done. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. and therefore it is not described. except the thumb and fingers. This can be made in one piece. but the back is not necessary. the rougher the better. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. The armor is now removed from the model. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. as the surface will hold the clay. and will require less clay. All being ready. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. 4. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. This will make the model light and easy to move around. as shown in the sketch. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. which is separate. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. but for . with the exception of the thumb shield. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. In Fig. 8. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. which can be made in any size. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. then another coat of glue. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. 6 and 7. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. and the clay model oiled. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. An arrangement is shown in Fig. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. the same as in Fig. 2.

. will be about right. the two pieces of foil will draw together. If it does not hold a charge. When locating the place for the screw eyes. are better shown in Fig. 2. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. long. --Contributed by John G. La Rue. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. in depth. The two pieces of foil. cut into the shape shown in Fig. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. Calif. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. two for the jaws and one a wedge. Y. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. Redondo Beach. Goshen. 9. N. Buxton. 1/2 in. two in each jaw.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. wide and 1/2 in. A piece of board. but 3-1/2 in. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. and the instrument is ready for use. fastened to the rod. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. each about 1/4 in. the foils will not move. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. running down the plate. Fasten a polished brass ball to. are glued to it. the top of the rod. --Contributed by Ralph L.

enameled or otherwise decorated. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. as indicated in the . At a point 6 in. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. 2-1/2 in. long. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. A. Bryan. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. about 15 in. Corsicana. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. When a fish is hooked. as shown in the illustration. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. M. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. --Contributed by Mrs. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. as this will cut under the water without splashing. pine board. silvered. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. is made of a 1/4-in. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. The can may be bronzed. Texas. from the smaller end. hole bored through it.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up.

but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. Next prepare the metal holder. 3/8 or 1/4 in. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner.Match Holder accompanying sketch. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. Any kind of wood will do. punch the holes. thick. using a piece of carbon paper. as shown. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. then with a nail. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. wide by 6 in. take a piece of thin wood. 22 is plenty heavy enough. or even pine. A good size is 5 in. Basswood or butternut. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. If soft wood. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. When it has dried over night. Having completed the drawing. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. put a coat or two of wax and polish . such as basswood or pine was used. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. and trace upon it the design and outline. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. using powdered pumice and lye. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. long over all. Polish the metal. will do as well as the more expensive woods.

the whole being finished in linseed oil. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. . All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. each 1 in. wide and 5 in. 2 in. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. 1/2 in. A. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. Two wire nails. of pure olive oil.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. is used for the base of this instrument. If one has some insight in carving. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. can be made on the same standards. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. are used for the cores of the magnets. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. Jaquythe. long. If carving is contemplated. --Contributed by W. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. Instead of the usual two short ropes. thick. It is useful for photographers. Richmond. long. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. Cal. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces.

at A. similar to that used in electric bells. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. leaving about 1/4 in. A piece of tin. London.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. --Contributed by W. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. 3. 1. says the English Mechanic. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. as shown in Fig. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. A rubber band. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. when the key is pushed down. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. then covered with red. cloth or baize to represent the legs. except that for the legs. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. the paper covering put on. H. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. cut in the shape of the letter T. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. 25 gauge. Lynas. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. as shown by the dotted lines. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. acts as a spring to keep the key open. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. About 1 in. about No. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. . A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. All of the parts for the armor have been described. in the shape shown in the sketch.

flat headed carriage bolt. and eight small holes. in the other end. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. Cut them to a length or 40 in. apart. for the sake of lightness. drill six 1/4-in. Take the piece shown in Fig. make the same series of eight small holes and. So set up. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. not too tight. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. completes the equipment. 3 in. Fig. 1 and drill a 1/4in. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. holes. In one end of the piece. at each end. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position.. The two pieces are bolted together. Secure two strips of wood. hole in the center. one to another . A 1/4-in. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. Instead of using brass headed nails. 1 in. These can be purchased at a stationery store. By moving the position of the bolt from. Silver paper will do very well. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. 2. about 1 in. long. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. can be made in a few minutes' time. apart. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. says Camera Craft. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. or ordinary plaster laths will do.

The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. of the ends remain unwoven. Fig. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. D over A and C. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. and lay it over the one to the right. 1. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. 4. then B over C and the end stuck under A. 2. A round fob is made in a similar way. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. Then draw all four ends up snugly. lay Cover B and the one under D. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. A is the first string and B is the second. but instead of reversing . doubled and run through the web of A.of the larger holes in the strip. and the one beneath C. In this sketch. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. long. 2. C over D and B. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. the one marked A. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. as in portraiture and the like. Then take B and lay it over A. as shown in Fig. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. for instance. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. taking the same start as for the square fob. Start with one end. in Fig. 2.

How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. --Contributed by John P. over the one to its right. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. 3. A loop. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . Monroeville. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. as at A in Fig. 5. Ohio. Rupp. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. as in making the square fob. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. 1-1/2 in. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. always lap one string. the design of which is shown herewith. The round fob is shown in Fig. Other designs can be made in the same manner. is left out at the center before starting on one side. especially if silk strings are used. long. is to be made of leather. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. as B. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made.

Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. Any smooth piece of steel. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. . A. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. beeswax or paraffin. When the supply of wax is exhausted. door facing or door panel.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. -Contributed by A. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. such as a nut pick. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. Houghton. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. it can be easily renewed. Mich. filling them with wax. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. using the reverse side. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. pressing it against the wood. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. Northville.

This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. Enough plaster should. although tin ones can be used with good success. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. Y. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. New York. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. . apart and driven in only part way. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. says Photographic Times. leaving about 1/4 in. long. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. E and F. Ill. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. --Contributed by O. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. Fold together on lines C. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. J. D. if blueprints are used. and after wetting. those on matte paper will work best. but any kind that will not stick may be used. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. N. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. Thompson. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. place it face down in the dish. Select the print you wish to mount. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. The tacks should be about 1 in. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. Petersburg. it is best to leave a plain white margin. remaining above the surface of the board. and about 12 in. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. thick.

Lower into the test tube a wire. as shown at the left in the sketch. violets. will be rendered perfectly white. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. One of the . Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. without mixing the solutions.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. roses. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. filling the same about onehalf full. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. bell flowers.. etc. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. as shown in the right of the sketch. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water.

3. The diaphragm. in diameter and 1 in. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. When soldering these parts together. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. is about 2-1/2 in. as shown. and at the larger end. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. to keep the core from coming off in turning. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. 1-7/8 in. Fig. shading. long. which should be of thin ferrotype tin.. Millstown. Shabino. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. or delicate tints of the egg. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . but which will not wobble loose. The first point should be ground blunt. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. made of heavy tin. not too tightly. 2. The sound box. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. about 1/8s in. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. 1.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. should be soldered to the box. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. The tin horn can be easily made. long and made of wood. L. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. as shown in the sketch. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. South Dakota. thick. --Contributed by L. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. turned a little tapering. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. A rod that will fit the brass tube.

and weighted it with a heavy stone. E. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. and. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] .Contributed by E. Chicago. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. Jr. put a board on top. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. Colo. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. wondering what it was. Ill. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. Gold.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. Victor. mice in the bottom. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. says the Iowa Homestead. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass.

. Can. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. Buffalo. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. --Contributed by Lyndwode. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. Pereira. N. Ottawa. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. Y.

Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. Richmond. longer than the length of the can. Jaquythe. This cart has no axle. above the end of the dasher. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. by means of a flatheaded tack. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. as shown. and at one end of the stick fasten. Grand Rapids. as it can be made quickly in any size. --Contributed by Thos. A. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. Put a small nail 2 in. Cal. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. De Loof. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. cut round. a piece of tin. Mich. through which several holes have been punched. --Contributed by W. on the side and at the lower edge of the box.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher.

and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. New Orleans. deep and 3 in. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. wide and 3 ft. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. long. were below the level of the bullseye. The baseboard and top are separable. as shown. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. 2 in. 1-1/2 in. Kane. cut in the center of the rounding edge. A wedge-shaped piece of . although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. thick. wide. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. wide and 1/8 in. I reversed a door gong. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. 2. Pa. Doylestown. The candles. 2. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. wide and as long as the box. board. apart. 1/4 in. Fig. 1 ft. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. --Contributed by James M. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig.1. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. La. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. Notches 1/8 in. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. of course. screwed it on the inside of a store box. 2. 1.

Cover the block with rubber. Worcester. wide into each side of the casing. by cutting away the ends. the reason being that if both were solid. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. will. the blade is put back into the groove . Ia. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. wide rubber bands or felt. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. when placed as in Fig. Wood. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. After the glue has dried. to prevent its scratching the desk top.Book Back Holders metal. A. For the handle. 1. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. Needles. the shelf could not be put on the window. scissors. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. it can be removed without marring the casing. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. etc. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. take two pieces of hard wood. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. This device is very convenient for invalids. dressing one surface of each piece. --Contributed by G. stone or wood. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. When not in use. can be picked up without any trouble. Mass. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. The block can also be used as a paperweight. 3.. West Union. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. After completing the handle. as shown in Fig. as one end must be dropped in place before the other.

long. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. 1 in. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. A notch is cut in one side. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. Pa. as shown in Fig. thus carrying the car up the incline.and sharpened to a cutting edge. Hutchins. 1. . Cleveland. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. --Contributed by Maud McKee. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. is shown in the accompanying sketch. A. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. square and 4 in. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. -Contributed by W. --Contributed by H. Erie. 2. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. Each one is made of a hardwood block. Malden. as shown in Fig. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. S. Jacobs. Ohio. If desired. Mass.

and an awl and hammer. One sheet of metal.J.. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. a board on which to work it. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. 6 by 9-1/2 in. will be needed. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. If one such as is shown is to be used. .The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. N. The letters can be put on afterward. Prepare a design for the front. Cape May Point. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. This will insure having all parts alike. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy.

Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. placed on a table. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. So impressive are the results. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. paste the paper design right on the metal. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. 1 part.Fasten the metal to the board. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. a violin. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. but weird and distant. flat brush. only the marginal line is to be pierced. to right angles. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. The stick may be placed by the side of. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. 3/4 part. . mandolin or guitar. says Master Painter. Remove the metal. if desired. turpentine. that can be worked in your own parlor. One coat will do. 1/4 part. which is desirable." In all appearance. in the waste metal. If any polishing is required. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. behind or through the center of a table leg. The music will not sound natural. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. varnish. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. applied by means of a brush. On the back. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. as shown. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. 2 parts white vitriol. or. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise.

as would be the case with ordinary calipers. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. each 6 in. apart. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. London. thick by 1/2 in. square bar iron. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. across the top. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. 2. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. long and measuring 26 in. says Work. The longest piece. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. without them. long and spread about 8 in. Two pairs of feet. each 28 in. With proper tools this is easy. round-head machine screws. 3. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. it might be difficult. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. is bent square so as to form two uprights. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. . One thing is always at hand and that is wood. long. wide. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. are shaped as shown in Fig. and is easy to construct. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole.

6. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. Place the corner piece of glass. 5. special flux purchased for this purpose. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. The brads are then removed. The design is formed in the lead. better still. After the glass is cut. in the grooves of the borders. the latter being tapped to . The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. B. on it as shown. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. After the joints are soldered. as shown in Fig. A. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. lead. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. Fig. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. Fig. cut a long piece of lead. using rosin as a flux. 7. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. 4. C. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. or. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. The glass. is held by the brads. 5. While the piece of lead D. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. D. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. and the base border.

lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. plates. Make three washers 3-in. Secure a post. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. long. square and of the length given in the drawing. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. rounded at the top as shown. H. one on each side and central with the hole. in diameter and 1/4 in. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. as shown in Fig. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. in diameter and about 9 in. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. Fasten the plates to the block B. --Contributed by W. The center pin is 3/4-in. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. rocker bolt. N. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. then drill a 3/4-in. thick and drill 3/4-in. Jr. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. then flatten its end on the under side. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. and two wood blocks.. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. Bore a 5/8-in. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. wood screws in each washer. Bore a 3/4-in. bolt. Two styles of hand holds are shown. long. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. and round the corners of one end for a ring. long. bolt.the base of the clip. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. Camden. 8. A and B. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. This ring can be made of 1-in. J. This . Dreier. not less than 4 in. holes through their centers. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. plank about 12 ft. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown.

3/4 by 3 in. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. because it will not stand the weather. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. in diameter and 7 in. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. New Orleans. square by 9-1/2 ft. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. by 3 ft. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. long. boards along the side of each from end to end. 4 pieces. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. chestnut or ash. 9 in. If trees are convenient. shanks. and some one can swing an axe. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. by 6-1/2 ft. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. 1/2 in. screws. by 2 ft. 4 pieces. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . Draw a line on the four 7-in. long. maple. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. To substitute small. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. 16 screws. long. the money outlay will be almost nothing. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. 1 by 7 in. straight-grained hickory. horse and rings. 1. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. The four 7-in. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. of 1/4-in. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. from one edge. 7 in. 2 by 4 in. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. can make a first class gymnasium. 1-1/4in. square by 5 ft. long. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. hickory. long. La. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. 50 ft.will make an excellent cover for a pot. 4 filler pieces. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. 4 in. long. apart for a distance of 3 ft. 3 in. bit. 2-1/2 in. 4 in. long and 1 piece. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. bolts and rope. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in.

Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. apart. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. so the 1/2-in. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. apart. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. 8 in. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. boards coincide. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. from the end. at each end. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft.bored. deep and remove all loose dirt. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed... and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. Bore a 9/16-in. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. 2. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. each 3 ft. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. piece of wood.

a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. not even the tumbler. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. and ascends the stem. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. passing through a screweye at either end. W. it is taken to the edge of the foot. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. the effect is very striking. and materially heightened the illusion. and then passes in a curve across the base. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. And all he used was a black thread.. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. When the interest of the crowd. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. but most deceptive at dusk. in an endless belt. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals." which skimmed along the distant horizon. . He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. not much to look at in daytime. He stretched the thread between two buildings. disappearing only to reappear again. it follows the edge for about 1 in. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. about 100 ft. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. just visible against the dark evening sky. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. apart. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. was at its height. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. which at once gathered. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. If the tumbler is rotated. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. which at once gave the suggestion of distance.

A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. long. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. 4 wood screws. A wire about No. La. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. 8 in. and turned in a spiral D. long. 2 by 4 in. long and 1 doz. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. preferably cedar. so the point will be on top. New Orleans. 1. beginning at a point 9 in. by 7 ft. 2 base pieces. 4 in. square and 6 ft. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. 2 by 4 in. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. To make the apparatus. 2 cross braces. long. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. by 3 ft. 4 knee braces. 4 in. 8 in. from either side of the center. 2 by 4 in. long. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. 8 bolts. 2 by 3 in. 8 in. long. 7 in. Chisel out two notches 4 in. long. wide and 1 in. 4 bolts. The cork will come out easily. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. Fig. deep. Bevel the ends of . 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. long. by 2 ft. by 10 ft. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. square and 51/2 ft. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. large spikes. 2 in. 6 in. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. 2 side braces. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. long.

the knee braces. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. except the bars. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. A large sized ladle. --Contributed by W. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. Two endpieces must be made. of 7 ft. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. ( To be Continued. If using mill-cut lumber. as shown in the diagram. so the bolts in both will not meet. These will allow the ladle to be turned. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. additional long. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. After the trenches are dug. and countersinking the heads.. leaving the strainer always in position. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. screws. save the bars. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. but even unpainted they are very durable. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. Jaquythe. leave it undressed. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. which face each other. etc. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. The wood so treated will last for years. Richmond. . Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. A. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. Cal. jellies. equipped with a strainer. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. using four of the 7-in bolts.

of sufficient 1ength. drill press or planer. which seems impossible. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. In order to accomplish this experiment. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. thus holding the pail as shown. partly a barrier for jumps. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. it is necessary to place a stick. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. milling machine. Oil. A. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. or various cutting compounds of oil.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. . it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface.

2 by 4 in. bolts. in diameter--the larger the better. two 1/2-in. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. by 3 ft. 4 in. 1 in.. 1 cross brace. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. by 3 ft. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. 7 in. Procure from a saw mill. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. long.. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. to fasten the knee braces at the top. from each end. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. 2 by 4 in. apart. square by 5-1/2 ft. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. stud cut rounding on one edge. ten 1/2-in. long. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. bolts. long. long. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. 2 bases. The round part of this log must be planed. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. beginning 1-1/2 in. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. 3 in. To construct. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. long. 4-1/2 in. Hand holds must be provided next. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. 2 adjusting pieces. long. 4 knee braces. long. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. bolts. The material required is as follows: Two posts. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. long. projections and splinters. square by 5 ft. These are well nailed in place.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. in the ground. apart in a central position on the horse. and free from knots. 4 in. is a good length. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. by 3 ft. 4 in. These are placed 18 in. but 5 ft. wood yard or from the woods. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. 2 by 4 in. piece of 2 by 4-in. bolt. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in.

A. Also. Richmond. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. it is caused by some obstruction. it is caused by an overloaded shell.horse top. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. over and around. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. but nevertheless. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. no one is responsible but himself. etc. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. water. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. snow. such as a dent. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. Jaquythe. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating.--Contributed by W. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. Such a hand sled can be made in a . the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. then bending to the shape desired. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. pipe and fittings. Cal.

This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. when complete. Joerin. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. 2. then run a string over each part. Ontario. --Contributed by Arthur E. W. at E and F. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. is much better than a wood sled. France. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. Mass. in width and 1/32 in. Noble. thick. These. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. --Contributed by J. Boston. when straightened out. --Contributed by James E. Paris. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. are all the tools necessary.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. 1/4 or 3/16 in. The end elevation. will give the length. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. . Toronto. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. Vener. 1. which. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig.

After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. AA and BB.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. 3. 4. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. nor that which is partly oxidized. are nailed. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. The method shown in Figs. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. and the latter will take on a bright luster. It is best to use soft water. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. .

Broad lines can be made. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. 2. as shown in Fig. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. Percy Ashley in Rudder. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. 4. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. 1). or unequal widths as in Fig.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. 2. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. class ice-yacht. or various rulings may be made. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. as shown in Fig. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. . 8 and 9. 3. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. The materials used are: backbone.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

1-Details of Lathe sort. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. pipe. A good and substantial homemade lathe. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. 1. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. The point should extend about 11/2 in. Both the lower . It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. It can be made longer or shorter.Fig. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. long. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. out from the collar. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. a tee and a forging. but if it is made much longer. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. pins to keep them from turning. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. about 30 in. a larger size of pipe should be used. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. The headstock is made of two tees. bent and drilled as shown. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch.

--Contributed by M. Cal. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. a corresponding line made on this. . Man. Laporte. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. 2. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. a straight line should be scratched Fig. or a key can be used as well. M. Fruitvale. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. W. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. thick as desired. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. 3/4 or 1 in. 2. Held.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. --Contributed by W. It is about 1 in. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. Musgrove. but also their insulating properties. 1. UpDeGraff. 2. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. To do this. --Contributed by W. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. Indiana. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. Boissevain. as shown in Fig. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. else taper turning will result. as shown in Fig. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. and will answer for a great variety of work. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain.

If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. Ark. To obviate this. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. The handle is of pine about 18 in.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. long. Cline. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. --Contributed by E. J. In use. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. Smith. Ft. as shown. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven.

if this method is followed: First. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. the drill does not need the tool. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. take . White. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. This prevents the drill from wobbling. which should be backed out of contact. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. face off the end of the piece. New Orleans. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. After being entered. on starting the lathe. Denver. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. Colo. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. La. centering is just one operation too many. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. --Contributed by Walter W. and when once in true up to its size. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring.

The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. and this given to someone to hold. and can be varied to suit the performer. unknown to the spectators. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. the cap is placed over the paper tube. After the wand is removed. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. as shown in D. says the Sphinx. In doing this. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. shown at C. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. The glass tube B. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. It can be used in a great number of tricks. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. vanishing wand. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. by applying caustic soda or . is put into the paper tube A.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. a long piece of glass tubing. after being shown empty. all the better. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. a bout 1/2 in. The handkerchief rod. shorter t h a n the wand. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover.

Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. cut to any shape desired. preferably hard maple. The sides. 2 Sides. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. 1 End. across the front and back to strengthen them. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. as shown by K. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. With care and patience. square and 1-7/8 in. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. Glue the neck to the box. with the back side rounding. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. thick. 1. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. 1 Neck. can be made by the home mechanic. As the cement softens. by 14 by 17 in. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. The brace at D is 1 in. Cut a piece of hard wood. Glue strips of soft wood. 3/16. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. 1 Bottom. This dimension and those for the frets . 1/4 in. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. long.potash around the edges of the letters. End. and if care is taken in selecting the material. and glue it to the neck at F. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters.

-Contributed by J. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. in diameter. E. Six holes. A board 1 in. --Contributed by Chas. Norwalk. Carbondale. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars.Pa. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. toward each end. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. Frary. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. 3/16 in. and beveled . 1) on which to stretch the paper. When it is completed you will have a canoe. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit.should be made accurately. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. Stoddard. thick and about 1 ft. or backbone. wide and 11-1/2 ft. H. but it is not. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. O. long is used for a keel.

which are easily made of long. Fig. thick. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. Fig. buy some split cane or rattan. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. and are not fastened. will answer nearly as well. 3). after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. two twigs may be used to make one rib. In drying. such as hazel or birch. as shown in Fig. b. procure at a carriage factory. as before described. and notched at the end to receive them (B. 3. Fig. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. Fig. 2). light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. Green wood is preferable. 4). The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. 3/8 in. 1 and 2.) in notches. long. . thick. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. Fig. 3). Osiers probably make the best ribs. and. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b.. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. a. probably. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. apart. 1. in thickness and should be cut. wide by 26 in. 2). 2. such as is used for making chairbottoms. as they are apt to do. 13 in. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. but twigs of some other trees. Fig. 4. Any tough. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. in such cases. the loose strips of ash (b. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. as shown in Fig. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. C.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. when made of green elm. Fig. or other place. C. by means of a string or wire. The cross-boards (B. Shape these as shown by A. Fig. 3. two strips of wood (b. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. These are better. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. Fig. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. with long stout screws. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. or similar material. some tight strips of ash. twigs 5 or 6 ft. and so. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. The ribs. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. b. b. long are required. but before doing this. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. are next put in. B. For the gunwales (a. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. slender switches of osier willow.

and held in place by means of small clamps. after wetting it. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. wide. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. If not. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. and steady in the water. preferably iron. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. if it has been properly constructed of good material. 5). Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. It should be drawn tight along the edges. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. You may put in . This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. and light oars. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. and as soon as that has soaked in. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. The paper is then trimmed. however. It should be smooth on the surface. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. and very tough. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. but with less turpentine. When thoroughly dry. of very strong wrapping-paper. apply a second coat of the same varnish.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. Fig. Being made in long rolls. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. B. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. When the paper is dry. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. If the paper be 1 yd. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. but neither stiff nor very thick. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. Then take some of the split rattan and. tacking it to the bottom-board.

5. and if driven as shown in the cut. We procured a box and made a frame.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. to fit it easily. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. Drive the lower nail first. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. and make a movable seat (A. 2. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. Fig. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. 1 and the end in . 1. Fig. they will support very heavy weights.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. Fig. 5). fore and aft. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house.

The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. Close the other end with the same operation. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. and the result is. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. 5. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. Pa. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. this makes the tube airtight. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. 3. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. This way has its drawbacks. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity.Fig. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. and the glass. Pittsburg. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. This is an easy . simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. 4. A good way to handle this work. being softer where the flame has been applied.

above the metal. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . also trace the decorative design. thin screw. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. -Contributed by A. flat and round-nosed pliers. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. with a piece of carbon paper. Oswald. second. Give the metal a circular motion. fifth. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. very rapid progress can be made. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. Sixth. extra metal all around. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No.way to make a thermometer tube. third. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. The candle holders may have two. file. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. After the bulb is formed. Seventh. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. 23 gauge. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. four. then reverse. above the work and striking it with the hammer. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. fourth. rivet punch. metal shears. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. or six arms. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. three. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off.

these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. and holder. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. Small copper rivets are used. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . drip cup. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. Having pierced the bracket. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. Metal polish of any kind will do.

Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. The gaff. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. except they had wheels instead of runners. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. alcohol 2 parts. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. and it will be ready for future use. all the rest I found. and water 24 parts. deep. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. Twenty cents was all I spent. A saw. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. The boom. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. on a water bath. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. Fifty. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. N. glycerine 4 parts. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. and brace and bit were the tools used. and add the gelatine. F. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. thus it was utilized. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. sugar 1 part. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. smooth it down and then remove as before. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. Soak 1 oz. if it has not absorbed too much ink. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. Heat 6-1/2 oz. and other things as they were needed. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. when it will be ready for use. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. and in a week . the stick at the bottom of the sail. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. J. I steer with the front wheel.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. they were like an ice boat with a sail. Mother let me have a sheet. Shiloh. using a steel pen. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. is a broomstick. hammer. of glycerine to about 200 deg. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. winding the ends where they came together with wire.

Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up.Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. a projecting lens . A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly.

2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. and a projecting lens 2 in. slide to about 6 ft. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. and 14 in. E. and the work carefully done. 8 in. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. DD. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. at a point 1 in. but if such a box is not found. and the lens slide. above the center. long. wire brads. 3. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. H. A and B. wide. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. 1/2 to 3/4 in. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. A table. are . If a small saw is used. and. provided the material is of metal. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. high. focus enlarging a 3-in. or a lens of 12-in. about 2 ft. The board is centered both ways. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. The slide support. at a distance of 24 ft. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. Fig.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. well seasoned pine.. describe a 9-in. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. This ring is made up from two rings. 1. G. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. thick. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. as desired. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. or glue. wide and 15 in. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light.

E. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. JJ. Small strips of tin. St. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. of safe. placed on the water. the strips II serving as guides.constructed to slip easily on the table. apply two coats of shellac varnish. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. the water at once extinguishes the flame. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. light burning oil. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. To reach the water. P. Paul. Minn. B. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. should the glass happen to upset. but not long enough. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. A sheet . Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. and when the right position is found for each. The arrangement is quite safe as.-Contributed by G.

Schenectady. 9 in. I ordered a canvas bag. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. 1. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. If one of these clips is not at hand. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. Fig. Fig.H. then the corners on one end are doubled over. 3. Y. 12 ft. form a piece of wire in the same shape. 4. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. 3 in. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. Crawford. to cover the mattresses. --Contributed by J. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig.. from a tent company. by 12 ft. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. N. 2. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. 3.

Pa. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. 2. holes in the edge. Fasten the wire with gummed label. long. Fig. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case.each edge. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. 3/4 in. 1/2 in. Colo. Teasdale. wide. A Film Washing Trough [331] . Do not use too strong a rubber. Attach a piece of steel rod. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. thick. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. Warren. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. A rubber band. 3/4 in. 2. in the center coil. 1. through which the indicator works. --Contributed by Edward M. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. 1/2 in. and insert two binding-posts. White. Fold two strips of light cardboard. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. to the coil of small wire for volts. 3 to swing freely on the tack. long and 3/16 in. To calibrate the instrument. Fig. insulating them from the case with cardboard. first mark the binding-post A. C. Denver. 2. 1. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. D. so as to form two oblong boxes. --Contributed by Walter W. open on the edges. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. to keep it from unwinding. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. V. for amperes and the other post. apart. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. An arc is cut in the paper. drill two 3/16 in.

as shown. Dayton. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. with the large hole up. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. --Contributed by M. Wood Burning [331] . A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. O. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. Cut a 1/4-in. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. M. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. Hunting. Place this can on one end of the trough. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch.

then into this bottle place. mouth downward. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the .Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids.

but not very thick. wide and 4 in. Ala. Auburn. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system .Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. This will make a very pretty ornament. Whitehouse. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. 2. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. as shown in the sketch. Place the small bottle in as before. --Contributed by Fred W. thick. 1. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle.Y. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. If the cork is adjusted properly. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. provided the bottle is wide. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. many puzzling effects may be obtained. --Contributed by John Shahan. Upper Troy. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. If the small bottle used is opaque. 3/4 in. N. long. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume.

--Contributed by D. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. which was nailed to the face plate. was 1/4in. Fig. B. The bearing blocks were 3 in. 1. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. wide. 1. pulley. were constructed of 1-in. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. long. 1. The 21/2-in. W. Fig. which gave considerable power for its size. high without the upper half. which was 6 in. pulley F. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. Fig. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. Both bearings were made in this manner. in diameter and 1 in. to the shaft. Its smaller parts. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. by the method shown in Fig. iron rod. 1. On a 1000-ft. If a transmitter is used. Milter. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. line. as shown in Fig. even in a light breeze. G. thick. 2 ft.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. such as blades and pulleys. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. thick and 3 in. or ordinary telephone transmitters. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. 2. which extended to the ground. I. was keyed to shaft C. 1 in. 4. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. thick. Fig. Fig. 1. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. The wire L was put . 3. sugar pine on account of its softness. A staple. K. The shaft C.

Fig. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. Fig. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. If you have no bell. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. long and 1/2 in. This fan was made of 1/4-in. long and bend it as . 1) 4 in. The smaller one. pine 18 by 12 in. long. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. Fig. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. hole was bored for it.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. The power was put to various uses. The other lid. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. R. 1. and was cut the shape shown. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. cut out another piece of tin (X. 1. as. Fig. 6. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. for instance. long and 3 in. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. was 2 ft. providing one has a few old materials on hand. when the windmill needed oiling. 1. long and bend it as shown at A. To make the key. a 1/2-in. Fig. 0. strips. across the thin edge of a board. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. washers were placed under pulley F. G. with all parts in place. H. There a 1/4-in. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. 5. 1. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. through the latter. top down also. The bed plate D. apart in the tower. 3 in. Two washers were placed on shaft C. was tacked. This board was 12 in. in the center of the board P. 25 ft. so that the 1/4-in. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. square to the board P at the top of the tower. with brass headed furniture tacks. long. Fig. in diameter. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. hole for the shaft G was in the center. wide and 1 in. 2. 6. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. This completes the receiver or sounder. To lessen the friction here. Fig.

as indicated. McConnell. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. By adjusting the coils. Thus a center drive is made. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. fitted with paddles as at M. Before tacking it to the board. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. The rear barrels are. causing a buzzing sound. at the front. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. after the manner of bicycle wheels. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. like many another device boys make. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish.shown. Going back to Fig. 1. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. When tired of this instrument. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. although it can be made with but two. and. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. Now. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. using cleats to hold the board frame. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. as shown at Water. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . -Contributed by John R. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. 2. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. leaving the other wire as it is. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B.

which will give any amount of pleasure. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. The speed is slow at first. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. or even a little houseboat. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. To propel it. as shown in Fig. 1. feet on the pedals. If the journals thus made are well oiled. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. copper piping and brass tubing for base. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. There is no danger. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. 3. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. can be built.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. there will not be much friction.

2. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. If magnifying glass cannot be had.of pleasure for a little work. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. C. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. B. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. If it is desired to make the light very complete. 2. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. 2. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. and so creating a false circuit. Shape small blocks of boxwood. D. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. A. Fig. Then melt out the rosin or lead. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. 1. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. then the glass disc and then the other ring. Fig. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. 1. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . 1. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. Place one brass ring in cylinder. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. Fig. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. or it may be put to other uses if desired. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. Fig. Turn a small circle of wood.

The parts indicated are as follows: A. dry batteries. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. S. D. while lying in bed. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. brass strip.india rubber tubing. contact post. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. T. if too small. key of alarm clock. brass rod. and pulled tight. C. switch. 3/8 in. Throw lever off from the right to center. H. E. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. X. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. set alarm key as shown in diagram. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. after two turns have been made on the key. long. wire from light to switch. 4-1/2 in. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. B. some glue will secure them. such as is used for cycle valves. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. Utah. Brinkerhoff. Pa. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. near the bed. --Contributed by Geo. F. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . bell. by having the switch on the baseboard.. J. bracket. thick. 5-1/4 by 10 in. In placing clock on shelf. wire from bell to switch. Ogden. copper tubing. To operate this. which stops bell ringing. Chatland. wide and 1/16 in. When alarm goes off. C. I. Swissvale. 4 in. To throw on light throw levers to the left. shelf. wire from batteries to switch. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. after setting alarm. G. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. --Contributed by C. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. To get the cylinder into its carriage. long. or 1/4in.

--Contributed by Chas. making it as true and smooth as possible. All that is required is a tin covering. 1. from one end. will do the heating. beyond the end of the spindle. as at B. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. wide. S. 3. Make a shoulder. for instance. Chapman. a bed warmer. Fig. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. long. Fig. 1.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. Lanesboro. in diameter. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. Having finished this. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. A flannel bag. as . as at A. Make the spindle as in Fig. in diameter. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. which can be made of an old can. being careful not to get the sand in it. 4 in. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. about 3-1/2 in. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. as in Fig. Pull out the nail and stick. letting it extend 3/4 in. This is to form the fuse hole. as at A. place stick and all in a pail of sand. A small lamp of about 5 cp. about 6 in. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. 2. gives the heater a more finished appearance. 2. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. Minn. 1/4 in. Fig.

wide and a trifle over 3 ft. A piece of tin. long. good straight-grained pine will do. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. long. 1 in. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. ash. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. The illustration shows how this is done. this is to keep the edges from splitting. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. Joerin. long. spring and arrows. thick. wide and 3 ft. thick. --Contributed by Arthur E. wide and 6 ft. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. 6 in. or hickory. but if this wood cannot be procured. The material must be 1-1/2 in. 5/8 in. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. thick. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. will be sufficient to make the trigger.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. 1. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. 11/2 in. deep. 3/8 in. wide and 3/8 in. A piece of oak. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling .

The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. The stick for the bow. To throw the arrow. The bow is not fastened in the stock. which is 1/4 in. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. and one for the trigger 12 in. from the end of the stock. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. --Contributed by O. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. as shown in Fig. it lifts the spring up. 6. as shown in Fig. wide at each end. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. Ill. E. having the latter swing quite freely. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. 3. better still. 8. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. 4. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. Fig. Fig. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. from the opposite end. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. or through the necessity of. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. thick. The trigger. A spring. 2. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. To shoot the crossbow. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. 9. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. Fig. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. 7. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. When the trigger is pulled. Wilmette. Such a temporary safe light may be . it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. place the arrow in the groove. in diameter. Trownes.

Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. make the frame of the wigwam. making lighting and trimming convenient. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. and replace as shown at B. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. This lamp is safe. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. Moreover. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. and nail it in position as shown at A. from the ground. the bark lean-to is a . it is the easiest camp to make. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. or only as a camp on a short excursion. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. By chopping the trunk almost through. from the ground. C. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. The cut should be about 5 ft. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. Remove one end. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. respectively. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. is used as a door. says Photo Era. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. Remove the bottom of the box. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. apart. The hinged cover E. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. since the flame of the candle is above A.

For a permanent camp. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. spruce. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. long and 1-1/2 in. and cedar. deep and covered with blankets. For a foot in the middle of the stick. . A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. makes a good pair of tongs. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. Sheets of bark. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. wide. piled 2 or 3 ft. wide and 6 ft. are a convenient size for camp construction. long. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. 3 ft. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. will dry flat. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. selecting a site for a camp. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. a 2-in. Tongs are very useful in camp. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. thick. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. nails are necessary to hold it in place. In the early summer. 6 ft. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. and split the tops with an ax. A piece of elm or hickory. make the best kind of a camp bed. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. long and 2 or 3 ft. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. Where bark is used. and when the camp is pitched.

Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. and affording accommodation for several persons. hinges. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. or even a rough lock for the camp larder. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. .

Pa. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. I drove a small cork. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. --Contributed by James M. A. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. B. the interior can. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. B. wide. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. deep and 4 in. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. Doylestown. changing the water both morning and night. and provide a cover or door. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. Fig. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. about 4 in. 1. Kane. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured.. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. to another .

which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. 2. for instance. 3. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. 4 and 5). The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. such as ether. E. The diagram. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. C. to pass through an increasing resistance. if necessary. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. limit. 2. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated.glass tube. Fig. fused into one side. The current is thus compelled. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. for instance. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. a liquid. This makes . which project inside and outside of the tube. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. until.

a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. If the thickness is sufficient. therefore. screws. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. as shown in the left-hand sketch. to allow for finishing. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. Then the field can be finished to these marks. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. which will make it uniform in size. thick. 3-3/8 in. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. and for the outside of the frame. which may be of any thickness so that. on a lathe. making it 1/16 in. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. thick. thicker. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. between centers. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. The bearing studs are now made. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. in diameter. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. larger than the dimensions given. Fig. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. when several pieces are placed together. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. brass or iron. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. Before removing the field from the lathe. drill the four rivet holes. they will make a frame 3/4 in. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. Michigan. Alpena. When the frame is finished so far. but merely discolored. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. bent at right angles as shown. A 5/8in. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. After cleaning them with the solution. 2. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. brass. tap. as shown in Fig. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. A. or pattern. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. mark off a space. by turning the lathe with the hand. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. hole is . or even 1/16 in. two holes. cannot be used so often. 4-1/2 in. is composed of wrought sheet iron. After the template is marked out. 3-3/8 in. set at 1/8 in. in diameter. Fig. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. clamp the template. assemble and rivet them solidly. These holes are for the bearing studs. 3. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. 1.

or otherwise finished. brass rod is inserted.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . file them out to make the proper adjustment. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. is turned up from machine steel. and build up the solder well. When the bearings are located. solder them to the supports. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. Fig. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. into which a piece of 5/8-in. The shaft of the armature. soldered into place. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. 4. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft.

deep and 7/16 in. thick are cut like the pattern. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. by 1-1/2 in. to allow for finishing to size. thick. as shown in Fig. holes through them for rivets. being formed for the ends. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. 7. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. or segments. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. 8. 6. thick and 1/4 in. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. washers. hole and tap it for a pin. 3/4 in. as shown m Fig. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. and held with a setscrew. After they . When this is accomplished. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. Procure 12 strips of mica. When annealed. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. The sides are also faced off and finished. 1/8 in. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. wide. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. as shown in Fig. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. as shown in Fig. thick. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. wide. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. as shown in Fig. thick. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. The pins are made of brass.. 5. Make the core 3/4 in. sheet fiber. and then they are soaked in warm water. After the pieces are cut out. brass rod. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. Armature-Ring Core. as shown in Fig. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. 9. Rivet them together. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. inside diameter. threaded. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. Find the centers of each segment at one end. then drill a 1/8-in. 3/4 in. 6. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. 3. 3. 1-1/8 in. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments.

The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. This winding is for a series motor. by bending the end around one of the projections. about 100 ft. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. shown at A. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. and bring the end of the wire out at B. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. The winding is started at A. the two ends of the wire. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. The two ends are joined at B. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. Fig. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. long. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. In starting to wind. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. of the wire.have dried. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. until the 12 slots are filled. wide and 1 in. To connect the wires. Fig. The source of current is connected to the terminals. 1. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. shown at B. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. and wind on four layers. 6 in. After one coil. which will take 50 ft. of the end to protrude. or side. after the motor is on the stand. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. being required. yet it shows a series of . Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. they are glued to the core insulation. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. All connections should be securely soldered. sheet fiber. 1. sheet fiber. thick. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. are soldered together. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. 8 in. The field is wound with No. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. 5. When the glue is set. of No. Run one end of the field wire.

The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. is fastened to the metallic body. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. one from each of the eight contacts. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. as in the case of a spiral. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. or. which serves as the ground wire. still more simply. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. Nine wires run from the timer.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. and one. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. A 1/2-in. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north.

board. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. 6 in. thus giving 16 different directions. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. long. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. Covering these is a thin. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top.The Wind Vane. of the dial. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. Without this attachment. 45 deg. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. It should be . Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. circle.

" Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. or. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. will answer the purpose just as well. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. To work these outlines. if not too high. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. also a piece of new carpet. N. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. . The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. Buffalo. Blackmer.about 6 ft. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. called a chip carving knife. thus making a universal joint. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. and about 6 in. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. though a special knife. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. Place the leather on some level. high. Cut 3-in. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. according to who is going to use it. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. however. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. -Contributed by James L. and securely nail on the top of the box. long to give the best results. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. will be sufficient. To make it. Y. will be enough for the two sides. Before tacking the fourth side. 14 by 18 in. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. making it heavy or light. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. Fill the box with any handy ballast. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. is most satisfactory. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish.

fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine. An ordinary sewing-machine . Paste the silk plush to the inner side. A good leather paste will be required. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining.

If a fire breaks out. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. Syracuse. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show.will do if a good stout needle is used. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. or a hip that has been wrenched. B. a needle and some feathers. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. --Contributed by Katharine D. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. square and tying a piece of . Morse. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. temporary lameness. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. can be thrown away when no longer needed. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. away from it. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. of common salt and 10 lb. as in cases of a sprained ankle. N. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. and fasten the feathers inside of it. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. of water. and tie them together securely at the bottom. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. rather than the smooth side. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. Y. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in.

A small wooden or fiber end. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. wound on the head end. commonly called tintype tin. The coil is 1 in. is cut on the wood. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. N. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. which is the essential part of the instrument. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. the corners being wired. . G. Paterson. and the receiver is ready for use. --Contributed by John A. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. as shown. The strings should be about 15 in. cut to the length of the spool. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. This not only keeps the rats out. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. high. There is a 1-in. Ashland. 1/8 in. letting it go at arm's length. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. Hellwig. deep. thus helping the rats to enter. E. N. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. setting traps.J. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. The end is filed to an edge.. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. F. Wis. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail.string to each corner. and tacked it to the boards. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. The body of the receiver. but not sharp. Y. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. made up of four layers of No. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. laying poisoned meat and meal. etc. and a coil of wire. --Contributed by J. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. wide and 1/16 in. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. Gordon Dempsey. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. board all around the bottom on the inside. long. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. The diaphragm C. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. A. long. One end is removed entirely. B. Albany. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given.

placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. a piece of small wire. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. gold. A single line will be sufficient. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. wide. begin with the smallest scrolls. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. The vase is to have three supports. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. to . better still. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. Take a piece of string or. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. and bend each strip in shape. To clean small articles. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water.

stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. from the lines EF on the piece. from C to D. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. Fold the leather on the line EF. wide when stitching up the purse. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. as shown in the sketch. thus raising it. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in.. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. After taking off the pattern. Work down the outside line of the design. from E to F. 6-3/8 in. 3-1/4 in. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. and does not require coloring. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily.. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. Trace also the line around the purse. . retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. 4-1/4 in. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. through which to slip the fly AGH. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. using a duller point of the tool. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. 3-1/2 in. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H.which the supports are fastened with rivets. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. Press or model down the leather all around the design. About 1 in. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. sharp pencil.

Fit this to the two . The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. the "open" side. and the projections B. long. Make the lug 1/4 in. 3. with the largest side down. and tack the other piece slightly. deep. It is neat and efficient. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. being cast in wooden molds. by 12 ft. It can be made without the use of a lathe. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. and which will be very interesting. leaving the lug a. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. deep. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. and. as shown in Fig. place it on one of the square pieces of wood.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. with pins or small nails. Then nail the wheel down firmly. then place the square piece out of which Fig. thick. around the wheel. 1/2 in. and cut it out as shown in Fig. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. following the dotted lines. then nail it. as well as useful. 1. and cut out a wheel. First. Now take another piece of wood. all the way around. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. square. with a compass saw. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. 1 was cut. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. Cut off six pieces 12 in. b. This also should be slightly beveled. 2. with the open side down. and a model for speed and power. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. When it is finished.

slightly beveled. as shown by the black dots in Fig. in the center of it. square pieces of wood. one of which should have a 3/8-in. deep. Now put mold No. hole bored through its center. bolts. Take the mold apart. and lay it away to dry. 4. and boring a 3/8-in. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. place it between two of the 12-in. then bolt it together. hole entirely through at the same place. and bore six 1/4-in. Now take another of the 12-in. as shown by the . holes through it. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part.pieces just finished. square pieces of wood. and clean all the shavings out of it. After it is finished. 1. hole 1/4 in. and cut it out as shown in Fig. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise.

and drill them in the same manner.2. from the one end. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. A piece of mild steel 5 in. and two 1/4-in. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. Using the Brace . The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. and bore three 1/4-in. see that the bolts are all tight. and run in babbitt metal again. and lay it away to dry. Then bolt the castings together. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. Commencing 1-1/2 in. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. and pour babbitt metal into it. instead of the right-handed piece. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. take an ordinary brace. put the top of the brace through this hole. so that it will turn easily. fasten a 3/8-in. 5. and connect to the boiler. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. and the other in the base. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. until it is full. This is mold No. and pouring metal in to fill it up. drill in it. Put this together in mold No. one in the projections.black dots in Fig. and drill it entirely through. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel.2. over the defective part. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. and the exhaust hole in projection b. wide and 16 in. holes. B. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. screw down. only the one is left-handed. After it is fitted in.1. b. Let it stand for half an hour. long. holes at d. place the entire machine in a vise. This is the same as Fig. 4. and 3/8-in. as shown by the black dots in Fig. Also bore the port-hole in projection B.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. 1. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. d.1. in diameter must now be obtained. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. one in the lug. Fig. 6. the other right-handed. This will cast a paddle-wheel. Pour metal into mold No. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. long. true it up with a square. where the casting did not fill out. as shown in illustration. lay it on a level place. Now cut out one of the 12-in. Now take mold No. This is for a shaft. 6. place it under the drill.

Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. long. one 6 ft. Then take a knife or a chisel.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. and. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. Plan of Ice Boat .. while it is running at full speed. At each end of the 6ft. turn the wheel to the shape desired. and with three small screw holes around the edge. and the other 8 ft. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. with a boss and a set screw. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. piece and at right angles to it. will do good service. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. and if instructions have been carefully followed.

On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in. To the under side of the 8-ft. The spar should be 9 ft. Make your runners as long as possible. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. in diameter. long. which may come in handy in heavy winds. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely.These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used. 3. as the runners were fastened. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. in diameter in the center. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. in the top before the skate is put on. at the end. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. 1. bolt the 8-ft. long and 2-1/2 in. in diameter at the base. so much the better will be your boat. projecting as in Fig. distant. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. plank. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. tapering to 1-1/2 in. long. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. 1. boards to make the platform. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. leaving 1 ft. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. Fig. The tiller. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. 2 by 3 in. 8 a reef point knot. at the butt and 1 in. Over the middle of the 6-ft. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. in front of the rudder block. plank nail 8-in. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . piece and at right angles to it. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. This fits in the square hole. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. Fig. and about 8 in. should be of hardwood. where they often did considerable damage. at the top. Run the seam on a machine.

two pieces of sheet brass about 1/4 in. binding-posts fastening the springs S S. To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359] This is a very simple device. block of wood nailed to A. and place it behind a stove. connect the device in circuit with an electric bell. The . When these parts have been put together in the manner described. Simple Fire Alarm When the stove becomes too hot the wax will melt at the ends. Phoenix. --Contributed by John D. Electric Rat Trap How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359] A fire alarm which is both inexpensive and simple in construction is shown in the illustration. for after a week the rats all departed and the boys all regretted that their fun was at an end. P. to block B. in the air and let out a terrific squeak. S S. Its parts are as follows: A. wide. W is a piece of wax crayon just long enough to break the contact at C when inserted as shown in the illustration. A good sized induction coil was through connected with these wires and about six dry batteries were used to run the induction coil whenever a push button was manipulated. and the alarm bell will ring. R. allowing the springs to contact at C. that an electrical connection would be made through the body of the rat. small piece of wood. B. P. --Contributed by J. but one that will afford any amount of amusement. Mechanicsburg. and when we pushed the button up in the shop the rat would be thrown 2 or 3 ft. bent into a hook at each end. The arrangement proved quite too effective. Ariz.another from the zinc plate through the intervening yard and into the shop. Adams. Pa. It is quite evident that when a rat put its two fore feet on the edge of the pan in order to eat the mush which it contained. Comstock. so that they come in contact at C.

and drill a hole in the center so the shaft for the hands will easily pass through and extend out far enough to replace the two hands. Gild the pan all over. 6 in. The seat arms may be any length desired. An old wheel is mounted at the top of the pole. says the American Boy. Arbor Wheels [359] Emery wheel arbors should be fitted with flanges or washers having a slight concave to their face.center post rests in an auger hole bored in an old stump or in a post set in the ground. 2. Then get a 10-cent frying pan. Take the glass. including the . and make it into a clock to hang on the wall. high. dial and works out of the shell and cut some pieces out of the metal so that when the pieces left are turned back it will have the appearance as in Fig. in diameter. and the pole works in the wheel as an axle. The center pole should be 10 ft. The wheel is anchored out by