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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial


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  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother


Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)







A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. long will make six boomerangs. It is held in this curve until dry. apart. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. 2. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. Ontario. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. To throw a boomerang.Fig. 2. 1. until it is bound as shown in Fig. grasp it and hold the same as a club. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. as shown in Fig. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. A piece of plank 12 in. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. Noble. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. 1. distant. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. wide and 2 ft. --Contributed by J. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. with the hollow side away from you. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides .Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. away. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. The pieces are then dressed round. 1. Fig. Toronto. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. 2 -. E.

there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. 6 in. minus the top. dry snow will not pack easily. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. and with a movable bottom. however. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. blocks . and it may be necessary to use a little water. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. made of 6-in. thick. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. the block will drop out.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. which makes the building simpler and easier. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. it is not essential to the support of the walls. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. or rather no bottom at all. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. forcing it down closely. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. First. one inside of the circle and the other outside. long. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. high and 4 or 5 in. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. A wall. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. but about 12 in. A very light. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. If the snow is of the right consistency.

throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. D. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. Fig. Union. above the ground. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. which is about 1 ft. 1. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. is 6 or 8 in. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. and the young architect can imitate them. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. It also keeps them out. Fig. which can be made of wood. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . 1. There is no outward thrust. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. A nail. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. wide. C. Fig. 2. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. a. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. 3. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. Ore. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. The piece of wood. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. --Contributed by Geo. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. 2. Goodbrod. 3 -.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. or an old safe dial will do. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. long and 1 in.

Syracuse. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. the box locked . I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. New York. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. Merrill. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. as the weight always draws them back to place. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. If ordinary butts are used. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. one pair of special hinges. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes.When taking hot dishes from the stove. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. S. --Contributed by R. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. says the Sphinx. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang.

All . 3. proceed as follows: First. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. Fig. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. It remains to bend the flaps. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. 1. Alberta Norrell. 2. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. draw one-half of it. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. To make a design similar to the one shown. on drawing paper. If the measuring has been done properly.and the performer steps out in view. about 1-32 of an inch. as shown in Fig. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. one for each corner. as shown in Fig. Augusta. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. If they do not. When the sieve is shaken. -Contributed by L. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. allowing each coat time to dry. Ga. Place the piece in a vise. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. With the metal shears. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. smooth surface. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. as shown. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth.

When the current is turned off. as shown at AA. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. A piece of porcelain tube. is fitted tightly in the third hole. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. which is about 6 in. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. Galbreath. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . heats the strip of German-silver wire. --Contributed by R. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. Denver. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. and in the positions shown in the sketch. After this has dried. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. H. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. if rolled under the shoe sole. B. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. causing it to expand. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. 25 gauge German-silver wire. Colo. in passing through the lamp. should be in the line. about 6 in. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. 25 German-silver wire. The common cork. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube.the edges should be left smooth. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. If a touch of color is desired. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. R. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. To keep the metal from tarnishing. from the back end. The current. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. C. of No. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. In boring through rubber corks. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. A resistance. long. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. used for insulation. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. in diameter.

Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable.bottom ring. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. leaving a space of 4 in. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. with thin strips of wood. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. 1. --Contributed by David Brown. Purchase two long book straps. Fig. 2. Kansas City. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. Mo. 3. . as shown in Fig. between them as shown in Fig. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs.

Doylestown. When the aeroplane tips. and a pocket battery. in diameter. --Contributed by James M. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. Fig. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. Two strips of brass.An ordinary electric bell. --Contributed by Katharine D. 1. one weighing 15 lb. Syracuse. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. 4. The folds are made over the string.. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. 1. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. Y. just the right weight for a woman to use. 36 in. A. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. are mounted on the outside of the box. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. These are shown in Fig. which is the right weight for family use. and tack smoothly. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. 1. C. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. 3. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. Fig. to form a handle. Pa. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. N. Fig. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. 2. The string is then tied. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. Morse. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. having a gong 2-1/2 in. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. as . Kane. long. and one weighing 25 lb..

yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. The saw. AA. in diameter. N. 2. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. two 1/8 -in. Floral Park. and many fancy knick-knacks. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. Frame Made of a Rod . Day. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. four washers and four square nuts. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Louis J. 3/32 or 1/4 in. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. Y. long. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. if once used. machine screws. such as brackets. 2. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. bent as shown in Fig. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. 1. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig.

Drying will cause this to change to purple. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk.. In the design shown. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. 1 part sulphuric acid.may be made of either brass. An Austrian Top [12] . of course. Of the leathers. green and browns are the most popular. as well as brass and copper. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. Michigan. of water. Detroit. Silver is the most desirable but. though almost any color may be obtained. --Contributed by W. after breaking up. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. be covered the same as the back. File these edges. if copper or brass. Scranton. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. The buckle is to be purchased. using a swab and an old stiff brush. For etching.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. Apply two coats. A. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. as well as the depth of etching desired. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. If it colors the metal red. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. allowing each time to dry. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. Watch Fob For coloring silver. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. treat it with color. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. use them in place of the outside nuts. copper. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. it has the correct strength. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. 1 part nitric acid. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. of water in which dissolve. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. therefore. or silver. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. the most expensive. Rub off the highlights.

1-1/4 in. Ypsilanti. in diameter. set the top in the 3/4 -in.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. hole in this end for the top. wide and 3/4 in. . A handle. Tholl. long. Michigan. --Contributed by J.F. When the shank is covered. hole. starting at the bottom and winding upward. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. is formed on one end. 3/4 in. long. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. The handle is a piece of pine. Bore a 3/4-in. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. A 1/16-in. pass one end through the 1/16-in. Parts of the Top To spin the top. allowing only 1-1/4 in. thick. 5-1/4 in. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape.

--Contributed by Miss L. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. . the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. The baking surface. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. Northville. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. For black leathers. tarts or similar pastry. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. Mich. --A. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. Augusta. Houghton. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. A. Ga.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. Alberta Norrell. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. having no sides.

When you desire to work by white light. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. Stringing Wires [13] A. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. Centralia. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. Mo. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. says Studio Light. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. the same as shown in the illustration. glass fruit jar.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. then solder cover and socket together. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. two turns will remove the jar. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes.

They are fastened. 1-1/4 in. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration.for loading and development. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. Wis. and not tip over. square by 62 in. square by 12 in. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. 4 Braces. 16 Horizontal bars. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. Janesville. 1-1/4 in. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. so it can be folded up. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. as shown in the cross-section sketch. 4 Vertical pieces. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. . When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint.

--Contributed by Dr. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. -Contributed by Charles Stem. New York. and a loop made in the end. If the loop is tied at the proper place.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. After rounding the ends of the studs. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. Cincinnati. H. The whole. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. C. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. O. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. The front can be covered . Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. after filling the pail with water. Rosenthal. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. Phillipsburg. from scrap material. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same.

Md. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. Develop them into strong prints. If the gate is raised slightly. In my own practice. and. principally mayonnaise dressing. if you try to tone them afterward. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. by all rules of the game. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. the color will be an undesirable. FIG. 1 FIG. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. you are. By using the following method. thoroughly fix. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. --Contributed by Gilbert A. either for contact printing or enlargements. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. sickly one. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. The results will be poor. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. the mouth of which rests against a. The . Baltimore. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. Wehr. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers.

. An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in. When the desired reduction has taken place..... Put one on each corner of the blotting paper. 5 by 15 in. A good final washing completes the process. preferably the colored kind.... being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects. --Contributed by T. transfer it to a tray of water.. wide and 4 in. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes. but. Cal..... They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder.... thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses. Water ..... With a little practice.. L.. 20 gr... Gray. Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete.. as it will appear clean much longer than the white. It will bleach slowly and evenly.. in size..... this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table. This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print. The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper.. three times. Iodide of potassium ... stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax. where it will continue to bleach. San Francisco.. Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper.. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig.. etc.... to make it 5 by 5 in." Cyanide of potassium .. 2. 16 oz.. 1 and again as in Fig........ A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper... 2 oz. when it starts to bleach. in this solution.... without previous wetting. The blotting paper can ....... The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished.bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison.. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away... The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone.. Place the dry print. long to admit the angle support.

and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. Wisconsin. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. the head of which is 2 in.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. Wilson Aldred Toronto. --Contributed by J. Make a design similar to that shown. wide. 3. Monahan. Oshkosh. 20 gauge. the shaft 1 in. --Contributed by L. Corners complete are shown in Fig. and a length of 5 in. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate.J. wide below the . having a width of 2-1/4 in. Canada. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled.

smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. after folding along the center line. Allow this to dry. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. With files. but use a swab on a stick. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. Trace the design on the metal. 1 Fig. using turpentine. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. 2. For coloring olive green. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. Do not put the hands in the solution. 3. which gives the outline of the design Fig. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. Apply with a small brush. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. After this has dried. using a small metal saw. as shown in Fig. being held perpendicular to the work. Fig. freehand. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. using carbon paper. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. Pierce a hole with a small drill. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. 1.FIG. then coloring. With the metal shears. 4. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. Make one-half of the design. 1 part nitric acid. After the sawing. deep. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. then put on a second coat. . The metal must be held firmly. then trace the other half in the usual way. 1 part sulphuric acid.

M. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. Richmond. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. . it does the work rapidly. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. Syracuse. Ii is an ordinary staple. When this is cold. Burnett. on a chopping board. --Contributed by H. After the stain has dried. Carl Cramer. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. attach brass handles. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. Cal. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. then stain it a mahogany color. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. East Hartford. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. as shown. --Contributed by Katharine D. Morse. New York. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. --Contributed by M. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. Conn. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. thick. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in.

two stopcocks with 1/8 in.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. . 1/4 in. saucers or pans. H. 53 steel pens. also locate the drill holes. brass. as shown at A. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. not over 1/4 in. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. some pieces of brass. Jaquythe. Richmond. thick and 4 in. L. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. --Contributed by W. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. machine screws. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. square. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. 4. Atwell. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. thick. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. indicating the depth of the slots. holes. Fig. Florida. A. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. Cal. WARNECKE Procure some brass. in width at the shank. one shaft. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. two enameled. about 3/16 in. and several 1/8-in. as shown in Fig. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. Kissimmee. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. 1. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. or tin. --Contributed by Mrs.. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron.

Two nuts should be placed on each screw. If the shaft is square. hole. There should be a space of 1/16 in. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. supply pipe. as in Fig. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. thick. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. The shaft hole may also be filed square. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. 1. These are connected to a 3/8-in. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . each about 1 in. in diameter and 1/32 in. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. can be procured. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. Fig. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. 7. about 1/32 in. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. Fig. lead should be run into the segments. 3. with 1/8-in. 5. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. 2. long by 3/4 in. wide. into the hole. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. Fig. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. A 3/4-in. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. hole in the center. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. and pins inserted. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. and the ends filed round for the bearings. using two nuts on each screw. Bend as shown in Fig. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. 2. brass and bolted to the casing. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. If metal dishes. as shown in Fig. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. 3. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. with the face of the disk. hole is drilled to run off the water. thick.. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. a square shaft used. machine screws and nuts. 6. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. machine screws. as shown. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. long and 5/16 in. wide and bend as shown in Fig. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. with a 3/8-in.

Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. --Contributed by S. V. --Contributed by F. La Salle. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. The lower part. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. we will call the basket. 8-1/2 in. high and 15 in. Hamilton. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. using four to each leg. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. Smith. When assembling. deep and 1-1/4 in. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. deep over all. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. The four legs are each 3/4-in. to make the bottom. Cooke. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. Ill. Canada. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. With a string or tape measure. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. from the bottom end of the legs. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. Be sure to have the cover. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. three of which are in the basket. from the top of the box. long. Now you will have the box in two pieces. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. Fasten with 3/4-in. or more in diameter. make these seams come between the two back legs. screws. Stain the wood before putting in the . The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. square and 30-1/2 in.

the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. Sew on to the covered cardboards. If all the parts are well sandpapered. as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. and gather it at that point. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. The folded part in the center is pasted together. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. When making the display.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. 1. 2. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. Md.lining. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. you can. Cover them with the cretonne. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. sewing on the back side. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. Mass. wide. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. Boston. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. --also the lower edge when necessary. The side. -Contributed by Stanley H. Packard. wide and four strips 10 in. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. Fig.2 Fig. Baltimore. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket.

Y. Cross Timbers. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. and. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. It is cleanly. When through using the pad. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. saving all the solid part. Gloversville. Crockett. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. Fig. --Contributed by B. N.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. L. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. --Contributed by H. with slight modifications. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. It is not difficult to . Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. 3. Mo. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. Orlando Taylor.

After this is done. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. remove the contents. it should be new and sharp.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. After stirring. across the face. Lowell. and secure it in place with glue or paste. S. Bourne. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. El Paso. or if desired. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. Both of these methods are wasteful. are shown in the diagram. --Contributed by Edith E. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. -Contributed by C. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. Texas. and scrape out the rough parts. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. If a file is used. Lane. Mass. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds.

A Postcard Rack [25].cooking utensil. circled over the funnel and disappeared. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. Greenleaf. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. Turl. Oak Park. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. Des Moines. --Contributed by Geo. --Contributed by Loren Ward. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. The process works well and needs no watching. The insects came to the light. Oregon. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. Wheeler. Canton. Ill. Ill. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. After several hours' drying. Iowa. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. As these were single-faced disk records. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. --Contributed by Marion P. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. Those having houses . F. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. He captured several pounds in a few hours.

The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. 6 in. but for cheapness 3/4 in. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. Dobbins. plane and pocket knife. Conn. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. Both sides can be put together in this way. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. will do as well. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth.. Rosenberg. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. Only three pieces are required. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. --Contributed by Thomas E.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. by 2 ft. Glenbrook. the bottom being 3/8 in. thick. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. one on each side of what will be the . boards are preferable. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. and both exactly alike. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. material. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. not even with the boards themselves. Lay the floor next.. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. the best material to use being matched boards. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. The single boards can then be fixed. 6 in. and the second one for the developing bench. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. and as they are simple in design. --Contributed by Wm. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. Worcester. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. Mass. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. the height to the eaves being 6 ft.

3 and 4. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. and should be zinc lined. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. is cut. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. 9). so that it will fit inside the sink. and the top as at C in the same drawing. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. The developing bench is 18 in. 5. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. nailing them to each other at the ridge.. 11. hinged to it. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. below which is fixed the sink. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. At the top of the doorway. brown wrapping paper. 10). They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. 2 in section. and act as a trap for the light. of the top of the door for the same reason. which is fixed on as shown .. the closing side as at B. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. etc. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack.. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. so that the water will drain off into the sink. and in the middle an opening. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. 7. and to the outside board of the sides. It is shown in detail in Fig. In hinging the door. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. as shown in Figs. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. Fig. 8. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. The roof boards may next be put on. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. 6. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. 6 and 9. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. by screwing to the floor. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves.doorway. 9 by 11 in. wide. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. 6.

Details of the Dark Rook .

preferably maple or ash. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. 16. and a tank stand on it. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. as at M. In use. The handle should be at least 12 in. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. mixing flour and water. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. as shown in the sections. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. Fig. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. which makes it possible to have white light. 14. as shown in Fig. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. are fastened in the corners inside. Fig. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. but not the red glass and frame. 20. 18. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. Karl Hilbrich. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. it is better than anything on the market. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. and a 3/8-in. 15. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. 17. 13. 1. or the room may be made with a flat roof. --Contributed by W. 2. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. Pennsylvania. 6. Erie. or red light as at K. as in Fig. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. after lining with brown paper.in Fig. 13. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. 16. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. The house will be much strengthened if strips. 19. these being shown in Fig. four coats at first is not too many. Fig. Fig. if desired. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. though this is hardly advisable. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. screwing them each way into the boards. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. A circular piece about 2 in. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. as at I. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. For beating up an egg in a glass. hole bored in the center for a handle.

as shown in the sketch. L.copper should be. Kansas City. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. -Contributed by E. Mitchell. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. Schweiger. Ark. D. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. about 3/8 in. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. for a handle. long. --Contributed by L. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. G. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. which. Mo. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. New York. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. --Contributed by Wm. To operate. when put together properly is a puzzle. Eureka Springs. Yonkers. Smith. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading.

It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. for the moment. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. 3. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. as shown in Fig. in order to thoroughly preserve it. Having completed the bare box. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. as is usually the case. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. especially for filling-in purposes. as shown in Fig. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. After the box is trimmed. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. Each cork is cut as in Fig. as well as improve its appearance. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. to make it set level. The design shown in Fig. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. the rustic work should be varnished. If the sill is inclined. need them. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. holes should be drilled in the bottom. 2. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. the box will require a greater height in front. 3. A number of 1/2-in. The corks in use are shown in Fig. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. 1.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. which binds them together. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. .

too dangerous. . But I have solved the difficulty. and observe results. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. Traps do no good. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. drilled at right angles. can't use poison. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. F. life in the summer time is a vexation. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. as shown in Fig. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. being partly eaten into. 4. 1. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop.. it's easy. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. 3. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. 2. If just the rim is gripped in the vise.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. cabbages. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. Each long projection represents a leg. etc. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. share the same fate. When the corn is gone cucumbers.

Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. and made up and kept in large bottles. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. strips. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. long. of No. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. The solution can be used over and over again. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. About 9-1/2 ft. the coil does not heat sufficiently. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. If. . cut in 1/2-in. Iowa. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. -. by trial. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. cut some of it off and try again.

Y. C. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. Fig 2. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. Knives. Dallas. --Contributed by Victor Labadie.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. 1) removed. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. Morse. Pa. Syracuse. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. Stir and mix thoroughly. but with unsatisfactory results. --Contributed by James M. coffee pot. of gasoline. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. Texas. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. In cleaning silver. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. hot-water pot. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. --Contributed by Katharine D. forks. of oleic acid with 1 gal. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. is a good size--in this compound. to cause the door to swing shut. it falls to stop G. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. . The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. as shown in the sketch. Doylestown. Do not wash them. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. and a strip. N. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. of whiting and 1/2 oz. D. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. Kane.

Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . Harrisburg. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. Ill. which is. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. New Orleans. but unfixed. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. using the paper dry. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. La. later fixed and washed as usual.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. of course. negatives. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. Sprout. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. . --Contributed by Oliver S. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. --Contributed by Theodore L. Pa. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. Waverly. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. Fisher.

is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. The harmonograph. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. a harmonograph is a good prescription. then . Fig. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. 1. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. To obviate this difficulty. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. metal. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. In this uncertainty lies the charm. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success.

Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. such as a shoe buttoner. or the lines will overlap and blur. makes respectively 3. one-fifth. for instance. as shown in Fig. Punch a hole. which can be regulated. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. in diameter. is attached as shown at H. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. to prevent any side motion..slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. Ingham. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. Chicago. Arizona. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. --Contributed by Wm. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass.. Rosemont. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. in the center of the circle to be cut. A length of 7 ft. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. 1-3/4 by 2 in. and unless the shorter pendulum is. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. what is most important. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. G. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. that is. Holes up to 3 in. K. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. as shown in the lower part of Fig. provides a means of support for the stylus. --Contributed by James T.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. A small weight. R. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. Another weight of about 10 lb. with a nail set or punch. The length of the short pendulum H. exactly one-third. of about 30 or 40 lb. A small table or platform. A pedestal. J. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. one-fourth. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. Gaffney. 1. etc. as long as the other. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . 1. ceiling. A weight. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. is about right for a 10-ft.

Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. a correspondent of . Cape May City. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. 4. 6. and proceed as before. The capacity of the vise. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. and 4 as in Fig. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. N.J. of course. then put 2 at the top. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. one for the sender and one for the receiver. -Contributed by W. Fig. Cruger. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. 3. 5. Chicago. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. then 3 as in Fig. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. dividing them into quarters. Morey. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. --Contributed by J. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case.J. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. The two key cards are made alike. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. 2.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. 1.H. Fig. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. distributing them over the whole card.

of water. acetic acid and 4 oz. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. To assemble. --Contributed by L. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. 1/4 in.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. says Popular Electricity. from the top and bottom. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. citrate of iron and ammonia. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. the portion of the base under the coil. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. Wind the successive turns of . It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. Asbestos board is to be preferred. Cut through the center. 30 gr. of the uprights. 1/2 oz. 22 gauge German-silver wire. of 18-per-cent No. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. wood-screws. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. long. After securing the tint desired. Augusta. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. of ferricyanide of potash. Ga. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. If constructed of the former. After preparing the base and uprights. deep. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. respectively. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. 6 gauge wires shown. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. Alberta Norrell. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. drill 15 holes. remove the prints. sheet of well made asbestos paper. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft.

white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. N. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. --Contributed by Frederick E. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. 16 gauge copper wire. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. which. Labels of some kind are needed. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. Ampere. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. but these are not necessary. cut and dressed 1/2 in. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. Small knobs may be added if desired. Ward. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. rivets. 14 gauge. then fasten the upright in place. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . if one is not a smoker. as they are usually thrown away when empty. square. Y. screws. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. etc.. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. The case may be made of 1/2-in. These may be procured from electrical supply houses.

turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. lead. C. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. G. . and one made of poplar finished black. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. it must be ground or filed to a point. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. This is considerable annoyance. Wis. --C. then to the joint to be soldered. B. A. If the soldering copper is an old one. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. Heat it until hot (not red hot). and rub the point of the copper on it. Kenosha. galvanized iron. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. Eureka Springs. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. E and F. particularly so when the iron has once been used. a piece of solder. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. The parts are put together with dowel pins. the pure muriatic acid should be used. especially if a large tub is used. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. Larson. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. S. sandpaper or steel wool. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. Jaquythe. zinc. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. Richmond. tin." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. The material can be of any wood. Copper. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. of water. --Contributed by A. D. brass. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. Ark. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. or has become corroded. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. and labeled "Poison. In soldering galvanized iron. being careful about the heat. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap.14 oz. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. California. tinner's acid. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. --Contributed by W. as shown in the sketch. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve.. of glycerine to 16 oz. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab.

1.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. Y. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. This will leave a clear hole. Six issues make a well proportioned book. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. Fig. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. round iron. such as copper. Brass rings can be plated when finished. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. This completes the die. Take a 3/4-in. Troy. I bind my magazines at home evenings. -Contributed by H. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. Hankin. and drill out the threads. 2. The punch A. C. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. thick and 1-1/4 in. in diameter. Apart from this. wide. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. The disk will come out pan shaped. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. N. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. The covers of the magazines are removed. 7/8 in. W. D. The dimensions shown in Fig. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. Place the band. nut. however. Fig. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. in diameter. which gives two bound volumes each year. B. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . brass and silver. with good results. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. a ring may be made from any metal.

A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. 1. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. and then to string No. which is fastened the same as the first. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. deep. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. After drawing the thread tightly. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. 1/8 in. of the ends extending on each side. 2. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. If started with the January or the July issue. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. and place them against the strings in the frame. The covering can be of cloth. as shown in Fig. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. Place the cardboard covers on the book. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. 1 in Fig. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. The sections are then prepared for sewing. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. 1. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. on all edges except the back. . are made with a saw across the back of the sections. is used for the sewing material. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. using . Coarse white thread. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. 5. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. threaded double. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. 2. size 16 or larger. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. is nailed across the top. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. and a third piece. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. Five cuts. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. 1. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. allowing about 2 in. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. The string No. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. Start with the front of the book. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. through the notch on the left side of the string No. C. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. The covering should be cut out 1 in.4.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. then back through the notch on the right side.

Cal. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. Tinplate. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. --Contributed by Clyde E. and. Divine. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. Encanto. round iron. and mark around each one.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. Nebr. For the blade an old talking-machine . The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. on which to hook the blade. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. College View. at opposite sides to each other. Place the cover on the book in the right position. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin.

If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. -Contributed by Willard J. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). with a steel sleeve. C. E. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. fuse hole at D. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. B. thick. hydraulic pipe. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. at the same end.. Make the blade 12 in. as shown. or double extra heavy. and 1/4 in. Miss. by means of a U-bolt or large staple.. A. by 1 in. by 4-1/2 in. and another piece (B) 6 in. On the upper side. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. and 1/4 in. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. with 10 teeth to the inch. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. Moorhead. and a long thread plug. bore. F. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. Then on the board put . and file in the teeth. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. in order to drill the holes in the ends. as it is sometimes called. thick. Ohio. Hays. long. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. Summitville. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose.

4 jars. A lid may be added if desired. Connect up as shown. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. using about 8 in. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. the jars need not be very large. of rubber-covered wire. about 5 ft. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. H. of wire to each coil. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. Philadelphia. and some No. as from batteries. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. some sheet copper or brass for plates. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . 18 gauge wire for the wiring. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. --Contributed by Chas. Boyd. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. high around this apparatus. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. If you are going to use a current of low tension.

will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. In proportioning them the points A. 1 and so on for No.. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. B and C. 15-1/2 in. long. above the ground. At the front 24 or 26 in. by 1-1/4 in. C. & S. as they are not substantial enough. as they "snatch" the ice. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. or source of current. See Fig. 4 in. however. and for the rear runners: A. by 5 in. A 3/4-in. making them clear those in the front runner. 11 in. To wire the apparatus. 3 in. two for each jar. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. long. No.. long by 22 in. then apply a coat of thin enamel. 1 on switch. two pieces 30 in. 34 in. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. 2. Their size also depends on the voltage. wide. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. The connection between point No. On the door of the auto front put the . 16-1/2 in. B. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. 4) of 3/4-in. by 1-1/4 in. 2 in. A variation of 1/16 in.. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. Construct the auto front (Fig. on No. and bolt through. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. is used to reduce friction. are important. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. The sled completed should be 15 ft. long. and four pieces 14 in. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. 3 and No. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. 27 B. Put arm of switch on point No. . 3. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. For the brass trimmings use No. 7 in. wide and 3/4 in. B.the way. 2 is lower down than in No. two pieces 14 in. by 2 in. long. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. direct to wire across jars. The current then will flow through the motor. by 2 in. C. First sandpaper all the wood. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp.. sheet brass 1 in. Use no screws on the running surface. Use no nails. The top disk in jar No. 2 and 3. 5 on switch. Fig. 2.. by 1 in. For the front runners these measurements are: A. 4. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against.. by 6 in. two pieces 34 in. Z. wide by 3/4 in. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. thick. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. gives full current and full speed. 30 in. thick. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. The illustration shows how to shape it. 1 is connected to point No. 1.. steel rod makes a good steering rod. apart. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. wide and 2 in. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. with the cushion about 15 in. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. The stock required for them is oak. 2. by 5 in. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. square by 14 ft. An iron washer. Equip block X with screw eyes. oak boards. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. beginning at the rear. and plane it on all edges. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added.

fasten a cord through the loop. If the expense is greater than one can afford. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. to improve the appearance. long. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. by 30 in. cutting it out of sheet brass. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. If desired. such as used on automobiles. cheap material. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. may be stowed within. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . Then get some upholstery buttons. or with these for $25. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. lunch. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. parcels. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. a brake may be added to the sled. to the wheel. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. brass plated. If desired. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. a number of boys may share in the ownership.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. by 1/2 in. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. The best way is to get some strong. such as burlap. Fasten a horn. which is somewhat moist. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. overshoes. etc.

the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. . the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. Ill. Lexington.tree and bring. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. Leland. --Contributed by Stewart H. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long.

In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. by drawing diameters. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. when flat against it. the same diameter as the wheel. This guide should have a beveled edge. Fig. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. Draw a circle on paper. will be over the line FG. The Model Engineer. 4). to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. Fig. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. outside diameter and 1/16 in. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. from F to G. CD. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. E. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. say 1 in. First take the case of a small gearwheel. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. sheet metal. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. 1. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. some files. The straight-edge. The first tooth may now be cut. made from 1/16-in. Fig. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . London. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. so that the center of the blade. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. FC. with twenty-four teeth. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. 2. the cut will be central on the line. a compass. mild steel or iron. which. thick. With no other tools than a hacksaw. 3. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. though more difficult. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. A small clearance space.

1. some wire and some carbons. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. Focus the camera in the usual manner. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. or several pieces bound tightly together. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. Make a hole in the other. either the pencils for arc lamps. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. as shown in Fig. B. transmitter. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. A bright. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. 2. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. as shown in Fig. If there is no faucet in the house. and the other outlet wire.Four Photos on One Plate of them. electric lamp. R. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. Then take one outlet wire. No shock will be perceptible. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. each in the center. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. . and connect to one side of a 2-cp. ground it with a large piece of zinc. hold in one hand. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. B. as shown in Fig. 1. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig.

the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. Slattery. as shown. at each end for terminals. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. one at the receiver can hear what is said. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. D D are binding posts for electric wires. Pa. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. --Contributed by Geo. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. One like a loaf of bread. as indicated by E E. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. Ohio. But in this experiment. If desired. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. by 1 in. a transmitter which induces no current is used. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. Dry batteries are most convenient. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. They have screw ends. under the gable. are also needed. or more of the latter has been used. For a base use a pine board 10 in. and will then burn the string C. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. Then set the whole core away to dry. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. by 12 in. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. B. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. Wrenn. and again wind the wire around it. leaving about 10 in. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. A is a wooden block. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. and about that size.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. J. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. Several battery cells. Emsworth. serves admirably. of course. 36 wire around it. Ashland.

for the . How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. F. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. and switch. C. B B. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. as shown. D. E. Place 16-cp. From the other set of binding-posts. Ohio. At one side secure two receptacles. until the hand points to zero on the scale. in series with bindingpost. Jr.. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. in parallel. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. Connect these three to switch. and the lamps. 12 or No. while C is open. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. the terminal of the coil. The apparatus is now ready for operation. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. First make a support. Fig. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. connecting lamp receptacles. B B. Newark. and one single post switch. These should have hollow ends. The coil will commence to become warm. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. 2. Turn on switch. 1. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. run a No. The oven is now ready to be connected. C. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. Fig. D. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. 14 wire. as shown.wire.

or 4-way valve or cock. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. is made of iron. 1. wide and 1-3/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. The core. The box is 5-1/2 in. 10 turns to each layer. inside measurements. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in.. 4. 14 wire. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. To make one. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. although brass is better. drill through the entire case and valve. 6. 14. etc. The pointer or hand. and D. Dussault. 4 in. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. is made of wire. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. 3. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. to prevent it turning on the axle. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. After drilling. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. Fig. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. 1. Fig. remove the valve. 2. D. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. D. Fig. This is slipped on the pivot. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. 4 amperes. 1/4 in. 3 amperes. 1/2 in. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. thick. long. This may be made of wood. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. Montreal. from the lower end. a variable resistance. At a point a little above the center. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. --Contributed by J. long and make a loop. B. as shown in the cut. It is 1 in. high. although copper or steel will do. drill a hole as shown at H. C. E. where A is the homemade ammeter. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. Fig. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. drill in only to the opening already through.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. wind with plenty of No. a battery. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. 5. Mine is wound with two layers of No. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. but if for a 4way. 5. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. long. a standard ammeter. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . 7. A wooden box. is then made and provided with a glass front. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig.E. If for 3-way. deep. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. 36 magnet wire instead of No. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. until the scale is full.

in diameter. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. A. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. which is used for reducing the current. and a metal rod. This stopper should be pierced. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. provided with a rubber stopper. One wire runs to the switch. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. high. in thickness . The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. To start the light. as shown. and the other connects with the water rheostat. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. D. By connecting the motor. E. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. and the arc light.performing electrical experiments. F. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. B. making two holes about 1/4 in. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators.

Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. 1. To insert the lead plate. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. --Contributed by Harold L. Having finished the interrupter. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. B. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. A. 1. 1. long. as shown in B. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. Fig. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. as shown in C. Jones. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. Fig. Fig. A piece of wood. If all adjustments are correct. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. Turn on the current and press the button. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. As there shown. Fig. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. Carthage. 2. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. If the interrupter does not work at first. 2.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. where he is placed in an upright open . Having fixed the lead plate in position. N. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. Y.

If everything is not black. could expect from a skeleton. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall..coffin. The lights. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. dressed in brilliant. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. especially L. A white shroud is thrown over his body. should be miniature electric lamps. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. the illusion will be spoiled. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. from which the gong has been removed. figures and lights. and must be thoroughly cleansed. high. inside dimensions. especially the joints and background near A. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. A. The skeleton is made of papier maché. which can be run by three dry cells. with the exception of the glass. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. Its edges should nowhere be visible. to aid the illusion. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. should be colored a dull black. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. giving a limp. within the limits of an ordinary room. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. If it is desired to place the box lower down. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. by 7-1/2 in. loosejointed effect. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. by 7 in. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. as the entire interior. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. They need to give a fairly strong light. The model. and can be bought at Japanese stores. L and M. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. light-colored garments. until it is dark there. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. The glass should be the clearest possible. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. is constructed as shown in the drawings. All . and wave his arms up and down.

Cal. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. Fry. square block. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. fat spark. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. after which it assumes its normal color. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. --Contributed by Geo. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in.that is necessary is a two-point switch. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. If a gradual transformation is desired. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. placed about a foot apart. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. San Jose. as shown in the sketch. Two finishing nails were driven in. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. W. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for .

-Contributed by Dudley H. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. into the receiver G. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. In Fig. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. F. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. hydrogen gas is generated. A (see sketch). the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. If a lighted match . The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. One of these plates is connected to metal top. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. the remaining space will be filled with air. B and C. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. to make it airtight. The plates are separated 6 in. This is a wide-mouth bottle. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. Cohen. New York. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. or a solution of sal soda. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. soldered in the top. In Fig. with two tubes. 1. as shown. by small pieces of wood.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. and should be separated about 1/8 in. which is filled with melted rosin or wax.

A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. of No. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. says the Model Engineer. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. copper pipe. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. should be only 5/16 of an inch. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. P. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. A nipple. A piece of 1/8-in. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. which forms the vaporizing coil. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. London. N. 2 shows the end view. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. A. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. One row is drilled to come directly on top. or by direct contact with another magnet. 1-5/16 in. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. in diameter and 6 in. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. B. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. A. as is shown in the illustration. is then coiled around the brass tube. A. N. from the bottom. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. 1. 36 insulated wire. 1/2 in. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. either by passing a current of electricity around it. by means of the clips. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. A 1/64-in. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. copper pipe. Fig. which is plugged up at both ends. C C. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. Fig. then a suitable burner is necessary. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. long. If desired. and the ends of the tube. A. The distance between the nipple. is made by drilling a 1/8in. long. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple.

The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. fold and cut it 1 in. Fig. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. 2). passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. with a fine saw. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. Cut four pieces of cardboard. duck or linen. but if the paper knife cannot be used. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. taking care not to bend the iron. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. cut to the size of the pages. larger all around than the book. 1/4 in. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. leaving the folded edge uncut. A disk of thin sheet-iron. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. 1. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. at the front and back for fly leaves. trim both ends and the front edge. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in.lamp cord. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. boards and all. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. this makes a much nicer book. about 8 or 10 in. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. Fig. should be cut to the diameter of the can. smoothly. Fig. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. 3. longer and 1/4 in. Turn the book over and paste the other side. Take two strips of stout cloth.

On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. is perforated with a number of holes. is made the same depth as B. D. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. which will just slip inside the little can. is soldered onto tank A. of tank A is cut a hole. Noble. 18 in. or rather the top now. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. but its diameter is a little smaller. Bedford City. in diameter and 30 in. Toronto. as shown. the joint will be gas tight.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. and a little can. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. deep. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. Va. H. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. is turned on it. C. This will cause some air to be enclosed. as shown in the sketch. E. without a head. Another can. Parker. A gas cock. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. pasting them down (Fig. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. is fitted in it and soldered. In the bottom. Ont. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. --Contributed by Joseph N. Another tank. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. B. A. --Contributed by James E. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. 4). .

thus adjusting the . If the pushbutton A is closed. D. basswood or white pine. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. If the back armature. which moves to either right or left. and sewed double to give extra strength. long. E. which may be either spruce. shows how the connections are to be made. square by 42 in. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. are shown in detail at H and J. -Contributed by H. to prevent splitting. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. The diagonal struts. The longitudinal corner spines. D. Beverly. The small guards. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. should be 3/8 in. and the four diagonal struts.. and about 26 in. H is a square knot. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. should be cut a little too long. should be 1/4 in. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. by 1/2 in. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. J. long. fastened in the bottom. exactly 12 in. making the width. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. S. The bridle knots. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. A A. The armature. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. when finished. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. 2. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. A. with an electric-bell magnet. The wiring diagram. 1. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. B. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. B. C. Fig. Bott. N. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. Fig. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. tacks.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. as shown at C. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. B.

In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. thus shortening G and lengthening F. can be made of a wooden . shift toward F. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. for producing electricity direct from heat. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. Stoddard. --Contributed by A. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. D. and if a strong wind is blowing. Kan. If the kite is used in a light wind. with gratifying results. E. to prevent slipping. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. that refuse to slide easily. as shown. A bowline knot should be tied at J. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. and. Harbert. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. Clay Center. --Contributed by Edw. Closing either key will operate both sounders. the batteries do not run down for a long time. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. Chicago.lengths of F and G. however.

The wood screw. spark. with a number of nails. 14 or No. A and B. --Contributed by A. which conducts the current into the cannon. and also holds the pieces of wood. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. A. E. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. to the cannon. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. or parallel with the compass needle. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. Then. A. Fasten a piece of wood. E. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. by means of machine screws or. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. A. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. C. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. 16 single-covered wire. C. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. D. if there are no trunnions on the cannon.frame. F. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. Chicago. placed on top. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. B. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. in position. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. C. When the cannon is loaded. and the current may then be detected by means. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. with a pocket compass..

In Fig. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. when in position at A'. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. Marion. Keil. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. L. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. screw is bored in the block. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. in this position the door is locked. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. square and 3/8 in. 1. A hole for a 1/2 in. Chicago. --Contributed by Henry Peck. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. Fig. but no weights or strings. 1. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. B. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. --Contributed by Joseph B. To lock the door. within the reach of the magnet. Big Rapids. 1. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. with the long arm at L'. To reverse. Connect as shown in the illustration. To unlock the door. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. Bend the strips BB (Fig. where there is a staple. Fig. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. A and S. A and S. . Before putting the reverse block on the motor. A. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. press the button. H. to receive the screw in the center. Mich. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. now at A' and S'. requiring a strong magnet. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. Ohio.the current is shut off.

put in the handle. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. are enameled a jet black.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. hole. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. Rand. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. When ready for use. When the holes are finished and your lines set. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. about 18 in. if enameled white on the concave side. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. --Contributed by C. and C is a dumbbell. Thread the other end of the pipe. Mass. The standard and base. West Somerville. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. long. or for microscopic work. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. and if desired the handles may . makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. pipe with 1-2-in. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. J. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. gas-pipe. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. and may be made at very slight expense.

high by 1 ft. across. 1. B. D. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. Fig. Warren. long and 8 in. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. Mass. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in.be covered with leather. Make a cylindrical core of wood. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. E. inside the pail. North Easton. This peculiar property is also found in ice. which shall project at least 2 in. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. across. 8 in. M. --Contributed by C. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C.. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. with a cover. A. 1. Fig. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . as shown at A in the sketch.

and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. but will be cheaper in operation. as dictated by fancy and expense. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. Line the pail. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. C. In like manner make the cover of the kiln.. Fig. 1330°. long over the lid hole as a chimney. 15%. and 3/4 in. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. Whatever burner is used. about 1 in. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. and graphite. the firing should be gradual. let this dry thoroughly. the point of the blue flame. in diameter. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. 2. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. layer of the clay mixture. make two wood ends. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. 25%. C. 1390°-1410°. Cover with paper and shellac as before. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. and varnish. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. 2 in. pack this space-top. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. but it will burn a great deal of gas. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. full length of iron core. pipe. sand. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. say 1/4 in. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. pipe 2-ft. hotel china. and on it set the paper wrapped core. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. 1). This done. If the cover of the pail has no rim.-G. 60%. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. L. Set aside for a few days until well dried. if there is to be any glazing done. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. as is shown in the sketch. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. projecting from each end (Fig. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. cutting the hole a little smaller. of fine wire. which is the hottest part. hard porcelain. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. After finishing the core. E. wider than the kiln. carefully centering it.. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. and with especial caution the first time. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. C. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln.mixture of clay. bottom and sides. The 2 in. to hold the clay mixture. such . thick. or make one yourself. if you have the materials. thick. 1). How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. diameter. strip of sheet iron. When lighted. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. Wind about 1/8 in.. and cut it 3-1/2 in. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. W. 3) with false top and bottom. in diameter. passing wire nails through and clinching them. After removing all the paper. and 3/8 in. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. long. It is placed inside the kiln. Fit all the parts together snugly. and your kiln is ready for business.

with a plane. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. overlaps and rests on the body. The funnel. and discharges into the tube.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. as in Fig. as shown in the sketch herewith. and so on.. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. A. . and divide it into two piles. taking care to have the first card red. all cards facing the same way. Take the red cards. procure a new deck. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. red and black. T. about 1/16 in. D. --Contributed by J. 2. square them up. and plane off about 1/16 in. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. Washington. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. every alternate card being the same color. as in Fig. Then. the next black. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. You can display either color called for. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. 2. C. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. 8 in. leaving long terminals. around the coil. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. bind tightly with black silk. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. 2). R. Chicago. length of .53 in. Of course. square them up and place in a vise. Then take the black cards. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. Next restore all the cards to one pack. 1. C. B. C. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. diameter.

Long Branch. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. B. C. to form a dovetail joint as shown. so that when they are assembled. through the holes already drilled. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. angle iron for the frame. of the frame. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. D. stove bolts. The upright pieces. the first thing to decide on is the size. N. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. 1. stove bolts. Fig. and this is inexpensive to build. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass.C.J. 1 gill of fine white sand. thus making all the holes coincide. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. All the horizontal pieces. the same ends will come together again. A. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. To find the fall of snow. about 20 in. as the difficulties increase with the size. 1 gill of litharge. The cement. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. B. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. A. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. E. Drill all the horizontal pieces. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. B. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. It should be placed in an exposed location. The bottom glass should be a good fit. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces.. and then the frame is ready to assemble. Let . After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. When the glass is put in the frame a space. E. F. so it is filled up with plaster of paris.

Aquarium Finished If desired. a centerpiece (A. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. D. and. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. B. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. to the door knob. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. Fig. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. if desired. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. having a swinging connection at C. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. A. Fasten the lever. on the door by means of a metal plate.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium.

when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. AA. according to the slant given C. several lengths of scantling 3 in. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. Fig. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. 1 . N. D. Two short boards 1 in. 3 shows one of the paddles. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. Fig. long. 1. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. but mark their position on the frame. They are shown in Fig. Fig. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. soldered to the end of the cylinder. Y. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. I referred this question to my husband. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. and another. which is 15 in.. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. screwed to the door frame. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. another. Fig. long. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. will open the door about 1/2 in. 2 ft. long. another. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. and Fig. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. from the outside top of the frame. to form the main supports of the frame. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. to form the slanting part. 1. showing the paddle-wheel in position. To make the frame. Fig. 2 is an end view. 1 is the motor with one side removed. wide by 1 in. Fig. White. A small piece of spring brass. Cut two pieces 30 in. Cut two of them 4 ft. 26 in. C. hoping it may solve the same question for them. 6 in. --Contributed by Orton E. long. PAUL S. thus doing away with the spring. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. Do not fasten these boards now. B. with a water pressure of 70 lb. as at E. F. approximately 1 ft. E. for the top. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. to keep the frame from spreading. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. Buffalo. wide . 2 at GG.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass.

Tack one side on. Next secure a 5/8-in. long to the wheel about 8 in. holes. iron. 24 in. hole through their sides centrally. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. (I. with the wheel and shaft in place. GG. by 1-1/2 in. then drill a 3/16-in. steel shaft 12 in. 1. Fig. 2) with a 5/8-in. and drill a 1-in. 4. take down the crosspieces. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. from one end by means of a key. remove the cardboard. 2) form a substantial base. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. to a full 1/2 in. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. and a 1/4 -in. hole through its center. Now block the wheel. Fasten them in their proper position. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. Make this hole conical. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. in diameter.along the edges under the zinc to form .burlap will do -. hole through them. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. hole to form the bearings. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. hole from the tops to the 1-in. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. When it has cooled. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. Fig. thick (HH. pipe. These are the paddles. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. and drill a 1/8-in. 2) and another 1 in. after which drill a 5/8 in. hole through the exact center of the wheel. tapering from 3/16 in. Fig. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. iron 3 by 4 in. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. that is. Take the side pieces. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. as shown in Fig. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. Drill 1/8-in. thick. long and filling it with babbitt metal. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK.

shutting out all light from above and the sides. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. and the subject may move. Raise the window shade half way. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. The best plate to use is a very slow one. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. but now I put them in the machine. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. If sheet-iron is used. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. Focus the camera carefully. it would be more durable. or what is called a process plate. If the bearings are now oiled. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine.a water-tight joint. as shown in the sketch at B. Correct exposure depends. sewing machine. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. start the motor. place the outlet over a drain. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. and as near to it as possible. Darken the rest of the window. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. but as it would have cost several times as much. and leave them for an hour or so. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. drill press. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. It is obvious that. Do not stop down the lens. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. on the lens. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. Drill a hole through the zinc. any window will do. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. as this makes long exposure necessary. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. . of course. remove any white curtains there may be. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. ice-cream freezer. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. says the Photographic Times. light and the plate.

an empty pill bottle may be used.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. D. with binding posts as shown. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. With a piece of black paper. full of water. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. The core C. as a slight current will answer. without detail in the face. until the core slowly rises. A. which is made of iron and cork. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. and without fog. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. the core is drawn down out of sight. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. 2. by twisting. C. and a base. The glass tube may be a test tube. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. or an empty developer tube. a core. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. a glass tube. The current required is very small. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. 2. hard rubber. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. B. as shown in Fig. or can be taken from an old magnet. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. or wood. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. On completing . The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube.

Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. 1 pt. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. This is a mysterious looking instrument. The colors appear different to different people. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. 1 lb. and make a pinhole in the center. 1. white lead. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. and are changed by reversing the rotation. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. water and 3 oz. whale oil. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. is Benham's color top. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. and one not easy to explain. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. finest graphite. according to his control of the current. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires.

or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. B. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. -Contributed by D. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. deuce. A. As this device is easily upset. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. when the action ceases. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant.. fan-like. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. before cutting. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. C.L. In making hydrogen. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. or three spot. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. nearly every time. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. especially if the deck is a new one. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. thus partly filling bottles A and C. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. In prize games. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. Chicago. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B.B.

12 in. as shown in Fig. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. S. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. --Contributed by C. 2. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. J. Jr. --Contributed by F. in length and 3 in. 10 in. long. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal.. Form a cone of heavy paper. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. Detail of Phonograph Horn . that will fit loosely in the tube A. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. . and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. Dak. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. Huron.. 1. Fig. 4. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. W. in diameter. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. long and 3 in. 3). (Fig. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. 9 in.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. Bently. Detroit. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. S. Fig. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. Make a 10-sided stick.

The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. Fig. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. with a pin driven in each end. A piece of tin. Remove the form. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. bend it at right angles throughout its length. it is equally easy to block that trick. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . 6. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. will cause an increased movement of C. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. Fortunately. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. Denver. but bends toward D. C. push back the bolt. A. --Contributed by Reader. Cut out paper sections (Fig. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. and walk in. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. on one side and the top. E. long. A second piece of silk thread. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. about the size of a leadpencil. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. allowing 1 in. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. making it three-ply thick. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. When the glue is thoroughly hardened.

Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. The upper switch. and rest on a brick placed under each end. The 2 by 4-in. Two wood-base switches. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. R. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. 4 ft. posts. is connected each point to a battery. By this arrangement one.. The feet. W. as shown. A. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base.. West St. long. long. S. Paul. S S. while the lower switch. Jr. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. --Contributed by J. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. are 7 ft. Fremont Hilscher. will last for several years. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. or left to right.strip. B. B. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. S. Minn. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. put together as shown in the sketch. The reverse switch. are made 2 by 4 in. The reverse lever when moved from right to left.

it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. The steam chest D. or anything available. The piston is made of a stove bolt. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. 2 and 3. and a cylindrical . H and K. either an old sewing-machine wheel. is an old bicycle pump. 3/8 in. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. In Fig. pulley wheel. cut in half. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. and valve crank S. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. with two washers. 2. The base is made of wood. and has two wood blocks. Fig. The hose E connects to the boiler. thick. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. which will be described later.every house. FF. E. 1. the size of the hole in the bearing B. the other parts being used for the bearing B. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. The valve motion is shown in Figs. and in Fig. Fig. and the crank bearing C. which is made of tin.

3. as shown in Fig. Cal. at that. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. Fig. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. This engine was built by W. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. Wis. powder can. The boiler.piece of hard wood. This is wound with soft string. as it is merely a trick of photography. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. G. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. to receive the connecting rod H. Fig. C. . using the positive wire as a pen. --Contributed by Geo. is cut out of tin. G. W. 1. and a very amusing trick. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. and the desired result is obtained. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. First. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. and saturated with thick oil. of Cuba. J. The valve crank S. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. 4. Fry. Schuh and A. or galvanized iron. Eustice. San Jose. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. can be an old oil can. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank.

1 will be seen to rotate. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. C. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. Cut half circles out of each stave. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. and place a bell on the four ends. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. When turning. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. Fig. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. to cross in the center. and pass ropes around . and Fig. Fig. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. B. as shown. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. B. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. They may be of any size. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. The smaller wheel. Fig. diameter. as shown at AA. 1 by covering up Figs.

Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. St. Mo. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. which accounts for the sound. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. From a piece of thin . --Contributed by H. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. procure a wooden spool. such as clothes lines. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers.G. A (a short spool. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two.M. say 1/2 or 3/4 in.. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. produces a higher magnifying power). from the transmitter. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. To make this lensless microscope. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. Louis. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. W. as shown in the illustration. long. but not on all. which allows the use of small sized ropes. This in turn will act on the transmitter. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury.

A. fastened to a wooden base. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. if the distance is reduced to one-third. To use this microscope. the diameter will appear twice as large. The spring. 2. C. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. The lever. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and.. Viewed through this microscope.) But an object 3/4-in. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. as in all microscopes of any power. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. bent as shown. and so on. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. by means of brads. e. if the distance is reduced to one-half. . and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. or 64 times. 1. darting across the field in every direction. in which hay has been soaking for several days. B. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. i. E.. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. the diameter will appear three times as large. D. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. (The area would appear 64 times as large. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. is fastened at each end by pins. is made of iron. 3. and look through the hole D. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. and at the center. cut out a small disk. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. otherwise the image will be blurred. the object should be of a transparent nature. The pivot.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. An innocent-looking drop of water. can be made of brass and the armature. H. which costs little or nothing to make. B. C. D. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. place a small object on the transparent disk. held at arm's length. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. which are pieces of hard wood. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. Fig.

2. long and 14-1/2 in.SOUNDER-A. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. can be made panel as shown. FF. Fig. The back. The base of the key. brass or iron soldered to nail. K. DD. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. wide. 26 wire: E. HH. wide and about 20 in. thick. Each side. F. soft iron. is cut from a board about 36 in. wide and set in between sides AA. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. or taken from a small one-point switch. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. D. C. The door. brass: B. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. . A. K. 16 in. between the armature and the magnet. coils wound with No. nail soldered on A. E. wide. similar to the one used in the sounder. and are connected to the contacts. A switch. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. wood: F. wood: C. which are made to receive a pivot. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. brass: E. Cut the top. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. C. long by 16 in. connection of D to nail. brass. should be about 22 in. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. D. 16 in. in length and 16 in. 1. B. D. KEY-A. The binding posts. wide. or a single piece. wood. long. fastened near the end. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. Fig. wide. B. AA. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. binding posts: H spring The stop.

long.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. Garfield. AA. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. brads. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. with 3/4-in. E. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above.. Make 12 cleats. as shown. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. material. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. cut in them. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. 2 and made from 1/4-in. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. Ill. 13-1/2 in. as shown in the sketch. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. When the electrical waves strike the needle. In operation.

is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. N. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. when used with a motor. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . B. A.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. in order to increase the surface. The cord is also fastened to a lever. --Contributed by John Koehler. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. A. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. will give a greater speed. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. C. pulls down the armature. down into the water increases the surface in contact. A (see sketch). it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. N. and thus decreases the resistance. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. Pushing the wire. --Contributed by R. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. When the pipe is used. J. Brown. and. through which a piece of wire is passed. F. the magnet. Y. E. Fairport. A fairly stiff spring. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. Ridgewood. filled with water.

Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. Borden. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. Gachville. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . N. Of course. --Contributed by Perry A. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. even those who read this description.for the secret contact. if desired. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. B. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated.

Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. Compton. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. deep and 3/4 in. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. as shown in Fig. C. where the other end of wire is fastened. East Orange. Dobson. J. records and 5-5/8 in. D. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. from the bottom. as shown in Fig. for 6-in. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. wide. 2. records. long and full 12-in. The top board is made 28-in. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. Washington. The three shelves are cut 25-in. Two drawers are fitted in this space. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. Jr. wide. --Contributed by H. and on both sides of the middle shelf. --Contributed by Dr. H. C. apart. Connect switch to post B. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. wide. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. Mangold. thick and 12-in. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. long and 5 in. in a semicircle 2 in. wide. Cal.whenever the bell rings. E. for 10in. wide. 1. Nails for stops are placed at DD. N. With about 9 ft. From a piece of brass a switch. A. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. . The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. Cut the end pieces each 36-in..

Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . closed. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. Va. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. E. as shown in Fig. which in operation is bent. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. B. A. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. Roanoke. 1. to which is fastened a cord. When the cord is passed over pulley C. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. as shown by the dotted lines. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum.

Figs. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. In these grooves place wheels. Now put all these parts together. Fig. B. Put the rubber tube. 3. 1 in. they will let the air through. in diameter. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. thick. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. thick (A. deep. in diameter. wide. wide. Do not fasten the sides too . deep and 1/2 in. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. 1 in. 3).Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. in diameter. which should be about 1/2 in. Bore two 1/4 in. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. These wheels should be 3/4 in. against which the rubber tubing. holes (HH. 4 shows the wheel-holder. they will bind. D. Notice the break (S) in the track. E. through one of these holes. The crankpin should fit tightly. excepting the crank and tubing. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. Fig. CC. long. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. 1. as shown in the illustration. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. is compressed by wheels. 5) when they are placed. In the sides (Fig. apart. If the wheels fit too tightly. Cut two grooves. it too loose. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. square and 7/8 in. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. one in each end. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. but a larger one could be built in proportion. in diameter. E. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. to turn on pins of stout wire. Fig. Figs. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump.

tubing. mark for hole and 3 in. Fig. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. and mark for a hole. Then turn the crank from left to right. AA. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. B. the pump will give a steady stream. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. To use the pump. a platform should be added. 1. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. 1. 2. as it gives steadiness to the motion. Take the center of the bar. though a small iron wheel is better. from each end. 1. long. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. A in Fig. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. mark again. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. 17-1/2 in. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. because he can . from that mark the next hole. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. Fig. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. 1. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. Two feet of 1/4-in. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. AA. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. from the bottom and 2 in. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. Idana. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. Fig. as shown in Fig. 1. is all the expense necessary. The animal does not fear to enter the box. If the motion of the wheels is regular. Hubbard. of material. iron. In the two cross bars 1 in. beyond each of these two. 2. stands 20 in. from each end. The three legs marked BBB. --Contributed by Dan H. 15 in. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. from each end.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. Fig. costing 10 cents. Cut six pieces. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. the other wheel has reached the bottom. and 3-1/2 in. The screen which is shown in Fig. Kan. For ease in handling the pump. and are 30 in.

--Contributed by H. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. 14 copper wire. Place the carbon in the jar. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. long having two thumb screws. It is useful for running induction coils. shuts him in. or. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. When through using the battery. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. and the solution (Fig. To cause a flow of electricity. add slowly. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. Philadelphia. but if one casts his own zinc. of water dissolve 4 oz. If it is wet. The mercury will adhere. When the bichromate has all dissolved. C. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. The truncated. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used.see through it: when he enters. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. If the battery has been used before. potassium bichromate. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. stirring constantly. rub the zinc well. however. of the top. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. until it is within 3 in. or small electric motors. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. dropping. If the solution touches the zinc. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. silvery appearance. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. giving it a bright. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. 4 oz. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. 1) must be prepared. some of it should be poured out. Meyer. sulphuric acid. acid 1 part). The battery is now ready for use. and touches the bait the lid is released and. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. there is too much liquid in the jar. 2). The battery is now complete. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. . it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in.

If.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. while the coal door is being opened. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. e. pressing the pedal closes the door. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. Madison. Wis. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. which opens the door. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. with slight changes. however. The price of the coil depends upon its size. the battery circuit. i. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. After putting in the coal. --Contributed by Edward Whitney.Fig. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. the jump-spark coil . A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor..

It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. Change the coil described. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. W W. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. 7. Fig.7. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. coil. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. while a 12-in. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. the full length of the coil. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. diameter. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. 6. which is made of light copper wire. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. as shown in Fig. 7. and closer for longer distances. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. This coil. 6. in a partial vacuum. being a 1-in. made of No. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. 7). An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. in a straight line from top to bottom. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. apart. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. . Now for the receiving apparatus. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. 5. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. W W.described elsewhere in this book. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. This will make an excellent receiver. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. as shown in Fig. After winding. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B".

is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. . where A is the headstock. using an electric motor and countershaft. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. only. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. These circles. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. after all. B the bed and C the tailstock. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. which will be described later. The writer does not claim to be the originator. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. Figs. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. but it could be run by foot power if desired. 1). 90°. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. 90°. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. may be easily made at very little expense. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. being vertical. being at right angles. are analogous to the flow of induction. No. A. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. A large cone pulley would then be required.6 stranded. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. For an illustration.The aerial line. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. but simply illustrates the above to show that. I run my lathe by power. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. above the ground. Run a wire from the other binding post. as it matches the color well. at any point to any metal which is grounded. in the air. and hence the aerial line. to the direction of the current. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. 1 to 4.

thick. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. but not hot enough to burn it. Fig. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. To make these bearings. 2 and 3. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. A. 6 Headstock Details D. 5. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. which pass through a piece of wood. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. After pouring. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. one of which is shown in Fig. 6. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. If the bearing has been properly made. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. on the under side of the bed.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. tapered wooden pin. The headstock. and Fig. deep. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. pitch and 1/8 in. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. which are let into holes FIG. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. B. Fig. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. and it is well to have the shaft hot. Fig. and runs in babbitt bearings. Heat the babbitt well. The bolts B (Fig. 5. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. The bearing is then ready to be poured. just touching the shaft. 4. too. steel tubing about 1/8 in. 4. Fig.

B. of the walk . This prevents corrosion. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. the alarm is easy to fix up. they may be turned up after assembling. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts.other machines. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. If not perfectly true. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig.J. If one has a wooden walk. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. N. A.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. Newark. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. so I had to buy one. The tail stock (Fig. FIG. Ill. embedded in the wood. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. Take up about 5 ft. lock nut. and a 1/2-in. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. Oak Park.

silver or other metal. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. Do not touch the work with the hands again. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. to roughen the surface slightly. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. clean the articles thoroughly. Then make the solution .and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. so that they will not touch. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. --Contributed by R. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. add potassium cyanide again. Connect up an electric bell. To avoid touching it. of water. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. leaving a clear solution. Minneapolis. (A. Minn. S. Fig. to remove all traces of grease. and the alarm is complete. Finally. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. hang the articles on the wires. 2). save when a weight is on the trap. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. water. Jackson. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. before dipping them in the potash solution. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired.

Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. long. about 25 ft. Fig. This solution. On brass. pewter. a circuit is completed. hole in its center. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. 3) directly over the hole. which . The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. light strokes. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. with water. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. silver can be plated direct. a hand scratch brush is good. and then treated as copper. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. 18 wire. and 4 volts for very small ones. Then. but opens the door. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. A (Fig. Fig. With an electric pressure of 3. 3. 1). must be about 1 in. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. copper. I. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. Repeat six times. The wooden catch. square. make a key and keyhole. piece of broomstick. if one does not possess a buffing machine. which is held by catch B. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. Screw the two blocks together. nickel and such metals. Can be made of a 2-in. from the lower end. an old electric bell or buzzer. thick by 3 in. 10 in. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. German silver. 1. Fig. The wooden block C. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. If more solution is required.5 to 4 volts. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. 1). In rigging it to a sliding door. use 2 volts for large articles. Having finished washing the precipitate. with the pivot 2 in. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. will serve for the key. and the larger part (F. Where Bunsen cells are used. If accumulators are used. saw a piece of wood. shaking. of water. A 1/4 in. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K.up to 2 qt. Fig. which is advised. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. 1 not only unlocks. --Model Engineer. with water. also. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. long. 3) strikes the bent wire L. 1 in. of clothesline rope and some No. To provide the keyhole. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. as shown in Fig. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. B should be of the same wood. Take quick. as at F. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. lead. zinc. when the point of the key touches the tin. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. such metals as iron. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. Make a somewhat larger block (E. Before silver plating. When all this is set up. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape.

One end is removed. with a switch as in Fig. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. 2. and black art reigns supreme. a few simple tools. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. Fig. On either side of the box. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length.. Thus. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. cut in one side. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. one-third of the length from the remaining end. and a slit. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. To prepare such a magic cave. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. top.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. and finally lined inside with black cloth. H. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. is the cut through which the rope runs. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. H. in his shirt sleeves. or cave. Heavy metal objects. Next. 2. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. H. One thing changes to another and back again. half way from open end to closed end. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. floor. 1. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. some black paint. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. Receiving the bowl again. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. the illumination in front must be arranged. to throw the light toward the audience. he tosses it into the cave. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. New Jersey. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. sides and end. East Orange. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). no painting inside is required. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. some black cloth. should be cut a hole. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. Next. and hands its contents round to the audience. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. 0. . CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. and plenty of candles. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. He removes the bowl from the black box. enlarged. Fig. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. the requisites are a large soap box. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. In front of you. the box should be painted black both inside and out. heighten the illusion. Klipstein. 3. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. although a little more trouble. such as forks. surrounding a perfectly black space. Fig. B. The magician stands in front of this. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. which unlocks the door. --Contributed by E. Fig. so much the better. with the lights turned low. he points with one finger to the box. 116 Prospect St. The box must be altered first. shows catch B. spoons and jackknives. 1. Objects appear and disappear. The interior must be a dead black. between the parlor and the room back of it.

but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. the room where the cave is should be dark. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. of course. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. which can be made to dance either by strings. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. The audience room should have only low lights. and pours them from the bag into a dish. which are let down through the slit in the top. only he. a screen must be used. one on each side of the box. The illusion. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. of course. was identical with this. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. you must have an assistant. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. in which are oranges and apples. The exhibitor should be .Finally. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. as presented by Hermann. and if portieres are impossible. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. into the eyes of him who looks. if. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. had a big stage. Consequently. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. is on a table) so much the better. But illusions suggest themselves. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. and several black drop curtains. his confederate behind inserts his hand.

so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. or binding posts. so arranged that.. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. held down on it by two terminals. 1. 2). never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. Then. f2. their one end just slips under the strips b1. 2. b2. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. terminal c3 will show . suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. at L. or b2.a boy who can talk. Fig. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. held down by another disk F (Fig. b3. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. and c4 + electricity. by means of two wood screws. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. respectively. c2. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . making contact with them. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. c1. and c1 – electricity. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. b3. About the center piece H moves a disk. making contact with them as shown at y. e1 and e2. c4. and c2 to the zinc. as shown in Fig. Finally. FIG. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). by 4 in. held down on disk F by two other terminals. and a common screw. respectively. d. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. when handle K is turned to one side. A represents a pine board 4 in.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. terminal c3 will show +. On the disk G are two brass strips. 1. c3.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. square. with three brass strips. b1. A. is shown in the diagram. respectively. 2. vice versa. b2. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. if you turn handle K to the right. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch.

Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) .in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. Newark. --Contributed by Eugene F. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. 1. you have the current of one battery. Jr. B is a onepoint switch. and then hold the receiver to your ear. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. -Contributed by A. jump spark coil. from four batteries. and C and C1 are binding posts. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. Joerin. from five batteries. and when on No. E. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). Tuttle. when on No. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. from three batteries. when on No. 4. when A is on No. thus making the message audible in the receiver. 5. .. 3. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. Ohio. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. When switch B is closed and A is on No. 2 you receive the current from two batteries.

as shown in the sketch. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. and placed on the windowsill of the car. traveled by the thread. per second for each second. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. When you do not have a graduate at hand. A. of Burlington. rule. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. La.. Wis. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. P. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. The device thus arranged. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. New Orleans. which may be a button or other small object. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. Thus.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. A. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. so one can see the time. Handy Electric Alarm . The alarm clock rests on a shelf. and supporting the small weight. Redmond. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. per second. A. mark. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. over the bent portion of the rule. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. is the device of H. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. E. B. mark. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position.

the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. wrapping the wire around the can several times. Lane. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. Crafton. for a wetting is the inevitable result. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. . which illuminates the face of the clock. C. soldered to the alarm winder. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal.which has a piece of metal. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. Pa. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. S. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. B. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. Then if a mishap comes. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. When the alarm goes off. Instead. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. but may be closed at F any time desired. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. --Contributed by Gordon T. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. and with the same result. --C. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E.

Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. New York City. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. binding posts. Two cleats. It is possible to make molds without a bench. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. Macey. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. models and miniature objects. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. and many other interesting and useful articles. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. as shown. The first thing to make is a molding bench. which may. bearings. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. but it is a mistake to try to do this. L.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . battery zincs. If there is no foundry Fig. C. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. cannons. A. as shown in Fig. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. BE. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. small machinery parts. when it is being prepared. AA. engines. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. and duplicates of all these. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. --Contributed by A. 1. 1 . ornaments of various kinds. whence it is soon tracked into the house. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. With the easily made devices about to be described.

and a sieve. but this operation will be described more fully later on. A A. and the "drag. will be required. by 6 in. If desired the sieve may be homemade. is shown more clearly in Fig. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. An old teaspoon. is filled with coal dust. F. is nailed to each end of the cope. is made of wood. E. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. which can be either aluminum. a little larger than the outside of the flask. as shown. 2.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. the "cope. CC. It is made of wood and is in two halves. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. which should be nailed in. The flask.How to Make a Mold [96] . zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. and saw it in half longitudinally. as shown. J. Fig. G. A wedge-shaped piece. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. which can be made of a knitted stocking. and this. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. 2 . previous to sawing. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. and the lower pieces. 1. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. II . A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. say 12 in. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. Fig. The rammer. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. The dowels.near at hand. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. DD. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. A slight shake of the bag Fig. white metal. The cloth bag. makes a very good sieve. D. H. high. try using sand from other sources. is about the right mesh." or upper half. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. 1. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. CC. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. by 8 in." or lower part. If the box is not very strong.

where they can watch the molders at work. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. and if water is added. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. as described. and thus judge for himself. or "drag. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. Place another cover board on top. and then more sand is added until Fig. It is then rammed again as before. turn the drag other side up. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. as shown at C. and scatter about 1/16 in. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. In finishing the ramming. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed.Having finished making the flask and other equipment." in position. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. as it is much easier to learn by observation. After ramming. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. and by grasping with both hands. as shown. The sand is then ready for molding. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. in order to remove the lumps. the surface of the sand at . or "cope. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. as shown at D. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. everything will be ready for the operation of molding." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. as shown at E.

by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. after being poured. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. III. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. place the cope back on the drag. After drawing the pattern. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. thus holding the crucible securely. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. and then pour. to give the air a chance to escape. Place a brick or other flat. Fig. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. deep. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. as shown at G. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. is next cut. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. as shown at H. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. thus making a dirty casting. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. in diameter. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. The next operation is that of cutting the gate.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds.E should be covered with coal-dust. made out of steel rod. as shown in the sketch. as shown at H. as shown at F. This is done with a spoon. wide and about 1/4 in. in order to prevent overheating. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. ." or pouring-hole. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. it shows that the sand is too wet. The "sprue. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. as shown at J.

but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. battery zincs. and the casting is then ready for finishing. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. is very desirable. may be used in either direction. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. white metal and other scrap available. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. babbitt. used only for zinc. --Contributed by Harold S. the following device will be found most convenient. but any reasonable number may be used. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. or from any adjacent pair of cells. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. Although the effect in the illustration . Morton.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. and. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. In my own case I used four batteries. Referring to the figure. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. Minneapolis. If a good furnace is available. 15% lead. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. although somewhat expensive. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength.

Chicago. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. By replacing the oars with paddles. B. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. 3/4 in. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. To make it take a sheet-iron band. If desired. A. Fig. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. connected by cords to the rudder. backward. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. The bearings. outward. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. 2. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. The brass rings also appear distorted. shaft made. may be made of hardwood. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. Then walk down among the audience. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. Put a sharp needle point. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. Then replace the table.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. Make one of these pieces for each arm. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. B. as shown in the illustration. as shown at A. --Contributed by Draughtsman. which will be sufficient to hold it.

2 and 3. E. 1. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. W. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. 1. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. 2. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. In the same way. being simply finely divided ice. 1. Snow. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. or the paint will come off. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. when it will again return to its original state. should be made of wood. spoiling its appearance. as shown in Fig. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. as shown in Fig. C.melted babbitt. It may seem strange that ice . much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. Fig. The hubs. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. A block of ice. A. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. 3. The covers. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. or under pressure. D. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. but when in motion. If galvanized iron is used. and a weight. If babbitt is used.

makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. thus giving a high resistance contact. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. by 1/4. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. The rate of flow is often very slow. or supporting it in some similar way. which resembles ice in this respect. Crafton. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. as per sketch. sometimes only one or two feet a day. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. by 2 in. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. by 5 in. Pressing either push button. whenever there is any connection made at all. but by placing it between books. as shown on page 65. by 1/2 in. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. P. square. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. brass. B. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . Pa. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. but. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. it will gradually change from the original shape A. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. Lane. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. --Contributed by Gordon T. no matter how slow the motion may be.should flow like water. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. and assume the shape shown at B. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. The current is flowing through both bells all the time.. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. in. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder.

furnace. draft chain. as shown. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit.thumb screws. weight. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. K . and C. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. and five dry batteries. Pa. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. The parts are: A. horizontal lever. cord. A is the circuit breaker. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. B. vertical lever. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. B. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. C. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. E. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. H. pulleys. --Contributed by A.000 ft. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. wooden supports. alarm clock. J. about the size used for automobiles. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. In the wiring diagram. Ward. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. draft. the battery. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. Wilkinsburg. I. the induction coil. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. The success depends upon a slow current. Indianapolis. as shown. G. G. F. D.

shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. as well as the bottom. Artistic Window Boxes The top. Kalamazoo. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. 2 are dressed to the right angle. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. The frame (Fig. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. where house plants are kept in the home. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. Mich. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. material framed together as shown in Fig. which will provide a fine place for the plants. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. will fit nicely in them. 3. such as used for a storm window. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open.

multiples of series of three. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. However. a cork and a needle. after a rest. The 1/2-cp. in this connection. 1 each complete with base. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. and cost 27 cents FIG. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. N. but maintain the voltage constant. in any system of lamps. It must be remembered. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. and the instrument will then be complete. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. However. which sells for 25 cents. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. Halifax. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. as if drawn upon for its total output. This is more economical than dry cells. so as to increase the current. where they are glad to have them taken away. can be connected up in series. A certain number of these. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. is something that will interest the average American boy. 1 cp. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. and a suitable source of power. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. in diameter. Grant. e. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. i. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. S. Thus.. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. since a battery is the most popular source of power. one can regulate the batteries as required. by connecting them in series. Push the needle into the cork. 1. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. Canada.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. for some time very satisfactorily. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. --Contributed by Wm. W. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also.. this must be done with very great caution. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. as indicated by Fig.. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. and will give the .

Thus. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. making. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. and for Christmas trees. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. If wound for 10 volts. Fig. to secure light by this method. Chicago. generates the power for the lights. 2 shows the scheme. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. although the first cost is greater. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. lamp. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. lamps. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. FIG. each. Thus. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. 11 series. .. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell.proper voltage. double insulated wire wherever needed. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. where the water pressure is the greatest. However. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. as in Fig. and running the series in parallel. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. These will give 3 cp. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. according to the water pressure obtainable. In conclusion. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. especially those of low internal resistance. by the proper combination of these. or 22 lights. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. we simply turn on the water. 18 B & S. 3. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. and then lead No. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. 1-cp. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. So. if wound for 6 volts. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. which is the same as that of one battery. and diffused light in a room. for display of show cases. lamps. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current.

A. --Contributed by F. and C. Plymouth. a bait of meat. . Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. Ind. switch. the letters indicate as follows: FF. BB. DD. Emig. To reverse the motor. A indicates the ground. Parker. center points of switch. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. we were not bothered with them. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. Cal. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. CC. field of motor. or a tempting bone. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. AA. thus reversing the machine. outside points of switch. are cut just alike. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. --Contributed by Leonard E.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. or from one pattern. brushes of motor. simply change the switch. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. Santa Clara. B. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. and the sides. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. as shown in the sketch. After I connected up my induction coil. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. B. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. bars of pole-changing switch.

Hutchinson. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. Minn. attached to the end of the armature B.. Melchior. A. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. If it is not. The button can be hidden. Fry. one cell being sufficient. W. and a table or bench. as it is the key to the lock. a hammer. The experiment works best .Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. thus locking the door. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. or would remain locked. merely push the button E. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. 903 Vine St. -Contributed by Claude B. a piece of string. When the circuit is broken a weight. San Jose. To unlock the door. which is in the door. Cal.

The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. -. the current flows with the small arrows. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. Culebra. attached at the other end. . 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. 3. When the alarm rings in the early morning. Schmidt. C. P. Tie the ends of the string together. as shown in Fig. 4). A.Contributed by F. --Contributed by Geo. 1).. 3. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. Porto Rico. D. forming a loop. Ontario. I. On another block of wood fasten two wires. the key turns. Canada. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. Wis. W. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. 18 Gorham St. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. which pulls the draft open.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. Madison. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. run through a pulley. Brockville. where it will remain suspended as shown. Crawford Curry. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. the stick falls away. releasing the weight. in the ceiling and has a window weight. 2.

D. J. --Contributed by Wm. and . Use a barrel to work on. get two pieces of plate glass. First. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. running one direct to the receiver. thick. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. made with his own hands. Camden. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. N. square and 1 in. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. J. thence to a switch. Connect two wires to the transmitter. and break the corners off to make them round. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. including the mouthpiece. or from a bed of flowers. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. R. and the other to the battery. and then to the receiver. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. S. which fasten to the horn.. Jr.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. or tree. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. The cut shows the arrangement. 6 in. Farley.

with 1/4-in. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. so the light . wet till soft like paint. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. wetting it to the consistency of cream. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. and the under glass or tool convex. In a dark room. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. as in Fig. When dry. spaces. or less. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. unless a longer focal length is wanted. and label. while walking around the barrel. the coarse grinding must be continued. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. melt 1 lb.. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. with pitch. Use a binger to spread it on with. Fig. a round 4-in. 2. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. set the speculum against the wall. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. also rotate the glass. 2. Have ready six large dishes.. When polishing the speculum. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. of water. using straight strokes 2 in. Then warm and press again with the speculum.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. and is ready for polishing. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. twice the focal length away. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. and a large lamp. then take 2 lb. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. Fig. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. wide around the convex glass or tool. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. A. Fasten. L. 1. When done the glass should be semitransparent. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. then 8 minutes. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. and spread on the glass. in length. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. by the side of the lamp. or it will not polish evenly.

840 gr. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water.……………………………….. Now add enough of the solution A. as in K. deep. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. Fig. 39 gr. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. if a hill in the center. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. and pour the rest into the empty dish.. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. the speculum is ready to be silvered. from the lamp. Then add solution B. 2. the speculum will show some dark rings. When the focus is found. 4 oz. longer strokes. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. in the bath and leave until the silver rises. 100 gr. Then add 1 oz. 25 gr. then ammonia until bath is clear. Place the speculum S. The polishing and testing done. Two glass or earthenware dishes. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. touched with rouge... add the ammonia solution drop by drop. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. shorter strokes should be used in polishing.……………. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) ….. Silver nitrate ……………………………. The knife should not be more than 6 in. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. Fig. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. When dry.……………………………. fill the dish with distilled water. Fig.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. long to the back of the speculum. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. face down. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water …………………………….. With pitch. with distilled water. that was set aside.. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears.. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). 4 oz. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center.100 gr. Place the speculum. must be procured. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. cement a strip of board 8 in. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. also how the rays R from a star . If not... Nitric acid . Alcohol (Pure) ……………. Solution D: Sugar loaf . Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. or hills. 2. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it.

it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. The flatter they are the less they will distort. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. .. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made.John E. About 20.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. long and cost me just $15. telescope can be made at home. Then I made the one described. slightly wider than the lens mount. stop down well after focusing. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. My telescope is 64 in. two glass prisms. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. and proceed as for any picture. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. is a satisfactory angle. Make the tube I of sheet iron. with an outlay of only a few dollars. Mellish. deg. cover with paper and cloth. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. Thus an excellent 6-in. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. using strawboard and black paper. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. which proves to be easy of execution. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. Place over lens. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms.

or powdered alum. Fig. . says the Master Painter. Ill. through the lens of the camera and on the board. B.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. D. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. To unlock. and reflect through the negative. -Contributed by A. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. push the button D. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. add the plaster gradually to the water. 1. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. A. complete the arrangement. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. The paper is exposed. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. unobstructed light strike the mirror. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. Do not stir it. The rays of the clear. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. but will not preserve its hardening. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. Boody. Zimmerman. 2. as shown in Fig. instead of the contrary. then add a little sulphate of potash.

so that it can rotate about these points. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. as shown in the sketch. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. 2. 2. use a string. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. also provide them with a handle. Fasten on the switch lever. 3. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. as in Fig. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. as at A and B. Fig. throw . Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. Then blow through the spool. 1). thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. but will remain suspended without any visible support. To reverse. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant.

Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. and rub dry with linen cloth. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. binding posts. B. --Contributed by R. L. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. A is the electricbell magnet. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. --Contributed by Geo. D. Push one end of the tire into the hole. Take out. Tex. carbon sockets. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. the armature. Neb. carbons. . North Bend. San Marcos. Thomas. wash in running water. rinse in alcohol. -Contributed by Morris L. Go McVicker. C C. as shown in the sketch. In the sketch.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. San Antonio. Levy. although this is not necessary. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. and E E. Tex. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired.

and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. 36 magnet wire. --Contributed by Joseph B. wound evenly about this core. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. 16 magnet wire. Bell. Brooklyn.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. 14 or No. By means of two or more layers of No. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. long or more. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made.

with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. and finally the fourth strip of paper. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. in diameter. wide. The condenser is next wrapped . coil illustrates the general details of the work. the entire core may be purchased readymade. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. about 6 in. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. A 7/8-in. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. diameter. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. 2 yd. Beginning half an inch from one end. making two layers. a box like that shown in Fig. with room also for a small condenser. at a time. or 8 in. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. hole is bored in the center of one end. as the maker prefers. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. This makes a condenser which may be folded. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. After the core wires are bundled. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. which is desirable. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. then the strip of tin-foil. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. In shaping the condenser. one piece of the paper is laid down. long and 5 in. long and 2-5/8 in. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. No. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made.which would be better to buy ready-made. which is an important factor of the coil. When cut and laid in one continuous length. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. The following method of completing a 1-in. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. in length. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. The primary is made of fine annealed No. 1. but if it is not convenient to do this work. as shown in Fig. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. and the results are often unsatisfactory. 4.

switch. F. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. 3. the letters indicate as follows: A. Fig. B. which allows wiring at the back. I. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. battery . The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. go. whole length. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. flange turned on one side. 4 in. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. and one from battery. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. long to key. B. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. V-shaped copper strip. C.securely with bands of paper or tape. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. ready for assembling.) The wiring diagram. round so that the inside . E. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. to the door.. shelf for clock. forms the other pole or terminal. and the other sheet. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. open switch C. copper lever with 1-in. by 12 in. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. lines H. D. long and 12 in. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. wide. spark. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. A. bell. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. shows how the connections are made. The alarm key will turn and drop down. G. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. which is insulated from the first. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. one from bell. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily.

but add 5 or 6 oz. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. of zinc sulphate. The circuit should also have a high resistance. That is what they are for. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. and the battery is ready for use. from the bottom.diameter is 7 in. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. London. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. Use a glass or metal shade. This is for blowing. and then rivet the seam. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. 2 in. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. of blue stone. . says the Model Engineer. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. Line the furnace. do not shortcircuit. instead of close to it. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. Short-circuit for three hours. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole.. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. but with the circuit. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. If desired for use immediately.

Outside of the scientific side involved. Ohio. herein I describe a much better trick. At least it is amusing.. as in the other movement." which created much merriment. the second finger along the side. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. porcelain and paper. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. while for others it will not revolve at all. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. If too low. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. thus producing two different vibrations. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. square and about 9 in. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. but the thing would not move at all. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. for others the opposite way. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. long. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. This type of battery will give about 0. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. below the bottom of the zinc. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. Make a hole through the center or this one arm.9 of a volt.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. imparting to them a violet tinge. for some it will turn one way. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. 2. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. g. affects . If any or your audience presume to dispute. grip the stick firmly in one hand. oxygen to ozone. To operate the trick. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. Try it and see. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. and then. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. or think they can do the same let them try it. Enlarge the hole slightly. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. and therein is the trick. 1. changes white phosphorus to yellow.

says the Photographic Times. a means for holding it vertical. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. if possible. however.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. insects. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. a short-focus lens. earth. and. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. chemicals. but this is less satisfactory. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. and one of them is photomicrography. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. an old tripod screw. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. but not essential. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. but small flowers.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. To the front board is attached a box.

balloon. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. in Cu. Cap. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. 7 ft. 7-1/2 in. in diameter. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. CD. 7-1/2 in. Divide one-quarter of the circle . The following table will give the size. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. or 3 ft. 8 ft.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. If the balloon is 10 ft. which is 15 ft. or 31 ft. Fig. 65 4 lb. 1. 5 ft. A line.--Contributed by George C. Madison. 12 ft. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. long and 3 ft. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. Mass. Ft Lifting Power. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. wide from which to cut a pattern. 113 7 lb. AB. 697 44 lb. and a line. 268 17 lb. 11 ft. 9 ft. 179 11 lb. 6 ft. 5 in. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. 905 57 lb. while it is not so with the quill. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. 381 24 lb. 10 ft 523 33 lb. Boston. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter.

When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. cutting all four quarters at the same time. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. and so on. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. The cloth segments are sewed together. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. The pattern is now cut. keeping the marked part on the outside. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. making a double seam as shown in Fig. 4. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. of the very best heavy body. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. using a fine needle and No. Procure 1 gal. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. 3. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. This test will show if the bag is airtight. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. on the curved line from B to C. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. 70 thread. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. The amounts necessary for a 10- . Repeat this operation four times. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. 2. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. of beeswax and boil well together.

Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. or a fan. pipe. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. it is not fit to use. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. until no more dirt is seen. B. above the level of the water in barrel A. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. capacity and connect them. of gas in one hour.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. should not enter into the water over 8 in. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. C. 5 . pipe extending down into the cooling tank. if it is good it will dry off. of water will make 4 cu. All FIG. Vegetable oils should never be used. leaving the hand quite clean. a clean white rag. B. with the iron borings. using a fine brush. of iron. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. In the barrel. with 3/4in. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. A. After washing a part. to the bag. 5. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. as shown in Fig. B. C. About 15 lb. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. When the clock has dried. 1 lb. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. which may sound rather absurd. or dusting with a dry brush. oil the spindle holes carefully. The 3/4-in. Fill the other barrel.Green Iron ammonium citrate . A. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. Water 1 oz. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. balloon are 125 lb. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. 150 gr. of iron borings and 125 lb.ft. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. 1 lb. A. but if any grease remains on the hand. . ft. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. by fixing. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. ]. with water 2 in.. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. of sulphuric acid. . The outlet. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. this should be repeated frequently.

The miniature 16 cp. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. This aerial collector can be made in . Print to bronzing under a strong negative. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. The negative pole. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. Printing is done in the sun. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. Dry the plates in the dark. toning first if desired. or carbon. at the time of employment. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. The positive pole. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. and keep in the dark until used. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry.Water 1 oz. . Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. to avoid blackened skin. . Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. keeping the fingers out of the solution. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. A cold. Port Melbourne. of any make. Dry in the dark. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band.. Exposure. or battery. fix in hypo. but the 110-volt globes will not glow.000 ft. A longer exposure will be necessary. dry atmosphere will give best results. says the Moving Picture World. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. and a vigorous negative must be used. or zinc. 20 to 30 minutes.

By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. long. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. This will complete the receiving station. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. a positive and a negative. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. and as less current will flow the short way. in diameter. forming a cup of the pipe. as described below.various ways. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. the resistance is less. holes . Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. As the telephone offers a high resistance. both positive and negative. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. making a ground with one wire. If the waves strike across the needle. If the wave ceases. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. The storage cell. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. 5 in. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. when left exposed to the air. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. lay a needle. will soon become dry and useless. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. lead pipe. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. and have the other connected with another aerial line.

be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. D. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. This support or block. This box can be square. namely: a square hole. by soldering the joint. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. of course. one to the positive. and the other to the negative. a round one. This. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. does not need to be watertight. Two binding-posts should be attached. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. The other plate is connected to the zinc. or tube C. except for about 1 in. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. says the Pathfinder. When mixing the acid and water. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. B. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. or tube B. on each end. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. an oblong one and a triangular one. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust.as possible. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands.

square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. deep and 4 ft. as shown in Fig. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. back and under. Chicago. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. C. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. 2. wide. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. in place on the wood.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. 3. all around the edge. were fitted by this one plug. and has plenty of good seating capacity. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. thick cut two pieces alike. wide. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. about 20 in. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. Only galvanized nails should be used. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. . between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. 1. Ill. leaving about 1/16 in. C. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. 2. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. as it is not readily overturned. The third piece of brass. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. long. 1. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. This punt. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. A and B. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. is built 15 ft. and match them together. as shown in Fig. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig.

Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. thick and 3-1/2 in. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. Tacoma. In Fig.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. gas pipe. is cut 1 in. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. B.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. A. A piece of 1/4-in. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . square (Fig 2). 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. Wash. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in.

The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. if possible. no more current than a 16-cp. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. and to consume. which can be developed in the usual manner. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. may be of interest to some of our readers.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. which the writer has made. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. In designing. it had to be borne in mind that. H. says the Model Engineer. with the exception of insulated wire. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. no special materials could be obtained." has no connection with the outside circuit. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. without auxiliary phase. The winding of the armature. Wagner.--Contributed by Charles H. lamp. or "rotor. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night.

but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. thick. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. this little machine is not self-starting. were then drilled and 1/4-in. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. Holes 5-32 in. being used. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. 5. 4. They are not particularly accurate as it is. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. also varnished before they were put in. C. and all sparking is avoided." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. in diameter were drilled in the corners. to be filed out after they are placed together. about 2-1/2 lb. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. B. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. wrought iron. or "stator. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. while the beginnings . No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. 1. Unfortunately. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. The stator is wound full with No. as shown in Fig. with the dotted line. A. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. After assembling a second time.the field-magnet. no steel being obtainable. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. 2. bolts put in and tightened up. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. holes. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. and filled with rivets. as shown in Fig. 3.

To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. as shown in Fig. McKinney. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. E. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. Newark. In making slides by contact. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. If too late for alcohol to be of use. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. No starting resistance is needed. N. it would be very simple to build. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. J. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. The rotor is wound with No. and all wound in the same direction. if applied immediately. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. and the other by reduction in the camera. and would not easily get out of order. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. a regulating resistance is not needed. and as each layer of wire was wound. which will make it appear as shown in Fig.. as before stated. 2.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. The lantern slide is a glass plate. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. as a means of illustrating songs. This type of motor has drawbacks. The image should . Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. 3-Contributed by C. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. Jr. and especially of colored ones. 1. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. and as the motor runs at constant speed. having no commutator or brushes. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. One is by contact. film to film. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations.

place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. These can be purchased from any photo material store. as shown in Fig. also. 2. to use a plain fixing bath. as shown in Fig. if possible. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. 4. except that the binding is different. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. 3. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. B. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. Fig. Draw lines with a pencil. A. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. about a minute. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. a little extra work will be necessary.appear in. D. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. and then a plain glass. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. Being unbreakable. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . the formulas being found in each package of plates. If the exposure has been correct. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. It is best. 1. and development should be over in three or four minutes. over the mat. Select a room with one window. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. they are much used by travelers. 5. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. C. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig.

A piece of canvas. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. 1. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. long. holes bored in the end pieces. from the center of this dot draw a star. Fig. These longer pieces can be made square. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. Vt. as shown in Fig. as shown at A. or other stout cloth. long. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. wide and 50 in. If the star is in front of the left eye. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. as shown at B. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. 2. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. is to be used for the seat. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. in diameter and 20 in. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. from the ends. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. Corinth. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . Fig. while the dot will be in front of the other. from the end piece of the chair. in diameter and 40 in. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. 1. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. 16 in. long. known as rods and cones. Hastings.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes.

The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. A belt. in thickness and 10 in. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. . was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. A disk 1 in. per square inch. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. Cal. 1. 2. as well as to operate other household machines. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left.-Contributed by P. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. as shown in Fig. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. made from an ordinary sash cord. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. Auburn. O'Gara. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. as shown in Fig. J.

in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. direction. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. screwing it through the nut. Cut out a piece from the block combination. divided by the number of threads to the inch. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. will be the thickness of the object. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. A simple. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. long. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. leaving it shaped like a bench. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. it serves a very useful purpose. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. and the construction is complete. or inconvenient to measure. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. Put the bolt in the hole. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. then removing the object. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. square for a support. 3/4 in. . wide. to the top of the bench. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. fairly accurate. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. The part of a rotation of the bolt. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. with as fine a thread as possible. thick and 2-1/2 in. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. says the Scientific American. Bore a 1/4-in. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire.

long is used for the center pole. bolt in each hole. piece of wood 12 ft. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. which show up fine at night. The wheel should be open . Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. Oal. Santa Maria. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. beyond the end of the wood. globe that has been thrown away as useless. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. Bore a 3/4-in. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. long. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. material 12 ft. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. Place a 3/4-in.

which should be 1/4 in. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. square and 3 or 4 in. thick. thick. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. wide and 1/8 in. in diameter. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. from the top end.-Contributed by A. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. long. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. thick is used for the armature. A piece of brass 2 in. L. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. long. Graham. and on its lower end a socket. Tex. A cross bar. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. made of the same material. B. 1/2 in. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. is soldered. A. C. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. wide and 1/8 in. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. P. to be operated by the magnet coil. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. long. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. Fort Worth. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. The spool .Side and Top View or have spokes. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. at the bottom. H and J. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. from the ends. of the ends with boards. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. The coil. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. C. at the top and 4 in. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. pieces used for the spokes. and the lower part 61/2 in. long. O. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. The boards may be nailed or bolted.

and place it against a door or window casing. S. 1. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. At the bottom end of the frame. long. This tie can be used on grain sacks. B. that holds the lower carbon. 2. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. which may be had by using German silver wire. one without either rubber or metal end. D and E. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig.E. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. by soldering. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. Bradlev. C. is drilled. R.000. F. Randolph. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. and directly centering the holes H and J. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. The armature. Mass. for insulating the brass ferrule. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in.J. then with a firm. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. --Contributed by Arthur D. do it without any apparent effort. When you slide the pencil along the casing.--A. A soft piece of iron. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. S. 2 the hat hanging on it. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. and in numerous other like instances. or a water rheostat heretofore described.000 for irrigation work. This is a very neat trick if performed right. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. A. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25.is about 2-1/2 in. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. .

The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. A. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. The vibrator. in diameter and 1/16 in. 2. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. long. S. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. The switch. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. about 1/8 in. mixed with water to form a paste. B. About 70 turns of No. leaving the projections as shown. is connected to a flash lamp battery. about 1 in. for the primary. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. S. hole in the center. about 3/16 in. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. Experiment with Heat [134] . The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. for the secondary. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. Fig. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. in diameter and 2 in. The core of the coil. is constructed in the usual manner. D. The coil ends are made from cardboard. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. The vibrator B. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. 1. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. 1. F. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. thick. from the core and directly opposite. Fig. in diameter. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. where it can be pressed without attracting attention.500 turns of No. C. and then 1. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. long and 1 in. wide. may be made from a 3/8-in. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. so the coils of wire will hold them in place.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. with a 3/16-in. in diameter. for adjustment.

board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. which is only 3/8-in. The three screws were then put in the hasp. and then well clinched. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial.Place a small piece of paper. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. The knob on the dial extends out too far. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. was to be secured by only three brass screws. . board. The hasp. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. in an ordinary water glass. 1. brass plate. which is cut with two holes. long and when placed over the board. 1. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. as shown. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. The tin is 4 in. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. it laps down about 8 in. Fig. 2 to fit the two holes. with which to operate the dial. thick on the inside. wide. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. which seemed to be insufficient. between the boards. 16 in. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. The lock. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. as shown in the sketch. lighted. and the same distance inside of the new board. The water will rapidly rise in the glass.

any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. When the rear part is illuminated. black color. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. high for use in window displays. or in the larger size mentioned. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. When making of wood. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. clear glass as shown. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. the glass. square and 8-1/2 in. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. not shiny. and the back left dark. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. but when the front part is illuminated. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. square and 10-1/2 in. which completely divides the box into two parts. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. any article placed therein will be reflected in. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. one in each division. If the box is made large enough.

This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. . a tank 2 ft. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. as it appears. and with the proper illumination one is changed. alternately. When using as a window display. wide will be about the right size. above the top of the tank. as shown at A in the sketch. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. When there is no electric current available. into the other. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. long and 1 ft. as shown in the sketch. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects.. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

radius. bore from each end. long. A small platform. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. wide. and a solution of iron sulphate added. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. hole bored the full length through the center. using a 3/4-in. Columbus. lines gauged on each side of each. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. Three windows are provided. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. high. each. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. wide. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. however. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. This precipitate is then washed. hole. Iron sulphate. as shown. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. dried and mixed with linseed oil. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. then use a red-hot iron to finish. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. The pieces can then be taken out. gauge for depth. square. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. two pieces 1-1/8 in. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. one for each side. is the green vitriol.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. If a planing mill is near. Shape the under sides first. square and 40 in. 1 in. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. is built on the front. bit. under sides together. thick and 3 in. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. and boring two holes with a 1-in. but with a length of 12 in. with a length of 13 in. This hole must be continued . time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. 6 in. 2 ft. or ferrous sulphate. and a door in front. 5 ft. from the ground. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. The 13-in. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. long. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. O. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. and 6 ft. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side.

For art-glass the metal panels are . Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. When the filler has hardened. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. three or four may be attached as shown. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. If the parts are to be riveted. hole in each block. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. thick and 3 in. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. Saw the two blocks apart." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. square and drawing a diagonal on each. When this is dry. Directions will be found on the filler cans. The sketch shows one method of attaching. if shade is purchased. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. A better way. Electric globes--two. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. apply two coats of wax. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws.through the pieces forming the base.

such as copper. as brass. METAL SHADE .Construction of Shade . Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal. and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade.The Completed Lamp cut out.

Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. 2 the front view of this stand. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. and Fig. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. the other. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. one way and 1/2 in. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. as shown in the sketch. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. Figure 1 shows the side. The arms holding the glass. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. the object and the background. as in ordinary devices.

uncork and recork again. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. and swinging freely. Before mounting the ring on the base. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. wide and 11 in. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. in diameter for a base. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. Put the ring in place on the base. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. about 1-1/4 in. in diameter. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. An ordinary pocket compass. If the light becomes dim. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. Cut another circular piece 11 in.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. thick 5/8-in. pointing north and south. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. outside diameter. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. wide and 6-5/16 in. thus forming a 1/4-in. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. as shown in the sketch. channel in the circumference of the ring. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. as it is very poisonous. as shown in the cut. long. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. and an inside diameter of 9 in. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use.

to which a wire has been soldered for connections. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. The results given should be multiplied by 1.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. B. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through.088 . Place on top the so- .289 .500 . high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can.865 1. above the half can.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. 1 oz. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. are mounted on a base. and mirrors. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings.420 . Corresponding mirrors.182 .3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. AA. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere.600 . Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. in diameter and 8 in. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. from the second to the third. and north of the Ohio river. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. black oxide of copper. EE. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. CC. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders.715 . The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. of the top. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. into these cylinders. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes . Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second.

Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. alcohol. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. always remove the oil with a siphon. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. Colo. University Park. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. 31 gr. of pulverized campor. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. says Metal Worker. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. slender bottle. Put the solution in a long. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. 62 gr. When renewing. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. little crystals forming in the liquid. then they will not rust fast. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. In Fig. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. the wheel will revolve in one direction. which otherwise remains clear. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat.

A paper-fastener box. on the under side of the cork. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. will allow the magnet to point north and south. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. This is used in place of the spoon. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. about 1-1/4 in. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. --Contributed by C. If two of them are floating on the same solution. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. If zinc and carbon are used. Solder in the side of the box . the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. Attach to the wires. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. floating on a solution. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. If zinc and copper are used. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. Lloyd Enos.

1. A. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. hole. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. of No. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. Take a small piece of soft iron. brass tubing. 1-1/4 in. wide and 6 in. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. thick.1-in. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way.Contributed by J. D. or made with a little black paint. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. long. The bottom of the box. 10 wire about 10 in. A circular piece of cardboard. If the hose is not a tight fit. stained and varnished. of wire on each end extending from the coil.not shorter than 18 in. B. Bore holes for binding-posts. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. one on each side of the board.in. Thos. away. piece of 1/4-in. . H. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. C. To this standard solder the supporting wire. 1/2. C. Rhamstine. E. long that has about 1/4-in. and then solder on the cover. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. The spring should be about 1 in. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. A.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. C. wide and 2-1/2 in. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint.in. B. 3 in. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. 14 wire will do. is made from a piece of No. Use a board 1/2. and on the other around the glass tube. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. D. E. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. F. Wind evenly about 2 oz. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. can be made of oak. The base. D. The standard. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. glass tubing . Put ends. long. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . G--No. as shown in Fig. to it.

2. When the glass becomes soft. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. J. of mercury will be sufficient. about 1 in.--Contributed by Edward M. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. Y. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. 1. D. long. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. from the right hand. 3-in. in diameter. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. long. . two pieces 2 ft. long.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. of No. Smith. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. of 8-oz. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. E. Milwaukee. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. making a support as shown in Fig. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat.--Contributed by R. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. The iron plunger. 3. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. N. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. canvas. long. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft.of the coil. Teasdale. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. 5. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. Cuba. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. About 1-1/2 lb. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. Wis. is drawn nearer to the coil. as shown in Fig. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. 3 in. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. long. four hinges. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. long are used for the legs.

4. leaving 8 in. expelling all the air. Fig. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. 6. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. holding in the left hand. 5. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. 3. --Contributed by David A. Measure 8 in. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. Toronto. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. This tube as described will be 8 in. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. Break off the piece of glass. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. Take 1/2 in. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. thus leaving a. Keys. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury.. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . of vacuum at the top. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. small aperture in the long tube. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. 2. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. long. Can. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode.. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. The tube now must be filled completely. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction.

to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. Four blocks 1/4 in. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. A crosspiece 3/4-in. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. 6. as shown in Fig. in diameter. 2. The large pulley is about 14 in.6 -.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. and 1/4 in. long. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. and the single projection 3/4 in. 7. as shown in Fig. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. 3. thick. thick. This forms a slot. cut in the shape shown in Fig. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. joint be accurately put together. from the end of same. wide and 3 in. wide and 12 in. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. thick. 1 in. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. with each projection 3-in. as in Fig. wide and 5 ft. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. 1. wide and 5 ft. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. long. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. long. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. 1 in.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. material 2 in. 3 in. wide and 5 ft. These are bent and nailed. 3 in. 4 in. 5. long. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. 4. wood screws. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. 9 in. Fig. FIG. thick. thick. but yellow pine is the best.

iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. says Photography. Water 1 oz. Manhattan. first removing the crank. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. attach runners and use it on the ice. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. R. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. . --Contributed by C. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. by 1-in. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. above the runner level. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. Welsh. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. Kan. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake.

and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. also. Newton. Treasdale. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. Leominster. and very much cheaper. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. as shown in Fig. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. as shown in Fig. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. . --Contributed by Wallace C. This is done with a camel's hair brush. 2. Mass. Printing is carried rather far. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. --Contributed by Edward M.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. 1. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. The print is washed. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. 1 oz. from an ordinary clamp skate. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. 3. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. of water.

1-1/2 ft. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. and to the bottom. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. extending the width of the box. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. as shown in the sketch. with about 1/8-in. wide.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. about 10 in. hole. long. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. 1 ft. A. wide and 4 in. causing the door to swing back and up. Take two glass tubes. from one end. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. Fig. The thread is broken off at the . The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. --Contributed by H. and bend them as shown in the sketch. The swing door B. and 3 ft. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. Alexandria. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. Church. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. Va. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. high for rabbits. square piece. 2. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. fasten a 2-in. too. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. high. Place a 10-in. Then. which represents the back side of the door. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. 1. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. F. Fig. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. 1. say.

Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. and exactly 5 by 7 in. say 8 in. Fig. Jr. plates. Crilly. inside of the opening. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. long. This opening. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. shorter at each end.proper place to make a small hole. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. high and 12 in. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. A and B. Out two rectangular holes. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. being 1/8 in. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. 2. wide and 5 in. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. to be used as a driving pulley. 10 in. D. Fig. shorter. wide. wide.by 7-in. 1 in.. -Contributed by William M. horses and dogs. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. trolley cars. as shown in Fig. 3. 1. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. black surfaced if possible.by 5-in. long. Paste a piece of strong black paper. says Camera Craft. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. Cut an opening in the other piece. B. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. C. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. in size. in size. camera and wish to use some 4. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. automobiles. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. Take two pieces of pasteboard. but cut it 1/4 in. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. . Chicago. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. from the edge on each side of these openings. and go in the holder in the same way.

This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. if it has previously been magnetized. A cell of this kind can easily be made. into which the dog is harnessed. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. long and 6 in. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. The needle will then point north and south. in diameter. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. making a . of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent.. wide will be required.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water.in. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles.

The details of the construction are given in the diagram.in. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. plaster of paris. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. beeswax melted together. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. only the joints. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. 1 lb. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. for a connection. . supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. 1/4 lb. Pack the paste in. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. says Electrician and Mechanic. with narrow flanges. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. F is a spool. filter. Place the pan on the stove. pine. long which are copper plated. in diameter and 6 in. Form a 1/2-in. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. A is a block of l-in. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. and a notch between the base and the pan.watertight receptacle. one that will hold about 1 qt. Do not paint any surface. 3/4 lb. short time. This makes the wire smooth. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. when the paraffin is melted. under the spool in the paraffin. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. leaving about 1/2-in. of water. of rosin and 2 oz. in which P is the pan. File the rods to remove the copper plate. of the top. B is a base of 1 in. pull out the wire as needed. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. zinc oxide. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. sal ammoniac. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. fuel and packing purposes. of the plate at one end. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. fodder.

square and about 9 in. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. and then. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. 2. and he finally. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. or think they can do the same. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. Try it and see. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. long. but the thing would not move at all. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. for some it will turn one way. by the Hindoos in India. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. and therein is the trick. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. If any of your audience presume to dispute. and one friend tells me that they were . By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. from vexation. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make.. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. thus producing two different vibrations. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. as in the other movement. Ohio. while for others it will not revolve at all. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. for others the opposite way.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated." which created much merriment. let them try it. Enlarge the hole slightly. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. Toledo. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. At least it is amusing. grip the stick firmly in one hand. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. g.

gave the best results. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. 7. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. 4. 2. A square stick with notches on edge is best. Speeds between 700 and 1. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. rotation was obtained. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. To operate. Thus a circular or . It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and.100 r. m. p. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. If the pressure was upon an edge. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. 3. 6. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. and. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. 5. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. and I think the results may be of interest. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. secondly. by means of a center punch. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. no rotation resulted. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. the rotation may be obtained. The experiments were as follows: 1. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece.

The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). --Contributed by G. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. the upper portion is. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. a piece of wire and a candle. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. D. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. Ph. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. Sloan. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. so far as can be seen from the photographs. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. A wire is tied around the can. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. --Contributed by M. is driven violently away. unwetted by the liquid.. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. as shown.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch.D. Lloyd. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. at first. and the height of the fall about 6 in. forming a handle for carrying. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. it will be clockwise. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. . while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. Minn. A. C. G.. Washington. or greasy. if the pressure is from the left. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. and the resultant "basket splash. Duluth." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

flange and a 1/4-in. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. hole drilled in the center. axle. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. Each wheel is 1/4 in. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. 1. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. as shown in Fig. with a 1/16-in. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. long. thick and 1 in. in diameter. as shown. about 2-5/8 in. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles.

The other two pieces are 1/2-in. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. is made from a piece of clock spring. or main part of the frame. Fuller. These ends are fastened together. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . 6. put together complete. are shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. The first piece. as shown in Fig. 2. with cardboard 3 in. 1 from 1/4-in. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. and the locomotive is ready for running. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. which must be 110 volt alternating current. This will save buying a track. wood. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. is made from brass. San Antonio. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. long. 2. The parts. A trolley. bent as shown. each in its proper place. Fig. 3/4 in. Texas. Fig. bottom side up. holes 1 in. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. --Contributed by Maurice E. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig.brass. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. of No. 3. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. If the ends are to be soldered. lamp in series with the coil. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. 5. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated.50. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. 4. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. The current. wide and 16 in. The motor is now bolted. 3.

The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. The quarter will not go all the way down. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. and holes drilled in them. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. O. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. When cold treat the other end in the same way. Fig. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. Cincinnati. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. then continue to tighten much more. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. Fig 1. 1. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. 2. as shown in Fig. the length of a paper clip. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. as shown in Fig. and as this end . pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. but do not heat the center. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. 3.

2 and 1 respectively. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. In the sketch. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. and adjusted . or should the lathe head be raised. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. When the cutter A. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. When the trick is to be performed. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. A pair of centers are fitted. has finished a cut for a tooth. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. or apparent security of the knot. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief.

note book. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. The frame holding the mandrel. and a nut pick. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. --Contributed by Samuel C. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. dividing it into as many parts as desired. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. about 1-1/2 in. (1. twisted around itself and soldered. blotter back. holding it in place with the left hand. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. --Contributed by Howard S. Bunker. lady's card case.) Place the paper design on the leather and. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn.) Make on paper the design wanted. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. if four parts are to be alike. coin purse. gentleman's card case or bill book. 2. trace the outline. Fold over along these center lines. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. Brooklyn. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. watch fob ready for fastenings. tea cosey. (6. swing lathe. such as brass or marble. at the same time striking light. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . (5. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. 1. tea cosey. In this manner gears 3 in. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. if but two parts. draw center lines across the required space. or one-half of the design. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. When connecting to batteries. Bott. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. (3. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. above the surface.to run true. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. Y. (4. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. lady's belt bag. long. Second row: -Two book marks. Fig. An ordinary machine will do. (2. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. N. book mark.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper.

How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. and an ordinary bottle. Secure . some heavy rubber hose.

Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. into which fit a small piece of tube. Thrust a pin.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. where it condenses. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle.C. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. A. and bore a hole through the center. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. The electrodes are made . The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. Florida. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. B.. from Key West. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. C. D. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. a distance of 900 miles. If the needle is not horizontal. and push it through a cork. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle.

which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. 2. wide and 4 ft. Connect as shown in the illustration. as shown in Fig. thick. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. wide and 4 ft long. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. 1/2. slacken speed and settle. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. thick. D. 3/4 in. Powell. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. several strips 1/2 in. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. as shown in Fig. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. both laterally and longitudinally. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. 1. 12 uprights 1/2 in. 3. wide and 4 ft. by 3/4 in. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. lengths and splice them. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. 1. and also to keep it steady in its flight. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. C. long. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. Four long beams 3/4 in. thick. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. 1-1/4 in. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. thick. long. use 10-ft. 1. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. If 20-ft. beyond the rear edges of the main frames.in. wide and 3 ft.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. lumber cannot be procured. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. 1-1/2 in. All wiring is done with No. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. square and 8 ft long. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. Washington. 2 in. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. 2 arm sticks 1 in. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. as shown in Fig. using a high resistance receiver. 2. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. The operator can then land safely and . wide and 3 ft. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. long. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. take the glider to the top of a hill. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. thick. long. --Contributed by Edwin L. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. free from knots. long. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. which is tacked to the front edge. apart and extend 1 ft. wide and 20 ft. 16 piano wire. long for the body of the operator. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. To make a glide. or flying-machine.

Of course. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. and the balancing is done by moving the legs.gently on his feet. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. but this must be found by experience. Glides are always made against the wind. Great care should be .

Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. 1. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. M. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. Olson.exercised in making landings. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. 2. Bellingham. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by L. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. half man and half horse. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. When heated a little. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. a creature of Greek mythology. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. which causes the dip in the line.

in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. about the size of stove pipe wire. long and about 3/8 in. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. will complete the material list. long. about the size of door screen wire. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. a piece of brass or steel wire. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. The light from the . Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. making it 2-1/2 in. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. this will cost about 15 cents. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. 14 in. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. square. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. While at the drug store get 3 ft. at the other. in diameter. outside the box. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. of small rubber tubing. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in.

Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. O. This is very simple when you know how. Dayton. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. while others will fail time after time. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. as shown in Fig. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. as shown in Fig. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. --Photo by M. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. Hunting. If done properly the card will flyaway. . The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. 2. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. M. 1. as shown in the sketch. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end.

When the desired shape has been obtained. This game is played by five persons. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. If a certain color is to be more prominent. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project." or the Chinese students' favorite game. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. hold the lump over the flame. as described. closing both hands quickly. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. Cool in water and dry. as before. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. place the other two. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. then put it on the hatpin head. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. as shown. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand.

Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. distribute electric charges . passing through neutralizing brushes.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. these sectors. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. or more in width. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass.

RR. long. and the outer end 11/2 in. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. C C. 3. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. after they are mounted. 1. in diameter and 15 in. 3. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. The plates are trued up. brass tubing and the discharging rods. Fig. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. The two pieces. as shown in Fig. free from wrinkles. The plates. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. 1-1/2 in. The collectors are made. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. EE. and 4 in. material 7 in. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. at the other. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. in diameter. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. D. are made from solid. wide. Fig. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. as shown in Fig. in diameter. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. and this should be done before cutting the circle. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. Two pieces of 1-in. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. to which insulating handles . are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. are made from 7/8-in. and of a uniform thickness. and pins inserted and soldered. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. long and the standards 3 in. turned wood pieces. in diameter. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. The drive wheels. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. 1 in.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. from about 1/4-in. or teeth. Two solid glass rods. long. The fork part is 6 in. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. 2. in diameter. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. GG. 4. 3/4 in. wide at one end. in diameter. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. the side pieces being 24 in. long and the shank 4 in. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. These pins. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. in diameter. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle.

Colorado City. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. in diameter. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. --Contributed by C. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete.are attached. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . and the work was done by themselves. D. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. ball and the other one 3/4 in. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. long. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. Colo. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. Lloyd Enos.. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. which are bent as shown. 12 ft. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. KK. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. wide and 22 ft. one having a 2-in. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines.

string together. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house.is a good one. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. They can be used to keep pins and needles. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. yet such a thing can be done. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. bit. using a 1-in. and bore a hole 1/2 in. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. The key will drop from the string. as at A. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. pens . deep. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft.

draw on paper an oblong to represent it. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. file. stamp the background promiscuously. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. very rapid progress can be made. etc. inside the second on all. etc. Use . This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. 2. Inside this oblong. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. unless it would be the metal shears. 23 gauge. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. Having determined the size of the tray. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. then the other side. 8. above the metal. Draw one-half the design free hand. flat and round-nosed pliers. sharp division between background and design. or cigar ashes.and pencils. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. about 3/4-in. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house.. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. they make attractive little pieces to have about. 4. 6. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. extra metal on each of the four sides. 7. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. They are easily made. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. 3. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. above the work and striking it with the hammer. This is to make a clean. Raise the ends. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. two spikes. 9. The second oblong was 3/4 in. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. Proceed as follows: 1. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. and the third one 1/4 in. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. When the stamping is completed.. using a nail filed to chisel edge. 5. slim screw. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. inside the first on all. also trace the decorative design.

"8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . 8. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. The eyes. second fingers. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. first fingers. third fingers. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. 7. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. and the effect will be most pleasing. 9. In the first numbering. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. 10. and fourth fingers. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. 6. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72.

first fingers. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. 25 times 25. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. 11. renumber your fingers. which tens are added. above 20 times 20. but being simple it saves time and trouble. Let us multiply 12 by 12. or numbers above 10. which would be 16. or the product of 6 times 6. Put your thumbs together. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. etc. Still. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. as high as you want to go. . Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties... or the product of 8 times 9. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method.. At a glance you see four tens or 40. etc. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. the product of 12 times 12. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. 600. etc. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. 400. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. if we wish. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. 2 times 2 equals 4. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. above 15 times 15 it is 200. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. Two times one are two. thumbs. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. 12. viz. and the six lower fingers as six tens. or 80. In the second numbering. there are no fingers above. which would be 70. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. or 60. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired.

thumbs. 7. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. The inversion and reversion did not take place. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. Proceed as in the second lumbering. or from above or from below. twenties. and so on. when he removes his spectacles. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. about a vertical axis. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. the value of the upper fingers being 20. at the will of the observer. further. 8. not rotation. the inversion takes place against his will. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. beginning the thumbs with 16. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. For figures ending in 6. the lump sum to add. any two figures between 45 and 55. etc. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. which is the half-way point between the two fives. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. whether the one described in second or third numbering.. adding 400 instead of 100. 75 and 85. lastly. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. 2. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. however. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. first finger 17. . If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. forties. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. and. the revolution seems to reverse. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. as one might suppose. 21.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. being 80). It takes place also. For example. thirties. And the lump sum to add. first fingers 22. the value which the upper fingers have. 3. in the case of a nearsighted person. Take For example 18 times 18. or what.

holding it firmly in a horizontal position. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. The ports were not easy to make. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. as . when he knows which direction is right. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. tee. Looking at it in semidarkness. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. A flat slide valve was used. sometimes the point towards him. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. and putting a cork on the point. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. the other appearance asserts itself.

beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. -Contributed by W. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. Ill. Kutscher. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. across and 1/2 in. pipe. apart. While this engine does not give much power. and make in one end a hollow. The steam chest is round. Fasten the block solidly.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. . and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. saw off a section of a broom handle. it is easily built. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. as in a vise. across the head. if continued too long without proper treatment. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. Beating copper tends to harden it and. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. pipe 10 in. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. inexpensive. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. If nothing better is at hand. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. H. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. deep. secure a piece of No. bottom side up. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. about 2 in. The eccentric is constructed of washers. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. The tools are simple and can be made easily. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. such as is shown in the illustration. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. Next take a block of wood. Springfield. in diameter.. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form.

wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. the other to the left. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. To produce color effects on copper. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. This process is called annealing. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. C. O. especially when the object is near to the observer.will cause the metal to break. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. To overcome this hardness. as it softens the metal. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. --Contributed by W. and. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. S. Vinegar. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . Camden. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. Hay.

it. So with the stereograph. disappears fully. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. they must be a very trifle apart. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. orange. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. from the stereograph. the left eye sees through a blue screen. But they seem black. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms.stereoscope. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. however. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. the further from the card will the composite image appear. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. the one for the left eye being blue. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. as for instance red and green. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. In order to make them appear before the card. and lies to the right on the picture. It is just as though they were not there. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. only the orange rays may pass through. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. The further apart the pictures are. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. that for the right. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. . would serve the same purpose. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. while both eyes together see a white background. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. with the stereograph. and without any picture. The red portions of the picture are not seen. because of the rays coming from them. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. in the proper choice of colors. diameter. because. not two mounted side by side. although they pass through the screen. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works.

Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. or the middle of the bottle. wireless. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. etc. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. A No. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. in the shape of a crank. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. wide and 1 in. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. 12 gauge wire.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. San Francisco. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. 1/4 in. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. This should only be bored about half way through the block. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. Place a NO. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. in diameter. long and a hole drilled in each end. The weight of the air in round . one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. Cal. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. thick. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire.

high. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. long. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. high. 30 in. if accurately constructed. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. internal diameter and about 34 in. In general.numbers is 15 lb. a bottle 1 in. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. the contrary. long. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. if you choose. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. the instrument. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in.6) 1 in. a glass tube 1/8 in. Before fastening the scale. or a column of mercury (density 13. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. square. but before attempting to put in the mercury. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. and a slow fall. pine 3 in. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. square. The 4 in. But if a standard barometer is not available. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. high. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather.. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. thick. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. inside diameter and 2 in. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. 34 ft. wide and 4 in. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. will calibrate itself. . The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. long. Only redistilled mercury should be used. wide and 40 in. or. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in.

wide and 10 in.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. thick. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . 5. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. and place them as shown in Fig. 6 and 7. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. Number the pieces 1. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. Procure a metal can cover. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. 3. which is slipped quickly over the end. long. the size of the outside of the bottle. 1. 2. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. Mark out seven 1-in. a cover from a baking powder can will do.

3. shaped like Fig. using checkers for men. 7's place.J. l over No.Position of the Men move only one at a time. Move 15-Move No. 6. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. Move 3-Move No. long and 2 ft. Move 9-Jump No. 2 over No. Move 13-Move No. Move 5-Jump No. Move 8-Jump No. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. 5. 3 into No. Cape May Point. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. Move 10-Move No. 3 to the center. 2's place. 5's place. To make such a tent. which is the very best material for the purpose. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. 5 over No. Woolson. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. Move 2-Jump No. 2 over No. 6 to No. Move 12-Jump No. 2. 6 over No. 7. Move 6-Move No. L. 5 over No. 6 into No. 6. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. 3. 2's place. N. 3. Move 4-Jump No. 5's place. Make 22 sections. Move 7-Jump No.-Contributed by W. 6 in. each 10 ft. This can be done on a checker board. Move ll-Jump No. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. 2. 1. Move 14-Jump No. in diameter. 1 to No. 1. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. 7 over No. 7 over No. as shown in Fig. procure unbleached tent duck. 1 into No. 2 . 3 over No.

long and 4 in. Nail a thin sheet of brass. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in.in. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. in diameter. 6-in. fill with canvas edging. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. In raising the tent. long. diameter. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. Fig. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. --Contributed by G. wide at the bottom. to a smooth board of soft wood. from the top. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. Fig. will do. 2. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. As shown in the sketch. After transferring the design to the brass. 9 by 12 in. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. Pa. 6. leaving the rest for an opening. Use blocks. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas.J. 3 in. made in two sections. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. 5. wide by 12 in. Emsworth. high. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. as in Fig. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. added. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. Tress. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. Have the tent pole 3 in. 5) stuck in the ground. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. These are ventilators. about 9 in. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. round galvanized iron. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. wide at the bottom. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. 2 in. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in.. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. Punch holes in the brass in .

The pattern is traced as before. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. cut out the brass on the outside lines. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. around the outside of the pattern. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. bend into shape. Corr. apart. excepting the 1/4-in. When all the holes are punched. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. .the spaces around the outlined figures. When the edges are brought together by bending. but before punching the holes. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. It will not. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. Chicago. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped.

If a wheel is selected. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. Oregon. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. A 6-in. A cast-iron ring. --Contributed by Geo. Stevens. Dunham. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post.however. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. partially filled with cream. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. allowing 2 ft. Mayger.. --Contributed by H. or less. pipe. or. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. These pipes are . Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. Badger. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. E. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. or center on which the frame swings. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. better still. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. between which is placed the fruit jar. Que. G. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. pipe is used for the hub. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank.

pipe. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. pipe clamps. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. An extra wheel 18 in. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. Four braces made from 1/2-in. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. bent to the desired circle. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee.

This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. as shown in Fig. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. 3. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. and the guide withdrawn. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. 1. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. while doing this. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. which was placed in an upright position. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. The performer. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. and dropped on the table. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand.

Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. F. and second. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. -Contributed by C. Colo. D. first. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. Louis. 1. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. St. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. Mo. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. Harkins. 2. Denver.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. White. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. The box can be made of selected oak or . --Contributed by H. in a half circle. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. it requires no expensive condensing lens. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. in diameter on another piece of tin.

fit into the runners. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. high and 11 in. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. focal length. If a camera lens is used. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. AA. long. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. The door covering this hole in the back. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. long. represented by the dotted line in Fig. but not tight. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. as shown in Fig. high and must . and 2 in. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. This will be 3/4 in. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. wide and 5 in. 3-1/2 in. 2. from each end of the outside of the box. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. wide and 6-1/2 in. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. An open space 4 in. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. 1. 5-1/2 in. wide by 5 in. from each end. long and should be placed vertically. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. Two or three holes about 1 in. and. wide.mahogany.

then the second knuckle will be March. This process is rather a difficult one. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. April. June and November. C. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. as it requires an airtight case. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. calling that knuckle January. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown.. West Toledo. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. the article may be propped up . 1.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. Bradley. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. and extending the whole height of the lantern. provided it is airtight. calling this February. --Contributed by Chas. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. and so on. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached." etc. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. Ohio. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece.

The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. one of lead and one of aluminum. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. N. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. 1 and 2. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box.with small sticks. or suspended by a string. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. in. and the lead 24 sq. H. giving it an occasional stir. the lid or cover closed. running small motors and lighting small lamps. In each place two electrodes. The top of a table will do. taking care to have all the edges closed. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. 1. fruit jars are required. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. Schenectady. Pour in a little turpentine. and set aside for half a day. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. . This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. In both Fig. in. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. but waxed. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. --Contributed by J. Y. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. 2. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. Crawford.

Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. After a few seconds' time. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. he throws the other. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. and take the handkerchief and unfold it.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. as you have held it all the time. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. You have an understanding with some one in the company. as well as others. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. Cleveland. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. He.. which you warm with your hands. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . This trick is very simple. you remove the glass. O.

wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. but in making one. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. on a table. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. . it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. put it under the glass.take the handiest one. Pull the ends quickly. near a partition or curtain. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. Be sure that this is the right one. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. if any snags are encountered. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. but by being careful at shores. Colo. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. Crocker. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe.-Contributed by E. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. J. in diameter in the center. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. Victor. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely.

for the bow. 8 yd. 3 in. by 8 in. 4 outwales. as illustrated in the engraving. by 12 in. by 16 ft. for the stern piece. 2 and braced with an iron band. long. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. and is removed after the ribs are in place. long. by 15 ft. 2 in. wide. Paint. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. apart. wide 12-oz. and. from the bow and the large one. and the other 12 in. 1/8 in. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. long. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. are as follows: 1 keelson. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. from the stern. 1/4 in.. and fastened with screws. by 16 ft. clear pine. ducking. 2 gunwales. by 2 in. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. 1 piece. at the ends. wide and 12 ft. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . is 14 ft. 1 in. of 1-yd. for cockpit frame.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. 3 in. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. 50 ft. 1 in. drilled and fastened with screws. thick and 3/4 in. 8 in. wide and 12 ft. 11 yd.. of 1-1/2-yd. by 10 ft. long. 1. screws and cleats. 14 rib bands. 1 mast. for center deck braces. square by 16 ft. 9 ft. 3 and 4. Both ends are mortised. the smaller is placed 3 ft. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. 1 piece. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. The keelson. 7 ft. 1 in. wide unbleached muslin. from each end to 1 in. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. by 2 in. 1 in. selected pine. Fig. one 6 in. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. of rope.

The block is fastened to the keelson. Figs. 6. wide and 14 in. gunwales and keelson. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. in diameter through the block. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. 1/4 in. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. 1 in. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. 5. length of canvas is cut in the center. They are 1 in. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. long. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. thick and 1/2 in. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. Fig. A block of pine. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. This block. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. thick. 1 in. thick and 12 in. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. also. thick. 7 and 8. . wide and 3 ft. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. wood screws. Before making the deck. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. A 6-in. Fig. wide. 6 and 7. apart. Braces. 9. screws. and fastened to them with bolts. The deck is not so hard to do. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. The 11-yd. wide and 24 in. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. long. A piece of oak. doubled. The trimming is wood. A seam should be made along the center piece. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. thick 1-1/2 in. is cut to fit under the top boards. long is well soaked in water. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. a piece 1/4 in. wide. 4 in. from the bow. is a cube having sides 6 in. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. corner braces. 3-1/2 ft. These are put in 6 in. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. 6 in. long. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in.

--Contributed by O. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. wide at one end and 12 in. The keel. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. Tronnes. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. Fig. are used for the boom and gaff. long. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. 12. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. Ill. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. each 1 in. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. The house will accommodate 20 families. thick by 2 in. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. The sail is a triangle. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. apart in the muslin. . Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. 10 with a movable handle. in diameter and 10 ft. 11. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. E. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. at the other. A strip 1 in. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. wide. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. is 6 in. long. Wilmette. The mast has two side and one front stay. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin.

One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. one 11-1/2 in. Wilmette. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. long and five 1/2-in. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. wide and 2 ft. as shown in Fig. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. thick. long. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. 1. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. E. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. flat headed screws. 2-1/2 in. Take this and fold it over .Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. flat on one side. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. --Contributed by O. flat-headed screws. 4. Tronnes. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. long. 1 yd. with the ends and the other side rounding. five 1/2-in. thick.into two 14-in. Ill. Fig. and 3 ft. 2 in. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. Bevel both sides of the pieces. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. 2-1/2 in. about 5/16 in. 5. wide. long. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. 2. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. 3. Cut the maple. wide and 30 in. wide. and the other 18 in. square. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. thick.

fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. F. Fig. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. long. forming an eye for a screw. long. long. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. 1-1/4 in. wide . After the glue. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. thick. Louis. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. but can be governed by circumstances. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. D. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. long. 1. leaving a small opening at one corner. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. If carefully and neatly made. E.once. wide and 5 in. long. C. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. Figs. The bag is then turned inside out. about 3/8 in. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. 3 in. Another piece. Cut another piece of board. 3/8 in. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. square. of each end unwound for connections. Mo. pieces 2-5/8 in. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. long. wide and 6-3/4 in. Make a double stitch all around the edge. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. then centered. 3-1/4 in. B. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. are rounded. this square box is well sandpapered. wide and 6-1/2 in. 2 and 3. square. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. A. long. Wind three layers of about No. A. and take care that the pieces are all square. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. thick and 3 in. C. When the glue is set. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. is set. wide and 2-1/2 in. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. Glue a three cornered piece. wide and 3 ft. the top and bottom. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. 5 from 1/16-in. wide and 4-1/2 in. The front. and the four outside edges. the mechanical parts can be put together. soaked with water and blown up. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. 6-1/2 in. --Contributed by W. thick. The sides are 3-1/4 in. as well as the edges around the opening. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. Bliss. wide and 2-3/4 in. and make a turn in each end of the wires. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. St. long. About 1/2 in.

L. and as the part Fig. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. 4. W. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. When the current flows through the coil. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. so it will just clear the tin. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. Fig. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. board. 1/4 in. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. thick. from the spindle. A pointer 12 in. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. showing a greater defection of the pointer. wide and 9 in. long. Another strip of tin. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. These wires should be about 1 in. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. The base is a board 5 in. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. that has the end turned with a shoulder. and fasten in place. wide and 2-1/2 in. in diameter. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B.R. Austwick Hall. and the farther apart they will be forced. hole is fastened to the pointer. from one end. 5. long. 5-1/2 in. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. C. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown.S. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. 4. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. 4 is not movable. the same size as the first. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. Chapman. I. Yorkshire. Like poles repel each other. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. bored in the back. the part carrying the pointer moves away.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. --Contributed by George Heimroth. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in.and 2-5/8 in. The stronger the current.A. Place the tin. G. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. Richmond Hill. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. Fig. R. The end of the polar axis B. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. long. 1/16 in. F. The resistance is now adjusted to show .

A. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. thus: 9 hr. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. The following formula will show how this may be found. 10 min. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. shows mean siderial. 1881. and vice . Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. 10 min. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. at 9 hr. 30 min. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. M. say Venus at the date of observation.

and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. or. Hall. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. get a glazed vessel of similar construction.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery.f. owing to the low internal resistance.m. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. and then verify its correctness by measurement. if one of these cannot be had. . Conn. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. New Haven. --Contributed by Robert W. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch.

Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. fresh grass. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. When the follower is screwed down. as shown in the accompanying picture. put the fish among the ashes. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. inside diameter and about 5 in. long. and heap the glowing coals on top. Fig. especially for cooking fish. 3/8 in. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. 1-3/4 in. thick. 1. Wet paper will answer. arsenic to every 20 lb.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. leaves or bark. of alum and 4 oz. cover up with the same. The boring bar. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. Then. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine.

Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. when they were turned in. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . pipe. about 1/2 in. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. fastened with a pin. thick. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. and threaded on both ends. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. pipe. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in.

thick and 3 in.valve stems. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. long. The rough frame. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. square iron. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. but never one which required so little material. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. Iowa. was then finished on an emery wheel. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. Clermont. If the valve keeps dripping. bent in the shape of a U. a jump spark would be much better. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. It . The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. A 1-in. wide. Fig. This plate also supports the rocker arms. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. 3. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. and which gave such satisfactory results. Fig. 2. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. 30 in. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. 4. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. as the one illustrated herewith. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. the float is too high. 5. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. labor and time. Fig. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. then it should be ground to a fit. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. however.

rope is not too heavy. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. 12 ft. being held in position by spikes as shown. A 3/4 -in. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. in diameter and 15 in. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. long is the pivot. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. for the "motive power" to grasp. no matter what your age or size may be. --Contributed by C. in fact. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. Nieman. timber. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. It looks like a toy. from the center. completes the merry-go-round. If it is to be used for adults. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. set 3 ft. so it must be strong enough. long. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. square and 5 ft." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. The crosspiece is 2 in. strong clear material only should be employed. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. 3/4 in. butting against short stakes. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. from all over the neighborhood. W. square. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. and a little junk. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. extending above. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. As there is no bracing. hole bored in the post. in the ground with 8 ft. square and 2 ft. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. strengthened by a piece 4 in. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. Use a heavy washer at the head. The seats are regular swing boards. with no trees or buildings in the way. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. long. long. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . supported by a stout and serviceable rope. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. and. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus." little and big.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. A malleable iron bolt. The illustration largely explains itself. This makes an easy adjustment. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet.

1/4 by 3/32 in. The bow is now bent. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. A reel is next made. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. To wind the string upon the reel. These ends are placed about 14 in. 1.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. then it is securely fastened. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. The backbone is flat. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. light and strong. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. 2. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. and 18 in. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. one for the backbone and one for the bow. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread.the fingers. square. away. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. long. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. a wreck. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. Both have large reels full of . If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. if nothing better is at hand.2 emery. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. as shown in Fig. 4. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. Having placed the backbone in position. and sent to earth. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching.

If the second kite is close enough. C. Bunker.-Contributed by S.string. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. The handle end is held down with a staple. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. Newburyport. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. Y. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. the balance. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. First. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. Mass. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. --Contributed' by Harry S. or glass-covered string. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. common packing thread. he pays out a large amount of string. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. Moody. N. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . Brooklyn. often several hundred yards of it.

Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. --Contributed by Earl R. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. Corinth. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. length of 2-in. Hastings. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. must be attached to a 3-ft. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. such as mill men use. square (Fig. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. cutting the circular piece into quarters. Vt. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. each the size of half the table top. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. lengths (Fig. then a dust protector. make the pad as shown in the illustration. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. then draw the string up tight. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. If the table is round.

hard pencil. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. 6-1/4 in. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad.. which spoils the leather effect. . Calif. Wharton. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag.-Contributed by H. 17-1/2 in. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. 2-1/4 in. and E to G.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. from E to F. from C to D. Use a smooth... but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. G to H. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. 16-1/4 in. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. Moisten the .9-1/4 in. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. trace the design carefully on the leather. Oakland. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. E. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B.

Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. apart. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. place both together and with a leather punch. and lace through the holes. Cut it the same size as the bag. if not more than 1 in. wide. with the rounded sides of the tools. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. about 1/8 in. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. H-B. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. is taken off at a time. get something with which to make a lining.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. and E-G. and corresponding lines on the other side. Now cut narrow thongs. G-J. Trace the openings for the handles. also lines A-G. I made this motor . To complete the bag. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire.

The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. long. Calif. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. as shown in Fig. B. in length.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. Pasadena. 1. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. each being a half circle. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger.M. of No. 1. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. Shannon. . 2. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. 2-1/4 in. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. D. 24 gauge magnet wire. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. --Contributed by J. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. iron.

pasted in alternately. The gores for a 6-ft. balloon should be about 8 ft. high. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. from the bottom end. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. are the best kind to make. near the center.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. 1. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. and the gores cut from these. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the .

Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. After washing. As the boat is driven forward by this force. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. somewhat larger in size. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. The steam. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. In starting the balloon on its flight. --Contributed by R. These are to hold the wick ball. lap on the edges. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. saturating it thoroughly. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . 5. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. If the gores have been put together right. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. Staunton. E. in diameter. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. The boat soon attains considerable speed. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. so it will hang as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. 4. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. Fig. A.widest point. In removing grease from wood. as shown in Fig. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. B. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. 3. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. using about 1/2-in. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. 2. 1. leaving the solution on over night. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. after which the paint will adhere permanently. leaving a long wake behind. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. coming through the small pipe A.

then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. In using either of the two methods described. 1. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. high and 8 in. if you have several copies of the photograph. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. as is shown in Fig. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . Second. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. There are three ways of doing this: First. wide by 6 in. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. in bowling form. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. Third. The blocks are about 6 in. apart on these lines. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. long. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. long and each provided with a handle. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw.

the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. N. --Contributed by John A. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. Albany. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. not pointed down at the road at an angle. being careful not to dent the metal. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. Fig. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in.Fig. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. Rinse the plate in cold water. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. Hellwig. 2. Y. thick.

S. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. Break off the frame. These corner irons are also screwed to. A circular piece of wood. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. and Fig. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. 1 Fig. Paine. CC. are screwed to the circular piece. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. Corner irons. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. A. --Contributed by R. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. which is 4 in. Va. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. is fastened to a common camera tripod. 5 in. with a set screw. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. in diameter.upon any particular object. and not produce the right sound. With this device. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. thick. long for the base. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. A. wide and of any desired height. In Fig. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. Richmond. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . wide and 8 in. B. and. 6 in. 2 the front view. through which passes the set screw S.

using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. I made a wheel 26 in. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. S. Ill. pine boards. This horn. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire.-Contributed by John Sidelmier.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. thus producing sound waves. as only the can is visible. in diameter of some 1-in. D. Kidder. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. R. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. Lake Preston. La Salle. -1. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. This will make a very compact electric horn. . and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained.

Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. Doylestown. B. 1. 1. --Contributed by James R. the same thickness as the coins. --Contributed by C. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. Kane. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. Feet may be added to the base if desired. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . Purdy. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. If the collection consists of only a few coins. thick and 12 in. Fig. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. Ghent. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. A. square. O. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. The frame is made of a heavy card. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. 2.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. If there is a large collection of coins.

One Cloud. for after the slides have been shown a few times. Noble. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. several large nails. thick. into which to place the screws . When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper.J. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. Toronto. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. The material required is a sheet of No. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax.E. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. A rivet punch is desirable. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. plus a 3/8-in. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. they become uninteresting. --Contributed by R. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. It will hold 4 oz. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. and then glued together as indicated. though not absolutely necessary. Milwaukee. --Contributed by August T. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. --Contributed by J. Smith. border all around. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. If desired. A lead pencil. a hammer or mallet. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. Cal. melted and applied with a brush. Neyer. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. Wis. of developer. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. Canada. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. cut and grooved.

rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. never upon the metal directly. using 1/2-in. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. like the one shown. Take the nail. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. and file it to a chisel edge. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. Remove the screws. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. draw one part. both outline and decoration. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. There are several ways of working up the design. screws placed about 1 in. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom.

The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. long. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. for the lower rails.wall. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. for the top. Rivet the band to the holder. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. 1. being ball bearing. using a 1/2in. in the other. of 11-in. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. 3. Provide four lengths for the legs. l-1/8 in. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. About 1/2 yd. square and 181/2 in. long. square. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. 2. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. two lengths. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. long. . up from the lower end. The pedal. as shown in Fig. square and 11 in. each 1 in. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. 3/4 in. and two lengths. Do not bend it over or flatten it. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness.

--Contributed by John Shahan. Ala. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . Attalla. New York City.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. Quackenbush. --Contributed by W. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. F. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. having quite a length of threads. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt.

buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. Purchase a 1/2-in. wide and 4-1/4 in. stitched on both edges for appearance. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. making a lap of about 1 in. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. from the end. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. Two pieces of felt. Ironwood. in depth. something that is carbonated. long.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . and the other 2-3/4 in. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. --Contributed by C. Assemble as shown in the sketch. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. one about 1 in. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. and 3/8 in. wide and 8-1/4 in. from one end. college or lodge colors. D. Luther. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. using class. long.. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. each 1-1/4 in. the end of the other piece is folded over. Mich. initial. The desired emblem. and two holes in the other. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. long.

then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. Ind. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. A piece of lead. in diameter and 2 in. if desired by the operator. as shown at B. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. and the cork will be driven out. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. 1. Indianapolis. in the cover and the bottom. 2. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. Punch two holes A.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. about 2 in. as shown in the sketch. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. which can be procured from a plumber. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . This method allows a wide range of designs. or more in height. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. Fig. Schatz. from the center and opposite each other. or a pasteboard box. 1/4 in. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. --Contributed by John H.

putting in the design. Fig. 5. as shown in Fig. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. The pieces of tin between the holes A. or marble will serve. 3. 1. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. . Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. on both top and bottom. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. allowing the two ends to be free. Columbus. and the ends of the bands looped over them. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper.Rolling Can Toy lead. 4. metal. are turned up as in Fig. O. it winds up the rubber band. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. A piece of thick glass. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. When the can is rolled away from you. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return.

and. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. long and bored a 1/2-in. New York City. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. After this has been done. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. wide and 20 in. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. from each end. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. I secured a board 3/4 in. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. A pencil may be used the first time over. or more thick on each side. thicker than the pinion. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. deep in its face. If it is desired to "line" the inside. hole through it. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. mark over the design.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. The edges should be about 1/8 in. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. Next place the leather on the glass. 1 in. 3 in. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. thick. face up.

Rice. 1 piece for clamp. M. Fig. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. in diameter. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . --Contributed by A. 3 by 3 by 6 in. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. and fit it in place for the side vise. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time.in the board into the bench top. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. New York. 1 piece for clamp. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. Y. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. 2 by 12 by 77 in. 1 piece. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. 1 top board. Brooklyn. thick top board. Cut the 2-in. 2 crosspieces. countersinking the heads of the vise end. 2 end rails. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. 2 by 2 by 18 in. N. pieces for the vise slides. 1 by 12 by 77 in. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. 1 by 9 by 80 in. 3 by 3 by 20 in. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. 1. 2. Make the lower frame first. much of the hard labor will be saved. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. 1 screw block. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. 4 guides. Syracuse. Now fit up the two clamps. lag screws as shown. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. 2 side rails. 1 back board. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. 3 by 3 by 36. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. 1 top board. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig.

The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. it can be easily found when wanted. 1 nail set. 24 in. 2 screwdrivers. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. 24 in. 3 and 6 in. 1 2-ft.. The bench is now complete. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. as well as the pattern maker. 1 compass saw. rule. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise.screws. The amateur workman. . 1 rip saw. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. They can be purchased at a hardware store. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. 1 set gimlets. 1 pair dividers. 1 monkey wrench. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. Only the long run. 1 claw hammer. If each tool is kept in a certain place. 1 pocket level.. in diameter. 1 bench plane or jointer. 1 wood scraper. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. 1 brace and set of bits. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools.. 1 marking gauge. 1 jack plane or smoother. 1 countersink. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. 1 cross cut saw. 1 set chisels. 1 pair pliers.

will be easier to work. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. 1. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. Fig.1. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. 1. Pa. Fig. The calf skin. the projecting point A. No. will sink into the handle as shown at D.1 6-in. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. becomes like A. being softer. Fig. 3. 2 and 00 sandpaper. Doylestown. 2. Kane. Fig. 1 oilstone. ---Contributed by James M. try square. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. but will not make . after constant use.

water or heat will not affect. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. If calf skin is to be used. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. will do just as well. secure a piece of modeling calf. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. The form can be made of a stick of wood. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. the same method of treatment is used. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. -Contributed by Julia A. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. and the length 6-5/8 in. such as copper or brass. lay the design on the face. First draw the design on paper. Having prepared the two sides. After the outlines are traced. cover it completely with water enamel and. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. Two pieces will be required of this size. but a V-shaped nut pick. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. If cow hide is preferred. when dry. New York City.as rigid a case as the cow skin. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. . which steam. White. Turn the leather. then prepare the leather.

Cobb. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. Portland. --Contributed by Chas. Herrman. Cal. as shown in the sketch. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. Jaquythe. and an adjustable friction-held loop.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. Maine. C. --Contributed by W. Richmond. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. --Contributed by Chester L. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. New York City. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. . A. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B.

the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. . Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. Conn. Mass. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. was marked out as shown. --Contributed by Wm.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. Middletown. A thick piece of tin. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. --Contributed by Geo. B. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. This was very difficult. Roberts. an inverted stewpan. for instance.. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. Wright. Cambridge. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base.

Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. which has been tried out several times with success. but not running over. but only an odor which soon vanished. Chicago. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. If any traces of the grease are left. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. Ind. apply powdered calcined magnesia. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. There was no quicklime to be had. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. . Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. so some bones were quickly calcined. When dry. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. --Contributed by C. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. of boiling water. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. A beautifully bound book. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. If the article is highly polished. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. Indianapolis. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. F. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. Bone. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. L. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. on a clear piece of glass. such as chair seats. Illinois. The next morning there was no trace of oil. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg.. well calcined and powdered. Herbert. and the grease will disappear. pulverized and applied. as shown. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. used as part of furniture. --Contributed by Paul Keller. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. face down. and quite new.

Tarrytown. 6 in. A. --Contributed by Geo. says Scientific American. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. This coaster is simple and easy to make. It is constructed of a good quality of pine.. soft steel with the opening 6 in. Howe. thick. New York. long. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. set and thumbscrews. high and are bolted to a block of wood. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. the pieces . The pieces marked S are single. 2 in. deep and 5 in. If properly adjusted. wide and 12 in. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel.. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in.

Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. they will look remarkably uniform. albums and the like. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. If the letters are all cut the same height. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. no doubt. E. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. Their size depends on the plate used. A sharp knife. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. says Camera Craft. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. The seat is a board. for sending to friends. to the underside of which is a block. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming.

If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. using care to get it in the right position. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. after. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. So made. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. mount them on short pieces of corks. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. So arranged. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. for example. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. and. photographing them down to the desired size. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. The puzzle is to get . pasting the prints on some thin card. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. In cutting out an 0.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year.

then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. G.-Contributed by I. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. with the longest end outside. N. A hole 6 or 7 in. He smells the bait. hung on pivots. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. Bayley. of its top. Cape May Point. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. squeezes along past the center of the tube.J. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. says the American Thresherman. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. long that will just fit are set in. so they will lie horizontal. Old-Time Magic . snow or anything to hide it.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand .

Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. --Contributed by L. Y. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. --Contributed by Charles Graham. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. or rub the hands a little before doing so. E. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. Brooklyn. --Contributed by L. Szerlip. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. Idaho. Press the hands together. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. then spread the string.faced up. then expose again. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. Pocatello. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. N. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. Pawtucket. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. Rhode Island. Parker. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] .

or designs in this article are from authentic sources. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. in building up his work from the illustrations. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. using a straightedge and a pencil. says the English Mechanic. When the glue is thoroughly dry. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. full size. wipe the blade . narrower. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel.. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. 1 Fig. or a complete suit of armor. and if carefully made. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. The pieces. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip.Genuine antique swords and armor. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. long. The blade should be about 27 in. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. in width. 1. near the point end. The handle is next made. thick. end of the blade. they will look very much like the genuine article. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. whether he requires a single sword only. When the whole is quite dry. 3 Fig. 4 on the blade. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. 2 Fig. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. or green oil paint. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side.. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. wide and 2 in. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. dark red. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. Glue the other side of the blade. if any.

. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. in diameter. 4. In making. 1. as it is . for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. shows only two sides. 2. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. the other is flat or half-round. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. 3. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. 1. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. Fig. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. long. 1. about 1-1/2 in. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. 2. 1.. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. thick and 5 in.with light strokes up and down several times. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. of course. should be about 9 in. not for use only in cases of tableaux. The length of the handle. In the finished piece. follow the directions as for Fig. 3. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. preferably of contrasting colors. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. and 3 in. Both edges of the blade are sharp. square and of any length desired. the other is flat or halfround. This sword is about 68 in. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. the other two are identical. in the widest part at the lower end. In making this scimitar. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. take two pieces of wood. allowing for a good hold with both hands. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. 1/8 in. the length of the blade 28 in. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. the illustration. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig.

long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. piping and jackets by hard water. and. Morse. 2 in. however. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. Mass. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. as there was some at hand. square. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. and if so. or an insecure fastening. N. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. Franklin. On each edge of the board. It is made of a plank. in an attempt to remove it. A piece of mild steel. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. at the lower end. about 3/8 in. Doctors probed for the button without success. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. Y. The thinness of the plank. Syracuse. as can the pitch bed or block. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. each about 1 ft. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. Both can be made easily. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. as shown in the sketch. long.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. --Contributed by Katharine D. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. A cold . Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. --Contributed by John Blake.

on the pitch. using a small metal saw. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. To put it in another way. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. plaster of Paris.. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design.. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. Trim up the edges and file them . See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. When this has been done. When the desired form has been obtained. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. a file to reduce the ends to shape. 18 gauge. 5 lb. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. To remedy this. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. secure a piece of brass of about No. tallow. 5 lb. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. design down.

in one second. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. 3. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. space between the vessels with water. A. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing.000 ft. to keep it from floating. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. but not to stop it. per second. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. 2). Fig. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. in diameter (Fig. in diameter (Fig. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. Clean the metal thoroughly. That is lifting 33. make an unusual show window attraction. using powdered pumice with lye. in one minute or 550 lb. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel.000 lb. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. lb.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. . Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. or 550 ft. --Contributed by Harold H. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. it may be well to know what horsepower means. Before giving the description. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. living together in what seems like one receptacle. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. in the center. Fill the 3-in. per minute. and still revolve. or fraction of a horsepower. Cutter. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. This in turn divided by 33.smooth. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. 30 ft. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. 1) and the other 12 in. and hang a bird swing. one 18 in. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. 1 ft. The smaller is placed within the larger. over the smaller vessel. lb. 1 ft.

Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. Somerville. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. The effect is surprising. Szerlip. --Contributed. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. Mass. Brooklyn. --Contributed by J.18 in. by L. 1 Fig. Diameter Fig. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. Y. or on a pedestal. F. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . Diameter 12 in.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. Campbell.3 Fig. 2 Fig. N.

The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. often render it useless after a few months service. is. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. keeping the center high. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. Rivet the cup to the base. and then. unsatisfactory. which may be of wood or tin. which. using any of the common metal polishes. to keep the metal from tarnishing. with other defects. away from the edge. then by drawing a straightedge over it. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. the same as removing writing from a slate. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. Do not be content merely to bend them over. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. This compound is impervious to water. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. In riveting.copper of No. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. and cut out the shape with the shears. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. and the clay . with the pliers. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. as a rule. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. Polish both of these pieces. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. after which it is ready for use.

The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. --Contributed by John T. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. Northville. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. . Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. long.can be pressed back and leveled. Dunlop. It is made of a glass tube. -Contributed by Thos. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. Mich. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. Scotland. 2. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. as shown in Fig. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. The siphon is made of glass tubes. in diameter and 5 in. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. DeLoof. Grand Rapids. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. 3/4 in. the device will work for an indefinite time. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. 1. A. --Contributed by A. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. Shettleston. Mich. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. Houghton.

stilettos and battle-axes. long with the crossguard and blade of steel. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. This sword is 4 ft. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles.FIG. London. As the handle is to . will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. put up as ornaments. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. in width and 2 in. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. long. 1.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords.1 FIG. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig.

very broad. A German poniard is shown in Fig. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. The sword shown in Fig. small rope and round-headed nails. in width. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. When dry. 6. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. sharp edges on both sides. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. narrower. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. string. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. 4. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. sometimes called cuirass breakers. long with a dark handle of wood. A German stiletto. 5. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. with both edges sharp. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball.represent copper. This axe is made similar to the one . A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. The crossbar and blade are steel. 7. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. Both handle and axe are of steel. 20 spike. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. The ball is made as described in Fig. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. wood with a keyhole saw. The lower half of the handle is of wood. the same as used on the end of the handle. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. When the glue is thoroughly dry. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. in length. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. 9. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. 8. When the whole is quite dry. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. This sword is about 4 ft. This stiletto has a wood handle. 3 is shown a claymore. These must be cut from pieces of wood. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. The handle is of wood. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. is shown in Fig. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. then glued on the blade as shown. the axe is of steel. In Fig. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. in length. 11 were used. long. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. In Fig. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. with both edges of the blade sharp. studded with brass or steel nails. the upper part iron or steel. This weapon is also about 1 ft. This weapon is about 1 ft. Three large. Cut two strips of tinfoil. with wire or string' bound handle. which is about 2-1/2 ft. glue and put it in place. firmly glued on. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. one about 1/2 in. In Fig. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. paint it a dark brown or black.

such as braided fishline. 10. . will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. 2. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. the ends are tied and cut off. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. high. This will make a very good flexible belt. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. W. --Contributed by E. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. When wrapped all the way around. together as shown in Fig. Davis. so the contents cannot be seen.described in Fig.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. Old-Time Magic . Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. will pull where other belts slip. Chicago.

These wires are put in the jar. 2. Macdonald. in a few seconds' time. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. There will be no change in color. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. with the circle centrally located. about one-third the way down from the top. To make the flowers grow in an instant. four glass tumblers. some of the liquid. 1 and put together as in Fig. held in the right hand. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. N. causing the flowers to grow. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. --Contributed by A. or using small wedges of wood. Before the performance. an acid. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. Bridgeton. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. The dotted lines in Fig. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years.J. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. Calif. As zinc is much lighter than iron. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . Oakland. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. filled with water. S. apparently. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork.

can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. When many slides are to be masked. 4 for width and No. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. Jaquythe. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . practical and costs nothing. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. Richmond. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. not only because of the fact just mentioned. and kept ready for use at any time. 2 for height. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. and equally worthy of individual treatment. A. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. --Contributed by W. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. This outlines the desired opening. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. If the size wanted is No. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. which are numbered for convenience in working. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. Cal. unless some special device is used. says a correspondent of Photo Era. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture.

Draw a design. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. not the water into the acid. too. about half and half. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. This done. and do not inhale the fumes. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. 16 gauge. possibly. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. or a pair of old tongs. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. and the extreme length 7 in. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. With a stick. which is dangerous. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. but they can be easily revived. a little less acid than water. or. The decoration. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. When etched to the desired depth. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. the margin and the entire back of the metal. The one shown is merely suggestive. using the carbon paper. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. Secure a sheet of No. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. may be changed. paint the design. the paper is folded along the center line. is about right for the No.

attached to a post at each end. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. The connections are simple: I. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. J is another wire attached in the same way. repeat as many times as is necessary. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. long and 1 ft. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. Then get two posts. It may be either nailed or screwed down. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. wide and of the same length as the table. 3. 5. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. 1. 3/8 in. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. so that when it is pressed down. Paint the table any color desired. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. Fig. Fig. as in Fig. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. A. Cut out a piece of tin. with the wires underneath. as shown in the illustration. 5. high. 2. . 2. in diameter and 1/4 in. 24 parts water. or more wide. 4. as at H. it will touch post F. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. about 3 ft. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. C and D. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. to the table. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. and bore two holes. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. and about 2-1/2 ft. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. as shown in Fig. Fig. 0 indicates the batteries. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. When the button S is pressed. Nail a board. thick. about 8 in. long. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. wide. about 1 in. Fig. Fig. 2. about 2-1/2 in.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. the bell will ring. through it. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table.

These rings can be carved out. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. A wood peg about 2 in.. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. handle and all.Imitation Arms and Armor . The entire weapon. The imitation articles are made of wood. The circle is marked out with a compass. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. long serves as the dowel. long. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. thick. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. After the glue is dry. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. the wood peg inserted in one of them. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. 2. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. 1. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. but they are somewhat difficult to make. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. such as . Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. This weapon is about 22 in. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. says the English Mechanic.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. is to appear as steel. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together.

All of these axes are about the same length. the hammer and spike. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. The axe is shown in steel. 8. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. long. also. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. The handle is of wood. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. The entire handle should be made of one piece. flowers. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. as before mentioned. If such a tool is not at hand. The spikes are cut out of wood. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. as shown. leaves. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. The handle is of steel imitation. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. with a sharp carving tool. The lower half of the handle is wood. is shown in Fig. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. used at the end of the fifteenth century.ornamental scrolls. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. 3. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. 5. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. 2. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. . as described in Fig. This weapon is about 22 in. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. studded with large brass or steel nails. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. covered with red velvet. 6. The upper half of the handle is steel. etc. Its length is about 3 ft. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. or the amateur cannot use it well.

then the other plays. 7) calls for one out. Fig. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. a three-base hit. 5. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. as in Fig. 1. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. Each person plays until three outs have been made. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. as shown in Fig. . The knife falling on its side (Fig. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. and so on for nine innings. 3. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. the knife resting on its back.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. Chicago. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. 6. calls for a home run. 2. 4).

Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. 3. Somerville. as shown in Fig. 2. F. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup.-Contributed by J. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. as shown in Fig.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. Mass. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. It may be found that the negative is not colored. hypo to 1 pt. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. 1. This he does. If it is spotted at all. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. Campbell. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. Old-Time Magic . of the rope and holds it. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. while the committee is tying him up. with the rope laced in the cloth.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. one of them burning . of water for an hour or two.

the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. Ky. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. thick. Thome. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down.. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. shades the light for a few seconds. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. 4 oz. of sugar.brightly. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. The magician walks over to the burning candle. Drill Gauge screw. of turpentine. B. New York City. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. . Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. 3/4 in. Brown. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. the other without a light. of plumbago. 4 oz. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. Louisville. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. Evans. --Contributed by C. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. He then walks over to the other candle. bolt. invisible to them (the audience). He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. --Contributed by L. showing that there is nothing between them. Lebanon. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. Ky. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper.Contributed by Andrew G. with which he is going to light the other candle. thus causing it to light. and. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. of water and 1 oz. etc.

diameter. Denniston. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. H. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. which will give a strong. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . Two liquids are necessary for the cell. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. Y. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. about 5 in. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. or blotting paper. Its current strength is about one volt. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. In making up the solution. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. but is not so good. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. Pulteney. long with an internal diameter of 2 in.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. N. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. into a tube of several thicknesses. 5 in. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. Do not add water to the acid. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. for the material. thick. To make the porous cell. --Contributed by C. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. long. steady current. add the acid to the water with constant stirring.

It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. while the other end is attached by two screws. one drawing them together. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. steel. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. steel. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. To insure this. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument.) may be obtained. After much experimentation with bearings. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. carrying the hour circle at one end. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. As to thickness. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. One hole was bored as well as possible. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. but somewhat lighter. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. The .station. the other holding them apart. long with a bearing at each end. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. Finally. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. steel. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. a positive adjustment was provided. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other.

The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. Cassiopiae. is provided with this adjustment. If the result is more than 24 hours. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. Each shaft. apart. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars.. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. Set the declination circle to its reading. once carefully made. when the pointer should again cut at the same place.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. Point it approximately to the north star. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. turn the pointer to the star. All these adjustments. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. To find a star in the heavens. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. When properly set it will describe a great circle. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. It is. in each direction from two points 180 deg. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. Instead. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. need not be changed. All set screws. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. and 15 min. The pole is 1 deg. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. The pointer is directed to Alpha. excepting those on the declination axis. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. The aperture should be 1/4 in. subtract 24. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture." Only a rough setting is necessary. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. and if it is not again directed to the same point. save the one in the pipe. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. are tightened. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg.. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. Declination is read directly. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up." When this is done. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. 45 min. To locate a known star on the map. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension.

If this will be too transparent. is folded several times. Strosnider. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. 3 or 4 in. Plain City.. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. Ohio. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. then add 1 2-3 dr. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The ball is found to be the genuine article. In reality the first ball. -Contributed by Ray E. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. La. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. is the real cannon ball.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. New Orleans. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. which is the one examined. of ether. taking care not to add too much. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. benzole. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. The dance will begin. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. long. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. as shown in the sketch. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. add a little more benzole. the others . cannon balls. a great effect will be produced.

Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. taps. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. Mass. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. Milwaukee.. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. Cal. Wis. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . as shown in the illustration. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. San Francisco. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. 1). Somerville. Fig. F. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. small brooches. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. Return the card to the pack. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. 2. Campbell. --Contributed by J. etc. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. without taking up any great amount of space. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. In boxes having a sliding cover. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration.

prints. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. slides and extra brushes. from the bottom of the box. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. round pieces 2-1/4 in. Hartford. Connecticut. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. thus giving ample store room for colors. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. . This box has done good service. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. Beller. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. as shown in the illustration.

Darke. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. tacking the gauze well at the corners. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. West Lynn. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. costing 5 cents. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. When the ends are turned under. will answer the purpose. 1). The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. 2). or placed against a wall. FIG. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. with well packed horse manure. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. about threefourths full.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. Fill the upper tub. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. . This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. Mass. holes in the bottom of one. -Contributed by C. O. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water.

they should be knocked out. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. --Contributed by L. when they are raised from the pan. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. Eifel. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. if this is not available. If the following directions are carried out. oil or other fluid. Chicago. If plugs are found in any of the holes. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. M. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. and each bundle contains . often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. cutting the cane between the holes.

The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. In addition to the cane. as it must be removed again. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. held there by inserting another plug. No plugs . after having been pulled tight. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. as shown in Fig. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. 1. put about 3 or 4 in. it should be held by a plug. then across and down. and. a square pointed wedge. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind.

Their difference is . 1 lat. and the one we shall describe in this article. From table No. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. 4. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. using the same holes as for the first layer. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. 5. W. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through.2+. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. the next smallest. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. This will make three layers. for 2°. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. When cool. 42° is 4. the height of the line BC. Detroit. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third.15 in. There are several different designs of sundials. in this case) times the .42 in. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. is the horizontal dial. the height of which is taken from table No. 41 °-30'. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used.3 in. It consists of a flat circular table. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. If handled with a little care. as shown in Fig. trim off the surplus rosin. as for example. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. 40°. 3. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. Even with this lubrication. and for 1° it would be . 5 in. as shown in Fig. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. The style or gnomon. as the height of the line BC for lat. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. called the gnomon. After completing the second layer. 1. --Contributed by M. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or .2 in. No weaving has been done up to this time. D. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. 41°-30'.5 in. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. Fig. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. it is 4. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. lat. During the weaving.075 in. and for lat. 1.= 4. 1. Patrick.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. All added to the lesser or 40°. or the style. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. -Contributed by E. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. but the most common. Fig. is the base (5 in.15+. as it always equals the latitude of the place. Michigan. R. stretch the third one. If you have a table of natural functions. 3. we have 4.075 in.

85 1.03 3.49 30 .89 50° 5. and perpendicular to the base or style.99 2.55 4.00 40° 4.33 42° 4. an inch or two.37 5.64 4 8 3. A line EF drawn through the points A and C.20 60° 8. circle Sundial.32 6. Fig.59 2.55 46° 5. Table NO.94 1. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points.39 .82 3.42 .66 latitude. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in.87 1.66 1.18 28° 2.40 1.49 3.46 3.38 .26 4.06 2.55 5. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed.23 6. according to the size of the dial. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown. 2.83 27° 2.30 1. using the points A and C as centers.85 35 .16 40 .07 4.16 1. 1.37 54° 6.14 5.57 1.42 45 .91 58° 8.56 .93 6.27 2. 2. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 .40 34° 3.11 3.87 4.68 5-30 6-30 5.tangent of the degree of latitude.63 56° 7.77 2.02 1. To layout the hour circle.44 44° 4.79 4. Draw two semi-circles.50 26° 2. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style. Its thickness. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial.42 1.82 2. Draw the line AD. long. Chords in inches for a 10 in. and for this size dial (10 in.41 38° 3. For latitudes not given. 2 for given latitudes.76 1. and intersecting the semicircles.33 . or if of stone.66 48° 5.19 1.82 5. or more.88 36° 3.46 . and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No.57 3.28 .12 52° 6.97 5 7 4. . Height of stile in inches for a 5in.96 32° 3.81 4.30 2. with a radius of 5 in. base. gives the 6 o'clock points. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight. draw two parallel lines AB and CD.93 2. which will represent the base in length and thickness. if of metal. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks.55 30° 2.29 4-30 7-30 3.10 6.

68 3. London.60 4. 25.71 2. each article can be labelled with the name. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time.06 2.means that the dial is faster than the sun.52 Table No. 3 Corrections in minutes to change. and the . This correction can be added to the values in table No. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face.79 6. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position.98 4.50 . --Contributed by J. and for the difference between standard and local time.89 3. then the watch is slower. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco. An ordinary compass.63 1.add those marked + subtract those Marked .77 3.37 2.21 2. Sioux City.53 1. it will be faster.10 4. will enable one to set the dial. June 15. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker.87 6. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west. if west. 900 Chicago. 3. 3.93 6. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No. says the English Mechanic.46 4. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon.from Sundial lime. April 16. Sept.19 2.30 2. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the . after allowing for the declination. As they are the genuine reproductions. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid.72 5. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York.46 5.49 5. Mitchell.12 5.14 1. 2 and Dec.08 1.54 60 . Each weapon is cut from wood. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached. Iowa.57 1..49 3.82 3. Sun time to local mean time. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds.24 5.34 5.50 55 . and on these dates the dial needs no correction. E. The + means that the clock is faster.01 1. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15. adding to each piece interest and value.

The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. 1. When putting on the tinfoil.. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. the length of which is about 5 ft. 3. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. . long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. Partisan. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in.

with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. A gisarm or glaive. The spear is steel. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. 6 ft. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. The extreme length is 9 ft. 7. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. which are a part of the axe. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. press it well into the carved depressions. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. in diameter. This weapon is about 6 ft. the holes being about 1/4 in. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. long. used about the seventeenth century. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown.which is square. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. 8. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. The length of this bar is about 5 in. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. about 4 in. long. . The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century.. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. The edges are sharp. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. long with a round staff or handle. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. It is about 6 ft. 5. long with a round wooden handle. sharp on the outer edges. is shown in Fig. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color.

1. 4. In Figs. Loudonville. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. 5. Ohio.-Contributed by R. The twisted cross cords should . This is important to secure neatness. the most durable being bamboo. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. apart. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. are put in place. B. Workman. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. are less durable and will quickly show wear. used for spacing and binding the whole together. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. or in holes punched in a leather strap. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. the cross cords. H. Substances such as straw. They can be made of various materials. Cut all the cords the same length. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. as shown in Fig. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead.

The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. below the top to within 1/4 in. M. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. 3 in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . Four V-shaped notches were cut. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. Lockport. New York. Harrer. for a length extending from a point 2 in. -Contributed by Geo. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. as shown at B. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. wide.be of such material. To remedy this. of the bottom. in which was placed a piece of glass. bamboo or rolled paper. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. The first design shown is for using bamboo. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. A slit was cut in the bottom. This was turned over the top of the other can. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. New Orleans. La. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. shaped as shown at C. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned.

two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall.tape from sticking to the carpet. wide. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. Cal. --Contributed by Joseph H. Newburgh. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. Maywood. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. giving the appearance of hammered brass. about 1/16 in. Sanford. --Contributed by W. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. turned over but not fastened. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. Ill. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. is shown in the accompanying sketch. Shay. and two along the side for attaching the staff. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. Y. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . Schaffner. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. the brass is loosened from the block. do not throw away the gloves. After this is finished. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. H. This plank. --Contributed by Chas. Pasadena. This should be done gradually. It would be well to polish the brass at first. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. N. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled.

Jaquythe. Oak Park. bent as shown. the pendulum swings . Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. Marshall. Ill. in diameter. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. A. --E. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. -Contributed by W. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. Unlike most clocks.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. K. Richmond. Cal.

Fasten another board. 3/4 in. . 7-1/2 in. The construction is very simple. In using this method. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. high. says the Scientific American. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. and the result is not only novel but well worth while.. high. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. C. and the other two 2-5/8 in. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. by 1-5/16 in. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. wide that is perfectly flat. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. Metzech. in diameter. only have the opposite side up. 6 in. --Contributed by V. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. 5/16 in. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. about 6 in. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. such as this one. long and at each side of this. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. B. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. Two uprights. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. high and 1/4 in. away. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. are secured in the base bar. Now place the board to be joined. about 12 in. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. bearing on the latter. wide. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. Chicago. to the first one with screws or glue. is an electromagnet. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. Secure a board. the center one being 2-3/4 in. on the board B. thick. high. A. bar.

long. 4. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. or more. wide and 5 in. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. 1. Vanderslice. --Contributed by Elmer A. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. plates should be made 8 in. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. The trigger. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. 2. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. square inside. Fig. 3. Fig. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. is fastened in the hole A. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. Phoenixville. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. as shown at A. 1. from one end. by driving a pin through the wood. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. 1. square. Pa. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. wide and 1 in. . whose dimensions are given in Fig.

which allows 1/4 in. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. rubbing varnish and turpentine. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. 2 parts of whiting. as shown in the illustration. Fostoria. by weight. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. one-half the length of the side pieces. Simonis.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. 5 parts of black filler. square. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. -Contributed by J. Ohio. 3 parts of stiff keg lead.A. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. if only two bands are put in the . The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in.

If the wire fits the lamp loosely.lower strings. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. is necessary. and the picture can be drawn as described. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. keeps the strong light out when sketching. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. A mirror. Michigan. Shaw. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. A piece of metal. wide and about 1 ft. Grand Rapids. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. London. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. and it may be made as a model or full sized. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. is set at an angle of 45 deg. A double convex lens. II. deep. In constructing helmets. in the opposite end of the box. Dartmouth. place tracing paper on its surface. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. It must be kept moist and well . DeLoof. says the English Mechanic. Mass. preferably copper. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. which may be either of ground or plain glass. 8 in. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. --Contributed by Thos. G. In use. No. If a plain glass is used. 1. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. -Contributed by Abner B. long. as shown in Fig.

will be necessary. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. and continue until the clay is completely covered. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. with a keyhole saw. All being ready. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. a few clay-modeling tools. joined closely together. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. 1. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . and over the crest on top. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. 1. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. as in bas-relief. take. The clay. shown in Fig. the clay model oiled. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. Scraps of thin. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. and the deft use of the fingers. After the clay model is finished. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. This being done. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. 3.kneaded. and left over night to soak. or some thin glue. as shown in Fig. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. 2. on which to place the clay. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. brown. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks.

peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up.as possible. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. a crest on top. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. as seen in the other part of the sketch. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. the skullcap. When perfectly dry. which should be no difficult matter. Indiana. and so on. 7. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. 9. square in shape. The band is decorated with brass studs. Indianapolis. When dry. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. 5. In Fig. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. one for each side. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. --Contributed by Paul Keller. owing to the clay being oiled. or. The center of the ear guards are perforated. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. 1. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. When the helmet is off the model. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . a few lines running down. They are all covered with tinfoil. with the exception of the vizor. as shown: in the design. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. and the ear guards in two pieces. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. should be modeled and made in one piece. Before taking it off the model. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. In Fig. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. The whole helmet. will make it look neat. the piecing could not be detected. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. then another coating of glue. This contrivance should be made of wood.

This will make an open space between the plates. about 1/4 in. thick. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. German-silver wire is better. for connections. 4. as shown in Fig. 1. Fig. 12 in. 4. of fire clay. E and F. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . AA. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. A round collar of galvanized iron. 2. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. The reverse side of the base. and. as it stands a higher temperature. one fuse block. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. screws. GG. Fig. and C. 4 lb. with slits cut for the wires. The mineral wool. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. high. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. Fig. above the collar. 1. Fig. AA. Fig. and two large 3in. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. if this cannot be obtained. until it is within 1 in. as shown in Fig. when they are placed in opposite positions. 1. Fig. about 80 ft.same size. is then packed down inside the collar. one oblong piece of wood. 4. 22 gauge resistance wire. 4. JJ. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. is shown in Fig. thick sheet asbestos. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. The plate. two ordinary binding posts. The two holes. Fig. long. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. 1 in. 2. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. 1. also the switch B and the fuse block C. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. Fig. the holes leading to the switch. each 4-1/2 in. 4. as shown in Fig. wide and 15 in. 1. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. one glass tube. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. long. Fig. are allowed to project about 1 in. if the measurements are correct. 3. 4. or. If a neat appearance is desired. the fuse block. should extend about 1/4 in. of the top. Fig. 3 in. in diameter and 9 in. 2. one small switch. Fig. AA. 1. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. long. to receive screws for holding it to the base. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. which can be bought from a local druggist. Fig. The holes B and C are about 3 in. Fig. about 1 lb. This will allow the plate. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. of No. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. 4. of mineral wool. FF. If asbestos is used.

It should not be left heated in this condition. The clay. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. it leaves a gate for the metal. It should not be set on end. This point marks the proper length to cut it. --Contributed by W. 4. Fig. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. H. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. A file can be used to remove any rough places. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. Jaquythe. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. steam will form when the current is applied. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. more wire should be added. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. Cut a 1/2-in. When the tile is in place. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. Cnonyn. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. KK. Catherines. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. II. Can. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. when heated. causing a short circuit. and pressed into it. --Contributed by R. While the clay is damp. using care not to get it too wet. as the turns of the wires. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. Cover over about 1 in. St. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. Next. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. so that the circuit will not become broken. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. deep. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. allowing a space between each turn. Richmond. A. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. Cal. above the rim. apart. If this is the case. will slip and come in contact with each other. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. When this is done. This completes the stove. when cool. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. If it is not thoroughly dry. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. As these connections cannot be soldered. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. then. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. Fig. 2.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it.

Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. and the frame set near a window.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. Louisville. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. Then clip a little off the . says the Photographic Times. and the prints will dry rapidly. the air can enter from both top and bottom. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. Thorne. --Contributed by Andrew G. Ky." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. is large enough. constructed of 3/4-in. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. as shown. but 12 by 24 in. the pie will be damaged. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. square material in any size.

long. 1 and 3. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. causing a break in the current. 1/2 in. As the shaft revolves. long. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. 22 gauge magnet wire. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. An offset is bent in the center. thick and 3 in. high. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. which gives the shaft a half turn. A 1/8-in. long. Fig. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. slip on two cardboard washers. open out. thick and 3 in. which are fastened to the base. thereby saving time and washing. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. in diameter and about 4 in. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. -Contributed by S. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. wide and 3 in. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. W. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. high. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. 1. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. in diameter. The driving arm D. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. Herron. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. high. for the crank. wide and 7 in. wide. 2-1/2 in. The connecting rod E. Le Mars. 4 in. allowing each end to project for connections. 1. 14 in. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. at GG. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. long. 1. Fig. 2. each 1 in. Figs. Iowa. as shown. 3. each 1/2 in.Paper Funnel point. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. thick. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. Fig. 1/2 in. Two supports. The board can be raised to place . The upright B. The connections are made as shown in Fig. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. 1. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B.

Place the pot. Stecher. Mass. One or more pots may be used. bottom side up. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. as shown in the sketch. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. on a board. 3 in. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. Dorchester. In designing the roost. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. .the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. --Contributed by William F. making a framework suitable for a roost. in height. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect.

A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. 1. will produce the pattern desired. that it is heated. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. shelves. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. when combined. without any corresponding benefit. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. if it is other than straight lines. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. The materials required are rope or. F. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. Wind the . The bottom part of the sketch. odd corners. windows. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. adopt the method described.. paraffin and paint or varnish. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. F. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. as shown in Fig. 1. etc. in diameter. grills and gratings for doors. Fig. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. ordinary glue. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. preferably. and give it time to dry..

These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. Lockport. cut and glue them together. -Contributed by Geo. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . Harrer. M. six designs are shown. N. Y. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. Fig. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. 2.Fig.

but no farther. says the English Mechanic. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. London. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. chips of iron rust. This piece of horse armor. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. which was used in front of a horse's head. when it will be observed that any organic matter. As the . will be retained by the cotton.. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. etc.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it.. and the sides do not cover the jaws. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made.. 1. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. etc.

2. and will require less clay. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. then another coat of glue. and therefore it is not described. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. The armor is now removed from the model. as the surface will hold the clay. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. An arrangement is shown in Fig. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. the rougher the better. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. a weak solution of glue will do equally well.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. 2. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. as shown in the sketch. 6 and 7. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. except the thumb and fingers. but for . with the exception of the thumb shield. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. but the back is not necessary. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. In Fig. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. which can be made in any size. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. which is separate. This being done. 8. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. 4. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. the same as in Fig. This can be made in one piece. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. and the clay model oiled. All being ready. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. This triangularshaped support. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. This will make the model light and easy to move around.

Y. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. Goshen. N. and the instrument is ready for use. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. 2. cut into the shape shown in Fig. in depth. --Contributed by Ralph L. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. are better shown in Fig. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. --Contributed by John G. two for the jaws and one a wedge. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. each about 1/4 in. the foils will not move. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. . the top of the rod. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. If it does not hold a charge. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. are glued to it. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. Fasten a polished brass ball to. The two pieces of foil. Calif. two in each jaw. 1/2 in. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. La Rue. will be about right. the two pieces of foil will draw together. Buxton. fastened to the rod. wide and 1/2 in. Redondo Beach. but 3-1/2 in. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. 9. A piece of board. long. running down the plate. When locating the place for the screw eyes.

At a point 6 in. enameled or otherwise decorated. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. Corsicana. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. is made of a 1/4-in. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. hole bored through it. as shown in the illustration. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. When a fish is hooked. 2-1/2 in. as indicated in the . Bryan. silvered. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. --Contributed by Mrs. from the smaller end. as this will cut under the water without splashing. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. pine board. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. Texas. about 15 in. The can may be bronzed. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. A. long. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. M.

such as basswood or pine was used. Basswood or butternut. wide by 6 in. 22 is plenty heavy enough. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. using a piece of carbon paper." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. take a piece of thin wood. will do as well as the more expensive woods. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. as shown. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. Polish the metal. Having completed the drawing. punch the holes. then with a nail. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. A good size is 5 in. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. thick. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways.Match Holder accompanying sketch. or even pine. put a coat or two of wax and polish . If soft wood. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. using powdered pumice and lye. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. Next prepare the metal holder. Any kind of wood will do. long over all. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. and trace upon it the design and outline. 3/8 or 1/4 in. When it has dried over night.

. Instead of the usual two short ropes. It is useful for photographers. long.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. of pure olive oil. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. 2 in. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. If carving is contemplated. Cal. are used for the cores of the magnets. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. is used for the base of this instrument. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. If one has some insight in carving. A. Two wire nails. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. Richmond. each 1 in. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. thick. wide and 5 in. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. --Contributed by W. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. can be made on the same standards. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. 1/2 in. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. Jaquythe. long. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. the whole being finished in linseed oil. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. yet protects the skin from the chemicals.

A rubber band. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. except that for the legs. in the shape shown in the sketch. similar to that used in electric bells. then covered with red. --Contributed by W. leaving about 1/4 in. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. A piece of tin. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. cut in the shape of the letter T. acts as a spring to keep the key open. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. . as shown in Fig. London. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. About 1 in. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. cloth or baize to represent the legs. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. as shown by the dotted lines. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. 1. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. says the English Mechanic. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. All of the parts for the armor have been described. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. when the key is pushed down. the paper covering put on. at A. about No. H. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. 3. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. 25 gauge.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. Lynas.

Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. Fig. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. Cut them to a length or 40 in. at each end. completes the equipment. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. in the other end.. Take the piece shown in Fig. Secure two strips of wood. So set up. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. 3 in. apart. for the sake of lightness. In one end of the piece. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. hole in the center. drill six 1/4-in. make the same series of eight small holes and. By moving the position of the bolt from. These can be purchased at a stationery store. flat headed carriage bolt. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. The two pieces are bolted together. apart. long. A 1/4-in. 1 in. Instead of using brass headed nails. or ordinary plaster laths will do. one to another . can be made in a few minutes' time. holes. says Camera Craft. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. Silver paper will do very well. 1 and drill a 1/4in. 2. and eight small holes. about 1 in. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. not too tight. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts.

1. then B over C and the end stuck under A. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A.of the larger holes in the strip. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. and the one beneath C. the one marked A. In this sketch. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. 2. of the ends remain unwoven. lay Cover B and the one under D. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. Fig. Then take B and lay it over A. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. as in portraiture and the like. doubled and run through the web of A. C over D and B. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. and lay it over the one to the right. but instead of reversing . D over A and C. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. long. 2. in Fig. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. 2. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. Then draw all four ends up snugly. taking the same start as for the square fob. Start with one end. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. as shown in Fig. A is the first string and B is the second. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. 4. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. A round fob is made in a similar way. for instance.

Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. is left out at the center before starting on one side. Ohio. A loop. 5. Rupp. long. over the one to its right. as B. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. as in making the square fob. especially if silk strings are used.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. The round fob is shown in Fig. is to be made of leather. as at A in Fig. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. --Contributed by John P. 3. always lap one string. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. Other designs can be made in the same manner. 1-1/2 in. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . the design of which is shown herewith. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. Monroeville.

and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. Mich. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. When the supply of wax is exhausted. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. Houghton. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. pressing it against the wood. such as a nut pick. Any smooth piece of steel. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. Northville. -Contributed by A. . After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. beeswax or paraffin. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. filling them with wax. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. door facing or door panel. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. it can be easily renewed.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. using the reverse side. A. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase.

The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. Enough plaster should. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. --Contributed by O. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. although tin ones can be used with good success. and after wetting. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. it is best to leave a plain white margin. E and F. remaining above the surface of the board. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. if blueprints are used. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. J. Y. Petersburg. Select the print you wish to mount. long. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. N. says Photographic Times. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. D. thick. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. place it face down in the dish. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. apart and driven in only part way. those on matte paper will work best. The tacks should be about 1 in. Thompson. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. New York. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. leaving about 1/4 in.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. . but any kind that will not stick may be used. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. Ill. and about 12 in. Fold together on lines C.

The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. bell flowers. One of the .Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. as shown in the right of the sketch. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. will be rendered perfectly white.. roses. without mixing the solutions. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. filling the same about onehalf full. violets. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. Lower into the test tube a wire. as shown at the left in the sketch. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. etc. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle.

The first point should be ground blunt. The location of these parts is shown in Fig.. as shown in the sketch. The tin horn can be easily made. 1. not too tightly. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. made of heavy tin. shading. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. The sound box. is about 2-1/2 in. L. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. to keep the core from coming off in turning. 1-7/8 in. A rod that will fit the brass tube. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. long. as shown. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. Fig. thick. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. and at the larger end. about 1/8s in. Shabino. 3. Millstown. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. in diameter and 1 in. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. turned a little tapering. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. but which will not wobble loose. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. The diaphragm. should be soldered to the box. or delicate tints of the egg. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. 2. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. When soldering these parts together. --Contributed by L. South Dakota. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. long and made of wood.

Chicago. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. and weighted it with a heavy stone. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. says the Iowa Homestead. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. Jr. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . wondering what it was. Colo. E.Contributed by E. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. put a board on top. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. and. mice in the bottom. Ill. Gold. Victor.

Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. N. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. Pereira. Ottawa. Can. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. Y. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. . The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. Buffalo. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. --Contributed by Lyndwode.

cut round. as it can be made quickly in any size. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. and at one end of the stick fasten.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . --Contributed by W. as shown. Put a small nail 2 in. through which several holes have been punched. --Contributed by Thos. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. above the end of the dasher. Grand Rapids. This cart has no axle. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. a piece of tin. longer than the length of the can. Jaquythe. Cal. Richmond. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. A. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. De Loof. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. by means of a flatheaded tack. Mich.

New Orleans. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. wide and 1/8 in. Notches 1/8 in. board. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. were below the level of the bullseye. Doylestown. as shown. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. I reversed a door gong. 1. A wedge-shaped piece of . 2. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. 2. The candles. 2. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. La. long. Pa.1. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. wide. Kane. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. 1 ft. deep and 3 in. Fig. of course. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. The baseboard and top are separable. wide and 3 ft. wide and as long as the box. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. --Contributed by James M. 2 in. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. cut in the center of the rounding edge. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. 1-1/2 in. screwed it on the inside of a store box. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. thick.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. 1/4 in. apart.

Needles. will. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. take two pieces of hard wood. --Contributed by G.. This device is very convenient for invalids. After the glue has dried. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. When not in use. by cutting away the ends. Ia. 1. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. wide rubber bands or felt. when placed as in Fig. Worcester. etc. West Union. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. Cover the block with rubber. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. scissors. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. dressing one surface of each piece. 3. stone or wood. can be picked up without any trouble. to prevent its scratching the desk top. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. the shelf could not be put on the window. After completing the handle. the reason being that if both were solid. A. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. as shown in Fig. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. Wood. wide into each side of the casing. the blade is put back into the groove . Mass. The block can also be used as a paperweight. it can be removed without marring the casing. For the handle.Book Back Holders metal. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together.

Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. If desired. -Contributed by W. S. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. Pa. Erie. . A. is shown in the accompanying sketch. as shown in Fig. Ohio. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. A notch is cut in one side. as shown in Fig. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. square and 4 in. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. 1 in.and sharpened to a cutting edge. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. --Contributed by Maud McKee. Malden. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. 2. Jacobs. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. Mass. thus carrying the car up the incline. Cleveland. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. Each one is made of a hardwood block. 1. long. --Contributed by H. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. Hutchins. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it.

One sheet of metal. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. Prepare a design for the front.J. 6 by 9-1/2 in. The letters can be put on afterward. If one such as is shown is to be used. This will insure having all parts alike. N. will be needed. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. and an awl and hammer. Cape May Point.. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. . a board on which to work it.

1/4 part. If any polishing is required.Fasten the metal to the board. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. One coat will do. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. which is desirable. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. The stick may be placed by the side of. that can be worked in your own parlor. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. or. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. placed on a table. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. varnish. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. On the back. . in the waste metal. behind or through the center of a table leg. a violin. 3/4 part. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. 2 parts white vitriol. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. Remove the metal. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. only the marginal line is to be pierced." In all appearance. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. 1 part. says Master Painter. if desired. flat brush. The music will not sound natural. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. as shown. but weird and distant. So impressive are the results. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. mandolin or guitar. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. applied by means of a brush. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. paste the paper design right on the metal. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. to right angles. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. turpentine.

each 6 in. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. Two pairs of feet. 2. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. thick by 1/2 in. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. long and measuring 26 in. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. says Work. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. long. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. is bent square so as to form two uprights. square bar iron. long and spread about 8 in. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. it might be difficult. apart. without them. wide. The longest piece. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. each 28 in. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. and is easy to construct. are shaped as shown in Fig. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. across the top. London. With proper tools this is easy. round-head machine screws. 3. . after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. as would be the case with ordinary calipers.

the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. special flux purchased for this purpose. The brads are then removed. using rosin as a flux. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. Fig. 5. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. better still. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. 4. After the joints are soldered. 6. in the grooves of the borders. The design is formed in the lead. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. C. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. A. While the piece of lead D. lead. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. the latter being tapped to . 7. 5. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. and the base border. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. Fig. After the glass is cut. on it as shown. D. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. Place the corner piece of glass. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. or. is held by the brads. as shown in Fig. B. The glass. cut a long piece of lead.

then drill a 3/4-in. long. Bore a 3/4-in. A and B. and round the corners of one end for a ring. Jr. Fasten the plates to the block B. N. long. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. Camden. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. --Contributed by W. thick and drill 3/4-in. holes through their centers. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. one on each side and central with the hole. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. Bore a 5/8-in. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. Secure a post. rocker bolt. and two wood blocks. as shown in Fig. bolt. plank about 12 ft. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. square and of the length given in the drawing. H. then flatten its end on the under side. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. long. rounded at the top as shown. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. This . plates. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. J. Dreier. Two styles of hand holds are shown. wood screws in each washer. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. This ring can be made of 1-in. in diameter and about 9 in. not less than 4 in. The center pin is 3/4-in. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in.. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. 8.the base of the clip. Make three washers 3-in. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. bolt. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. in diameter and 1/4 in.

bolts and rope. 9 in. screws. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. shanks. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. long. apart for a distance of 3 ft. straight-grained hickory. square by 5 ft.will make an excellent cover for a pot. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. long. the money outlay will be almost nothing. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. 3/4 by 3 in. long. If trees are convenient. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. The four 7-in. square by 9-1/2 ft. long. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. 2-1/2 in. chestnut or ash. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. 4 in. horse and rings. 7 in. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. long and 1 piece. 4 pieces. 50 ft. long. 4 in. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. Draw a line on the four 7-in. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. 16 screws. in diameter and 7 in. New Orleans. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. La. because it will not stand the weather. 1-1/4in. from one edge. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . of 1/4-in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. 1 by 7 in. by 3 ft. 1. 3 in. long. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. and some one can swing an axe. maple. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. hickory. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. boards along the side of each from end to end. by 2 ft. 4 filler pieces. by 6-1/2 ft. 4 pieces. can make a first class gymnasium. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. 2 by 4 in. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. 1/2 in. To substitute small. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. bit. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in.

and once tightened the bar will be rigid. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. apart. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. from the end. 2. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. piece of wood. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. Bore a 9/16-in. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in.. so the 1/2-in. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. each 3 ft. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. at each end. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. apart. boards coincide. deep and remove all loose dirt. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . 8 in. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats.. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter.bored. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones.

it follows the edge for about 1 in. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. W.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. in an endless belt. just visible against the dark evening sky. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. If the tumbler is rotated. . in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. was at its height. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement." which skimmed along the distant horizon. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. not even the tumbler. And all he used was a black thread. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. When the interest of the crowd. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. and then passes in a curve across the base. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. it is taken to the edge of the foot. but most deceptive at dusk. and materially heightened the illusion. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. and ascends the stem. He stretched the thread between two buildings. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible.. not much to look at in daytime. which at once gathered. apart. about 100 ft. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. the effect is very striking. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. passing through a screweye at either end. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. disappearing only to reappear again.

2 cross braces. long. 8 in. 4 bolts. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. Bevel the ends of . long. 4 in. 2 base pieces. long and 1 doz. deep. The cork will come out easily. New Orleans. 6 in. 2 side braces. To make the apparatus. 4 in. 2 bars of straight grained hickory.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. by 3 ft. A wire about No. Fig. 4 wood screws. 2 in. Chisel out two notches 4 in. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. 2 by 4 in. large spikes. 8 in. 2 by 4 in. beginning at a point 9 in. long. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. 8 bolts. La. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. so the point will be on top. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. and turned in a spiral D. 8 in. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. 2 by 4 in. 1. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. long. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. square and 51/2 ft. wide and 1 in. long. long. by 7 ft. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. 4 knee braces. 2 by 3 in. from either side of the center. preferably cedar. long. by 2 ft. long. 7 in. by 10 ft. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. square and 6 ft.

Two endpieces must be made. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. ( To be Continued. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. jellies. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. The wood so treated will last for years. These will allow the ladle to be turned. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. of 7 ft. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. leave it undressed. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. except the bars. which face each other. and countersinking the heads. but even unpainted they are very durable. screws. A. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. A large sized ladle. . Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. equipped with a strainer. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. Jaquythe. --Contributed by W. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. as shown in the diagram.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. so the bolts in both will not meet. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. using four of the 7-in bolts. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes.. additional long. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. Cal. leaving the strainer always in position. save the bars. Richmond. It is well to paint the entire apparatus.the knee braces. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. If using mill-cut lumber. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. etc. After the trenches are dug.

Oil. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. partly a barrier for jumps. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. In order to accomplish this experiment. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. of sufficient 1ength. it is necessary to place a stick.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. . or various cutting compounds of oil. milling machine. A. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. which seems impossible. thus holding the pail as shown. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. drill press or planer.

and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. 2 by 4 in.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. Procure from a saw mill. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. in the ground. These are placed 18 in. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. 4 in. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the .. bolts. long. 4 knee braces. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. beginning 1-1/2 in. long. by 3 ft. long. long. by 3 ft. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. 4-1/2 in. The round part of this log must be planed. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. by 3 ft. long. To construct. bolts. 2 by 4 in. 3 in. two 1/2-in. square by 5-1/2 ft. ten 1/2-in. apart in a central position on the horse. is a good length.. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. 1 cross brace. bolts. apart. 2 bases. projections and splinters. and free from knots. but 5 ft. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. 4 in. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. 2 adjusting pieces. 2 by 4 in. bolt. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. These are well nailed in place. long. The material required is as follows: Two posts. in diameter--the larger the better. 4 in. square by 5 ft. stud cut rounding on one edge. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. to fasten the knee braces at the top. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. long. wood yard or from the woods. piece of 2 by 4-in. 1 in. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. from each end. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. Hand holds must be provided next. long. 7 in. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in.

horse top. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. it is caused by some obstruction. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. A. over and around. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. but nevertheless. then bending to the shape desired. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. Jaquythe. no one is responsible but himself. Also. etc. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. Cal. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping.--Contributed by W. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. snow. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. Such a hand sled can be made in a . The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. pipe and fittings. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. water. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. Richmond. such as a dent. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. it is caused by an overloaded shell.

This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. --Contributed by James E. in width and 1/32 in. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. 1. Ontario. thick. Vener. . These. Toronto. when complete. --Contributed by Arthur E. are all the tools necessary. will give the length. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. which. 1/4 or 3/16 in. when straightened out. is much better than a wood sled. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. Boston. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. --Contributed by J. 2. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. at E and F. Noble. then run a string over each part. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. Joerin. France. Mass. The end elevation. W. Paris.

After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. 4. . The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. nor that which is partly oxidized. The method shown in Figs. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. and the latter will take on a bright luster. AA and BB. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. 3. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. It is best to use soft water. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. are nailed. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean.

8 and 9. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. as shown in Fig. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. Percy Ashley in Rudder. 2. 3. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. Broad lines can be made. 4. . If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. 2. class ice-yacht. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. or various rulings may be made. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. or unequal widths as in Fig. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. as shown in Fig. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. The materials used are: backbone. 1).

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. a larger size of pipe should be used. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work.Fig. long. A good and substantial homemade lathe. but if it is made much longer. The point should extend about 11/2 in. The headstock is made of two tees. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. out from the collar. about 30 in. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. 1-Details of Lathe sort. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. Both the lower . pins to keep them from turning. bent and drilled as shown. 1. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. It can be made longer or shorter. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. a tee and a forging. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. pipe. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center.

M. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. It is about 1 in. and will answer for a great variety of work. 2. as shown in Fig. thick as desired. else taper turning will result. Boissevain. --Contributed by W. as shown in Fig. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. 2. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. Man. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. or a key can be used as well.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. UpDeGraff. a corresponding line made on this. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. To do this. Laporte. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. but also their insulating properties. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. Cal. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. . These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. Held. 2. Musgrove. 1. Indiana. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. W. --Contributed by M. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. Fruitvale. 3/4 or 1 in. a straight line should be scratched Fig. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. --Contributed by W.

the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. Ft. To obviate this. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. long. In use. Cline. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. J. Smith. as shown. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. The handle is of pine about 18 in. Ark. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. --Contributed by E.

Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. White. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. Colo. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. take . --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. the drill does not need the tool. After being entered. This prevents the drill from wobbling. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. if this method is followed: First. Denver. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. La. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. --Contributed by Walter W. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. and when once in true up to its size. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. face off the end of the piece. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. New Orleans. which should be backed out of contact. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. on starting the lathe. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. centering is just one operation too many. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration.

The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. The handkerchief rod. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. unknown to the spectators. a long piece of glass tubing. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. In doing this. The glass tube B.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. After the wand is removed. shown at C. is put into the paper tube A. says the Sphinx. and this given to someone to hold. shorter t h a n the wand. a bout 1/2 in. vanishing wand. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. and can be varied to suit the performer. as shown in D. It can be used in a great number of tricks. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. all the better. after being shown empty. by applying caustic soda or . and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. the cap is placed over the paper tube.

3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. across the front and back to strengthen them. by 14 by 17 in. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. thick. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. Glue the neck to the box. 2 Sides. 1 End. End. with the back side rounding. Cut a piece of hard wood. 1 Neck. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. 1 Bottom. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. 1. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them.potash around the edges of the letters. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. 3/16. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. With care and patience. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. This dimension and those for the frets . and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. cut to any shape desired. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. and if care is taken in selecting the material. preferably hard maple. can be made by the home mechanic. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. square and 1-7/8 in. The brace at D is 1 in. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. as shown by K. 1/4 in. The sides. As the cement softens. and glue it to the neck at F. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. long. Glue strips of soft wood. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt.

Carbondale. 3/16 in. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. H. but it is not.Pa. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. wide and 11-1/2 ft. E. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. --Contributed by Chas. in diameter. long is used for a keel. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. Six holes. Norwalk. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. Frary. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. A board 1 in. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. O. and beveled . Stoddard. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. or backbone. thick and about 1 ft. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. When it is completed you will have a canoe. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. 1) on which to stretch the paper. -Contributed by J.should be made accurately. toward each end. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat.

long. procure at a carriage factory. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. 2). It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. 2. a. Fig.. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join.) in notches. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. For the gunwales (a. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. These are better. with long stout screws. Fig. probably. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. b. Osiers probably make the best ribs.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. Any tough. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. b. thick. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. Fig. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. by means of a string or wire. The cross-boards (B. in thickness and should be cut. 13 in. 3). and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. The ribs. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. but twigs of some other trees. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. two strips of wood (b. 4). 3). as they are apt to do. when made of green elm. will answer nearly as well. and so. In drying. 3. and notched at the end to receive them (B. as shown in Fig. B. or similar material. Shape these as shown by A. C. Fig. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. some tight strips of ash. such as hazel or birch. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. and. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. C. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. slender switches of osier willow. in such cases. 3/8 in. 4. . 1 and 2. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. as shown in Fig. 3. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. Fig. which are easily made of long. two twigs may be used to make one rib. Fig. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. apart. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. as before described. the loose strips of ash (b. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. 2). In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. Fig. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. Green wood is preferable. buy some split cane or rattan. thick. twigs 5 or 6 ft. long are required. 1. or other place. Fig. but before doing this. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. Fig. are next put in. such as is used for making chairbottoms. and are not fastened. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. wide by 26 in. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. b.

varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. of very strong wrapping-paper. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. after wetting it. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. It should be smooth on the surface. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. however. 5). If not. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. Being made in long rolls. but with less turpentine. tacking it to the bottom-board. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. It should be drawn tight along the edges. and light oars. if it has been properly constructed of good material. B. When the paper is dry. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. apply a second coat of the same varnish. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. The paper is then trimmed.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. wide. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. Fig. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. Then take some of the split rattan and. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. When thoroughly dry. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. but neither stiff nor very thick. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. and steady in the water. preferably iron. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. You may put in . and very tough. and as soon as that has soaked in. and held in place by means of small clamps. If the paper be 1 yd. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework.

The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. Fig. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. We procured a box and made a frame. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. 1. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. and if driven as shown in the cut. 1 and the end in . The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. Fig. and make a movable seat (A. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. Fig. 5). we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. 2.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. they will support very heavy weights. fore and aft. Drive the lower nail first. to fit it easily. 5. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig.

being softer where the flame has been applied. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat.Fig. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. This way has its drawbacks. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. Pa. Pittsburg. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. Close the other end with the same operation. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. 4. and the result is. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. This is an easy . 3. 5. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. this makes the tube airtight. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. and the glass. A good way to handle this work.

This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. metal shears. Give the metal a circular motion.way to make a thermometer tube. three. or six arms. file. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. four. fourth. third. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. very rapid progress can be made. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. Seventh. with a piece of carbon paper. above the metal. rivet punch. -Contributed by A. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. then reverse. thin screw. 23 gauge. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. extra metal all around. above the work and striking it with the hammer. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. flat and round-nosed pliers. The candle holders may have two. After the bulb is formed. also trace the decorative design. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. fifth. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. second. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. Sixth. Oswald. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . File the edges until they are smooth to the touch.

Having pierced the bracket. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . Small copper rivets are used. drip cup. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. Metal polish of any kind will do.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. and holder. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together.

Shiloh. winding the ends where they came together with wire. Heat 6-1/2 oz. alcohol 2 parts. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. F. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. using a steel pen. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. and it will be ready for future use. and add the gelatine. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. and in a week . The gaff. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. on a water bath. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. glycerine 4 parts. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. if it has not absorbed too much ink. and other things as they were needed. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. except they had wheels instead of runners. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. all the rest I found. Soak 1 oz. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. deep. hammer. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. Twenty cents was all I spent. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. Mother let me have a sheet. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. they were like an ice boat with a sail. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. is a broomstick. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. Fifty. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. the stick at the bottom of the sail. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. J. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. and water 24 parts. and brace and bit were the tools used. N. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. A saw. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. thus it was utilized. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. when it will be ready for use. sugar 1 part. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. I steer with the front wheel. smooth it down and then remove as before. The boom. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. of glycerine to about 200 deg.

A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly. a projecting lens . Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up.Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing.

Fig. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. H. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. or a lens of 12-in. describe a 9-in. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. long. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. well seasoned pine. are . and. A and B. If a small saw is used. at a point 1 in. provided the material is of metal. A table. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. 8 in. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. or glue. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. This ring is made up from two rings. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. The board is centered both ways. and 14 in. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. 3. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. high. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. thick. and a projecting lens 2 in. G. DD. wide and 15 in. and the lens slide. and the work carefully done. 1/2 to 3/4 in.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. but if such a box is not found. at a distance of 24 ft. wire brads. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig.. about 2 ft. focus enlarging a 3-in. The slide support. slide to about 6 ft. wide. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. as desired. above the center. E. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. 1.

A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. To reach the water. E. Minn. apply two coats of shellac varnish. Small strips of tin. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. A sheet . should the glass happen to upset.constructed to slip easily on the table. The arrangement is quite safe as. the strips II serving as guides. and when the right position is found for each. P. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. Paul. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts.-Contributed by G. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. but not long enough. St. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. placed on the water. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. the water at once extinguishes the flame. JJ. of safe. light burning oil. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. B. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed.

Crawford. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. I ordered a canvas bag. to cover the mattresses.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded.H. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. 3 in.. 3. Y. 2. 9 in. from a tent company. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. by 12 ft. Fig. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. 1. If one of these clips is not at hand. Fig. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. 12 ft. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. N. 4. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. --Contributed by J. 3. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. form a piece of wire in the same shape. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. then the corners on one end are doubled over. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. Schenectady. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along .

3/4 in. wide. and insert two binding-posts. as shown in Fig. 1. 1. An arc is cut in the paper. 3/4 in. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. 3 to swing freely on the tack. in the center coil. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. to the coil of small wire for volts. long. so as to form two oblong boxes. Pa. to keep it from unwinding. Fig. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. first mark the binding-post A. Fold two strips of light cardboard. V. A rubber band. C. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. drill two 3/16 in. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. Denver. 1/2 in. holes in the edge. open on the edges. for amperes and the other post. thick. Fasten the wire with gummed label. D.each edge. Warren. White. 2. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. A Film Washing Trough [331] . To calibrate the instrument. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. through which the indicator works. Do not use too strong a rubber. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. long and 3/16 in. 2. apart. Colo. insulating them from the case with cardboard. 2. Fig. Teasdale. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. 1/2 in. --Contributed by Edward M. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. Attach a piece of steel rod. --Contributed by Walter W.

Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. Hunting. Place this can on one end of the trough. --Contributed by M. Wood Burning [331] .Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. with the large hole up. as shown. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. O. Dayton. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. Cut a 1/4-in. M.

then into this bottle place. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water.Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. mouth downward.

but not very thick. Upper Troy. wide and 4 in. N. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. This will make a very pretty ornament. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. provided the bottle is wide. Auburn. long. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. --Contributed by Fred W. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. Whitehouse. thick. --Contributed by John Shahan. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. 1. 3/4 in. many puzzling effects may be obtained. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. Place the small bottle in as before. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. 2. If the cork is adjusted properly.Y. as shown in the sketch. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. Ala. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. If the small bottle used is opaque. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in.

The 21/2-in. Its smaller parts. 2 ft. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. 1 in. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. pulley F. Fig. B. --Contributed by D. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. I. Fig. A staple. which extended to the ground. was keyed to shaft C. long. or ordinary telephone transmitters. 1. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. 2. even in a light breeze. If a transmitter is used. The wire L was put . They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. 3. were constructed of 1-in. Both bearings were made in this manner. pulley. Fig. The bearing blocks were 3 in. 1. was 1/4in. which gave considerable power for its size. Fig. as shown in Fig. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. thick. G. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. line. Milter. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. The shaft C. to the shaft. thick and 3 in. 1. Fig. which was nailed to the face plate. K. 1.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. thick. by the method shown in Fig. in diameter and 1 in. such as blades and pulleys. On a 1000-ft. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. sugar pine on account of its softness. W. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. wide. 4. 1. which was 6 in. high without the upper half. iron rod.

To make the key. H. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. square to the board P at the top of the tower. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. 25 ft. strips. The other lid. long and bend it as . with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. The bed plate D. 1. long. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. To lessen the friction here. with all parts in place. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. 2. 6. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. 1. apart in the tower. 0. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. through the latter. long and 3 in. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. top down also. a 1/2-in. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. washers were placed under pulley F. was tacked. in the center of the board P. Two washers were placed on shaft C. This board was 12 in. R. cut out another piece of tin (X. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. Fig. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. wide and 1 in. pine 18 by 12 in. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. hole was bored for it. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. with brass headed furniture tacks. The smaller one. as. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. so that the 1/4-in. long. and was cut the shape shown. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. long and 1/2 in. Fig. in diameter. If you have no bell. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. There a 1/4-in. long and bend it as shown at A. across the thin edge of a board. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. Fig. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. G. when the windmill needed oiling. 1. Fig. This fan was made of 1/4-in. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. Fig. hole for the shaft G was in the center. Fig. 3 in. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. The power was put to various uses. This completes the receiver or sounder. was 2 ft. 6. Fig. for instance. providing one has a few old materials on hand. 1) 4 in. 5. 1. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate.

Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. after the manner of bicycle wheels. using cleats to hold the board frame. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. McConnell. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. at the front. -Contributed by John R. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. Now. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. When tired of this instrument. like many another device boys make. 1. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels.shown. as shown at Water. fitted with paddles as at M. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. By adjusting the coils. The rear barrels are. as indicated. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. Going back to Fig. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. leaving the other wire as it is. 2. although it can be made with but two. causing a buzzing sound. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. and. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. Thus a center drive is made. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. Before tacking it to the board.

as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. as shown in Fig. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. The speed is slow at first. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. copper piping and brass tubing for base. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. 3. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. feet on the pedals. or even a little houseboat. If the journals thus made are well oiled. To propel it. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. there will not be much friction. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. which will give any amount of pleasure. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. can be built. 1. There is no danger.

When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . Place one brass ring in cylinder. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. B. then the glass disc and then the other ring. If magnifying glass cannot be had. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. C. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. Then melt out the rosin or lead. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. and so creating a false circuit. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. Fig.of pleasure for a little work. 2. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. 2. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. D. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. 1. 2. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. Fig. Turn a small circle of wood. Shape small blocks of boxwood. Fig. 1. A. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. Fig. 1. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. or it may be put to other uses if desired. If it is desired to make the light very complete.

D. T. some glue will secure them. S. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. set alarm key as shown in diagram. thick. dry batteries. 5-1/4 by 10 in. In placing clock on shelf. such as is used for cycle valves. The parts indicated are as follows: A. E. after setting alarm. --Contributed by C. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. bracket. Throw lever off from the right to center. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. if too small. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . brass rod. Utah. contact post. To get the cylinder into its carriage. Swissvale. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. Ogden. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. B. by having the switch on the baseboard. key of alarm clock. wide and 1/16 in. long. switch. wire from batteries to switch. wire from bell to switch. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. --Contributed by Geo. bell. which stops bell ringing. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. C. 4 in. Chatland. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. Pa. G. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. 4-1/2 in. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. F. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . after two turns have been made on the key. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. X. H. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. When alarm goes off. and pulled tight.india rubber tubing. near the bed. 3/8 in. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. Brinkerhoff. To throw on light throw levers to the left.. copper tubing. wire from light to switch. brass strip. shelf. J. I. or 1/4in. long. C. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. while lying in bed. To operate this.

large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. Minn. wide. 2. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. in diameter. as at A. for instance. Lanesboro. as at B. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. A flannel bag. as at A. long. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. from one end. gives the heater a more finished appearance. S. Pull out the nail and stick. 4 in.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. about 3-1/2 in. place stick and all in a pail of sand. making it as true and smooth as possible. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. Chapman. 3. Fig. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. 2. a bed warmer. Make a shoulder. Fig. as in Fig. about 6 in. Having finished this. which can be made of an old can. This is to form the fuse hole. 1. as . Fig. in diameter. beyond the end of the spindle. being careful not to get the sand in it. letting it extend 3/4 in. Make the spindle as in Fig. 1/4 in. 1. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. will do the heating. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. All that is required is a tin covering. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. --Contributed by Chas. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. A small lamp of about 5 cp.

11/2 in. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. The illustration shows how this is done. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. A piece of tin. long. The material must be 1-1/2 in. spring and arrows. thick. this is to keep the edges from splitting. --Contributed by Arthur E. good straight-grained pine will do. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. 6 in. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. long. 5/8 in. Joerin. thick. deep.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. ash. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. wide and 6 ft. but if this wood cannot be procured. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . wide and 3/8 in. thick. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. or hickory. A piece of oak. wide and 3 ft. 1. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. long. 3/8 in. 1 in. will be sufficient to make the trigger.

in diameter. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. having the latter swing quite freely. When the trigger is pulled. 2. 7. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. The bow is not fastened in the stock. 4. from the end of the stock. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. Fig. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. from the opposite end. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. Trownes. A spring. better still. Fig. Wilmette. wide at each end. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. The stick for the bow. 3. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. Ill. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. it lifts the spring up. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. and one for the trigger 12 in. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. 8. as shown in Fig. 6.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. Such a temporary safe light may be . developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. Fig. which is 1/4 in. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. 9. The trigger. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. To throw the arrow. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. as shown in Fig. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. place the arrow in the groove. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. thick. To shoot the crossbow. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. --Contributed by O. E. or through the necessity of.

The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. since the flame of the candle is above A. The hinged cover E. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. from the ground. Remove the bottom of the box. the bark lean-to is a . and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. or only as a camp on a short excursion. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. Moreover. respectively. is used as a door. Remove one end. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. C. By chopping the trunk almost through. and replace as shown at B. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. it is the easiest camp to make. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. The cut should be about 5 ft. making lighting and trimming convenient. apart. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. This lamp is safe. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. says Photo Era. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. from the ground. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. and nail it in position as shown at A. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. make the frame of the wigwam.

and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. a 2-in. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. Where bark is used. For a permanent camp. makes a good pair of tongs. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. For a foot in the middle of the stick. selecting a site for a camp. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. . Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. In the early summer. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. and cedar. make the best kind of a camp bed. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. Tongs are very useful in camp. piled 2 or 3 ft. 6 ft. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. are a convenient size for camp construction. long. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. long and 2 or 3 ft. 3 ft. will dry flat. spruce. wide. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. nails are necessary to hold it in place. thick. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. deep and covered with blankets. and when the camp is pitched. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. long and 1-1/2 in. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. and split the tops with an ax. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. wide and 6 ft. Sheets of bark. A piece of elm or hickory.

Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. hinges. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. or even a rough lock for the camp larder. and affording accommodation for several persons. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. . A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top.

and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. I drove a small cork. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. Fig. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured.. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. changing the water both morning and night. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. wide. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. about 4 in. --Contributed by James M. and provide a cover or door. A. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. Kane. the interior can. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. Doylestown. 1. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. B. to another .Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. B. Pa. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. deep and 4 in.

care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. The diagram. limit. 4 and 5). such as ether. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. 2. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. for instance. C. if necessary. a liquid. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. This makes . E. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. The current is thus compelled. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. for instance. fused into one side. 2. until. Fig. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. 3. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. which project inside and outside of the tube. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown.glass tube. to pass through an increasing resistance. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance.

3. thicker. Fig. 3-3/8 in. When the frame is finished so far. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. tap. when several pieces are placed together. is composed of wrought sheet iron. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. larger than the dimensions given. clamp the template. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. to allow for finishing. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. brass or iron. or even 1/16 in. 4-1/2 in. mark off a space. screws. After the template is marked out. as shown in the left-hand sketch. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. making it 1/16 in. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. A 5/8in. 3-3/8 in. between centers. cannot be used so often. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. Then the field can be finished to these marks. but merely discolored. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. on a lathe. they will make a frame 3/4 in. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. thick. 2. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. or pattern. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. These holes are for the bearing studs. which will make it uniform in size. by turning the lathe with the hand. A. brass. The bearing studs are now made. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. Alpena. in diameter. After cleaning them with the solution. drill the four rivet holes. which may be of any thickness so that. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. therefore. thick. If the thickness is sufficient. in diameter. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. set at 1/8 in. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. Before removing the field from the lathe. bent at right angles as shown. as shown in Fig. assemble and rivet them solidly. Fig. 1. Michigan. two holes. and for the outside of the frame. hole is .

then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. 4. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. The shaft of the armature. solder them to the supports. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . brass rod is inserted. Fig. into which a piece of 5/8-in. is turned up from machine steel. or otherwise finished. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. When the bearings are located.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. soldered into place. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. file them out to make the proper adjustment. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. and build up the solder well.

to allow for finishing to size. wide. inside diameter. After the pieces are cut out. 7. thick. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. and held with a setscrew. being formed for the ends. then drill a 1/8-in. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. 1-1/8 in. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. thick are cut like the pattern. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. The sides are also faced off and finished. until they become flexible enough to be put in place.. threaded. thick and 1/4 in. 6. wide. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. hole and tap it for a pin. Procure 12 strips of mica. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. as shown in Fig. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. The pins are made of brass. After they . and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. washers. deep and 7/16 in. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. thick.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. 5. 6. holes through them for rivets. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. When this is accomplished. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. When annealed. sheet fiber. 3/4 in. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. as shown m Fig. 1/8 in. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. Armature-Ring Core. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. thick. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. Rivet them together. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. by 1-1/2 in. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. 9. or segments. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. 8. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. brass rod. 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. Make the core 3/4 in. Find the centers of each segment at one end. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. as shown in Fig. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. as shown in Fig. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. and then they are soaked in warm water. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. 3. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. 3.

The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. which will take 50 ft. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. 5. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. of No. being required. To connect the wires. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. sheet fiber. by bending the end around one of the projections. Fig. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. This winding is for a series motor. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. When the glue is set. long. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. yet it shows a series of . then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. 1. In starting to wind. about 100 ft. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base.have dried. they are glued to the core insulation. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. The two ends are joined at B. of the wire. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. or side. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. 1. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. The field is wound with No. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. until the 12 slots are filled. wide and 1 in. The source of current is connected to the terminals. Run one end of the field wire. shown at A. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. after the motor is on the stand. sheet fiber. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. shown at B. 8 in. of the end to protrude. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. thick. are soldered together. and wind on four layers. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. Fig. All connections should be securely soldered. and bring the end of the wire out at B. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. The winding is started at A. the two ends of the wire. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. 6 in. After one coil.

The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. is fastened to the metallic body. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. or. which serves as the ground wire. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. one from each of the eight contacts. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. and one. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. Nine wires run from the timer. A 1/2-in. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. as in the case of a spiral. still more simply. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires.

These magnets are placed in a 10-in. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. The pointer end of the needle is painted black.The Wind Vane. Without this attachment. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. thus giving 16 different directions. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. 45 deg. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. 6 in. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. board. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. circle. long. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. It should be . apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. Covering these is a thin. of the dial. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing.

about 6 ft. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. and about 6 in. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. thus making a universal joint. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. Blackmer. will be enough for the two sides. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. . -Contributed by James L. called a chip carving knife. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. N. Fill the box with any handy ballast. high. Cut 3-in. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. though a special knife." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. long to give the best results. Y. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. also a piece of new carpet. is most satisfactory. or. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. To work these outlines. and securely nail on the top of the box. will answer the purpose just as well. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. according to who is going to use it. Before tacking the fourth side. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. Place the leather on some level. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. To make it. making it heavy or light. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. Buffalo. will be sufficient. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. if not too high. however. 14 by 18 in. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap.

Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. Paste the silk plush to the inner side. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine. An ordinary sewing-machine . A good leather paste will be required.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown.

It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. Syracuse. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. Morse. Y. rather than the smooth side. and fasten the feathers inside of it. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. of water. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. If a fire breaks out. or a hip that has been wrenched. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. of common salt and 10 lb. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. a needle and some feathers. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. square and tying a piece of . as in cases of a sprained ankle. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. temporary lameness. can be thrown away when no longer needed. B. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place.will do if a good stout needle is used. --Contributed by Katharine D. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. away from it. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. N. and tie them together securely at the bottom. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft.

thus helping the rats to enter. N. wound on the head end. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. Gordon Dempsey.. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. is cut on the wood. Wis. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. but not sharp. cut to the length of the spool. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. Y. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. setting traps. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. made up of four layers of No. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. commonly called tintype tin. The end is filed to an edge. There is a 1-in. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. The diaphragm C. long. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. A.J. board all around the bottom on the inside. and a coil of wire. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. B. A small wooden or fiber end. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. laying poisoned meat and meal. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. high. The strings should be about 15 in. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. This not only keeps the rats out. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. the corners being wired.string to each corner. and tacked it to the boards. etc. which is the essential part of the instrument. G. 1/8 in. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. Albany. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. Ashland. --Contributed by J. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. long. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. N. wide and 1/16 in. One end is removed entirely. The coil is 1 in. F. letting it go at arm's length. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. The body of the receiver. deep. --Contributed by John A. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. . E. Hellwig. and the receiver is ready for use. Paterson. as shown.

bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. The vase is to have three supports. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. to . placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. a piece of small wire. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. Take a piece of string or. begin with the smallest scrolls. A single line will be sufficient. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. better still. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. wide. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. and bend each strip in shape. gold. To clean small articles. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. then dry and polish with a linen cloth.

and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. Work down the outside line of the design. About 1 in. through which to slip the fly AGH. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. as shown in the sketch. 4-1/4 in. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. and does not require coloring. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. 3-1/4 in. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. . How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. from C to D. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. from the lines EF on the piece. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. Press or model down the leather all around the design. Trace also the line around the purse. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. After taking off the pattern. 3-1/2 in. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. sharp pencil.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. from E to F.. 6-3/8 in.which the supports are fastened with rivets.. Fold the leather on the line EF. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. using a duller point of the tool. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. wide when stitching up the purse. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. thus raising it.

following the dotted lines. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. as shown in Fig.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. It is neat and efficient. and tack the other piece slightly. and which will be very interesting. 3. First. deep. 1/2 in. Now take another piece of wood. 2. being cast in wooden molds. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. then nail it. then place the square piece out of which Fig. all the way around. and the projections B. as well as useful. and. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. with a compass saw. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. and cut out a wheel. This also should be slightly beveled. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. thick. and cut it out as shown in Fig. with the open side down. long.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. square. b. and a model for speed and power. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. 1. the "open" side. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. deep. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. with pins or small nails. with the largest side down. It can be made without the use of a lathe. Then nail the wheel down firmly. by 12 ft. 1 was cut. Cut off six pieces 12 in. Fit this to the two . on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. leaving the lug a. around the wheel. Make the lug 1/4 in. When it is finished. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife.

with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. 1. deep. in the center of it. as shown by the black dots in Fig.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. holes through it. and bore six 1/4-in. hole bored through its center. After it is finished. slightly beveled. place it between two of the 12-in. 4. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. hole entirely through at the same place. and boring a 3/8-in. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in.pieces just finished. Take the mold apart. and lay it away to dry. then bolt it together. and cut it out as shown in Fig. and clean all the shavings out of it. hole 1/4 in. Now take another of the 12-in. one of which should have a 3/8-in. square pieces of wood. Now put mold No. square pieces of wood. as shown by the . bolts.

and pouring metal in to fill it up. 4.1. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. from the one end. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. lay it on a level place. where the casting did not fill out.black dots in Fig. in diameter must now be obtained. b. and bore three 1/4-in. see that the bolts are all tight. A piece of mild steel 5 in. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made.2. long. and drill them in the same manner. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. and the other in the base. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. holes. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. instead of the right-handed piece. the other right-handed. only the one is left-handed. 5. This is mold No. After it is fitted in. place it under the drill. take an ordinary brace. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. and lay it away to dry. so that it will turn easily. screw down. over the defective part. Using the Brace . B. until it is full. This is for a shaft. Fig. and 3/8-in. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. and drill it entirely through. and two 1/4-in. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. holes at d. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. long. one in the lug. Commencing 1-1/2 in. This is the same as Fig. Pour metal into mold No.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. Now take mold No. as shown by the black dots in Fig. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. as shown in illustration. d. and the exhaust hole in projection b. This will cast a paddle-wheel. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. Let it stand for half an hour. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft.2. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. and connect to the boiler. and pour babbitt metal into it. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. and run in babbitt metal again. 6. put the top of the brace through this hole. 6. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. 1. drill in it. one in the projections. fasten a 3/8-in. Now cut out one of the 12-in. wide and 16 in. Then bolt the castings together.1. true it up with a square. Put this together in mold No. place the entire machine in a vise. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel.

If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. with a boss and a set screw. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. and if instructions have been carefully followed. Plan of Ice Boat . will do good service. piece and at right angles to it. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. turn the wheel to the shape desired. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. and the other 8 ft. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. while it is running at full speed. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. long. Then take a knife or a chisel. At each end of the 6ft.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. one 6 ft. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. and with three small screw holes around the edge. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. and..

tapering to 1-1/2 in. should be of hardwood. in diameter. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. Fig. in diameter in the center. so much the better will be your boat. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. Over the middle of the 6-ft. Run the seam on a machine. in front of the rudder block. 8 a reef point knot. boards to make the platform.These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used. 3. long. long and 2-1/2 in. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. at the end. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. 2 by 3 in. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. The spar should be 9 ft. 1. plank. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. and about 8 in. projecting as in Fig. 1. piece and at right angles to it. To the under side of