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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial

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08/17/2011

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Sections

  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother

THE BOY MECHANIC VOLUME I

Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)

BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I

THE

700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
HOW TO CONSTRUCT
WIRELESS OUTFITS, BOATS, CAMP EQUIPMENT, AERIAL. GLIDERS, KITES, SELF-PROPELLED VEHICLES ENGINES, MOTORS, ELECTRICAL APPARATUS, CAMERAS
AND

HUNDREDS OF OTHER THINGS WHICH DELIGHT EVERY BOY

WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
COPYRIGHTED, 1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO

POPULAR MECHANICS CO.
PUBLISHERS

A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. 2. as shown in Fig. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. apart. Toronto. A piece of plank 12 in. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . To throw a boomerang. 2 -. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. Ontario. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. with the hollow side away from you. long will make six boomerangs. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. 1. The pieces are then dressed round. away. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. until it is bound as shown in Fig. 1. distant.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. grasp it and hold the same as a club. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. 2. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. Noble. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. 1. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. Fig. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. It is held in this curve until dry. --Contributed by J.Fig. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. as shown in Fig. wide and 2 ft. E. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps.

there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. which makes the building simpler and easier. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. A wall. If the snow is of the right consistency. made of 6-in. A very light. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. and it may be necessary to use a little water. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. 6 in. and with a movable bottom. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. one inside of the circle and the other outside. minus the top. or rather no bottom at all. long. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. forcing it down closely. but about 12 in. however. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. First. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. high and 4 or 5 in. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. it is not essential to the support of the walls. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. thick. the block will drop out. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. dry snow will not pack easily. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. blocks . Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work.

C. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. Union. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. long and 1 in. above the ground. wide. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. Fig. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. There is no outward thrust. 2. It also keeps them out. which can be made of wood. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. 1. 1. Goodbrod. or an old safe dial will do. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. D. Fig. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] .throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. is 6 or 8 in. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. Ore. Fig. The piece of wood. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. --Contributed by Geo. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. a. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. 2. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. and the young architect can imitate them. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. which is about 1 ft. 3 -. A nail. 3.

he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. one pair of special hinges. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. New York. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. says the Sphinx. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. --Contributed by R. Syracuse. If ordinary butts are used.When taking hot dishes from the stove. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. as the weight always draws them back to place. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. the box locked . Merrill. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. S.

the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. as shown. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. If they do not. 2. When the sieve is shaken. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. It remains to bend the flaps. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. Place the piece in a vise. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. To make a design similar to the one shown. smooth surface. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. -Contributed by L. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. as shown in Fig. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. Augusta. Ga. draw one-half of it. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. 1. If the measuring has been done properly. Fig. With the metal shears. as shown in Fig. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. Alberta Norrell. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. on drawing paper. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. allowing each coat time to dry. 3. All . cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. about 1-32 of an inch.and the performer steps out in view. one for each corner. proceed as follows: First.

The current. is fitted tightly in the third hole. and in the positions shown in the sketch. If a touch of color is desired. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. in passing through the lamp. R. causing it to expand. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. of No. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. should be in the line. A piece of porcelain tube. When the current is turned off. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. After this has dried. in diameter. long. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. used for insulation. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. Colo. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . smooth it off with pumice stone and water. heats the strip of German-silver wire. C. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. 25 German-silver wire. A resistance. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly.the edges should be left smooth. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. The common cork. if rolled under the shoe sole. which is about 6 in. B. H. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. --Contributed by R. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. To keep the metal from tarnishing. Denver. as shown at AA. 25 gauge German-silver wire. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. about 6 in. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. Galbreath. In boring through rubber corks. from the back end.

. 1. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. Purchase two long book straps. as shown in Fig. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. 3. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. 2. Kansas City. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. Mo. leaving a space of 4 in. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. Fig. with thin strips of wood. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. --Contributed by David Brown. between them as shown in Fig. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable.bottom ring.

allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. 1. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. and one weighing 25 lb. Morse. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. in diameter. are mounted on the outside of the box. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. Fig. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. When the aeroplane tips. Y. long. Syracuse.. having a gong 2-1/2 in. The string is then tied. Doylestown. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. Fig. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. to form a handle. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. Kane. and a pocket battery. Two strips of brass. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. 1. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. Pa. N. 2. which is the right weight for family use. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. --Contributed by Katharine D. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. and tack smoothly. Fig. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. 36 in. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. 1. just the right weight for a woman to use. C. The folds are made over the string. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. one weighing 15 lb.An ordinary electric bell. These are shown in Fig. --Contributed by James M. 3. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit.. 4. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. A. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. as .

which can be purchased at a local hardware store. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. 1. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. 2. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. in diameter. if once used. long. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. 2. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. and many fancy knick-knacks. machine screws.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. bent as shown in Fig. Day. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. AA. two 1/8 -in. The saw. Floral Park. such as brackets. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. N. four washers and four square nuts. Frame Made of a Rod . Y. --Contributed by Louis J. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. 3/32 or 1/4 in. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match.

The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. For etching. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. be covered the same as the back. 1 part sulphuric acid. as well as brass and copper. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. of water. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. green and browns are the most popular. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures.may be made of either brass. File these edges. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. Detroit. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. treat it with color. If it colors the metal red. Of the leathers. Watch Fob For coloring silver. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. of water in which dissolve. therefore. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. copper. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. The buckle is to be purchased. In the design shown. allowing each time to dry. A. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. Silver is the most desirable but. or silver. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. Rub off the highlights.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. Drying will cause this to change to purple. use them in place of the outside nuts. using a swab and an old stiff brush. it has the correct strength. of course. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. after breaking up. An Austrian Top [12] . though almost any color may be obtained. as well as the depth of etching desired. Michigan. Scranton. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. 1 part nitric acid.. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. the most expensive. Apply two coats. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. --Contributed by W. if copper or brass.

long. Michigan. A 1/16-in. Parts of the Top To spin the top. . wide and 3/4 in. hole in this end for the top. 3/4 in.F. 5-1/4 in. in diameter. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. The handle is a piece of pine. Bore a 3/4-in. 1-1/4 in. When the shank is covered. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. pass one end through the 1/16-in.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. allowing only 1-1/4 in. is formed on one end. --Contributed by J. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. starting at the bottom and winding upward. Ypsilanti. Tholl. set the top in the 3/4 -in. long. A handle. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. thick. hole.

The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. Augusta. The baking surface. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. Mich. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. --A. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. Alberta Norrell. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. --Contributed by Miss L. For black leathers. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. A. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. Houghton. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. having no sides. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. Ga. tarts or similar pastry. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. Northville. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. .

Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. says Studio Light. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. Stringing Wires [13] A.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. Mo. When you desire to work by white light. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. the same as shown in the illustration. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. then solder cover and socket together. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. two turns will remove the jar. glass fruit jar. Centralia. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. --Contributed by Irl Hicks.

16 Horizontal bars. 1-1/4 in. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. 4 Braces. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. Wis. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint.for loading and development. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. and not tip over. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. Janesville. 4 Vertical pieces. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. square by 12 in. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. as shown in the cross-section sketch. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. so it can be folded up. . square by 62 in. 1-1/4 in. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. They are fastened. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp.

Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. After rounding the ends of the studs. Rosenthal. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. and a loop made in the end. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. The front can be covered . The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. New York. O. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. from scrap material. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. The whole. -Contributed by Charles Stem. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. C. If the loop is tied at the proper place. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. after filling the pail with water. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. H. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. Cincinnati. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. --Contributed by Dr. Phillipsburg.

It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. 1 FIG. By using the following method. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. Develop them into strong prints. either for contact printing or enlargements. sickly one. by all rules of the game. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. principally mayonnaise dressing. Md. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. If the gate is raised slightly. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. Wehr. --Contributed by Gilbert A.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. if you try to tone them afterward. you are. the color will be an undesirable. thoroughly fix. Baltimore. and. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. FIG. the mouth of which rests against a. The results will be poor. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. In my own practice. The . But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution.

2 oz. When the desired reduction has taken place. but. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes... A good final washing completes the process.. The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper. 20 gr... 1 and again as in Fig. With a little practice. Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete.. transfer it to a tray of water.... L..... An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in..... The blotting paper can .. The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished...... 2... Gray. Place the dry print.. 16 oz.. stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax. this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain. It will bleach slowly and evenly.. Iodide of potassium .. San Francisco....... wide and 4 in... preferably the colored kind.... as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away..... The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table. without previous wetting. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects.. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig.. etc... Water ...bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison. --Contributed by T." Cyanide of potassium .. long to admit the angle support. as it will appear clean much longer than the white.. to make it 5 by 5 in. in this solution. Put one on each corner of the blotting paper.. Cal. when it starts to bleach. thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses... three times.... in size.. The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone. Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper... where it will continue to bleach. 5 by 15 in. This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print...

Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. Make a design similar to that shown. and a length of 5 in. --Contributed by L. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. the head of which is 2 in. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners.J. the shaft 1 in. wide below the . Corners complete are shown in Fig. Canada. Wilson Aldred Toronto. having a width of 2-1/4 in. --Contributed by J. Monahan. Oshkosh. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. wide. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. Wisconsin. 20 gauge. 3.

and the saw allowed time to make its cut. after folding along the center line. then coloring. being held perpendicular to the work. but use a swab on a stick. using a small metal saw. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. freehand. Trace the design on the metal. 1. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. 1 part sulphuric acid. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. After this has dried. as shown in Fig. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. which gives the outline of the design Fig. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. Fig. 3. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. The metal must be held firmly.FIG. Allow this to dry. using turpentine. . With files. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. After the sawing. deep. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. using carbon paper. Pierce a hole with a small drill. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. Apply with a small brush. then trace the other half in the usual way. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. then put on a second coat. Do not put the hands in the solution. 2. With the metal shears. For coloring olive green. 4. Make one-half of the design. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. 1 part nitric acid. 1 Fig. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron.

on a chopping board. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. it does the work rapidly. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. Burnett. M. as shown. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. attach brass handles. After the stain has dried. then stain it a mahogany color. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. --Contributed by Katharine D. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. East Hartford. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. thick. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. New York. Morse. --Contributed by H. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. When this is cold. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. Cal. Carl Cramer.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. Syracuse. . Conn. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. Ii is an ordinary staple. Richmond. --Contributed by M. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip.

The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. Jaquythe. two enameled. also locate the drill holes. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. saucers or pans. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. Florida. --Contributed by W. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. 1/4 in. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. as shown at A. H. in width at the shank. or tin. Atwell. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. square. 1. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. some pieces of brass. Cal. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. Kissimmee. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. Fig. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. brass. A. L. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. holes. machine screws. about 3/16 in. 4.. not over 1/4 in. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. Richmond. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. indicating the depth of the slots. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. 53 steel pens. . --Contributed by Mrs. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. and several 1/8-in. WARNECKE Procure some brass. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. one shaft. thick. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. thick and 4 in. as shown in Fig.

The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. 3. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. A 3/4-in. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. into the hole. machine screws and nuts. as shown. as in Fig. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. 6. and the ends filed round for the bearings. The bearings are made of 1/4-in.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. in diameter and 1/32 in. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. These are connected to a 3/8-in. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. brass and bolted to the casing. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. wide. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. 3. can be procured. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. lead should be run into the segments. 2. hole in the center. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. Bend as shown in Fig. Fig. If the shaft is square. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. with 1/8-in. with the face of the disk. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. If metal dishes. with a 3/8-in. using two nuts on each screw. Fig. hole. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. 5. machine screws. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. supply pipe. thick. There should be a space of 1/16 in. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. wide and bend as shown in Fig. long and 5/16 in. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. long by 3/4 in. Fig. as shown in Fig. about 1/32 in. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. 2. a square shaft used.. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. and pins inserted. 7. The shaft hole may also be filed square. thick. hole is drilled to run off the water. each about 1 in. 1.

Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. from the top of the box. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. make these seams come between the two back legs. high and 15 in. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. The lower part. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. square and 30-1/2 in. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. screws. Now you will have the box in two pieces. Stain the wood before putting in the . allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. 8-1/2 in. The four legs are each 3/4-in. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. --Contributed by F. we will call the basket. deep and 1-1/4 in. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. La Salle. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. Cooke. three of which are in the basket. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. deep over all. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. Fasten with 3/4-in. When assembling. using four to each leg. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. Hamilton. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. Smith. With a string or tape measure. from the bottom end of the legs. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. or more in diameter. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. V. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. long. Ill. Be sure to have the cover. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. Canada. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. --Contributed by S. to make the bottom.

--Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. Md. and gather it at that point. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. wide. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. 1. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. Baltimore. -Contributed by Stanley H. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane.2 Fig. When making the display. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. Boston. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. Mass. as shown in the sketch. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. Cover them with the cretonne. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. --also the lower edge when necessary. Sew on to the covered cardboards. If all the parts are well sandpapered. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. The folded part in the center is pasted together. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. you can. 2. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. Fig. The side.lining. Packard. wide and four strips 10 in.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. sewing on the back side.

are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. Cross Timbers. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. N. --Contributed by H. Mo. 3. Crockett. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. Fig. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. --Contributed by B. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. Y. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. It is not difficult to . When through using the pad. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. and. L. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. It is cleanly. Gloversville. saving all the solid part. with slight modifications. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. Orlando Taylor.

take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. -Contributed by C. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. If a file is used. Bourne. and secure it in place with glue or paste. and scrape out the rough parts. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. After this is done. are shown in the diagram. --Contributed by Edith E. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. Mass. across the face. After stirring. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. El Paso. Both of these methods are wasteful. Lane. S. remove the contents. Texas. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . or if desired. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. Lowell. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. it should be new and sharp. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork.

and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. --Contributed by Marion P. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. He captured several pounds in a few hours. Greenleaf. A Postcard Rack [25]. Wheeler. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. Ill. The process works well and needs no watching. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. The insects came to the light. Des Moines. F. Turl. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. Oregon. Ill. Iowa. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. --Contributed by Loren Ward. After several hours' drying. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel.cooking utensil. Those having houses . Oak Park. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. Canton. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. circled over the funnel and disappeared. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. As these were single-faced disk records. --Contributed by Geo.

Worcester. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. 6 in. Mass. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. not even with the boards themselves. Only three pieces are required. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. plane and pocket knife. by 2 ft. the best material to use being matched boards. material. --Contributed by Wm. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. will do as well..Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. --Contributed by Thomas E. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. and as they are simple in design. Both sides can be put together in this way. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. Rosenberg. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. and both exactly alike. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. Dobbins. the bottom being 3/8 in. and the second one for the developing bench. boards are preferable. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. thick. 6 in. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one.. but for cheapness 3/4 in. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. The single boards can then be fixed. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. Conn. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. Lay the floor next. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. Glenbrook. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. one on each side of what will be the .

one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. 7. so that the water will drain off into the sink.. hinged to it. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. which is fixed on as shown . These are all in section and are self-explanatory. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. brown wrapping paper. The developing bench is 18 in. below which is fixed the sink. It is shown in detail in Fig. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. 5. 9). by screwing to the floor. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. In hinging the door. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door.doorway. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. nailing them to each other at the ridge. 8. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. 6. 10). 11. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. and should be zinc lined. the closing side as at B. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. and to the outside board of the sides. and act as a trap for the light.. and in the middle an opening. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. etc. 2 in section.. Fig. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. is cut. and the top as at C in the same drawing. as shown in Figs. At the top of the doorway. 6 and 9. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. of the top of the door for the same reason. The roof boards may next be put on. wide. 6. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. so that it will fit inside the sink. 9 by 11 in. 3 and 4.

Details of the Dark Rook .

these being shown in Fig. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. as shown in the sections. which makes it possible to have white light. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. preferably maple or ash. The handle should be at least 12 in. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. 16. 2. A circular piece about 2 in. but not the red glass and frame. mixing flour and water. For beating up an egg in a glass. or the room may be made with a flat roof. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. Erie. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. as shown in Fig. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. 18. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. 20. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. 16. hole bored in the center for a handle. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. 14. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. In use. and a tank stand on it. 17. Fig. or red light as at K. 19. 15. Fig. are fastened in the corners inside. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. --Contributed by W. four coats at first is not too many. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. as in Fig. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. 6. after lining with brown paper.in Fig. as at I. 13. Karl Hilbrich. Fig. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. 13. though this is hardly advisable. and a 3/8-in. as at M. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. Fig. screwing them each way into the boards. it is better than anything on the market. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . 1. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. Pennsylvania. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. if desired. The house will be much strengthened if strips.

Eureka Springs. about 3/8 in. New York. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. -Contributed by E. as shown in the sketch. Mitchell. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. long. when put together properly is a puzzle. --Contributed by L. Yonkers. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons.copper should be. Ark. Schweiger. Kansas City. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. To operate. L. Smith. D. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. which. for a handle. G. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . Mo. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. --Contributed by Wm.

but may be replaced with a panel or other design. for the moment. If the sill is inclined. which binds them together. in order to thoroughly preserve it. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. 3. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. Having completed the bare box. the rustic work should be varnished. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. as shown in Fig. . 1. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. Each cork is cut as in Fig. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. After the box is trimmed. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. The corks in use are shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. 2. holes should be drilled in the bottom. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. especially for filling-in purposes. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. A number of 1/2-in. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. as is usually the case. to make it set level. 3. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. The design shown in Fig. need them. the box will require a greater height in front. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. as well as improve its appearance.

Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. share the same fate. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. . being partly eaten into. Traps do no good. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. 1. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. cabbages. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. to hold the coil on the bottom plate.. life in the summer time is a vexation.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. it's easy. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. too dangerous. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. as shown in Fig. When the corn is gone cucumbers. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. 3. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. 4. etc. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. 2. F. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. drilled at right angles. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. can't use poison. But I have solved the difficulty. and observe results. Each long projection represents a leg.

The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. About 9-1/2 ft. the coil does not heat sufficiently. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. If. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. long. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. cut some of it off and try again. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. by trial. .Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. and made up and kept in large bottles. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. The solution can be used over and over again. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. cut in 1/2-in. strips. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. -. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. of No. Iowa. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained.

The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. Knives. In cleaning silver. C. of gasoline. forks. . but with unsatisfactory results. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. Stir and mix thoroughly. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. D. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. to cause the door to swing shut. --Contributed by James M. coffee pot. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. and a strip. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. Kane. hot-water pot. as shown in the sketch. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. it falls to stop G. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. Fig 2. --Contributed by Katharine D. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. Pa. Morse. is a good size--in this compound. Dallas. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. of oleic acid with 1 gal. Do not wash them. Y. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. Texas. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. Doylestown. of whiting and 1/2 oz. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. 1) removed. Syracuse. N.

later fixed and washed as usual. --Contributed by Oliver S. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. Fisher. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. La. but unfixed. . If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. using the paper dry. of course. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. Pa. Waverly. Harrisburg. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. which is. Ill. negatives. --Contributed by Theodore L. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. Sprout. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. New Orleans.

then . The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. Fig. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. The harmonograph. a harmonograph is a good prescription. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. metal. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. 1. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. In this uncertainty lies the charm. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. To obviate this difficulty. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis.

to prevent any side motion. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. A length of 7 ft. Arizona. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. one-fourth. A small table or platform. in diameter. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. R. 1. that is. for instance. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. which can be regulated. of about 30 or 40 lb. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. etc. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. with a nail set or punch. J. ceiling. what is most important. --Contributed by Wm. exactly one-third. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. provides a means of support for the stylus. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. Rosemont. Ingham. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. Chicago.. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. or the lines will overlap and blur. is attached as shown at H. such as a shoe buttoner. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained.. as shown in Fig. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. in the center of the circle to be cut. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. A pedestal. G. as shown in the lower part of Fig. The length of the short pendulum H. Punch a hole. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. is about right for a 10-ft. A weight. Gaffney. makes respectively 3. and unless the shorter pendulum is. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. as long as the other. K. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. A small weight. Holes up to 3 in. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. one-fifth. Another weight of about 10 lb. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. 1-3/4 by 2 in. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. --Contributed by James T. 1.

--Contributed by J.J. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. Fig. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. and 4 as in Fig. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. then put 2 at the top. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. one for the sender and one for the receiver. N. 4. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. Chicago. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory.J. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. dividing them into quarters. then 3 as in Fig.H. Fig. Cape May City. distributing them over the whole card. and proceed as before. Morey. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. 3. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. Cruger. of course. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. The capacity of the vise. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. The two key cards are made alike. 6. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. 5. 1. a correspondent of . 2. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. -Contributed by W. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side.

deep. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. After preparing the base and uprights. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. drill 15 holes. the portion of the base under the coil. Augusta. citrate of iron and ammonia. sheet of well made asbestos paper. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. If constructed of the former. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. acetic acid and 4 oz. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. Cut through the center. long. of water. wood-screws. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. 6 gauge wires shown. 1/2 oz. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. After securing the tint desired. 1/4 in. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. To assemble. remove the prints. from the top and bottom. Wind the successive turns of . of ferricyanide of potash. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. --Contributed by L. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. Alberta Norrell. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. Ga. 22 gauge German-silver wire. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. respectively. says Popular Electricity. of 18-per-cent No. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. 30 gr. of the uprights. Asbestos board is to be preferred.

This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. The case may be made of 1/2-in. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. 16 gauge copper wire. Labels of some kind are needed. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. Y. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. cut and dressed 1/2 in. which. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. square.. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. N. Small knobs may be added if desired. Ward. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. then fasten the upright in place. Ampere. if one is not a smoker. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. as they are usually thrown away when empty. 14 gauge. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. --Contributed by Frederick E. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. screws. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . rivets.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. etc. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. but these are not necessary.

It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. California. as shown in the sketch. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. B. tin. A. sandpaper or steel wool. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. of glycerine to 16 oz. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face.14 oz. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. S. or has become corroded. particularly so when the iron has once been used. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. If the soldering copper is an old one. C. of water. --Contributed by W. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. D. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. Richmond. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. In soldering galvanized iron. tinner's acid. especially if a large tub is used. it must be ground or filed to a point. The material can be of any wood. brass. . This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. The parts are put together with dowel pins. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. Wis. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. Ark. and one made of poplar finished black. the pure muriatic acid should be used. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. lead. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks.. a piece of solder. then to the joint to be soldered. and labeled "Poison. G. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. E and F. Kenosha. and rub the point of the copper on it. Heat it until hot (not red hot). being careful about the heat. zinc. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. Copper. galvanized iron. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. --C. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. Jaquythe. Larson. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. This is considerable annoyance. --Contributed by A. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. Eureka Springs.

Place the band. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. Apart from this. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. D. thick and 1-1/4 in. round iron. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. I bind my magazines at home evenings. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . however. The dimensions shown in Fig. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. Fig. which gives two bound volumes each year.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. Fig. B. 2. in diameter. Hankin. Troy. and drill out the threads. Six issues make a well proportioned book. Take a 3/4-in. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. N. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. W. The punch A. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. such as copper. The disk will come out pan shaped. -Contributed by H. C. 1. with good results. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. This completes the die. The covers of the magazines are removed. in diameter. Y. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. a ring may be made from any metal. wide. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. Brass rings can be plated when finished. This will leave a clear hole. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. nut. brass and silver. 7/8 in.

and a third piece. 1 in Fig. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. Five cuts. is used for the sewing material. through the notch on the left side of the string No. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. 1. of the ends extending on each side. 1. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. 2. then back through the notch on the right side. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. and then to string No. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. on all edges except the back. The covering should be cut out 1 in. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. 1/8 in. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. Start with the front of the book. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. C. 1. deep. Place the cardboard covers on the book. and place them against the strings in the frame. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. allowing about 2 in. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. as shown in Fig. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. using . size 16 or larger. After drawing the thread tightly. allowing a margin of 1/4 in.4. . which is fastened the same as the first. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. 5. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. Coarse white thread. The string No. 2. If started with the January or the July issue. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. threaded double. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. The sections are then prepared for sewing. is nailed across the top. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. The covering can be of cloth. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared.

iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. and. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. Cal. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. Encanto. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. round iron. Place the cover on the book in the right position. and mark around each one. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. Tinplate. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. Nebr. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. at opposite sides to each other. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. For the blade an old talking-machine . Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. on which to hook the blade. Divine. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. --Contributed by Clyde E.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. College View.

and 1/4 in. hydraulic pipe. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. as it is sometimes called. A. by 1 in. in order to drill the holes in the ends. F. with a steel sleeve.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. and a long thread plug. Hays. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in... Summitville. C. with 10 teeth to the inch. and file in the teeth. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. as shown. thick. -Contributed by Willard J. fuse hole at D. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. Miss. bore. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. E. Moorhead. Then on the board put . long. B. On the upper side. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. or double extra heavy. Ohio. by 4-1/2 in. thick. and 1/4 in. at the same end. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. and another piece (B) 6 in. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. Make the blade 12 in. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in.

Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. as from batteries. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. and some No. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. Philadelphia. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. --Contributed by Chas. A lid may be added if desired. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. of wire to each coil.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. 4 jars. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. Connect up as shown. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. about 5 ft. If you are going to use a current of low tension. of rubber-covered wire. H. the jars need not be very large. high around this apparatus. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. some sheet copper or brass for plates. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. Boyd. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. using about 8 in.

At the front 24 or 26 in. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. by 5 in. making them clear those in the front runner. wide by 3/4 in. long. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. 3 and No. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. 1 on switch. and four pieces 14 in. and bolt through. by 2 in. long. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. beginning at the rear. The illustration shows how to shape it. An iron washer. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars.the way. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. 7 in. & S. gives full current and full speed. above the ground. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. long. oak boards. To wire the apparatus. two pieces 30 in. Equip block X with screw eyes. wide and 2 in. 15-1/2 in. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. Fig. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. 1 and so on for No. 3 in. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. First sandpaper all the wood. 30 in. by 1-1/4 in. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. long by 22 in. B. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. See Fig. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes.. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. C. 16-1/2 in. 4 in. on No. two pieces 34 in. 4.. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. and for the rear runners: A. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. A 3/4-in. and plane it on all edges. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. On the door of the auto front put the . by 5 in. by 1 in. B. thick. 2 is lower down than in No. For the brass trimmings use No. The current then will flow through the motor. The sled completed should be 15 ft. by 1-1/4 in. 3. with the cushion about 15 in. apart. or source of current. Construct the auto front (Fig. 4) of 3/4-in. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. square by 14 ft. Use no nails. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. 2 and 3. 27 B. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. is used to reduce friction. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. The stock required for them is oak. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. Put arm of switch on point No. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. direct to wire across jars.. For the front runners these measurements are: A. two pieces 14 in. two for each jar. The top disk in jar No. In proportioning them the points A. 2. 2 in. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. however. 1 is connected to point No. by 6 in. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. wide and 3/4 in. by 2 in. 5 on switch. 2.. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. Their size also depends on the voltage. . 2. Use no screws on the running surface. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. The connection between point No. are important. thick. A variation of 1/16 in. sheet brass 1 in. 11 in. wide.. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. No. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. as they are not substantial enough. long. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. 34 in. Z. as they "snatch" the ice. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. B and C... then apply a coat of thin enamel. C. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. 1. steel rod makes a good steering rod.

bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. overshoes. to the wheel. If desired. If desired. such as burlap. a number of boys may share in the ownership. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. The best way is to get some strong. Then get some upholstery buttons. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. such as used on automobiles. or with these for $25. long. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. which is somewhat moist. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. by 1/2 in. cutting it out of sheet brass.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . cheap material. If the expense is greater than one can afford. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. to improve the appearance. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. Fasten a horn. by 30 in. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. lunch. may be stowed within. fasten a cord through the loop. etc. a brake may be added to the sled. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. parcels. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. brass plated. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates.

Leland.tree and bring. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. Ill. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. . Lexington. --Contributed by Stewart H. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same.

Fig. With no other tools than a hacksaw. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. will be over the line FG. 1. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. with twenty-four teeth. The first tooth may now be cut. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. when flat against it. London. First take the case of a small gearwheel. mild steel or iron. This guide should have a beveled edge. thick. a compass. sheet metal. made from 1/16-in. from F to G. Draw a circle on paper. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. so that the center of the blade. The Model Engineer. 4). 3. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. by drawing diameters. which. some files. The straight-edge. FC. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. 2. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. say 1 in. the cut will be central on the line. Fig. E. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. though more difficult. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. CD. Fig. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. the same diameter as the wheel. A small clearance space. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. outside diameter and 1/16 in. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill.

Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. either the pencils for arc lamps. electric lamp. R. some wire and some carbons. as shown in Fig. B. and the other outlet wire. each in the center. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. No shock will be perceptible. as shown in Fig. or several pieces bound tightly together. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. Make a hole in the other. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. 1. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. Focus the camera in the usual manner. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. as shown in Fig. 2. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. . If there is no faucet in the house. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. A bright. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. hold in one hand. B. transmitter. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts.Four Photos on One Plate of them. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. ground it with a large piece of zinc. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. Then take one outlet wire. 1. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate.

Dry batteries are most convenient. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. D D are binding posts for electric wires. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. and will then burn the string C. or more of the latter has been used. 36 wire around it. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. are also needed. --Contributed by Geo. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. Wrenn. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. A is a wooden block. and again wind the wire around it. They have screw ends. Several battery cells. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. J. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. But in this experiment. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. one at the receiver can hear what is said. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. leaving about 10 in. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. a transmitter which induces no current is used. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. by 1 in. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. Pa. serves admirably. under the gable. Ashland. One like a loaf of bread. Then set the whole core away to dry. as indicated by E E. of course. Slattery. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. Ohio. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. at each end for terminals. and about that size. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. as shown. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. For a base use a pine board 10 in. B. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. If desired. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. by 12 in. Emsworth. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter.

The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. while C is open. At one side secure two receptacles. Connect these three to switch. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. D.. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. The apparatus is now ready for operation. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. E. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. C. C. 2. Turn on switch. 14 wire. until the hand points to zero on the scale. and one single post switch. 12 or No. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. the terminal of the coil. for the . F. in parallel. run a No. and switch. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. and the lamps. in series with bindingpost. The coil will commence to become warm. B B. B B. These should have hollow ends. From the other set of binding-posts. as shown. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. Fig. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. D. Jr. as shown. connecting lamp receptacles. Place 16-cp. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. Newark. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles.wire. First make a support. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. The oven is now ready to be connected. 1. Ohio. Fig.

Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . Make the wire 4-1/2 in. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through.E. 14. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. long and make a loop. A wooden box. Fig.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. 1. is then made and provided with a glass front. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. 3 amperes. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. 4. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. although brass is better. is made of wire. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. deep. 4 in. as shown in the cut. Dussault. a variable resistance. This may be made of wood. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. although copper or steel will do. After drilling.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. E. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. The box is 5-1/2 in. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. wide and 1/8 in. drill a hole as shown at H. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. 2. drill in only to the opening already through. high. B. At a point a little above the center. drill through the entire case and valve. from the lower end. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. --Contributed by J. a battery.or 4-way valve or cock. wide and 1-3/4 in. 36 magnet wire instead of No. 6. 5. etc. Fig.. 5. 3. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. 1/4 in. Mine is wound with two layers of No. C. wind with plenty of No. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. The pointer or hand. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. This is slipped on the pivot. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. is made of iron. a standard ammeter. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. to prevent it turning on the axle. Fig. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. thick. Montreal. 14 wire. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. long. 10 turns to each layer. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. where A is the homemade ammeter. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. remove the valve. D. The core. If for 3-way. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. 1/2 in. but if for a 4way. 7. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. 4 amperes. until the scale is full. 1. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. It is 1 in. inside measurements. D. and D. Fig. To make one. long.

Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. which is used for reducing the current. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. To start the light. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. making two holes about 1/4 in. One wire runs to the switch. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. and the arc light. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. B. and the other connects with the water rheostat. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. and a metal rod. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. D. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. in thickness . A. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. E. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. high. By connecting the motor. in diameter. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point.performing electrical experiments. as shown. F. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. provided with a rubber stopper. This stopper should be pierced. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple.

This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. 1. as shown in C. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. Having fixed the lead plate in position. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. As there shown. If all adjustments are correct. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. 2. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. 1. as shown in B. Fig. 1. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. long. Fig. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. A piece of wood. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. Carthage. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. 2. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. Fig. B. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. --Contributed by Harold L. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. To insert the lead plate. Having finished the interrupter. N. where he is placed in an upright open . If the interrupter does not work at first. A. Y. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. Turn on the current and press the button. Fig. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. Jones.

and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. especially L. A white shroud is thrown over his body. They need to give a fairly strong light. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. loosejointed effect. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. especially the joints and background near A. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. The lights. All . from which the gong has been removed. light-colored garments. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. If it is desired to place the box lower down. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. as the entire interior. to aid the illusion. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. and can be bought at Japanese stores. giving a limp. by 7 in. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view.coffin. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. the illusion will be spoiled. The model. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. until it is dark there. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. should be miniature electric lamps. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. If everything is not black. by 7-1/2 in. The skeleton is made of papier maché. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. could expect from a skeleton. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. is constructed as shown in the drawings. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. A. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. which can be run by three dry cells. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. inside dimensions. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. with the exception of the glass. Its edges should nowhere be visible. within the limits of an ordinary room. The box need not be made of particularly good wood.. L and M. The glass should be the clearest possible. and must be thoroughly cleansed. dressed in brilliant. figures and lights. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. and wave his arms up and down. high. should be colored a dull black.

The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. Cal. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. Fry. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. a double-pointed rheostat could be used.that is necessary is a two-point switch. If a gradual transformation is desired. placed about a foot apart. fat spark. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. after which it assumes its normal color. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. San Jose. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. square block. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . as shown in the sketch. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. --Contributed by Geo. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. Two finishing nails were driven in. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. W. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good.

with two tubes. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. A (see sketch). which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. If a lighted match . into the receiver G. the remaining space will be filled with air. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. F. and should be separated about 1/8 in. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. soldered in the top. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. This is a wide-mouth bottle. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. The plates are separated 6 in. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. or a solution of sal soda. hydrogen gas is generated. as shown. 1. to make it airtight. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. by small pieces of wood. B and C. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. In Fig. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. In Fig. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. New York. Cohen. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. -Contributed by Dudley H.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. One of these plates is connected to metal top. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig.

If desired. which is plugged up at both ends. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. P. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. A. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. which forms the vaporizing coil. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. Fig. 1/2 in. which should be magnetized previous to assembling.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . and the ends of the tube. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. by means of the clips. is made by drilling a 1/8in. then a suitable burner is necessary. A. says the Model Engineer. copper pipe. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. 2 shows the end view. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. A nipple. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. of No. long. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. long. A piece of 1/8-in. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. B. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. should be only 5/16 of an inch. One row is drilled to come directly on top. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. 1. N. 36 insulated wire. London. copper pipe. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. in diameter and 6 in. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. either by passing a current of electricity around it. N. 1-5/16 in. C C. or by direct contact with another magnet. is then coiled around the brass tube. A 1/64-in. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. Fig. A. from the bottom. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. The distance between the nipple. A. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. as is shown in the illustration.

It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper.lamp cord. at the front and back for fly leaves. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. 3. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. taking care not to bend the iron. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. A disk of thin sheet-iron. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. should be cut to the diameter of the can. Fig. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. trim both ends and the front edge. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. smoothly. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. Cut four pieces of cardboard. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. cut to the size of the pages. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. with a fine saw. larger all around than the book. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. Take two strips of stout cloth. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. about 8 or 10 in. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. 2). Turn the book over and paste the other side. 1/4 in. leaving the folded edge uncut. 1. boards and all. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. but if the paper knife cannot be used. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . Fig. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. this makes a much nicer book. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. duck or linen. longer and 1/4 in. Fig. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. fold and cut it 1 in. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord.

is fitted in it and soldered. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. the joint will be gas tight. Another tank. In the bottom. D. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. of tank A is cut a hole. Ont. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. pasting them down (Fig. Bedford City. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. which will just slip inside the little can. This will cause some air to be enclosed. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. Another can. C. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. B. --Contributed by Joseph N. 4). A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. in diameter and 30 in. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. is perforated with a number of holes. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. is soldered onto tank A. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. as shown. --Contributed by James E. Parker.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. Va. is made the same depth as B. Toronto. E. H. 18 in. but its diameter is a little smaller. as shown in the sketch. or rather the top now. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. is turned on it. Noble. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. without a head. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. . and a little can. deep. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. A. A gas cock. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made.

as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. The wiring diagram. when finished. exactly 12 in. J. N. Bott. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. as shown at C. and the four diagonal struts. basswood or white pine. The longitudinal corner spines. making the width. C. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. thus adjusting the . are shown in detail at H and J. Beverly. If the back armature. square by 42 in. B. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. should be 1/4 in. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. 2. and about 26 in. The bridle knots. H is a square knot. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. shows how the connections are to be made. Fig. A. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. by 1/2 in. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. long. E. The diagonal struts. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. should be cut a little too long. The small guards. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. The armature. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. 1. and sewed double to give extra strength. long. to prevent splitting. A A. fastened in the bottom. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. D. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. which may be either spruce. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. tacks. Fig. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in.. B. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. If the pushbutton A is closed. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. -Contributed by H. with an electric-bell magnet. D. which moves to either right or left. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. S. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. should be 3/8 in. B. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired.

Kan. Clay Center. --Contributed by A. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. that refuse to slide easily. as shown. --Contributed by Edw. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. however. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. Closing either key will operate both sounders. and if a strong wind is blowing. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. If the kite is used in a light wind. A bowline knot should be tied at J. Harbert. with gratifying results. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. Chicago. the batteries do not run down for a long time. can be made of a wooden . E. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. for producing electricity direct from heat.lengths of F and G. and. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. Stoddard. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. thus shortening G and lengthening F. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. D. to prevent slipping. shift toward F.

nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. with a number of nails. When the cannon is loaded. by means of machine screws or. which conducts the current into the cannon. E. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. A. A and B. 14 or No. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. --Contributed by A. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. E. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. placed on top. Then. D. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. The wood screw. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. C. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. and also holds the pieces of wood. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. with a pocket compass. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. F. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. 16 single-covered wire. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. Chicago. Fasten a piece of wood. C. in position. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. to the cannon. spark. or parallel with the compass needle. A. and the current may then be detected by means.. A. C. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. B.frame. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current.

it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. Bend the strips BB (Fig. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. Chicago. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. when in position at A'. To reverse. L. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Joseph B. To lock the door. Mich. . hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. now at A' and S'. Ohio. A. Fig. Connect as shown in the illustration. 1. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. Keil. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. within the reach of the magnet. In Fig. requiring a strong magnet. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. Fig. screw is bored in the block. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. Marion. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. Big Rapids. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. where there is a staple. A and S. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. To unlock the door. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. H. 1. A and S. to receive the screw in the center. A hole for a 1/2 in. square and 3/8 in. in this position the door is locked. --Contributed by Henry Peck. 1. with the long arm at L'.the current is shut off. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. press the button. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. but no weights or strings. B. Before putting the reverse block on the motor.

and if desired the handles may . unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. long. if enameled white on the concave side. When ready for use. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. J. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. When the holes are finished and your lines set. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. Rand. pipe with 1-2-in. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. about 18 in. hole. --Contributed by C. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. put in the handle. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. Thread the other end of the pipe. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. West Somerville. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. and C is a dumbbell. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. are enameled a jet black. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. gas-pipe. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. and may be made at very slight expense. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. Mass. or for microscopic work. The standard and base. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge.

while a new one will cost about 80 cents. Mass. Fig. M. A. high by 1 ft. E. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. Make a cylindrical core of wood. Any old pail which is thick enough will do.. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. Warren. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. 1. inside the pail. North Easton. with a cover. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. D. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. across. --Contributed by C. as shown at A in the sketch. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. Fig. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. across. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. which shall project at least 2 in. 8 in. 1.be covered with leather. long and 8 in. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . This peculiar property is also found in ice. B.

If the cover of the pail has no rim. 1330°. and with especial caution the first time. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. Fit all the parts together snugly. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. It is placed inside the kiln. and on it set the paper wrapped core. and varnish. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. or make one yourself. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. say 1/4 in. After removing all the paper. full length of iron core. but will be cheaper in operation. the firing should be gradual.. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. and 3/8 in. C. After finishing the core. 2 in. 1). make two wood ends. layer of the clay mixture. hotel china. 15%. which is the hottest part. 25%. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. long. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. if you have the materials. and cut it 3-1/2 in. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. Fig. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. projecting from each end (Fig. Whatever burner is used. in diameter. in diameter.. This done. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. diameter. strip of sheet iron. C. thick. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in.mixture of clay. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. The 2 in. of fine wire. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. 3) with false top and bottom. if there is to be any glazing done. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. such . and graphite. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. cutting the hole a little smaller. Set aside for a few days until well dried. let this dry thoroughly. long over the lid hole as a chimney.-G. carefully centering it. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. 1390°-1410°. 1). When lighted. thick. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. as dictated by fancy and expense. 60%.. about 1 in. W. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. passing wire nails through and clinching them. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. pack this space-top. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. Wind about 1/8 in. but it will burn a great deal of gas. bottom and sides. to hold the clay mixture. sand. 2. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. and your kiln is ready for business. Cover with paper and shellac as before. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. and 3/4 in. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. E. L. pipe. hard porcelain. Line the pail. wider than the kiln. C. as is shown in the sketch. the point of the blue flame. pipe 2-ft.

Take the red cards. D. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. You can display either color called for. red and black. taking care to have the first card red. about 1/16 in. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. procure a new deck. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. square them up and place in a vise. 2). C. leaving long terminals. overlaps and rests on the body. and discharges into the tube. Then. the next black. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. and divide it into two piles. bind tightly with black silk. as in Fig. with a plane. diameter. --Contributed by J.. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. Chicago. 2. around the coil. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. 2. square them up. C. Next restore all the cards to one pack. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. and plane off about 1/16 in. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. B. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. and so on.53 in. every alternate card being the same color. 1. R. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. . The funnel. Washington. C. all cards facing the same way. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. T. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. length of . as shown in the sketch herewith. 8 in. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. Then take the black cards. as in Fig. A. Of course.

E. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. about 20 in. All the horizontal pieces. Long Branch. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. A. A. angle iron for the frame. 1 gill of fine white sand. B.C. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in.. E. stove bolts. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. N. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. B. of the frame. as the difficulties increase with the size.J. To find the fall of snow. Let . It should be placed in an exposed location. The upright pieces. the same ends will come together again. When the glass is put in the frame a space. F. The cement. 1 gill of litharge. so that when they are assembled. Fig. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. thus making all the holes coincide. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. the first thing to decide on is the size. and this is inexpensive to build. through the holes already drilled. D. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. Drill all the horizontal pieces. and then the frame is ready to assemble. C. 1. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. to form a dovetail joint as shown. B. stove bolts. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. The bottom glass should be a good fit. It is well not to attempt building a very large one.

if desired. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. B. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. D. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. having a swinging connection at C. a centerpiece (A. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. A. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. Fasten the lever. Fig. on the door by means of a metal plate.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. to the door knob. and. Aquarium Finished If desired. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece.

3 shows one of the paddles. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. which is 15 in. They are shown in Fig. Cut two of them 4 ft. B. approximately 1 ft. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. Two short boards 1 in. Fig. to form the slanting part. with a water pressure of 70 lb. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. 26 in. 1. 2 is an end view. White. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. To make the frame. Do not fasten these boards now. as at E. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration.. screwed to the door frame. will open the door about 1/2 in. A small piece of spring brass. 6 in. E. Cut two pieces 30 in. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. soldered to the end of the cylinder. PAUL S. N. 1 . long. Buffalo. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. Fig. and another. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. hoping it may solve the same question for them. 2 ft. and Fig. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. according to the slant given C. long. Y. Fig. F. 1 is the motor with one side removed. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. another. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. to form the main supports of the frame. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. from the outside top of the frame. --Contributed by Orton E. wide by 1 in. another. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. several lengths of scantling 3 in. wide . D. but mark their position on the frame. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. C. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. Fig. long. to keep the frame from spreading. I referred this question to my husband. showing the paddle-wheel in position. 1.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. 2 at GG. thus doing away with the spring. for the top. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. long. AA. Fig. Fig.

burlap will do -. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. in diameter. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. holes. hole through its center. Make this hole conical. 24 in. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. then drill a 3/16-in. Take the side pieces. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. iron. 2) with a 5/8-in. tapering from 3/16 in. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. and drill a 1-in. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. steel shaft 12 in. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. thick (HH. (I. Tack one side on. 2) and another 1 in. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. Now block the wheel. GG. Fasten them in their proper position. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. Fig. Fig. iron 3 by 4 in. pipe. remove the cardboard. Drill 1/8-in. hole from the tops to the 1-in. hole to form the bearings. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. take down the crosspieces. and drill a 1/8-in. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. to a full 1/2 in.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. hole through the exact center of the wheel. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. and a 1/4 -in. long and filling it with babbitt metal. When it has cooled. that is.along the edges under the zinc to form . Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. from one end by means of a key. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. hole through them. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. as shown in Fig. 1. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. hole through their sides centrally. after which drill a 5/8 in. long to the wheel about 8 in. These are the paddles. Fig. with the wheel and shaft in place. thick. 2) form a substantial base. 4. by 1-1/2 in. Next secure a 5/8-in.

and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. Correct exposure depends. . had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. sewing machine. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. but now I put them in the machine. and leave them for an hour or so. Do not stop down the lens. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. Darken the rest of the window. The best plate to use is a very slow one. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. but as it would have cost several times as much. and as near to it as possible. drill press. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. as shown in the sketch at B.a water-tight joint. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. Focus the camera carefully. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. place the outlet over a drain. and the subject may move. on the lens. or what is called a process plate. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. If sheet-iron is used. any window will do. start the motor. remove any white curtains there may be. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. ice-cream freezer. as this makes long exposure necessary. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. of course. If the bearings are now oiled. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. it would be more durable. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. light and the plate. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. Raise the window shade half way. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. says the Photographic Times. It is obvious that. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. shutting out all light from above and the sides. Drill a hole through the zinc. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean.

A. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. as a slight current will answer. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. 2. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. and a base. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. and without fog. With a piece of black paper. On completing . by twisting. 2. the core is drawn down out of sight. which is made of iron and cork. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. B. without detail in the face. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. an empty pill bottle may be used. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. full of water. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. or an empty developer tube. D. The core C. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. The current required is very small. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. a glass tube. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. The glass tube may be a test tube. a core. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. or wood. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. with binding posts as shown. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. hard rubber. as shown in Fig. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. until the core slowly rises. C. or can be taken from an old magnet.

Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. is Benham's color top. and are changed by reversing the rotation. water and 3 oz. 1 pt. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. finest graphite. white lead. and one not easy to explain. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows .Interior View the circuit the core will descend. and make a pinhole in the center. according to his control of the current. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. This is a mysterious looking instrument. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. 1 lb. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. The colors appear different to different people. whale oil. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. 1. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure.

but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. As this device is easily upset. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. B. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. nearly every time. In making hydrogen. -Contributed by D. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. or three spot. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . and asks an observer to withdraw a card. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. before cutting. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water.L. C. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. In prize games. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. Chicago. deuce.B. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. A.. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. when the action ceases. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. especially if the deck is a new one. fan-like. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. thus partly filling bottles A and C. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other.

12 in. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. 3). using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. 2. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. in length and 3 in. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. Make a 10-sided stick.. . Fig. W. --Contributed by F. Bently. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. 4. 9 in. that will fit loosely in the tube A. long and 3 in. --Contributed by C. (Fig. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. Detroit. in diameter. Dak. Fig. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. Jr. J. 10 in. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. S. 1. Detail of Phonograph Horn . as shown in Fig. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. S. Form a cone of heavy paper. Huron.. long.

long. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. bend it at right angles throughout its length. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. about the size of a leadpencil. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. Denver.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. C. A. will cause an increased movement of C. on one side and the top. E. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. Remove the form. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. Fortunately. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. A second piece of silk thread. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. with a pin driven in each end. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. push back the bolt. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. Fig. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. and walk in. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. A piece of tin. allowing 1 in. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. but bends toward D. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. making it three-ply thick. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . --Contributed by Reader. Cut out paper sections (Fig. it is equally easy to block that trick. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. 6. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make.

will last for several years. The 2 by 4-in. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. West St. --Contributed by J. or left to right. and rest on a brick placed under each end. 4 ft. are 7 ft. Minn. The feet. The upper switch. posts. A. R. B. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. The reverse switch. put together as shown in the sketch. S S. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. S. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. is connected each point to a battery. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch.. Two wood-base switches. while the lower switch. By this arrangement one. are made 2 by 4 in. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. W. as shown. long. long. B. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. S. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. Jr. Fremont Hilscher.. Paul.strip.

The hose E connects to the boiler. 2. In Fig. pulley wheel. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. Fig. is an old bicycle pump. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. The base is made of wood. FF. cut in half. the other parts being used for the bearing B. H and K. which is made of tin. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. thick. Fig. and a cylindrical . If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. 1. with two washers. The piston is made of a stove bolt. The valve motion is shown in Figs. The steam chest D. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. 3/8 in. 2 and 3. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. E. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. and in Fig. and valve crank S. and has two wood blocks. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. or anything available. and the crank bearing C. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. either an old sewing-machine wheel. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. the size of the hole in the bearing B.every house. which will be described later.

and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. Wis. Fry. and the desired result is obtained. and saturated with thick oil. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. San Jose. The boiler. can be an old oil can. as it is merely a trick of photography. and a very amusing trick. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. This engine was built by W. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. G. --Contributed by Geo. . Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal.piece of hard wood. to receive the connecting rod H. 4. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. powder can. Cal. Eustice. C. 3. This is wound with soft string. Fig. G. Fig. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. Schuh and A. First. is cut out of tin. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. or galvanized iron. W. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. The valve crank S. at that. J. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. of Cuba. as shown in Fig. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. using the positive wire as a pen. 1.

C. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. to cross in the center. as shown. and Fig. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. When turning. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. 1 by covering up Figs. Fig. and pass ropes around . B. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. B. Fig. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. as shown at AA. The smaller wheel. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. Cut half circles out of each stave. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. Fig. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. They may be of any size. diameter. 1 will be seen to rotate. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. and place a bell on the four ends. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool.

but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. from the transmitter. To make this lensless microscope. Mo. which allows the use of small sized ropes. A (a short spool. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. procure a wooden spool. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. but not on all.G. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. produces a higher magnifying power). long. such as clothes lines. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. This in turn will act on the transmitter.M. W. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. From a piece of thin . --Contributed by H. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. Louis. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter.. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. as shown in the illustration. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. St. which accounts for the sound.

is made from an old electric-bell magnet. D. B. or 64 times. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. which are pieces of hard wood. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. as in all microscopes of any power. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. (The area would appear 64 times as large. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. i. cut out a small disk. Viewed through this microscope. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. and so on. darting across the field in every direction. H. and look through the hole D. held at arm's length. An innocent-looking drop of water. B. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. the diameter will appear three times as large.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. The lever. The pivot.. place a small object on the transparent disk. in which hay has been soaking for several days. e. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. if the distance is reduced to one-third. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. C. the object should be of a transparent nature. the diameter will appear twice as large.) But an object 3/4-in. by means of brads. which costs little or nothing to make. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. is fastened at each end by pins. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. is made of iron.. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. . and at the center. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. bent as shown. Fig. otherwise the image will be blurred. The spring. D. E. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. fastened to a wooden base. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. C. A. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. can be made of brass and the armature. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. if the distance is reduced to one-half. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. To use this microscope. 1. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. 2. 3.

The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. brass: E. wood. or a single piece. 2. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. can be made panel as shown. coils wound with No. long by 16 in. wide and set in between sides AA. is cut from a board about 36 in. K. B. A. F. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. 1. and are connected to the contacts. 16 in. FF. between the armature and the magnet. . similar to the one used in the sounder. 16 in. wide. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. or taken from a small one-point switch. wide. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. should be about 22 in. E. K. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. nail soldered on A. in length and 16 in. fastened near the end. Cut the top. D. B. C. Fig. long. The binding posts. The back. soft iron. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. A switch. wood: C. DD. Each side. 26 wire: E. wood: F. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. D. D. brass. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. connection of D to nail. brass: B. long and 14-1/2 in. C. Fig. brass or iron soldered to nail. binding posts: H spring The stop. thick. HH.SOUNDER-A. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. KEY-A. wide and about 20 in. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. which are made to receive a pivot. wide. The door. wide. AA. The base of the key.

the only materials necessary being a glass tube. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . When the electrical waves strike the needle. brads. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in.. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. Garfield. with 3/4-in. Ill. material. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. 2 and made from 1/4-in. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. Make 12 cleats. long. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. as shown in the sketch. cut in them. In operation. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. 13-1/2 in. as shown. E. AA. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle.

when the coil is not provided with a regulator. J. --Contributed by R.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. and thus decreases the resistance. the magnet. through which a piece of wire is passed. F. A fairly stiff spring. N. A. and. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. when used with a motor. filled with water. A. The cord is also fastened to a lever. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . down into the water increases the surface in contact. Fairport. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. Pushing the wire. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. Ridgewood. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. Y. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. N. Brown. pulls down the armature. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. A (see sketch). When the pipe is used. B. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. in order to increase the surface. E. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. --Contributed by John Koehler. will give a greater speed. C.

Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. Gachville. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. if desired. even those who read this description. N. B. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. thus discharging the contents of the hopper.for the secret contact. --Contributed by Perry A. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. Borden. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. Of course.

Mangold. as shown in Fig. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. C. From a piece of brass a switch. The top board is made 28-in. --Contributed by Dr. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. apart. Washington. where the other end of wire is fastened. Cal. 1. records. long and 5 in. wide. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. long and full 12-in. Dobson. The three shelves are cut 25-in. Connect switch to post B. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. --Contributed by H. H. thick and 12-in. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. wide.whenever the bell rings. as shown in Fig.. deep and 3/4 in. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. East Orange. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. wide. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. wide. C. from the bottom. for 10in. 2. Two drawers are fitted in this space. D. With about 9 ft. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. and on both sides of the middle shelf. records and 5-5/8 in. E. N. . Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. Jr. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. J. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. for 6-in. in a semicircle 2 in. wide. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. Nails for stops are placed at DD. A. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. Compton. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in.

depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. to which is fastened a cord. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . B. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. as shown in Fig. E. A. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. which in operation is bent. When the cord is passed over pulley C. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. Va. Roanoke.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. as shown by the dotted lines. 1. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. closed.

1 in. These wheels should be 3/4 in.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. 1. but a larger one could be built in proportion. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. it too loose. 3). 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. wide. is compressed by wheels. which should be about 1/2 in. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. If the wheels fit too tightly. Fig. Figs. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. they will let the air through. In the sides (Fig. in diameter. Do not fasten the sides too . The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. Cut two grooves. 1 in. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. E. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. in diameter. In these grooves place wheels. Notice the break (S) in the track. against which the rubber tubing. 3. B. CC. through one of these holes. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. Figs. long. Bore two 1/4 in. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. Fig. in diameter. thick. thick (A. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. excepting the crank and tubing. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. deep and 1/2 in. holes (HH. wide. E. The crankpin should fit tightly. to turn on pins of stout wire. deep. as shown in the illustration. Put the rubber tube. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. square and 7/8 in. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. 5) when they are placed. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. Fig. D. one in each end. Now put all these parts together. in diameter. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. they will bind. apart. 4 shows the wheel-holder.

1. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. In the two cross bars 1 in. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. AA. --Contributed by Dan H. To use the pump. stands 20 in. 1. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. from each end. Fig. the pump will give a steady stream. mark for hole and 3 in. A in Fig. mark again. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. 1. and are 30 in. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. from the bottom and 2 in. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. 17-1/2 in. 1. Cut six pieces. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. and mark for a hole. B. costing 10 cents. 15 in. a platform should be added. 1. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. Idana. from each end. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. AA.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. The three legs marked BBB. 2. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. Fig. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. Then turn the crank from left to right. Fig. tubing. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. and 3-1/2 in. though a small iron wheel is better. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. the other wheel has reached the bottom. Take the center of the bar. is all the expense necessary. If the motion of the wheels is regular. 2. For ease in handling the pump. Two feet of 1/4-in. Kan. Fig. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. as shown in Fig. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. beyond each of these two. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. Hubbard. long. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. iron. because he can . creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. as it gives steadiness to the motion. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. from that mark the next hole. from each end. The screen which is shown in Fig. The animal does not fear to enter the box. of material.

This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. If the battery has been used before. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. Meyer. The battery is now ready for use. --Contributed by H. The battery is now complete. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. shuts him in. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. If it is wet. and touches the bait the lid is released and. however. long having two thumb screws. C. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. until it is within 3 in. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. When through using the battery. When the bichromate has all dissolved. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. or. To cause a flow of electricity. Philadelphia. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. of water dissolve 4 oz. The truncated. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. 14 copper wire. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. of the top. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. potassium bichromate. 2). or small electric motors. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. If the solution touches the zinc. Place the carbon in the jar. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. but if one casts his own zinc. It is useful for running induction coils. rub the zinc well. 4 oz. add slowly. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. 1) must be prepared. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. dropping. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. sulphuric acid. silvery appearance. and the solution (Fig. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. there is too much liquid in the jar. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. .see through it: when he enters. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. giving it a bright. some of it should be poured out. stirring constantly. acid 1 part). it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. The mercury will adhere.

1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal.. while the coal door is being opened.Fig. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. If. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. Madison. with slight changes. e. the jump-spark coil . i. however. which opens the door. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. After putting in the coal. pressing the pedal closes the door. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. The price of the coil depends upon its size. Wis. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. the battery circuit.

7). diameter. Now for the receiving apparatus. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. and closer for longer distances. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. the full length of the coil. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. as shown in Fig. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. coil. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. After winding. Fig. in a straight line from top to bottom. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. W W. in a partial vacuum. which is made of light copper wire. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". Change the coil described. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. being a 1-in. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. apart. 7. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. 6. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. This coil. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. 5. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. made of No. 6. W W. 7. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit.7.described elsewhere in this book. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. . This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. as shown in Fig. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. while a 12-in. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. This will make an excellent receiver.

For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. as it matches the color well. but simply illustrates the above to show that. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. to the direction of the current. may be easily made at very little expense. at any point to any metal which is grounded. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. B the bed and C the tailstock. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. 1). suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. No. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. A large cone pulley would then be required. using an electric motor and countershaft. For an illustration. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. These circles. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. after all. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. 90°. Figs. 90°. and hence the aerial line. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. only.The aerial line. 1 to 4. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. are analogous to the flow of induction. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection.6 stranded. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. being vertical. Run a wire from the other binding post. being at right angles. which will be described later. I run my lathe by power. The writer does not claim to be the originator. in the air. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. above the ground. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. . but it could be run by foot power if desired. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. where A is the headstock. A. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe.

too. and it is well to have the shaft hot. Fig. thick. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. on the under side of the bed. 4. but not hot enough to burn it. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. Fig. The headstock. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. 6. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. Heat the babbitt well. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. 4. 6 Headstock Details D. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. A. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. one of which is shown in Fig. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. tapered wooden pin. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. After pouring. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. Fig. and Fig. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. just touching the shaft. and runs in babbitt bearings. To make these bearings. The bearing is then ready to be poured. pitch and 1/8 in. B. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. steel tubing about 1/8 in. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. which are let into holes FIG. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. which pass through a piece of wood. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. deep. If the bearing has been properly made. The bolts B (Fig. Fig. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. 2 and 3. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. 5. 5.

To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. of the walk . the alarm is easy to fix up. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. If one has a wooden walk. If not perfectly true. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. lock nut. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. Ill. they may be turned up after assembling. Newark. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue.J. N. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. Take up about 5 ft. Oak Park. B. so I had to buy one. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. and a 1/2-in. FIG. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. embedded in the wood. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. A. The tail stock (Fig. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. This prevents corrosion.other machines. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin.

Finally. so that they will not touch. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. hang the articles on the wires. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. before dipping them in the potash solution. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. silver or other metal. of water. to remove all traces of grease. Connect up an electric bell. to roughen the surface slightly. water. To avoid touching it. save when a weight is on the trap. leaving a clear solution. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. and the alarm is complete. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. Fig. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. (A. Minn.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. Do not touch the work with the hands again. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. --Contributed by R. S. clean the articles thoroughly. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. add potassium cyanide again. Minneapolis. 2). Then make the solution . Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. Jackson.

saw a piece of wood. Where Bunsen cells are used. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. I. and the larger part (F. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. --Model Engineer. an old electric bell or buzzer. 1). Take quick. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. a hand scratch brush is good. light strokes. long. and 4 volts for very small ones. will serve for the key. nickel and such metals. also. if one does not possess a buffing machine. such metals as iron. which is advised. Fig. with water. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. Fig. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. Can be made of a 2-in. Fig. A 1/4 in. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. The wooden block C. Before silver plating.5 to 4 volts. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. 1 in. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. When all this is set up. about 25 ft. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. which is held by catch B. If accumulators are used. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. and then treated as copper. with water. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. a circuit is completed. piece of broomstick. The wooden catch. 1 not only unlocks. Having finished washing the precipitate. pewter. which . Then. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. Fig. 10 in. B should be of the same wood. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. with the pivot 2 in. zinc. In rigging it to a sliding door. A (Fig. of water. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. must be about 1 in. make a key and keyhole. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. Screw the two blocks together. shaking. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. On brass. Repeat six times. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. hole in its center. This solution. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. If more solution is required. as at F. thick by 3 in. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. 3. lead. Make a somewhat larger block (E. long. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. German silver. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz.up to 2 qt. when the point of the key touches the tin. With an electric pressure of 3. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. copper. 1. To provide the keyhole. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. use 2 volts for large articles. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. 18 wire. 3) directly over the hole. square. but opens the door. from the lower end. of clothesline rope and some No. 3) strikes the bent wire L. as shown in Fig. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. 1). silver can be plated direct.

Fig. --Contributed by E. spoons and jackknives. the requisites are a large soap box. one-third of the length from the remaining end. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. in his shirt sleeves. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. H. H. floor. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. half way from open end to closed end. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. The magician stands in front of this. Fig. he points with one finger to the box. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. although a little more trouble. Fig. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. some black cloth. the illumination in front must be arranged. and plenty of candles. and finally lined inside with black cloth. no painting inside is required. or cave. to throw the light toward the audience. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. H.. Objects appear and disappear. New Jersey. should be cut a hole. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. sides and end. surrounding a perfectly black space. To prepare such a magic cave. 3. so much the better. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. such as forks. is the cut through which the rope runs. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. 2. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. B. The box must be altered first. Fig. East Orange. shows catch B. and black art reigns supreme. Heavy metal objects. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. a few simple tools. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. He removes the bowl from the black box. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. he tosses it into the cave. enlarged. which unlocks the door. Receiving the bowl again. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. 2. 116 Prospect St. and hands its contents round to the audience. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. with a switch as in Fig. between the parlor and the room back of it. with the lights turned low. In front of you. 1. the box should be painted black both inside and out. some black paint. 1. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. top. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. . but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. One end is removed. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. Thus. 0. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. and a slit. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. The interior must be a dead black. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. Next. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. On either side of the box. Klipstein. cut in one side. One thing changes to another and back again. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. heighten the illusion. Next.

This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. into the eyes of him who looks. had a big stage. is on a table) so much the better. was identical with this. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black.Finally. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. a screen must be used. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. of course. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. and pours them from the bag into a dish. which can be made to dance either by strings. as presented by Hermann. Consequently. if. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. the room where the cave is should be dark. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. and several black drop curtains. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. of course. The illusion. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. The audience room should have only low lights. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. one on each side of the box. in which are oranges and apples. only he. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. his confederate behind inserts his hand. But illusions suggest themselves. you must have an assistant. The exhibitor should be . and if portieres are impossible. which are let down through the slit in the top. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain.

d. 1. respectively. About the center piece H moves a disk. their one end just slips under the strips b1. A represents a pine board 4 in. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. and c4 + electricity. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. making contact with them as shown at y. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. On the disk G are two brass strips. c3. so arranged that.. Then. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. b3. c2. c1. e1 and e2. 1. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. when handle K is turned to one side. held down on disk F by two other terminals. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. by means of two wood screws. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. terminal c3 will show .a boy who can talk. or binding posts. with three brass strips. 2. f2. Finally. and c2 to the zinc. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . held down by another disk F (Fig. terminal c3 will show +. making contact with them. at L. as shown in Fig. respectively. b2. and a common screw. if you turn handle K to the right. b1. held down on it by two terminals. 2). making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). 2. vice versa. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. by 4 in. and c1 – electricity. FIG. b3. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. b2. square. or b2.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. A. respectively. Fig. c4. is shown in the diagram.

-Contributed by A. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. and then hold the receiver to your ear. 5. you have the current of one battery. and C and C1 are binding posts. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. Jr. from four batteries. --Contributed by Eugene F. from three batteries. 4. Ohio. thus making the message audible in the receiver. 1. when A is on No. when on No.. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. Tuttle. Joerin. When switch B is closed and A is on No. when on No.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. B is a onepoint switch. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. E. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. jump spark coil. . from five batteries. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . 3. and when on No. Newark.

A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. and placed on the windowsill of the car. Handy Electric Alarm . mark. of Burlington. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. which may be a button or other small object. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. per second. E. per second for each second. P. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. rule.. The device thus arranged. B. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. Wis. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. over the bent portion of the rule. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. so one can see the time. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. as shown in the sketch. La. mark. A. A. When you do not have a graduate at hand. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. Thus. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. and supporting the small weight. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. A. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. Redmond. New Orleans. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. traveled by the thread. is the device of H.

I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. wrapping the wire around the can several times. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. Pa. Then if a mishap comes. Crafton. B. C. --C. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. --Contributed by Gordon T. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. for a wetting is the inevitable result. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. and with the same result. S. Instead. but may be closed at F any time desired. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. . the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. which illuminates the face of the clock. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. When the alarm goes off. Lane. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. soldered to the alarm winder.which has a piece of metal.

1 . With the easily made devices about to be described. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. cannons. which may. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. as shown in Fig. bearings. whence it is soon tracked into the house. small machinery parts. 1. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. ornaments of various kinds. Two cleats. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. engines. C. It is possible to make molds without a bench. The first thing to make is a molding bench. New York City. If there is no foundry Fig. and duplicates of all these. and many other interesting and useful articles. BE. battery zincs. but it is a mistake to try to do this. when it is being prepared.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. as shown. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. AA. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. Macey. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. models and miniature objects. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. L. A. binding posts.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. --Contributed by A.

If the box is not very strong. DD. is filled with coal dust. A good way to make the flask is to take a box.How to Make a Mold [96] . A A. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. J. by 8 in. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. 2 . A slight shake of the bag Fig. CC. and a sieve. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. and the "drag. is about the right mesh. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. It is made of wood and is in two halves. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. A wedge-shaped piece. as shown. high. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. 2. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. The rammer. The flask. Fig. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. and the lower pieces. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking." or lower part. by 6 in. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. and this. makes a very good sieve. The dowels. the "cope. as shown. is made of wood. The cloth bag. which can be either aluminum. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. is nailed to each end of the cope. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. E. will be required. If desired the sieve may be homemade. F. An old teaspoon. but this operation will be described more fully later on. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. 1. try using sand from other sources. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed." or upper half.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. which can be made of a knitted stocking. white metal. H.near at hand. II . which should be nailed in. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. and saw it in half longitudinally. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. previous to sawing. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. 1. Fig. a little larger than the outside of the flask. say 12 in. CC. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. D. is shown more clearly in Fig. G.

or "cope. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. or "drag. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. and thus judge for himself." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. as shown at E. in order to remove the lumps. turn the drag other side up. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. It is then rammed again as before. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. as shown. In finishing the ramming." in position. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. the surface of the sand at . the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. as shown at C. The sand is then ready for molding. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. as it is much easier to learn by observation. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. and if water is added. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. and scatter about 1/16 in. and then more sand is added until Fig. and by grasping with both hands. After ramming. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. as shown at D. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. where they can watch the molders at work. as described. Place another cover board on top. it has a sufficient amount of moisture.

The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. in diameter. as shown at F. made out of steel rod. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. as shown at G. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. is next cut. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. III. thus holding the crucible securely. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. Fig. wide and about 1/4 in. place the cope back on the drag. as shown at H. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. After drawing the pattern. it shows that the sand is too wet. as shown at J.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. as shown at H. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. deep. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. This is done with a spoon. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. and then pour. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. The "sprue. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. to give the air a chance to escape. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. . A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. after being poured. in order to prevent overheating. Place a brick or other flat. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. thus making a dirty casting. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod.E should be covered with coal-dust. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. as shown in the sketch." or pouring-hole.

In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. the following device will be found most convenient. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. battery zincs. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. Minneapolis. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. --Contributed by Harold S. or from any adjacent pair of cells. although somewhat expensive. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. is very desirable. If a good furnace is available. babbitt. but any reasonable number may be used. Referring to the figure. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. and the casting is then ready for finishing. and. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. may be used in either direction. white metal and other scrap available. used only for zinc. In my own case I used four batteries. Morton. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. 15% lead. Although the effect in the illustration .

The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. If desired. Then replace the table. 3/4 in. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. The bearings. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. outward. backward. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. Fig. The brass rings also appear distorted. connected by cords to the rudder. To make it take a sheet-iron band. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. B. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. 2. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. as shown at A. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. B. Then walk down among the audience. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. Make one of these pieces for each arm. which will be sufficient to hold it. may be made of hardwood. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. shaft made. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. A. as shown in the illustration. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. By replacing the oars with paddles. --Contributed by Draughtsman. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. Chicago. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. Put a sharp needle point. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed.

drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. but when in motion. 2 and 3. In the same way. D. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. C. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. E. If babbitt is used. being simply finely divided ice. Snow. as shown in Fig. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. 3. spoiling its appearance. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. 1. The covers. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. If galvanized iron is used. The hubs. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. W. as shown in Fig. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. 1. 1. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid.melted babbitt. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. when it will again return to its original state. should be made of wood. Fig. and a weight. A. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. A block of ice. or under pressure. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. or the paint will come off. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. 2. It may seem strange that ice .

bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. Pressing either push button. by 1/2 in. B. but. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. brass. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. or supporting it in some similar way. in. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. thus giving a high resistance contact. it will gradually change from the original shape A. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. by 2 in. Crafton. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. whenever there is any connection made at all. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. no matter how slow the motion may be. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. but by placing it between books. by 5 in. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in.. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. Lane.should flow like water. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. P. by 1/4. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. Pa. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. and assume the shape shown at B. sometimes only one or two feet a day. which resembles ice in this respect. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. --Contributed by Gordon T. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. as shown on page 65. as per sketch. square. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. The rate of flow is often very slow.

The success depends upon a slow current. and C. G. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. vertical lever. about the size used for automobiles. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. E. J. furnace. I. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. wooden supports. horizontal lever. Pa. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. the battery. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. G. cord. The parts are: A. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. B. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. as shown. H. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. F. alarm clock. Indianapolis. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. and five dry batteries. C. draft chain. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated.000 ft. Ward. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. D. the induction coil. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. draft. K .thumb screws. pulleys. as shown. In the wiring diagram. Wilkinsburg. --Contributed by A. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. weight. A is the circuit breaker. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. B.

When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . -Contributed by Gordon Davis. 2 are dressed to the right angle. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. Artistic Window Boxes The top. which will provide a fine place for the plants. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. Mich. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. material framed together as shown in Fig. will fit nicely in them. where house plants are kept in the home. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. The frame (Fig. Kalamazoo. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. 3. as well as the bottom. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. such as used for a storm window.

. which sells for 25 cents. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. and will give the . that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. 1. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. so as to increase the current. by connecting them in series. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. as indicated by Fig. Halifax. S. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. since a battery is the most popular source of power. can be connected up in series. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. 1 each complete with base. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. It must be remembered. Grant. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. but maintain the voltage constant. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. --Contributed by Wm. this must be done with very great caution. However. W. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. multiples of series of three. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. in any system of lamps. where they are glad to have them taken away. N. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. in diameter. one can regulate the batteries as required. This is more economical than dry cells. and cost 27 cents FIG. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. 1 cp. A certain number of these. and a suitable source of power. as if drawn upon for its total output. Thus. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. Canada. Push the needle into the cork. However. e.. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. i. and the instrument will then be complete. The 1/2-cp. for some time very satisfactorily. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts.. a cork and a needle. in this connection. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. is something that will interest the average American boy. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. after a rest.

we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. and diffused light in a room. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. by the proper combination of these. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. or 22 lights. 18 B & S. especially those of low internal resistance. Thus. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. 2 shows the scheme. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. making. lamp. Fig.proper voltage. If wound for 10 volts. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. each. to secure light by this method. Chicago. 1-cp. we simply turn on the water. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. 11 series. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. . and then lead No. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. double insulated wire wherever needed. as in Fig. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. These will give 3 cp. Thus. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. if wound for 6 volts. So. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. lamps. lamps. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. according to the water pressure obtainable. for display of show cases. 3. In conclusion. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. which is the same as that of one battery. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. However. although the first cost is greater. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. where the water pressure is the greatest. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. and running the series in parallel. generates the power for the lights. FIG. and for Christmas trees. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. and is wound for any voltage up to ten..2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage.

Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. Cal. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. A. Santa Clara. we were not bothered with them. the letters indicate as follows: FF.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. brushes of motor. and the sides. or a tempting bone. B. CC. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. outside points of switch. or from one pattern. Plymouth. as shown in the sketch. field of motor. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. thus reversing the machine. --Contributed by F. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. . Emig. B. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. and C. A indicates the ground. are cut just alike. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. center points of switch. a bait of meat. Parker. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. Ind. DD. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. --Contributed by Leonard E. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. bars of pole-changing switch. simply change the switch. switch. AA. BB. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. To reverse the motor. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. After I connected up my induction coil.

All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. Fry. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. To unlock the door.. thus locking the door. Minn. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. If it is not. Cal. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. which is in the door. -Contributed by Claude B. and a table or bench. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. merely push the button E. a hammer. 903 Vine St. one cell being sufficient. Melchior. When the circuit is broken a weight. a piece of string. W. as it is the key to the lock. attached to the end of the armature B. Hutchinson. San Jose. A. The experiment works best . The button can be hidden. or would remain locked. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo.

The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. Crawford Curry.. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. 3. as shown in Fig. 4).An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. Porto Rico. --Contributed by Geo. releasing the weight. 18 Gorham St. attached at the other end. A. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. Madison. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. Tie the ends of the string together. Brockville. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. the stick falls away. forming a loop. run through a pulley. Ontario. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. where it will remain suspended as shown. which pulls the draft open. in the ceiling and has a window weight. Culebra. I. D. C.Contributed by F. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. W. 1). Wis. Schmidt. the current flows with the small arrows. the key turns. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. 3. When the alarm rings in the early morning. -. P. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. On another block of wood fasten two wires. . Canada. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. 2. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig.

and then to the receiver. Farley. The cut shows the arrangement. J. thence to a switch. 6 in. Jr.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. and . which fasten to the horn. S. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. or tree. or from a bed of flowers. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. --Contributed by Wm. and the other to the battery. square and 1 in. made with his own hands. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. Connect two wires to the transmitter. N. including the mouthpiece. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. Use a barrel to work on. D. J. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn.. get two pieces of plate glass. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. and break the corners off to make them round. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. First. Camden. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. R. running one direct to the receiver. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. thick.

Fasten. and a large lamp. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. and the under glass or tool convex. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. in length. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. then 8 minutes. Fig. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. Use a binger to spread it on with.. also rotate the glass. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. of water. by the side of the lamp. and is ready for polishing. as in Fig. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. wet till soft like paint. or it will not polish evenly. wide around the convex glass or tool. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. while walking around the barrel. a round 4-in. In a dark room. set the speculum against the wall. spaces. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. or less. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. using straight strokes 2 in. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. so the light . When polishing the speculum. wetting it to the consistency of cream. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. When done the glass should be semitransparent. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. and label. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. 2. the coarse grinding must be continued. with pitch. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. Fig. unless a longer focal length is wanted.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. and spread on the glass. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. melt 1 lb.. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. When dry. 1. L. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. 2. then take 2 lb. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. Then warm and press again with the speculum. A. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. twice the focal length away. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. Have ready six large dishes. with 1/4-in.

The polishing and testing done. in the bath and leave until the silver rises. Fig. Now add enough of the solution A. touched with rouge. also how the rays R from a star . Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. Two glass or earthenware dishes. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use.. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. 840 gr.. 4 oz. Then add 1 oz. Nitric acid . and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. or hills. deep. Then add solution B.. Silver nitrate ……………………………. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears.……………. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. the speculum is ready to be silvered. and pour the rest into the empty dish. as in K.. When the focus is found. 100 gr. that was set aside. 25 gr. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. Place the speculum. When dry. add the ammonia solution drop by drop. 39 gr. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. then ammonia until bath is clear. Alcohol (Pure) ……………. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. if a hill in the center. Fig. face down.. If not. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. Solution D: Sugar loaf . if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. must be procured. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. fill the dish with distilled water. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. from the lamp. cement a strip of board 8 in.. With pitch..…………………………….. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. Place the speculum S.100 gr.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. with distilled water. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark.. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. long to the back of the speculum. Fig. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade.. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. The knife should not be more than 6 in. 2.………………………………. the speculum will show some dark rings. 2. longer strokes. 4 oz.

long and cost me just $15. Mellish. . If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet.John E. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. and proceed as for any picture. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. slightly wider than the lens mount. cover with paper and cloth. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. Thus an excellent 6-in. two glass prisms. with an outlay of only a few dollars. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. Make the tube I of sheet iron. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. is a satisfactory angle. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. using strawboard and black paper. My telescope is 64 in. Place over lens. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely.. stop down well after focusing. About 20. The flatter they are the less they will distort. deg. telescope can be made at home. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. which proves to be easy of execution. Then I made the one described. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber.

Zimmerman. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. A. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. push the button D. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. The rays of the clear. -Contributed by A. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. Do not stir it. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. D. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. 1. as shown in Fig. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. 2.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. or powdered alum. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. To unlock. then add a little sulphate of potash. complete the arrangement. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. . Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. through the lens of the camera and on the board. Fig. and reflect through the negative. add the plaster gradually to the water. but will not preserve its hardening. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. instead of the contrary. B. says the Master Painter. Ill. Boody. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. The paper is exposed. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. unobstructed light strike the mirror.

thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. To reverse. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. 1).Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. as in Fig. Fasten on the switch lever. 2. as at A and B. use a string. but will remain suspended without any visible support. Fig. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. as shown in the sketch. 3. throw . also provide them with a handle. Then blow through the spool. so that it can rotate about these points. 2.

In the sketch. and E E. carbons. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. and rub dry with linen cloth. rinse in alcohol. Levy. D. carbon sockets. B. Go McVicker. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. Tex. although this is not necessary. Take out. San Antonio. -Contributed by Morris L. the armature. C C.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. as shown in the sketch. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. Thomas. A is the electricbell magnet. binding posts. North Bend. Push one end of the tire into the hole. San Marcos. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. --Contributed by R. Tex. L. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. wash in running water. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. . Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. --Contributed by Geo. Neb.

Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. --Contributed by Joseph B. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. 14 or No. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. Bell. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. 36 magnet wire. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . Divested of nearly all technical phrases. By means of two or more layers of No. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. long or more. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. 16 magnet wire. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. Brooklyn. wound evenly about this core.

diameter. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. a box like that shown in Fig. or 8 in. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. in length. making two layers. with room also for a small condenser. 4. coil illustrates the general details of the work. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. No. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. long and 5 in. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. 2 yd. 1. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. hole is bored in the center of one end. one piece of the paper is laid down. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. long and 2-5/8 in. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. then the strip of tin-foil. as the maker prefers. A 7/8-in. In shaping the condenser. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. When cut and laid in one continuous length. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. and finally the fourth strip of paper. in diameter. The primary is made of fine annealed No. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. wide. at a time. which is an important factor of the coil. and the results are often unsatisfactory. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. as shown in Fig.which would be better to buy ready-made. which is desirable. This makes a condenser which may be folded. Beginning half an inch from one end. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. but if it is not convenient to do this work. The condenser is next wrapped . the entire core may be purchased readymade. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. The following method of completing a 1-in. After the core wires are bundled. about 6 in. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit.

securely with bands of paper or tape. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down.. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. D. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. spark. lines H. A. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. and one from battery. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. copper lever with 1-in. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. E. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. long to key. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. G. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring.) The wiring diagram. shows how the connections are made. Fig. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. which is insulated from the first. wide. 3. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. battery . round so that the inside . in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. open switch C. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. bell. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. to the door. the letters indicate as follows: A. C. whole length. F. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. by 12 in. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. switch. go. forms the other pole or terminal. ready for assembling. and the other sheet. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. flange turned on one side. I. which allows wiring at the back. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. B. long and 12 in. The alarm key will turn and drop down. B. shelf for clock. 4 in. V-shaped copper strip. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. one from bell.

It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. from the bottom. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. London. . You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. of blue stone. This is for blowing. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. but add 5 or 6 oz. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. and the battery is ready for use. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. Short-circuit for three hours. If desired for use immediately.diameter is 7 in. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom.. 2 in. says the Model Engineer. and then rivet the seam. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. do not shortcircuit. Line the furnace. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. instead of close to it. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. but with the circuit. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. of zinc sulphate. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. That is what they are for. The circuit should also have a high resistance. Use a glass or metal shade. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in.

the thumb and second finger changing places: e. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood.. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. the second finger along the side. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. If too low. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. g. 1. or think they can do the same let them try it. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. but the thing would not move at all.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. for some it will turn one way. for others the opposite way. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. Outside of the scientific side involved. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. and then. 2." which created much merriment. oxygen to ozone. Try it and see. thus producing two different vibrations. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. long. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. changes white phosphorus to yellow. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. while for others it will not revolve at all. To operate the trick. Ohio. and therein is the trick. Enlarge the hole slightly.9 of a volt. affects . Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. square and about 9 in. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. At least it is amusing. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. This type of battery will give about 0. herein I describe a much better trick. porcelain and paper. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. imparting to them a violet tinge. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. grip the stick firmly in one hand. below the bottom of the zinc. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. as in the other movement. If any or your audience presume to dispute.

These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. however. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. chemicals. if possible.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. To the front board is attached a box. earth. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. and.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. a short-focus lens. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. but not essential. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. a means for holding it vertical. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. but this is less satisfactory. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. and one of them is photomicrography. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. an old tripod screw. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . says the Photographic Times. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. insects. but small flowers. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone.

The following table will give the size. AB. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. Boston. 113 7 lb. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. 10 ft 523 33 lb. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. 268 17 lb. 697 44 lb. If the balloon is 10 ft. 11 ft. Madison. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. and a line. Cap. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. or 31 ft. CD. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. Mass. 65 4 lb. 12 ft. Divide one-quarter of the circle . while it is not so with the quill. 5 in. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. in diameter. 7-1/2 in. A line. 5 ft. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. 1. 8 ft. Ft Lifting Power. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. in Cu. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. 179 11 lb. Fig. 7 ft. 6 ft. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. 905 57 lb. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. balloon. wide from which to cut a pattern. 9 ft. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. 7-1/2 in. long and 3 ft. or 3 ft. which is 15 ft.--Contributed by George C. 381 24 lb.

of beeswax and boil well together. The cloth segments are sewed together. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. using a fine needle and No. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. Procure 1 gal. keeping the marked part on the outside. 4. and so on. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. This test will show if the bag is airtight. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. making a double seam as shown in Fig. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. The pattern is now cut. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. The amounts necessary for a 10- . A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. 2. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. Repeat this operation four times. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. of the very best heavy body. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. 70 thread. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. on the curved line from B to C. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. cutting all four quarters at the same time. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. 3. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide.

to the bag. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. C. but if any grease remains on the hand. if it is good it will dry off. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. should not enter into the water over 8 in. 5. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts.Green Iron ammonium citrate . With a little care and patience and using some benzine. capacity and connect them. Water 1 oz. as shown in Fig. of iron. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. 1 lb. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. After washing a part. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. 5 . The 3/4-in. 150 gr. . with water 2 in. 1 lb. it is not fit to use. until no more dirt is seen. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. of gas in one hour. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. The outlet. ]. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. or dusting with a dry brush. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. ft. A. leaving the hand quite clean. this should be repeated frequently. B. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. balloon are 125 lb. with 3/4in. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. which may sound rather absurd. using a fine brush. with the iron borings. A. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. B. of iron borings and 125 lb. by fixing. A. . or a fan. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. of sulphuric acid. oil the spindle holes carefully. B. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. pipe. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. About 15 lb. of water will make 4 cu. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. All FIG. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. In the barrel. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. Fill the other barrel. a clean white rag. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces.ft. C. above the level of the water in barrel A.. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. When the clock has dried. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. Vegetable oils should never be used. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes.

Exposure. . The positive pole. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. toning first if desired. keeping the fingers out of the solution. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry.Water 1 oz. This aerial collector can be made in .. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. at the time of employment. A longer exposure will be necessary. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. or carbon. or zinc. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. The negative pole. 20 to 30 minutes. The miniature 16 cp. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. Port Melbourne. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. fix in hypo. and keep in the dark until used. and a vigorous negative must be used. Printing is done in the sun. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. dry atmosphere will give best results. to avoid blackened skin. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. or battery. of any make. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. says the Moving Picture World. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. A cold. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly.000 ft. . Dry the plates in the dark. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. Dry in the dark. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry.

both positive and negative. a positive and a negative. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. the resistance is less. in diameter. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. As the telephone offers a high resistance. when left exposed to the air. If the waves strike across the needle. and as less current will flow the short way. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. as described below. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. This will complete the receiving station. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal.various ways. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. holes . By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. long. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. 5 in. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. forming a cup of the pipe. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. lead pipe. lay a needle. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. The storage cell. If the wave ceases. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. will soon become dry and useless. making a ground with one wire. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. and have the other connected with another aerial line.

This box can be square. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. B. says the Pathfinder. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. When mixing the acid and water. does not need to be watertight. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. This. This support or block. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. namely: a square hole. by soldering the joint. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. except for about 1 in. Two binding-posts should be attached. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . or tube B. on each end. a round one. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. an oblong one and a triangular one. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current.as possible. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. or tube C. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. one to the positive. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. and the other to the negative. of course. The other plate is connected to the zinc. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. D. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency.

1. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. as shown in Fig. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. and has plenty of good seating capacity. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. thick cut two pieces alike. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. 2. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. were fitted by this one plug. is built 15 ft. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. The third piece of brass. as shown in Fig. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. 1. and match them together. wide. about 20 in. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. deep and 4 ft. wide. This punt. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. A and B. all around the edge. Only galvanized nails should be used. back and under. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. leaving about 1/16 in. C. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. in place on the wood. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. . C. long. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. as it is not readily overturned. Chicago. 3. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. 2. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. Ill. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig.

The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. Tacoma. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. thick and 3-1/2 in. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . is cut 1 in. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. A piece of 1/4-in. Wash. B. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. A.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. In Fig. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. square (Fig 2). The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. gas pipe.

--Contributed by Charles H. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. no more current than a 16-cp. with the exception of insulated wire. which can be developed in the usual manner. which the writer has made. may be of interest to some of our readers. without auxiliary phase. lamp. Wagner. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . The winding of the armature. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. and to consume. no special materials could be obtained. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. In designing. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning." has no connection with the outside circuit. says the Model Engineer. or "rotor. it had to be borne in mind that. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. if possible. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. H. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate.

as shown in Fig. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. being used. while the beginnings . and filled with rivets. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. 4. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. After assembling a second time. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. were then drilled and 1/4-in. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. bolts put in and tightened up. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. no steel being obtainable. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. Holes 5-32 in. C. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. They are not particularly accurate as it is. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. this little machine is not self-starting. and all sparking is avoided. also varnished before they were put in. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. thick. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. in diameter were drilled in the corners. with the dotted line. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. 1. 5. Unfortunately. wrought iron. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. holes. about 2-1/2 lb. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. 3. or "stator. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. to be filed out after they are placed together. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. 2. A.the field-magnet. as shown in Fig. B. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. The stator is wound full with No. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips.

depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. and all wound in the same direction. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. and as the motor runs at constant speed. Jr. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. This type of motor has drawbacks. No starting resistance is needed.. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. The rotor is wound with No. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. and as each layer of wire was wound. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. if applied immediately. E. The image should . 2. as before stated. it would be very simple to build. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. and the other by reduction in the camera. In making slides by contact. film to film. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. McKinney. Newark. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. If too late for alcohol to be of use.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. having no commutator or brushes. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. a regulating resistance is not needed. One is by contact. 3-Contributed by C. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. and especially of colored ones. N. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. and would not easily get out of order. 1. J. as a means of illustrating songs. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. The lantern slide is a glass plate. exactly the same as a print is made on paper.

HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. If the exposure has been correct. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. 5. 4. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. D. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. 2. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. It is best. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. also. except that the binding is different. the formulas being found in each package of plates. and development should be over in three or four minutes. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. Fig. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. These can be purchased from any photo material store. as shown in Fig.appear in. A. 1. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. as shown in Fig. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. they are much used by travelers. if possible. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. and then a plain glass. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. C. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. Draw lines with a pencil. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. about a minute. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. Select a room with one window. Being unbreakable. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. to use a plain fixing bath. 3. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. over the mat. a little extra work will be necessary. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. B.

The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. 2. or other stout cloth. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. long. Corinth. in diameter and 20 in. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. Fig. wide and 50 in. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. long.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. from the ends. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. Fig. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. If the star is in front of the left eye. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. A piece of canvas. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. Hastings. 1. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. 1. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. while the dot will be in front of the other. is to be used for the seat. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. These longer pieces can be made square. in diameter and 40 in. holes bored in the end pieces. 16 in. known as rods and cones. Vt. as shown at B. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. as shown in Fig. as shown at A. from the center of this dot draw a star. from the end piece of the chair. long.

. A disk 1 in. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. as shown in Fig. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. per square inch. made from an ordinary sash cord. 1. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. J. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. in thickness and 10 in. O'Gara. as well as to operate other household machines. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. A belt. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. 2. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board.-Contributed by P. Auburn. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. Cal. as shown in Fig. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left.

A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. with as fine a thread as possible. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. The part of a rotation of the bolt. will be the thickness of the object. Bore a 1/4-in. thick and 2-1/2 in. long. . then removing the object. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. 3/4 in. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. says the Scientific American. A simple. square for a support. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. screwing it through the nut. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. to the top of the bench. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. divided by the number of threads to the inch. and the construction is complete. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. or inconvenient to measure. wide. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. Cut out a piece from the block combination. Put the bolt in the hole. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. fairly accurate.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. leaving it shaped like a bench. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. it serves a very useful purpose. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. direction. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in.

Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. piece of wood 12 ft. beyond the end of the wood. Place a 3/4-in. long is used for the center pole. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. The wheel should be open . Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. which show up fine at night. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. material 12 ft. globe that has been thrown away as useless. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. Bore a 3/4-in. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. bolt in each hole. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. long. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. Santa Maria. Oal. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. from the end that is to be used for the bottom.

long with the upper or wider part 4 in. and on its lower end a socket. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. at the bottom. long. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. from the ends. and the lower part 61/2 in. square and 3 or 4 in. A piece of brass 2 in. long. 1/2 in. wide and 1/8 in.Side and Top View or have spokes. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. wide and 1/8 in. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. The spool . of the ends with boards. is soldered. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. O. The coil. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. A. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. which should be 1/4 in. P. at the top and 4 in. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. thick is used for the armature. thick. to be operated by the magnet coil. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. long. pieces used for the spokes. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. Tex. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. A cross bar. C. from the top end. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. H and J. The boards may be nailed or bolted. Fort Worth. C. long. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. L. thick. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. Graham. in diameter.-Contributed by A. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. made of the same material. B.

which may be had by using German silver wire. 2 the hat hanging on it. that holds the lower carbon. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig.--A. and place it against a door or window casing. 1. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. D and E. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. When you slide the pencil along the casing. Bradlev. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. B. --Contributed by Arthur D. C.E. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. one without either rubber or metal end. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. At the bottom end of the frame. The armature.000. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. . by soldering. Randolph. A soft piece of iron. This tie can be used on grain sacks. and in numerous other like instances. Mass. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it.J. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. S.is about 2-1/2 in. is drilled.000 for irrigation work. 2. This is a very neat trick if performed right. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. for insulating the brass ferrule. long. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. F. A. then with a firm. R. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. and directly centering the holes H and J. do it without any apparent effort. or a water rheostat heretofore described. S. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S.

cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. in diameter and 2 in. 1. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. about 1 in. F. about 1/8 in. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. D. long. The vibrator. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. from the core and directly opposite. B. 1. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. C. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. The vibrator B. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. wide. Fig. for the primary. A. thick. The core of the coil. S. hole in the center.500 turns of No. mixed with water to form a paste. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. The coil ends are made from cardboard. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. in diameter and 1/16 in. The switch. in diameter. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. Fig. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. for adjustment. about 3/16 in. long and 1 in. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. is connected to a flash lamp battery. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. S. with a 3/16-in. leaving the projections as shown. may be made from a 3/8-in. for the secondary. Experiment with Heat [134] . is constructed in the usual manner. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. 2. in diameter. About 70 turns of No. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. and then 1.

long and when placed over the board. in an ordinary water glass.Place a small piece of paper. with which to operate the dial. board. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. brass plate. . which seemed to be insufficient. was to be secured by only three brass screws. thick on the inside. which is only 3/8-in. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. The three screws were then put in the hasp. and the same distance inside of the new board. lighted. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. The hasp. wide. Fig. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. The lock. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. as shown. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. The tin is 4 in. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. 1. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. and then well clinched. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. 2 to fit the two holes. The knob on the dial extends out too far. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. as shown in the sketch. it laps down about 8 in. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. 16 in. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. which is cut with two holes. 1. between the boards. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk.

The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. black color. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. square and 10-1/2 in. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. the glass. which completely divides the box into two parts. When making of wood. but when the front part is illuminated. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. and the back left dark. any article placed therein will be reflected in. one in each division. clear glass as shown. high for use in window displays. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. If the box is made large enough.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. or in the larger size mentioned. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. not shiny. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. When the rear part is illuminated. square and 8-1/2 in. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in .

This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. a tank 2 ft. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. as it appears. as shown in the sketch. When there is no electric current available. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. When using as a window display. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. wide will be about the right size. . as shown at A in the sketch. into the other. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. above the top of the tank. long and 1 ft. Instead of changing the current operated by hand.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects.. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. alternately. and with the proper illumination one is changed. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. and a door in front. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. long. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. 5 ft. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. Columbus. high. but with a length of 12 in. hole bored the full length through the center. 1 in. Three windows are provided. from the ground. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. as shown. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. O. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. and a solution of iron sulphate added. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. wide. using a 3/4-in. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. wide. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. is built on the front. radius. square. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. bit. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. is the green vitriol. and 6 ft. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. 6 in. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. bore from each end. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. long. with a length of 13 in. lines gauged on each side of each. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. one for each side. hole. The 13-in. thick and 3 in. however. The pieces can then be taken out. two pieces 1-1/8 in. under sides together. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. square and 40 in. each. and boring two holes with a 1-in. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. then use a red-hot iron to finish. A small platform. or ferrous sulphate. gauge for depth. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. If a planing mill is near. This hole must be continued . 2 ft. dried and mixed with linseed oil. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. This precipitate is then washed. Iron sulphate. Shape the under sides first.

through the pieces forming the base. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. square and drawing a diagonal on each. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. The sketch shows one method of attaching. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. When the filler has hardened. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. Directions will be found on the filler cans. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. For art-glass the metal panels are . A better way. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. If the parts are to be riveted. hole in each block. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. apply two coats of wax. three or four may be attached as shown. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. When this is dry. Saw the two blocks apart. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. thick and 3 in. Electric globes--two. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. if shade is purchased.

Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal. and reinforcing and riveting with another metal.Construction of Shade . as brass.The Completed Lamp cut out. such as copper. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. METAL SHADE .

In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. the object and the background. 2 the front view of this stand. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. and Fig. as in ordinary devices. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. as shown in the sketch. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to .Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. the other. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. one way and 1/2 in. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. The arms holding the glass. Figure 1 shows the side. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board.

Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. If the light becomes dim. Before mounting the ring on the base. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. about 1-1/4 in. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. in diameter for a base. thus forming a 1/4-in. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. Put the ring in place on the base. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. and swinging freely. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. as shown in the cut. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. wide and 11 in. pointing north and south. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. as it is very poisonous. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. and an inside diameter of 9 in. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. wide and 6-5/16 in. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. Cut another circular piece 11 in. in diameter. An ordinary pocket compass. long. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. uncork and recork again. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. channel in the circumference of the ring. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. as shown in the sketch. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. thick 5/8-in. outside diameter.

A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg.088 . The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current.715 . and north of the Ohio river. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. CC.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. Place on top the so- . EE. AA. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. in diameter and 8 in. black oxide of copper. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. are mounted on a base.420 . black oxide of manganese and some iron filings. The results given should be multiplied by 1. of the top.182 . the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders.600 .cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. to which a wire has been soldered for connections. and mirrors. into these cylinders. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other.865 1.500 . Corresponding mirrors. B.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes . above the half can. from the second to the third. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work.289 . but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. 1 oz. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz.

if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. little crystals forming in the liquid. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. In Fig. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . which otherwise remains clear. When renewing. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. University Park.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. always remove the oil with a siphon. of pulverized campor. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. says Metal Worker. the wheel will revolve in one direction. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. alcohol. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. then they will not rust fast. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. Put the solution in a long. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. 31 gr. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. Colo. 62 gr. slender bottle.

will allow the magnet to point north and south. --Contributed by C. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. floating on a solution. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. If zinc and carbon are used. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. If zinc and copper are used. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. about 1-1/4 in. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. Lloyd Enos.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. Solder in the side of the box . The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. If two of them are floating on the same solution. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. on the under side of the cork. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. Attach to the wires. This is used in place of the spoon. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. A paper-fastener box.

is made from a piece of No. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. of No. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. glass tubing . hole. F. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. A. 10 wire about 10 in. Put ends. wide and 2-1/2 in. thick. E. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. to it. Bore holes for binding-posts. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. 3 in. and on the other around the glass tube. D. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. A circular piece of cardboard. The standard. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. long.in. stained and varnished. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends.not shorter than 18 in. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. E. If the hose is not a tight fit.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. Thos.Contributed by J. B. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. G--No. brass tubing. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. . of wire on each end extending from the coil. Use a board 1/2. Wind evenly about 2 oz. D. 1-1/4 in. or made with a little black paint. can be made of oak. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. A. away. D. C. and then solder on the cover. as shown in Fig. Rhamstine. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron.in. 14 wire will do. C. H. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. Take a small piece of soft iron.1-in. long. long that has about 1/4-in. The spring should be about 1 in. C. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. one on each side of the board. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. wide and 6 in. The base. The bottom of the box. B. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. 1/2. piece of 1/4-in. To this standard solder the supporting wire. 1.

two pieces 2-1/2 ft. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. canvas. is drawn nearer to the coil. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. about 1 in. Teasdale. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. of mercury will be sufficient. Milwaukee. making a support as shown in Fig. 5. long. as shown in Fig. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. 3 in. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. in diameter. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. four hinges. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. 3. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. Wis. When the glass becomes soft. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. long. long are used for the legs. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. About 1-1/2 lb. J. long. from the right hand. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. two pieces 2 ft. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. 2. E. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. Smith.of the coil. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig.--Contributed by R. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. D.--Contributed by Edward M. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. 3-in. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. . Y. long. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. of No. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. Cuba. N. long. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. The iron plunger. of 8-oz. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. 1.

The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. Break off the piece of glass. Can. --Contributed by David A.. long.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. 5. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner.. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. 6. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. 2. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. of vacuum at the top. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. 4. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. This tube as described will be 8 in. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. leaving 8 in. small aperture in the long tube. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. The tube now must be filled completely. expelling all the air. thus leaving a. holding in the left hand. Measure 8 in. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. Keys. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. Take 1/2 in. 3. Toronto. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. Fig. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle.

thick. as in Fig. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. wide and 5 ft.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. 1. long. wood screws. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. This forms a slot. 4 in. with each projection 3-in. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. 5. Fig. FIG. 1 in. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. thick. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides.6 -. but yellow pine is the best. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. 7. 1 in. thick.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. 3 in. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. as shown in Fig. material 2 in. long. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. 2. thick. 9 in. wide and 5 ft. A crosspiece 3/4-in. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. in diameter. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. thick. 4. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. These are bent and nailed. from the end of same. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. 3 in. long. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. 3. and 1/4 in. as shown in Fig. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . long. cut in the shape shown in Fig. and the single projection 3/4 in. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. wide and 5 ft. 6. wide and 3 in. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. The large pulley is about 14 in. wide and 12 in. joint be accurately put together. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. Four blocks 1/4 in.

Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. attach runners and use it on the ice. above the runner level. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. says Photography. Welsh. . The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. Manhattan. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. by 1-in. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. Kan. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. --Contributed by C. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. R. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. first removing the crank. Water 1 oz.

Mass. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. --Contributed by Wallace C. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. 2. 3. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. --Contributed by Edward M. from an ordinary clamp skate. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. The print is washed. Newton. Printing is carried rather far. This is done with a camel's hair brush. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. as shown in Fig. . A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. 1 oz. Leominster. as shown in Fig. 1.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. Treasdale. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. also. and very much cheaper. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. of water. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression.

board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. Church. wide. Then. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. causing the door to swing back and up. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. and 3 ft. Take two glass tubes. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. --Contributed by H. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. about 10 in. extending the width of the box. too. which represents the back side of the door. Place a 10-in. Va. long. and bend them as shown in the sketch. 1. as shown in the sketch. The thread is broken off at the . and to the bottom. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. high for rabbits. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. F. fasten a 2-in. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. Alexandria. A. with about 1/8-in. square piece. 1. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. hole. 1 ft. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. 2. 1-1/2 ft. from one end. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. Fig. say. high. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. wide and 4 in. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. Fig. The swing door B.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box.

On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. 1 in. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge.by 7-in. 1. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. shorter. . Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. shorter at each end. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. long. but cut it 1/4 in. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. being 1/8 in. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in.proper place to make a small hole. in size. Paste a piece of strong black paper. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. plates. C. -Contributed by William M. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. in size. Fig.. 2. as shown in Fig. say 8 in. and go in the holder in the same way. to be used as a driving pulley. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. horses and dogs. from the edge on each side of these openings. Out two rectangular holes. Chicago. Fig. automobiles. camera and wish to use some 4. Take two pieces of pasteboard. Cut an opening in the other piece. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. wide. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. 10 in. Crilly. trolley cars. Jr. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. A and B.by 5-in. long. says Camera Craft. wide. high and 12 in. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. B. D. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. 3. inside of the opening. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. wide and 5 in. This opening. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. black surfaced if possible. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. and exactly 5 by 7 in. making the appearance of the ordinary stage.

wide will be required. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about.in. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. if it has previously been magnetized. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. into which the dog is harnessed. in diameter. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. making a . which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. long and 6 in.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. The needle will then point north and south. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill.. A cell of this kind can easily be made.

S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. long which are copper plated. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. sal ammoniac. plaster of paris. leaving about 1/2-in. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. Do not paint any surface. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. and a notch between the base and the pan. when the paraffin is melted. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. of rosin and 2 oz. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. F is a spool. beeswax melted together. Pack the paste in. Place the pan on the stove. This makes the wire smooth. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. for a connection. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. under the spool in the paraffin. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in.watertight receptacle. with narrow flanges. Form a 1/2-in. 1 lb. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. fuel and packing purposes. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. zinc oxide. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. short time. . pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. B is a base of 1 in. in diameter and 6 in. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. File the rods to remove the copper plate. fodder. 3/4 lb. in which P is the pan. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. only the joints. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. of the plate at one end. says Electrician and Mechanic. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. one that will hold about 1 qt. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole.in. of the top. A is a block of l-in. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. 1/4 lb. filter. pine. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. of water. pull out the wire as needed.

for others the opposite way. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. and he finally. while for others it will not revolve at all. If any of your audience presume to dispute. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. g. by the Hindoos in India. thus producing two different vibrations. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. or think they can do the same. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. Try it and see. grip the stick firmly in one hand. At least it is amusing. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. Ohio. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. long. from vexation. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. let them try it. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. for some it will turn one way. Enlarge the hole slightly. 2. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction.. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. and therein is the trick. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. and one friend tells me that they were . You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. and then. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. square and about 9 in. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. as in the other movement." which created much merriment. but the thing would not move at all. Toledo.

The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. no rotation resulted. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. A square stick with notches on edge is best. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. rotation was obtained. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. To operate. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. m. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. The experiments were as follows: 1. by means of a center punch. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. 4. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. 2. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. If the pressure was upon an edge. and. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. the rotation may be obtained. secondly. 6. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. Thus a circular or . Speeds between 700 and 1. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. p. 3.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. gave the best results. and I think the results may be of interest. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion.100 r. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. 5. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. 7. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe.

a piece of wire and a candle. Sloan." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. it will be clockwise. Washington. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. at first. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. --Contributed by M. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. G. D.. --Contributed by G. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. as shown. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. Ph. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. A wire is tied around the can. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. . Duluth. unwetted by the liquid. and the resultant "basket splash. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere.D. or greasy. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. C. so far as can be seen from the photographs.. the upper portion is. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. forming a handle for carrying. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. if the pressure is from the left. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. Minn. A. and the height of the fall about 6 in.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. is driven violently away. Lloyd.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

about 2-5/8 in. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. thick and 1 in. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. as shown. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. Each wheel is 1/4 in. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. hole drilled in the center. flange and a 1/4-in." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. axle. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. in diameter. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. as shown in Fig. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. with a 1/16-in. long. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. 1. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel.

A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. San Antonio. Fig. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them.brass. lamp in series with the coil. each in its proper place. as shown in Fig. wide and 16 in. If the ends are to be soldered. is made from brass. bent as shown. 3. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. Fig. A trolley. The current. with cardboard 3 in. 6. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. is made from a piece of clock spring. 5. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. wood. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. holes 1 in. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. Fuller. 2. bottom side up. of No.50. 2. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. long. put together complete. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. The first piece. or main part of the frame. --Contributed by Maurice E. are shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. 3. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. This will save buying a track. Texas. The motor is now bolted. and the locomotive is ready for running. 3/4 in. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. These ends are fastened together. 1 from 1/4-in. 4. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. which must be 110 volt alternating current. The parts.

1. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. as shown in Fig. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. then continue to tighten much more. Fig. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. Cincinnati. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. 2. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. O. and as this end . Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. but do not heat the center. the length of a paper clip. The quarter will not go all the way down. Fig 1. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. as shown in Fig. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. 3. and holes drilled in them. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. When cold treat the other end in the same way. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a.

A pair of centers are fitted. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. and adjusted . The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. has finished a cut for a tooth. When the cutter A. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. In the sketch. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. or should the lathe head be raised. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. or apparent security of the knot. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. 2 and 1 respectively. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. When the trick is to be performed. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel.

long. dividing it into as many parts as desired. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. trace the outline. --Contributed by Howard S. such as brass or marble. tea cosey.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. When connecting to batteries. note book. watch fob ready for fastenings. (4.) Place the paper design on the leather and. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. Bott. above the surface. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. Fig. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. coin purse. N. (1. Fold over along these center lines.) Make on paper the design wanted. The frame holding the mandrel. if but two parts. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. (3. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. book mark. 1. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. swing lathe. (5. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). if four parts are to be alike. draw center lines across the required space. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. lady's belt bag. (6. and a nut pick. (2. lady's card case. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. holding it in place with the left hand. at the same time striking light. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. 2. tea cosey. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. Y. Second row: -Two book marks. gentleman's card case or bill book.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. Bunker. An ordinary machine will do. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together.to run true. or one-half of the design. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). twisted around itself and soldered. Brooklyn. about 1-1/2 in. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. In this manner gears 3 in. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. --Contributed by Samuel C. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. blotter back.

Secure . and an ordinary bottle.How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. some heavy rubber hose.

Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. Thrust a pin. a distance of 900 miles. A. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. B. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. D. where it condenses. If the needle is not horizontal. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. Florida. and push it through a cork. The electrodes are made . One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. from Key West. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. into which fit a small piece of tube. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube.C. C. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water.. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. and bore a hole through the center. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle.

as shown in Fig. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. wide and 4 ft. use 10-ft. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. as shown in Fig. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. 2. 1-1/4 in. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. by 3/4 in. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. To make a glide. 1. lumber cannot be procured. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. long for the body of the operator. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. or flying-machine. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. free from knots. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. 2 arm sticks 1 in. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. 3. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. thick. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. long. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. 1-1/2 in. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. If 20-ft. 3/4 in. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. long.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. as shown in Fig. using a high resistance receiver. 12 uprights 1/2 in. 16 piano wire. thick. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. 2. Powell. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. wide and 4 ft. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. wide and 4 ft long. thick. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. both laterally and longitudinally. 2 in. Washington. Connect as shown in the illustration. which is tacked to the front edge. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. thick. lengths and splice them. All wiring is done with No. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. long. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. 1/2. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. 1. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. --Contributed by Edwin L. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. take the glider to the top of a hill. square and 8 ft long. 1. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. D. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. long. wide and 3 ft. and also to keep it steady in its flight. The operator can then land safely and . apart and extend 1 ft. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. wide and 20 ft. thick. long. Four long beams 3/4 in. slacken speed and settle. C. wide and 3 ft. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig.in. several strips 1/2 in. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam.

gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. but this must be found by experience.gently on his feet. Of course. Great care should be . The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. Glides are always made against the wind. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly.

as shown in Fig. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. half man and half horse. Bellingham. --Contributed by L. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . 2. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. which causes the dip in the line. Olson. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. a creature of Greek mythology. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. M. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. 1.exercised in making landings. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. When heated a little.

in diameter. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. a piece of brass or steel wire. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. this will cost about 15 cents.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. long and about 3/8 in. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. The light from the . in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. about the size of door screen wire. about the size of stove pipe wire. square. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. While at the drug store get 3 ft. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. of small rubber tubing. long. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. will complete the material list. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. 14 in. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. making it 2-1/2 in. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. at the other. outside the box. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral.

while others will fail time after time.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. M. as shown in Fig. --Photo by M. Dayton. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. . With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. 2. This is very simple when you know how. Hunting. as shown in the sketch. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. O.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. as shown in Fig. 1. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. If done properly the card will flyaway.

When the desired shape has been obtained. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. place the other two. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. Cool in water and dry. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. as before. If a certain color is to be more prominent. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. hold the lump over the flame. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. closing both hands quickly. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . This game is played by five persons. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. then put it on the hatpin head. as described. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin." or the Chinese students' favorite game. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. as shown. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand.

Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. distribute electric charges . Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. these sectors. passing through neutralizing brushes. or more in width. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface.

Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. to which insulating handles . A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. as shown in Fig. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. Two solid glass rods. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. are made from 7/8-in. the side pieces being 24 in. or teeth. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. EE. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. turned wood pieces. in diameter. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. long. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. 3. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. and pins inserted and soldered. long. and 4 in. GG. are made from solid. from about 1/4-in. in diameter. D. The fork part is 6 in. in diameter. at the other. 3/4 in. wide. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. free from wrinkles. and the outer end 11/2 in. after they are mounted. These pins. Fig.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. 2. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. C C. 1 in. in diameter. The drive wheels. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. 1. material 7 in. Fig. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. as shown in Fig. in diameter. The plates are trued up. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. The collectors are made. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. 4. 3. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. wide at one end. Two pieces of 1-in. 1-1/2 in. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. long and the standards 3 in. in diameter. in diameter and 15 in. and this should be done before cutting the circle. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. RR. brass tubing and the discharging rods. The plates. long and the shank 4 in. The two pieces. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. and of a uniform thickness.

The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. Colorado City. 12 ft. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement.are attached. one having a 2-in. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. and the work was done by themselves. --Contributed by C. Lloyd Enos. Colo. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. long. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence.. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. D. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. ball and the other one 3/4 in. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. in diameter. KK. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. wide and 22 ft. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. which are bent as shown. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft.

Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. and bore a hole 1/2 in. bit. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. The key will drop from the string. pens . yet such a thing can be done. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. as at A. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut.is a good one. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. string together. They can be used to keep pins and needles. deep. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. using a 1-in. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft.

stamp the background promiscuously. they make attractive little pieces to have about. 2. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. inside the first on all. Raise the ends. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. unless it would be the metal shears. then the other side. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. The second oblong was 3/4 in. slim screw. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. 7. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. also trace the decorative design. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. extra metal on each of the four sides. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. Inside this oblong. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. 3. etc. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. They are easily made. about 3/4-in.and pencils. Having determined the size of the tray. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. very rapid progress can be made. and the third one 1/4 in.. above the work and striking it with the hammer. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. flat and round-nosed pliers. sharp division between background and design. Use . two spikes. etc. or cigar ashes. Draw one-half the design free hand. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. above the metal. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. 4. 9. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. 23 gauge. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. inside the second on all. 8. When the stamping is completed. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch.. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. Proceed as follows: 1. This is to make a clean. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. 5. using a nail filed to chisel edge. file. 6. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design.

The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. and fourth fingers. second fingers. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. 8. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. 10. first fingers. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . third fingers. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. 6. and the effect will be most pleasing. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. 7. The eyes. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. 9. In the first numbering.

600. or numbers above 10. which would be 16. renumber your fingers. if we wish. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. and the six lower fingers as six tens. or 80. 11. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. Put your thumbs together. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144.. etc. Let us multiply 12 by 12. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. there are no fingers above. which tens are added. etc.. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. Still. but being simple it saves time and trouble. 2 times 2 equals 4. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. or 60. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. 25 times 25. above 15 times 15 it is 200. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. 12. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. as high as you want to go. or the product of 8 times 9. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. . The addition of 100 is arbitrary. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. At a glance you see four tens or 40. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. etc. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. above 20 times 20. which would be 70. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. 400. the product of 12 times 12. first fingers. thumbs. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. In the second numbering. Two times one are two. viz. or the product of 6 times 6. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired.. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties.

but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. not rotation. the value which the upper fingers have. Take For example 18 times 18. And the lump sum to add. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. any two figures between 45 and 55. For example. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. or from above or from below. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. twenties. 75 and 85. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. beginning the thumbs with 16. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. first finger 17. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. Proceed as in the second lumbering. however. being 80). the lump sum to add. first fingers 22. and. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. about a vertical axis. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. 8. or what. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. the inversion takes place against his will. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. in the case of a nearsighted person. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. 3. etc. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. the value of the upper fingers being 20. adding 400 instead of 100. For figures ending in 6. which is the half-way point between the two fives. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. thumbs. 7. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. forties. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. 21. . at the will of the observer.. as one might suppose. 2. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. further. and so on. The inversion and reversion did not take place. when he removes his spectacles. the revolution seems to reverse. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. whether the one described in second or third numbering. It takes place also.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. lastly. thirties.

It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. and putting a cork on the point. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. sometimes the point towards him. tee. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. The ports were not easy to make. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. Looking at it in semidarkness. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. the other appearance asserts itself.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. A flat slide valve was used. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. when he knows which direction is right. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. as . The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side.

pipe. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. -Contributed by W. deep. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. apart. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate.. secure a piece of No. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. inexpensive. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. While this engine does not give much power. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. The eccentric is constructed of washers.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. If nothing better is at hand. across and 1/2 in. such as is shown in the illustration. as in a vise. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. pipe 10 in. H. in diameter. and make in one end a hollow. Kutscher. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. if continued too long without proper treatment. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. Next take a block of wood. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. bottom side up. . The tools are simple and can be made easily. Springfield. saw off a section of a broom handle. it is easily built. The steam chest is round. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. Fasten the block solidly. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. about 2 in. across the head. Ill. Beating copper tends to harden it and.

the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. To overcome this hardness. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. Camden. S. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. as it softens the metal. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. C. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. O. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. --Contributed by W.will cause the metal to break. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. the other to the left. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. To produce color effects on copper. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. Vinegar. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. especially when the object is near to the observer. Hay. and. This process is called annealing.

they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. they must be a very trifle apart. would serve the same purpose. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. only the orange rays may pass through. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. that for the right. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. while both eyes together see a white background. in the proper choice of colors. The red portions of the picture are not seen. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. . The stereograph consists of a piece of card. The further apart the pictures are. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. although they pass through the screen. and lies to the right on the picture. because. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. So with the stereograph. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. because of the rays coming from them. orange. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. disappears fully. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. the left eye sees through a blue screen. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. however. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. from the stereograph. and without any picture. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. the one for the left eye being blue. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. with the stereograph. In order to make them appear before the card. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. the further from the card will the composite image appear. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. not two mounted side by side. as for instance red and green. it. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. It is just as though they were not there.stereoscope. diameter. But they seem black.

A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. in diameter. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. in the shape of a crank. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. Place a NO. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. This should only be bored about half way through the block. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. 1/4 in. or the middle of the bottle. thick. The weight of the air in round . Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. A No. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. 12 gauge wire. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. Cal. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. San Francisco. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. long and a hole drilled in each end. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. etc. wireless. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. wide and 1 in.

In general. or. Before fastening the scale. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. the instrument. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31..6) 1 in. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. wide and 4 in. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. pine 3 in. Only redistilled mercury should be used. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. square. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. inside diameter and 2 in. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. internal diameter and about 34 in. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in.numbers is 15 lb. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. thick. square. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. a bottle 1 in. high. if you choose. but before attempting to put in the mercury. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. or a column of mercury (density 13. high. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. the contrary. if accurately constructed. . long. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. high. long. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. 34 ft. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. and a slow fall. 30 in. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. a glass tube 1/8 in. But if a standard barometer is not available. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. long. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. will calibrate itself. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. wide and 40 in. The 4 in. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury.

which is slipped quickly over the end. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. 5. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. and place them as shown in Fig. Number the pieces 1. a cover from a baking powder can will do. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. wide and 10 in. Mark out seven 1-in. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. long. 2. 1. the size of the outside of the bottle. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. thick. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. 6 and 7. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. Procure a metal can cover. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. 3. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and .

7's place. Woolson. 3 into No. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. 5's place. Move 10-Move No. 6 into No. 1 into No. To make such a tent. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. 6 over No. 2's place. 1. shaped like Fig. 5 over No. 3. Move ll-Jump No. Make 22 sections. 7 over No. Move 2-Jump No. Move 13-Move No. which is the very best material for the purpose. 6 in. Move 3-Move No. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. 2's place. 2. 6. 3. Move 14-Jump No. 6 to No. 5 over No. Move 4-Jump No. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. long and 2 ft. 2 over No. Move 8-Jump No. 3 over No. 3 to the center. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. Move 15-Move No. Move 5-Jump No. 1. 5. This can be done on a checker board. 7 over No. in diameter.Position of the Men move only one at a time. procure unbleached tent duck.-Contributed by W. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. Move 9-Jump No.J. 7. 1 to No. using checkers for men. 2 . l over No. 5's place. Move 7-Jump No. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. as shown in Fig. N. 2 over No. 2. Cape May Point. 3. each 10 ft. 6. L. Move 12-Jump No. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. Move 6-Move No.

Pa. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in.J. made in two sections.in. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. Tress. long. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. long and 4 in. Use blocks. in diameter. leaving the rest for an opening. Emsworth. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent.. will do. 5) stuck in the ground. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. fill with canvas edging. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. Punch holes in the brass in . making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. to a smooth board of soft wood. 5. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. In raising the tent. --Contributed by G. diameter. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. 6. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. As shown in the sketch. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. wide by 12 in. Fig. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. These are ventilators. 3 in. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. Have the tent pole 3 in. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. Nail a thin sheet of brass. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. 6-in. 9 by 12 in. 2 in. 2. wide at the bottom. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. round galvanized iron. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. wide at the bottom. from the top. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. as in Fig. Fig. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. added. After transferring the design to the brass. high. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. about 9 in. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas.

fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. bend into shape. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. around the outside of the pattern. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. excepting the 1/4-in.the spaces around the outlined figures. but before punching the holes. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. Chicago. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. When the edges are brought together by bending. . A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. The pattern is traced as before. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. When all the holes are punched. Corr. apart. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. It will not. cut out the brass on the outside lines.

The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. Oregon. Stevens. If a wheel is selected. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. E. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. A 6-in. Que. better still. between which is placed the fruit jar. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. A cast-iron ring. These pipes are . or. Mayger. allowing 2 ft.. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. Dunham. or less. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. Badger. pipe.however. --Contributed by H. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. partially filled with cream. --Contributed by Geo. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. G. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. or center on which the frame swings. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. pipe is used for the hub. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used.

pipe. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. bent to the desired circle. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. An extra wheel 18 in.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. Four braces made from 1/2-in. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. pipe clamps. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket.

but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. The performer. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. and the guide withdrawn. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. 1. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. 3. and dropped on the table. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. as shown in Fig. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. while doing this. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. which was placed in an upright position.

Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. and second. first. Denver. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. F. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. -Contributed by C. Harkins. in a half circle. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. St. in diameter on another piece of tin. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. Louis. Mo. 2. White. --Contributed by H. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. D. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. The box can be made of selected oak or . An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. it requires no expensive condensing lens. 1. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. Colo. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig.

5-1/2 in. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. and 2 in. and. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. The door covering this hole in the back. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. from each end of the outside of the box. wide and 6-1/2 in. 2. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. as shown in Fig. wide by 5 in. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. 1. long. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. 3-1/2 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. represented by the dotted line in Fig. from each end. but not tight.mahogany. Two or three holes about 1 in. focal length. An open space 4 in. This will be 3/4 in. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. long and should be placed vertically. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. high and must . This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. If a camera lens is used. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. AA. wide. wide and 5 in. high and 11 in. fit into the runners. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. long. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in.

calling this February. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. 1. West Toledo. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. then the second knuckle will be March. as it requires an airtight case. Bradley. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig.. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. --Contributed by Chas. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. April. and extending the whole height of the lantern. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. C. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece." etc. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. calling that knuckle January. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. Ohio. June and November. the article may be propped up . This process is rather a difficult one. and so on. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. provided it is airtight. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct.

with small sticks. Pour in a little turpentine. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. or suspended by a string. . --Contributed by J. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. N. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. Y. and the lead 24 sq. running small motors and lighting small lamps. 1. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. The top of a table will do. one of lead and one of aluminum. 1 and 2. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. H. In both Fig. in. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. 2. and set aside for half a day. in. In each place two electrodes. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. Crawford. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. fruit jars are required. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. but waxed. Schenectady. taking care to have all the edges closed. the lid or cover closed. giving it an occasional stir. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction.

A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in.. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. as you have held it all the time. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. which you warm with your hands. You have an understanding with some one in the company. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. as well as others. O. After a few seconds' time. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. he throws the other. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. This trick is very simple. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. you remove the glass. He. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. Cleveland. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief.

. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. but in making one.-Contributed by E. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. Colo. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. on a table. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. but by being careful at shores. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. near a partition or curtain. Be sure that this is the right one. Crocker. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. Victor.take the handiest one. in diameter in the center. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. if any snags are encountered. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. Pull the ends quickly. put it under the glass. J. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish.

8 in. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. 1 in. wide unbleached muslin. Both ends are mortised. one 6 in. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. by 16 ft.. by 10 ft.. for the bow. and is removed after the ribs are in place. and. from each end to 1 in. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. from the stern. The keelson. 9 ft. 1 mast. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. 3 and 4. wide 12-oz. long. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. 1/4 in. long. 1 piece. 2 and braced with an iron band. as illustrated in the engraving. by 8 in. 3 in. wide. are as follows: 1 keelson. is 14 ft. 50 ft. clear pine. drilled and fastened with screws. the smaller is placed 3 ft. long. 2 in. from the bow and the large one. 1 piece. 14 rib bands. Paint. and the other 12 in. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. 1 in. for the stern piece. at the ends. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. Fig.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. by 15 ft. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. selected pine. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . 1 in. of 1-1/2-yd. for center deck braces. 11 yd. ducking. and fastened with screws. by 16 ft. wide and 12 ft. screws and cleats. 4 outwales. thick and 3/4 in. for cockpit frame. 8 yd. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. 1. apart. by 2 in. wide and 12 ft. 3 in. by 2 in. long. 1 in. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. square by 16 ft. 2 gunwales. 1/8 in. of 1-yd. of rope. by 12 in. 7 ft.

Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. Braces. long. thick and 12 in. gunwales and keelson. length of canvas is cut in the center. from the bow. wide. is a cube having sides 6 in. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. 6. A block of pine. Figs. 6 and 7. The block is fastened to the keelson. The deck is not so hard to do. The trimming is wood. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. The 11-yd. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. Before making the deck. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. They are 1 in. A 6-in. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. 1 in. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. is cut to fit under the top boards. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. wide and 3 ft. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. 9. wide. A piece of oak. apart. thick 1-1/2 in. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. a piece 1/4 in.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. 3-1/2 ft. Fig. doubled. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. and fastened to them with bolts. also. 4 in. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. corner braces. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. 1/4 in. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. long. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. long. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. wide and 24 in. 1 in. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. wide and 14 in. A seam should be made along the center piece. This block. thick and 1/2 in. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. wood screws. thick. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. 7 and 8. These are put in 6 in. 6 in. 5. thick. in diameter through the block. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. screws. long is well soaked in water. . The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. Fig.

Wilmette. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. --Contributed by O. each 1 in. Fig. wide. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. The mast has two side and one front stay. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. . at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. are used for the boom and gaff. The house will accommodate 20 families. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. apart in the muslin. 10 with a movable handle. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. The keel. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. 11. Tronnes. long. wide at one end and 12 in. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. long. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. in diameter and 10 ft. 12. A strip 1 in. Ill. at the other. E. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. The sail is a triangle. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. is 6 in. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. thick by 2 in.

pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. wide and 30 in. Wilmette. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. 2. and the other 18 in. flat on one side. Fig. Cut the maple. long. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. Bevel both sides of the pieces. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. 2 in. long. 1 yd. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. --Contributed by O. five 1/2-in. wide. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. 4. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. about 5/16 in.into two 14-in. thick. 2-1/2 in. as shown in Fig. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. flat headed screws. Take this and fold it over . square. long. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. E. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. 3. wide. wide and 2 ft. long and five 1/2-in. and 3 ft. with the ends and the other side rounding. thick. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. 5. Ill. thick. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. 1. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. Tronnes. one 11-1/2 in. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. 2-1/2 in. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. flat-headed screws. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang.

Another piece. long. The front. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. thick and 3 in. wide and 4-1/2 in. St. 5 from 1/16-in. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. about 3/8 in. square. Wind three layers of about No. but can be governed by circumstances. wide and 2-1/2 in. wide and 2-3/4 in. long. wide . As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. soaked with water and blown up. wide and 6-1/2 in. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. wide and 5 in. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. and make a turn in each end of the wires. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. B. D. A. long. the mechanical parts can be put together. 2 and 3. long. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. long. C. leaving a small opening at one corner. Bliss. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. C. of each end unwound for connections. and the four outside edges. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. long. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. 3-1/4 in. 1-1/4 in. A. Mo. wide and 3 ft. square. Glue a three cornered piece. About 1/2 in. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. and take care that the pieces are all square. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. the top and bottom. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. 3/8 in. If carefully and neatly made. 3 in. 6-1/2 in. The bag is then turned inside out. The sides are 3-1/4 in. 1. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. pieces 2-5/8 in. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. thick. wide and 6-3/4 in. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. --Contributed by W. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. Figs. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. are rounded. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. Cut another piece of board.once. Fig. long. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. F. After the glue. is set. this square box is well sandpapered. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. long. Make a double stitch all around the edge. as well as the edges around the opening. thick. forming an eye for a screw. Louis. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. then centered. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. When the glue is set. E.

5-1/2 in. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. that has the end turned with a shoulder.and 2-5/8 in. Yorkshire. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. Place the tin. wide and 2-1/2 in. C. bored in the back. long. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. G. 1/4 in. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. 1/16 in.R. showing a greater defection of the pointer. W. When the current flows through the coil. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. F. and the farther apart they will be forced. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. board. L. 4. in diameter. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. from one end. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. hole is fastened to the pointer. A pointer 12 in.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. The end of the polar axis B. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. I. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. the part carrying the pointer moves away. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. so it will just clear the tin. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. and fasten in place. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. long. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. long. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. Fig. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. Another strip of tin. The stronger the current. Austwick Hall. --Contributed by George Heimroth. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. Chapman. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. Like poles repel each other. The resistance is now adjusted to show . The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. Fig.A. Richmond Hill. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. 4. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. The base is a board 5 in.S. 4 is not movable. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. from the spindle. R. and as the part Fig. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. wide and 9 in. the same size as the first. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. thick. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. These wires should be about 1 in. 5.

You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. thus: 9 hr. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. and vice . The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. at 9 hr. 1881. shows mean siderial. The following formula will show how this may be found. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. 30 min. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. M. 10 min. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. A.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. 10 min. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. say Venus at the date of observation. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21.

f. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. New Haven.m. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. --Contributed by Robert W. and then verify its correctness by measurement. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. get a glazed vessel of similar construction.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. owing to the low internal resistance. Hall. . How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. Conn. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. if one of these cannot be had. or. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection.

The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. as shown in the accompanying picture. of alum and 4 oz. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. Wet paper will answer. arsenic to every 20 lb. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. inside diameter and about 5 in. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. thick. and heap the glowing coals on top. Then. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. When the follower is screwed down. long. leaves or bark. 1-3/4 in. The boring bar. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. 3/8 in. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . especially for cooking fish. 1.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. fresh grass. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. Fig. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. put the fish among the ashes. cover up with the same. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm.

the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. and threaded on both ends. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. thick. about 1/2 in. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. pipe were fitted to these holes so that.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. pipe. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. pipe. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. when they were turned in. fastened with a pin. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head.

A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. a jump spark would be much better. as the one illustrated herewith. long. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. Iowa. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. The rough frame. It . Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. Fig. square iron. wide. If the valve keeps dripping. 5. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. This plate also supports the rocker arms. Fig. then it should be ground to a fit. A 1-in. Fig. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. was then finished on an emery wheel. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. 3. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. but never one which required so little material. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. 2. thick and 3 in. the float is too high. however. 30 in. and which gave such satisfactory results. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. 4. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. bent in the shape of a U. Clermont. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves.valve stems. labor and time. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft.

long is the pivot. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . in fact. Nieman. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. in diameter and 15 in. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. hole bored in the post. This makes an easy adjustment. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. If it is to be used for adults. A malleable iron bolt. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. so it must be strong enough. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. square and 2 ft. and. being held in position by spikes as shown. and a little junk. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. 3/4 in. The illustration largely explains itself. square and 5 ft. set 3 ft. A 3/4 -in. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. long. from the center. strengthened by a piece 4 in. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. rope is not too heavy. for the "motive power" to grasp. 12 ft. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. timber. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. strong clear material only should be employed. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. in the ground with 8 ft." little and big. The seats are regular swing boards. As there is no bracing. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. W. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. Use a heavy washer at the head. It looks like a toy. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. --Contributed by C. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. square. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. butting against short stakes. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. long. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. The crosspiece is 2 in. no matter what your age or size may be. from all over the neighborhood. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. with no trees or buildings in the way. extending above. completes the merry-go-round. long.

This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. The bow is now bent.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching.the fingers. 1/4 by 3/32 in. Both have large reels full of . Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. then it is securely fastened. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries.2 emery. as shown in Fig. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. light and strong. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. 4. a wreck. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. The backbone is flat. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. and 18 in. Having placed the backbone in position. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. if nothing better is at hand. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. away. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. These ends are placed about 14 in. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. A reel is next made. square. To wind the string upon the reel. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. 2. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. and sent to earth. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. long. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. 1. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. one for the backbone and one for the bow.

common packing thread. Y. --Contributed' by Harry S. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. or glass-covered string. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. The handle end is held down with a staple. Newburyport. First. Bunker. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. he pays out a large amount of string. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites.string. If the second kite is close enough. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. N. Mass.-Contributed by S. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. Moody. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. the balance. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. Brooklyn. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. C. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. often several hundred yards of it.

Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. length of 2-in. Corinth. --Contributed by Earl R. must be attached to a 3-ft. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. make the pad as shown in the illustration. If the table is round. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. then a dust protector. each the size of half the table top. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. square (Fig. then draw the string up tight. Vt. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . Hastings. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. cutting the circular piece into quarters. such as mill men use. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. lengths (Fig.

Oakland. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. from E to F. 2-1/4 in. and E to G. Wharton. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. trace the design carefully on the leather. hard pencil.. . 17-1/2 in. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side.9-1/4 in. Calif.-Contributed by H. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. from C to D. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. 16-1/4 in. Use a smooth. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. 6-1/4 in. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag.. E. which spoils the leather effect. Moisten the .. G to H. If leaves are wanted in extending the table.

if not more than 1 in. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. H-B. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. place both together and with a leather punch. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. Cut it the same size as the bag. with the rounded sides of the tools. is taken off at a time. Trace the openings for the handles. and lace through the holes. about 1/8 in. Now cut narrow thongs. and E-G. G-J. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. apart. and corresponding lines on the other side. also lines A-G. wide. I made this motor . Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. get something with which to make a lining.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. To complete the bag. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag.

The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. 2-1/4 in. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead.M. long. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. 1. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. 24 gauge magnet wire. D. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. 1. . Pasadena. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. --Contributed by J. B. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. iron.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. Shannon. in length. Calif. 2. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. as shown in Fig. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. of No. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. each being a half circle. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch.

from the bottom end. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. and the gores cut from these. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . near the center. are the best kind to make. high. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. pasted in alternately. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. The gores for a 6-ft. balloon should be about 8 ft. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. 1. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn.

Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. These are to hold the wick ball. as shown in Fig. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. lap on the edges. In removing grease from wood. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. somewhat larger in size. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. so it will hang as shown in Fig. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. after which the paint will adhere permanently. as shown in Fig. B. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. coming through the small pipe A. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . If the gores have been put together right. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. As the boat is driven forward by this force. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. 4. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. The steam. Staunton. 1.widest point. in diameter. leaving the solution on over night. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. 5. saturating it thoroughly. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. The boat soon attains considerable speed. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. Fig. A. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. 3. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. After washing. using about 1/2-in. In starting the balloon on its flight. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. leaving a long wake behind. 2. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. --Contributed by R. E.

The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. In using either of the two methods described. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. 1. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. Third. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. in bowling form. apart on these lines. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. long and each provided with a handle. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. if you have several copies of the photograph. wide by 6 in. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. long. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. Second. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. as is shown in Fig. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. There are three ways of doing this: First. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. high and 8 in.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. The blocks are about 6 in. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle.

The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. not pointed down at the road at an angle. thick. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel.Fig. Rinse the plate in cold water. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. 2. Albany. being careful not to dent the metal. Fig. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. N. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. Y. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. --Contributed by John A. Hellwig. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead.

The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. and. and not produce the right sound. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. 2 the front view. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. which is 4 in. is fastened to a common camera tripod. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. Richmond. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. are screwed to the circular piece. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. through which passes the set screw S. and Fig. Break off the frame.upon any particular object. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . In Fig. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. Corner irons. long for the base. Va. wide and of any desired height. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. B. 1 Fig. with a set screw. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. A. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. Paine. wide and 8 in. With this device. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. thick. 6 in. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. A circular piece of wood. S. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. --Contributed by R. 5 in. These corner irons are also screwed to. A. in diameter. CC.

-1. Lake Preston. Kidder. S. . then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. as only the can is visible. R. in diameter of some 1-in. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. pine boards. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. This horn.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. I made a wheel 26 in. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. thus producing sound waves. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. D. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. Ill. La Salle. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. This will make a very compact electric horn.

O. Feet may be added to the base if desired. If there is a large collection of coins. --Contributed by James R. the same thickness as the coins. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. 1. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . Kane. The frame is made of a heavy card. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. Purdy. --Contributed by C. Ghent. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. 1. Fig. thick and 12 in. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. square. B. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. 2. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. Doylestown. If the collection consists of only a few coins. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. A. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block.

of developer. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. Wis. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. If desired. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. Neyer. A lead pencil. a hammer or mallet. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. A rivet punch is desirable. --Contributed by August T. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. into which to place the screws . Milwaukee.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. for after the slides have been shown a few times. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. melted and applied with a brush. --Contributed by R. The material required is a sheet of No.J. they become uninteresting. plus a 3/8-in. One Cloud. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. Canada. Cal. It will hold 4 oz. though not absolutely necessary. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting.E. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. Toronto. border all around. Noble. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. Smith. and then glued together as indicated. several large nails. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. cut and grooved. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. thick. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. --Contributed by J.

place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. using 1/2-in. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. screws placed about 1 in. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. like the one shown. Take the nail. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. never upon the metal directly. draw one part. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. and file it to a chisel edge. Remove the screws. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. There are several ways of working up the design. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. both outline and decoration. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail.

two lengths. and two lengths. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. being ball bearing. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. using a 1/2in. 3. of 11-in. Do not bend it over or flatten it. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. long. long. 3/4 in. square and 11 in. long. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. 2. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. . each 1 in. 1. up from the lower end. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. for the top. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. as shown in Fig. Provide four lengths for the legs.wall. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. About 1/2 yd. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. in the other. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. The pedal. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. l-1/8 in. Rivet the band to the holder. square. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. for the lower rails. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. square and 181/2 in.

It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. Attalla. F. having quite a length of threads. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. --Contributed by John Shahan. Quackenbush. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . New York City. --Contributed by W. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. Ala.

long. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. one about 1 in. wide and 8-1/4 in. initial. Ironwood. from the end. Assemble as shown in the sketch. D. Purchase a 1/2-in. the end of the other piece is folded over. and the other 2-3/4 in. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt.. The desired emblem. each 1-1/4 in. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. stitched on both edges for appearance. long. and 3/8 in. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. and two holes in the other. in depth. Luther. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. college or lodge colors. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. --Contributed by C. something that is carbonated. making a lap of about 1 in.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. long. Mich. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. from one end. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . of sal-soda in one pailful of water. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. Two pieces of felt. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. wide and 4-1/4 in. using class. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in.

or more in height. 2. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. Ind. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. as shown at B. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. if desired by the operator. --Contributed by John H. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. A piece of lead. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. Punch two holes A. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. 1/4 in. in the cover and the bottom. in diameter and 2 in. Indianapolis. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. which can be procured from a plumber. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. from the center and opposite each other.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. Schatz. This method allows a wide range of designs. Fig. 1. or a pasteboard box. and the cork will be driven out. as shown in the sketch. about 2 in.

. 5. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. or marble will serve. The pieces of tin between the holes A. it winds up the rubber band. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. O. are turned up as in Fig. as shown in Fig. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. metal. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. 4. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. Columbus. on both top and bottom. 3. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return.Rolling Can Toy lead. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. allowing the two ends to be free. and the ends of the bands looped over them. When the can is rolled away from you. 1. putting in the design. A piece of thick glass. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. Fig.

deep in its face. and. New York City. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. long and bored a 1/2-in. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. If it is desired to "line" the inside. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. thick. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. or more thick on each side. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . face up. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. thicker than the pinion. 3 in. wide and 20 in. from each end. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. hole through it. A pencil may be used the first time over. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. Next place the leather on the glass. After this has been done. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. mark over the design. I secured a board 3/4 in. 1 in. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. The edges should be about 1/8 in. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer.

Y. in diameter. lag screws as shown. 4 guides. Brooklyn. 1 top board. 1 by 9 by 80 in. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. 3 by 3 by 36. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. countersinking the heads of the vise end. much of the hard labor will be saved. 1. 2 side rails. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. and fit it in place for the side vise. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. Fig.in the board into the bench top. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. 1 piece. N. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. Rice. Cut the 2-in. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. pieces for the vise slides. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. 1 by 12 by 77 in. Now fit up the two clamps. 2 by 2 by 18 in. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. 3 by 3 by 6 in. Make the lower frame first. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. 2 end rails. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. 2. 1 top board. 1 piece for clamp. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. 1 back board. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. M. 2 crosspieces. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. Syracuse. thick top board. --Contributed by A. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. 1 piece for clamp. 1 screw block. New York. 2 by 12 by 77 in. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. 3 by 3 by 20 in. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction.

3 and 6 in. 1 monkey wrench.. 1 pair pliers.. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. 1 cross cut saw. 24 in. 1 wood scraper. 1 countersink. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. 1 jack plane or smoother.. 1 compass saw. 1 bench plane or jointer. 1 brace and set of bits. They can be purchased at a hardware store. The amateur workman. 1 pocket level. 1 marking gauge. 1 2-ft. it can be easily found when wanted. 1 nail set. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. 1 set chisels. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. 1 set gimlets. as well as the pattern maker. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. 1 rip saw. The bench is now complete. . rule. 2 screwdrivers. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. 1 claw hammer. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop.screws. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. Only the long run. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. 24 in. in diameter. 1 pair dividers. If each tool is kept in a certain place.

Fig. The calf skin. will be easier to work. will sink into the handle as shown at D. 1. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. try square. No. Fig. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife.1. 3. 1 oilstone. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. Kane. 2 and 00 sandpaper. Fig. ---Contributed by James M. Pa. Doylestown. but will not make . and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. becomes like A. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. 2. being softer. Fig. the projecting point A.1 6-in. 1. after constant use.

Two pieces will be required of this size. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. -Contributed by Julia A. If cow hide is preferred. will do just as well. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together.as rigid a case as the cow skin. The form can be made of a stick of wood. New York City. when dry. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. White. then prepare the leather. but a V-shaped nut pick. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. First draw the design on paper. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. Turn the leather. water or heat will not affect. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. which steam. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. and the length 6-5/8 in. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. the same method of treatment is used. Having prepared the two sides. After the outlines are traced. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. If calf skin is to be used. . This will make a perfectly impervious covering. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. cover it completely with water enamel and. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. secure a piece of modeling calf. such as copper or brass. lay the design on the face. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct.

Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. Richmond. --Contributed by Chester L. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. Herrman.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. . This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. Cobb. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. New York City. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. Jaquythe. --Contributed by Chas. and an adjustable friction-held loop. Portland. --Contributed by W. A. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. C. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. as shown in the sketch. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. Maine. Cal.

for instance. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. B. --Contributed by Geo. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. . This was very difficult. --Contributed by Wm. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. Cambridge. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. Wright. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. an inverted stewpan. Roberts. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. Middletown. was marked out as shown.. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. A thick piece of tin. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. Conn. Mass.

Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. The next morning there was no trace of oil. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. but not running over. Chicago. and the grease will disappear. face down. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. so some bones were quickly calcined. of boiling water. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. A beautifully bound book. Indianapolis. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. pulverized and applied. as shown. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. --Contributed by Paul Keller. If any traces of the grease are left. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. well calcined and powdered. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. which has been tried out several times with success. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. There was no quicklime to be had. Illinois. F. L. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. but only an odor which soon vanished. used as part of furniture. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. When dry. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. If the article is highly polished. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. and quite new. . such as chair seats. on a clear piece of glass.. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. Bone. Ind. apply powdered calcined magnesia. Herbert. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. --Contributed by C. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle.

The pieces marked S are single. set and thumbscrews. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. Howe. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. long. 6 in. the pieces .. 2 in.. New York. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. wide and 12 in. soft steel with the opening 6 in. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. If properly adjusted. This coaster is simple and easy to make. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. deep and 5 in. --Contributed by Geo. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. high and are bolted to a block of wood. says Scientific American. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. thick. A. Tarrytown.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner.

Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. E. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. If the letters are all cut the same height. says Camera Craft. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. The seat is a board. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. for sending to friends. A sharp knife. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. albums and the like. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. to the underside of which is a block. they will look remarkably uniform. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. no doubt.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. Their size depends on the plate used. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes .

" An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. So arranged. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. pasting the prints on some thin card. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. using care to get it in the right position. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. after. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. photographing them down to the desired size. So made.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. In cutting out an 0. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. for example. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. The puzzle is to get . A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. and. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. mount them on short pieces of corks. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front.

so they will lie horizontal. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. Old-Time Magic . when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. He smells the bait. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. long that will just fit are set in.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . the tube righting itself at once for another catch. squeezes along past the center of the tube.J. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. snow or anything to hide it. of its top. says the American Thresherman. A hole 6 or 7 in. Bayley.-Contributed by I. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. hung on pivots. with the longest end outside. N. Cape May Point.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. G.

Rhode Island. --Contributed by L. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. Pocatello. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. Press the hands together. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. Parker. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. Y. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. --Contributed by L. Pawtucket. E. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. Szerlip. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. then expose again. Brooklyn. or rub the hands a little before doing so. then spread the string. --Contributed by Charles Graham. N.faced up. Idaho.

and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. The blade should be about 27 in. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. 2 Fig. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. 4 on the blade. 1 Fig. says the English Mechanic. 1. The handle is next made. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set.Genuine antique swords and armor. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. in building up his work from the illustrations. When the whole is quite dry. they will look very much like the genuine article. dark red. if any. wipe the blade . thick. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. When the glue is thoroughly dry. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. using a straightedge and a pencil. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. whether he requires a single sword only. in width. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain.. narrower. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. 3 Fig. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. near the point end. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. and if carefully made. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. The pieces. wide and 2 in. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. or green oil paint. long. full size. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. or a complete suit of armor. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. Glue the other side of the blade. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. end of the blade. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope.. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle.

4. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. long. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. the other two are identical. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. allowing for a good hold with both hands. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. and 3 in. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration.. follow the directions as for Fig. take two pieces of wood. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. 1. in diameter. 1. In making this scimitar. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. preferably of contrasting colors. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. thick and 5 in. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. 3. 1.with light strokes up and down several times. 1/8 in. shows only two sides. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. 1. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. not for use only in cases of tableaux. the illustration. Both edges of the blade are sharp. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. Fig. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. the length of the blade 28 in. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. The length of the handle. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. in the widest part at the lower end. square and of any length desired. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. 3. In the finished piece. 2. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. should be about 9 in. the other is flat or halfround. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. of course. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. This sword is about 68 in. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. about 1-1/2 in. the other is flat or half-round. In making. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. 2.. as it is .

The thinness of the plank. and. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. It is made of a plank. A piece of mild steel. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. Doctors probed for the button without success. A cold . Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. Both can be made easily. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. about 3/8 in. Morse. --Contributed by Katharine D. N. as there was some at hand. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. 2 in. long. square. are fastened two pieces of strap iron.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. in an attempt to remove it. as shown in the sketch. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. Syracuse. On each edge of the board. Franklin. however. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. Mass. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. and if so. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. Y. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. or an insecure fastening. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. at the lower end. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. as can the pitch bed or block. piping and jackets by hard water. --Contributed by John Blake. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. each about 1 ft. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. Fasten this to the plank with bolts.

To put it in another way. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. secure a piece of brass of about No. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. 18 gauge. design down. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. plaster of Paris. tallow. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. When this has been done. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. Trim up the edges and file them . 5 lb. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. on the pitch. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. When the desired form has been obtained. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. a file to reduce the ends to shape. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. To remedy this.. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. The illustration shows an iron receptacle.. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. 5 lb. using a small metal saw.

in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. and still revolve. and hang a bird swing. living together in what seems like one receptacle. . Before giving the description. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. in diameter (Fig. Cutter. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. A. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. 1 ft. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. lb. Clean the metal thoroughly. 1) and the other 12 in. space between the vessels with water. but not to stop it. That is lifting 33. it may be well to know what horsepower means. make an unusual show window attraction. in one second. lb. or 550 ft. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. in the center. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. The smaller is placed within the larger. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33.000 lb. --Contributed by Harold H.000 ft. or fraction of a horsepower. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. This in turn divided by 33. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. Fig. over the smaller vessel. to keep it from floating. 3. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. Fill the 3-in. using powdered pumice with lye. 2).smooth.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. in diameter (Fig. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. in one minute or 550 lb. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. 30 ft.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. one 18 in. per second. per minute. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. 1 ft.

Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes.3 Fig. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. Mass. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. --Contributed. Y. Brooklyn.18 in. --Contributed by J. 2 Fig. The effect is surprising. Szerlip. 1 Fig. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. F. Diameter 12 in. or on a pedestal. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete .4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. N. Diameter Fig. by L. Somerville. Campbell.

and then. often render it useless after a few months service. with the pliers. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. which. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. with other defects. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. which may be of wood or tin. as a rule. then by drawing a straightedge over it. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. and the clay . The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. away from the edge. after which it is ready for use. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. the same as removing writing from a slate. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. and cut out the shape with the shears. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. Polish both of these pieces. unsatisfactory. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. is. This compound is impervious to water. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown.copper of No. using any of the common metal polishes. Rivet the cup to the base. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. In riveting. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. to keep the metal from tarnishing. keeping the center high. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. Do not be content merely to bend them over.

Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. 1. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. Northville. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. Shettleston. Dunlop. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. long. in diameter and 5 in. A. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. Grand Rapids. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. 3/4 in. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. --Contributed by A. It is made of a glass tube.can be pressed back and leveled. --Contributed by John T. Mich. -Contributed by Thos. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. DeLoof. The siphon is made of glass tubes. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. . as shown in Fig. Mich. 2. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. the device will work for an indefinite time. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. Scotland. Houghton.

stilettos and battle-axes. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. As the handle is to . long with the crossguard and blade of steel. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. London. in width and 2 in. 1. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. This sword is 4 ft. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. put up as ornaments.1 FIG. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. long.FIG.

Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. with wire or string' bound handle. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. A German stiletto. one about 1/2 in. This axe is made similar to the one . 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. the axe is of steel. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. This weapon is also about 1 ft. very broad. the same as used on the end of the handle. 7. 11 were used. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails.represent copper. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. A German poniard is shown in Fig. the upper part iron or steel. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. is shown in Fig. wood with a keyhole saw. long. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. 4. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. 5. Cut two strips of tinfoil. studded with brass or steel nails. The crossbar and blade are steel. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. sometimes called cuirass breakers. with both edges of the blade sharp. sharp edges on both sides. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. 3 is shown a claymore. in length. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. with both edges sharp. firmly glued on. paint it a dark brown or black. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. These must be cut from pieces of wood. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. In Fig. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. 9. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. In Fig. The ball is made as described in Fig. Both handle and axe are of steel. This sword is about 4 ft. in width. glue and put it in place. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. Three large. narrower. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. 8. then glued on the blade as shown. in length. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. string. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. When the whole is quite dry. which is about 2-1/2 ft. The lower half of the handle is of wood. The handle is of wood. small rope and round-headed nails. 20 spike. long with a dark handle of wood. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. When dry. When the glue is thoroughly dry. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. In Fig. This weapon is about 1 ft. 6. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. The sword shown in Fig. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. This stiletto has a wood handle. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord.

2. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig.described in Fig. 10. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. . such as braided fishline. --Contributed by E. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. Davis. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. W. so the contents cannot be seen. When wrapped all the way around. Old-Time Magic . will pull where other belts slip. together as shown in Fig. the ends are tied and cut off. Chicago. high. This will make a very good flexible belt.

an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. As zinc is much lighter than iron. Before the performance. Oakland. about one-third the way down from the top. or using small wedges of wood.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. 1 and put together as in Fig. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] .J. Calif. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. To make the flowers grow in an instant. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. Macdonald. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. These wires are put in the jar. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. N. There will be no change in color. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. causing the flowers to grow. --Contributed by A. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. in a few seconds' time. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. held in the right hand. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. filled with water. 2. some of the liquid. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. S. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. an acid. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. with the circle centrally located. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. The dotted lines in Fig. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. Bridgeton. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. four glass tumblers. apparently. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher.

--Contributed by W. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. unless some special device is used. When many slides are to be masked. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. and kept ready for use at any time. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. practical and costs nothing. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. Jaquythe. 2 for height. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. If the size wanted is No. which are numbered for convenience in working. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. and equally worthy of individual treatment.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. A. says a correspondent of Photo Era. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. Cal. This outlines the desired opening. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. Richmond. not only because of the fact just mentioned. 4 for width and No. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print.

Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. or. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. and the extreme length 7 in. 16 gauge. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. Draw a design. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. about half and half. This done. using the carbon paper. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. a little less acid than water. The one shown is merely suggestive. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. When etched to the desired depth. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. too. the paper is folded along the center line. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. or a pair of old tongs. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. With a stick. possibly. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. not the water into the acid. The decoration. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. Secure a sheet of No. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. and do not inhale the fumes. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. is about right for the No. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. which is dangerous. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . but they can be easily revived. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. may be changed. paint the design. the margin and the entire back of the metal.

and about 2-1/2 ft. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. 2. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. Cut out a piece of tin. or more wide. Fig. Then get two posts. as in Fig. C and D. Paint the table any color desired. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. The connections are simple: I. to the table. long and 1 ft. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. 3. about 8 in. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. about 2-1/2 in. thick. wide and of the same length as the table. 4. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. in diameter and 1/4 in. it will touch post F. When the button S is pressed. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. 5. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. wide. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. with the wires underneath. 5. attached to a post at each end. 2. the bell will ring. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. as shown in Fig. A. as shown in the illustration. 0 indicates the batteries. Fig. about 3 ft. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. about 1 in. J is another wire attached in the same way. Fig. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. high. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. repeat as many times as is necessary. 3/8 in. It may be either nailed or screwed down. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. Fig. and bore two holes. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. Fig. through it. Nail a board. 2. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. so that when it is pressed down. as at H.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. 1. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. long. . Buttons for the bells may be purchased. 24 parts water. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back.

The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. A wood peg about 2 in. handle and all. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. the wood peg inserted in one of them. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The entire weapon. 2. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. says the English Mechanic.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den.Imitation Arms and Armor . A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. The imitation articles are made of wood. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. but they are somewhat difficult to make. These rings can be carved out. The circle is marked out with a compass. 1.. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. long. After the glue is dry. long serves as the dowel. This weapon is about 22 in. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. thick. is to appear as steel. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. such as . the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces.

also. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. 2. 5. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. 6. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. etc. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. 8. or the amateur cannot use it well. covered with red velvet. The handle is of steel imitation. as before mentioned. is shown in Fig. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The spikes are cut out of wood. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. as shown. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. the hammer and spike. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. Its length is about 3 ft. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. The lower half of the handle is wood. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. as described in Fig. long. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. studded with large brass or steel nails. If such a tool is not at hand. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The axe is shown in steel. 3. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. used at the end of the fifteenth century. This weapon is about 22 in. leaves. flowers. . fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. The entire handle should be made of one piece. The upper half of the handle is steel. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. The handle is of wood.ornamental scrolls. All of these axes are about the same length. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. with a sharp carving tool. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in.

7) calls for one out. Fig. calls for a home run. . 3. 4). 6. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. then the other plays. 1. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. the knife resting on its back. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. as shown in Fig. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. Each person plays until three outs have been made. 2. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. The knife falling on its side (Fig. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. a three-base hit. Chicago. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. as in Fig. and so on for nine innings. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. 5.

If it is spotted at all. 1.-Contributed by J. of water for an hour or two. F. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. Somerville. as shown in Fig. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. of the rope and holds it. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. Mass. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. 2. This he does.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. as shown in Fig. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. It may be found that the negative is not colored. Old-Time Magic . Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. Campbell. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. while the committee is tying him up. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. 3. hypo to 1 pt. with the rope laced in the cloth. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. one of them burning . He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath.

of turpentine. showing that there is nothing between them. Thome. Louisville. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. Lebanon. of water and 1 oz. . and the audience gaze on and see nothing. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. 4 oz. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. with which he is going to light the other candle. Ky. and. 3/4 in. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. Brown. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle.brightly. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. The magician walks over to the burning candle.. --Contributed by L. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole.Contributed by Andrew G. He then walks over to the other candle. thick. B. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. bolt. thus causing it to light. New York City. of sugar. shades the light for a few seconds. --Contributed by C. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. Drill Gauge screw. Ky. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. 4 oz. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. of plumbago. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. etc. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. invisible to them (the audience). Evans. the other without a light. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush.

To make the porous cell. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. but is not so good. or blotting paper. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . In making up the solution. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. Denniston. N. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. thick. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. into a tube of several thicknesses. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. 5 in. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. H. Pulteney. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. Its current strength is about one volt. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. diameter. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. Y. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. about 5 in. Do not add water to the acid. --Contributed by C. steady current. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. long. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. for the material. which will give a strong. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc.

a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. One hole was bored as well as possible. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. but somewhat lighter.station. long with a bearing at each end. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. a positive adjustment was provided. The . It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. one drawing them together. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. while the other end is attached by two screws. the other holding them apart. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. To insure this.) may be obtained. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. carrying the hour circle at one end. As to thickness. After much experimentation with bearings. steel. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. steel. steel. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. Finally. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument.

The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg.. excepting those on the declination axis." When this is done. To find a star in the heavens. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. subtract 24. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. All set screws. When properly set it will describe a great circle. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. Instead." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. All these adjustments. apart. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. The pointer is directed to Alpha. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. need not be changed. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. is provided with this adjustment. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. and 15 min. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. It is. Set the declination circle to its reading. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. To locate a known star on the map. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. are tightened. and if it is not again directed to the same point. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. in each direction from two points 180 deg. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. save the one in the pipe. Each shaft. The aperture should be 1/4 in. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. once carefully made. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. If the result is more than 24 hours. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used." Only a rough setting is necessary. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. Declination is read directly. Cassiopiae.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. The pole is 1 deg. Point it approximately to the north star. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground .. 45 min. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. turn the pointer to the star. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph.

and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. is folded several times. cannon balls. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. In reality the first ball. which is the one examined. New Orleans. as shown in the sketch. Plain City. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. add a little more benzole. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. Strosnider. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. taking care not to add too much. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. the others . La. of ether. Ohio. benzole. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. a great effect will be produced. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. long.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. is the real cannon ball.. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. The dance will begin. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. If this will be too transparent. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 3 or 4 in. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. -Contributed by Ray E. then add 1 2-3 dr. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. The ball is found to be the genuine article.

etc. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. 2. Campbell.. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. Cal. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. Somerville. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. as shown in the illustration. Fig. small brooches. Mass. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. Return the card to the pack. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. --Contributed by J. taps. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. San Francisco. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. without taking up any great amount of space. In boxes having a sliding cover. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . Wis. 1). When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. F.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. Milwaukee.

This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. This box has done good service. round pieces 2-1/4 in. prints. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. Hartford. slides and extra brushes. . The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. Beller. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. as shown in the illustration. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. Connecticut. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. thus giving ample store room for colors. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. from the bottom of the box. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely.

-Contributed by C. holes in the bottom of one. costing 5 cents. about threefourths full. Fill the upper tub. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. FIG. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. will answer the purpose. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. with well packed horse manure. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. or placed against a wall. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. West Lynn. . Mass. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. 2). Darke. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. tacking the gauze well at the corners. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. O. 1). a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. When the ends are turned under.

The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. If the following directions are carried out. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. oil or other fluid. if this is not available. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. If plugs are found in any of the holes. M. Eifel. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. --Contributed by L. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. and each bundle contains .A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. they should be knocked out. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. cutting the cane between the holes. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. Chicago. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. when they are raised from the pan. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane.

then across and down. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. put about 3 or 4 in. as it must be removed again. 1. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. after having been pulled tight. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. as shown in Fig. it should be held by a plug. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. No plugs . In addition to the cane. and. Whenever the end of one strand is reached.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. held there by inserting another plug. a square pointed wedge.

as it always equals the latitude of the place. 40°. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. 4.075 in. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . This will make three layers. but the most common. 1. as the height of the line BC for lat. --Contributed by M.5 in. 5 in. the height of which is taken from table No. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. and for 1° it would be . 5. as shown in Fig. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. the height of the line BC. 1. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. It consists of a flat circular table. All added to the lesser or 40°. The style or gnomon. it is 4. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. From table No. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. Even with this lubrication.15+. 1. is the base (5 in. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. After completing the second layer. and for lat. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. Their difference is . 3. Fig. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. No weaving has been done up to this time. Fig. During the weaving. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. trim off the surplus rosin. using the same holes as for the first layer. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. we have 4. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. as shown in Fig. called the gnomon. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. When cool.2+. 41°-30'. for 2°. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. 1 lat. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer.3 in.15 in. in this case) times the . Detroit.2 in. is the horizontal dial. W. lat. stretch the third one. the next smallest. D.075 in. as for example. Patrick. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. -Contributed by E. and the one we shall describe in this article. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. There are several different designs of sundials. or the style. Michigan. 42° is 4. R. 3.= 4. If handled with a little care. 41 °-30'.42 in. If you have a table of natural functions. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun.

32 6.55 5.12 52° 6. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown. base. Draw the line AD. To layout the hour circle.33 42° 4. and perpendicular to the base or style. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 . using the points A and C as centers.55 46° 5. if of metal.82 3.tangent of the degree of latitude.93 6. and intersecting the semicircles.64 4 8 3.42 45 .66 1.33 .10 6.37 54° 6. 2.19 1.63 56° 7.39 .55 30° 2.28 . according to the size of the dial. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style.56 .20 60° 8. circle Sundial.55 4.83 27° 2. Fig. Draw two semi-circles. 2 for given latitudes. an inch or two. gives the 6 o'clock points.79 4.94 1.27 2.97 5 7 4. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in.30 1.00 40° 4. or if of stone.02 1. which will represent the base in length and thickness. Its thickness. Table NO. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks. . long. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in.11 3.49 30 .46 3. Chords in inches for a 10 in. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed.81 4. or more. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2.41 38° 3.59 2.91 58° 8.89 50° 5.07 4.82 5. 1.49 3.16 1.23 6.44 44° 4.57 3.29 4-30 7-30 3.66 latitude.14 5.40 34° 3. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No.30 2.76 1.37 5. draw two parallel lines AB and CD.77 2.87 1.42 1.93 2.16 40 .26 4.06 2. For latitudes not given. and for this size dial (10 in. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No.85 1.88 36° 3.03 3.50 26° 2.87 4. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight.46 .38 . A line EF drawn through the points A and C.82 2. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial. Height of stile in inches for a 5in. 2.66 48° 5.18 28° 2.68 5-30 6-30 5.40 1.99 2.96 32° 3.85 35 .42 .57 1. with a radius of 5 in.

The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No.14 1. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon. adding to each piece interest and value. This correction can be added to the values in table No.72 5.50 55 .10 4.57 1. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. Sioux City. will enable one to set the dial. An ordinary compass. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time. The + means that the clock is faster.46 4.87 6. 3 Corrections in minutes to change. it will be faster. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the .52 Table No. As they are the genuine reproductions. June 15. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker. and for the difference between standard and local time. 2 and Dec. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15.93 6. 900 Chicago.37 2.49 5.79 6. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year.06 2.71 2. E.82 3. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time.34 5. each article can be labelled with the name. Sept. then the watch is slower.63 1.means that the dial is faster than the sun. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York. --Contributed by J.68 3.54 60 .49 3. after allowing for the declination. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole. and on these dates the dial needs no correction.from Sundial lime.12 5.01 1.08 1.19 2.53 1.50 .. London. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid. 3. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west.89 3.98 4. 25. and the . changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached.77 3. 3. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds.add those marked + subtract those Marked .21 2. Sun time to local mean time. says the English Mechanic. Iowa.60 4. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3. Mitchell. April 16.24 5.30 2. if west.46 5. Each weapon is cut from wood.

After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. Partisan. 1. the length of which is about 5 ft. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. . If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. When putting on the tinfoil. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. 3. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig.. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in.

which are a part of the axe. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. used about the seventeenth century. long with a round staff or handle. A gisarm or glaive. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. sharp on the outer edges. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. This weapon is about 6 ft. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. The extreme length is 9 ft. 6 ft. is shown in Fig. long. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. 7. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. long. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. in diameter. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft.which is square. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. press it well into the carved depressions. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. 5.. 8. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. The spear is steel. The edges are sharp. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. about 4 in. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. The length of this bar is about 5 in. the holes being about 1/4 in. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. It is about 6 ft. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. . At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. long with a round wooden handle. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color.

or in holes punched in a leather strap. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. They can be made of various materials. 1. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. are less durable and will quickly show wear. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. H. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. 2 and 3. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. B.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. Substances such as straw.-Contributed by R. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. Cut all the cords the same length. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. are put in place. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. the most durable being bamboo. In Figs. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. the cross cords. 5. used for spacing and binding the whole together. The twisted cross cords should . while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. Ohio. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. 4. Workman. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. apart. This is important to secure neatness. Loudonville.

Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the .be of such material. of the bottom. -Contributed by Geo. New Orleans. This was turned over the top of the other can. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. La. for a length extending from a point 2 in. bamboo or rolled paper. The first design shown is for using bamboo. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. in which was placed a piece of glass. Lockport. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. New York. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. A slit was cut in the bottom. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. 3 in. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. below the top to within 1/4 in. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. wide. M. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. Harrer. as shown at B. shaped as shown at C. Four V-shaped notches were cut. To remedy this.

Sanford. Ill. This plank.tape from sticking to the carpet. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . --Contributed by W. is shown in the accompanying sketch. --Contributed by Joseph H. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. about 1/16 in. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. This should be done gradually. N. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. wide. Maywood. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. H. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. It would be well to polish the brass at first. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. Y. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. turned over but not fastened. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. the brass is loosened from the block. do not throw away the gloves. Pasadena. --Contributed by Chas. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. Newburgh. Shay. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. Cal. and two along the side for attaching the staff. giving the appearance of hammered brass. Schaffner. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. After this is finished. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times.

in diameter.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. Cal. the pendulum swings . Oak Park. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. Jaquythe. Ill. -Contributed by W. A. Marshall. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. Unlike most clocks. Richmond. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. bent as shown. --E. K.

B. bearing on the latter. Secure a board. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. such as this one. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. wide that is perfectly flat. on the board B. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. high and 1/4 in. . because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. high. in diameter. In using this method. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. --Contributed by V. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. Now place the board to be joined. and the other two 2-5/8 in. Two uprights. C.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. A. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. The construction is very simple. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. away. 6 in. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. long and at each side of this. 3/4 in. says the Scientific American. about 6 in. bar. is an electromagnet. 7-1/2 in. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this.. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. about 12 in. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. wide. 5/16 in. thick. only have the opposite side up. the center one being 2-3/4 in. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. high. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. Fasten another board. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. to the first one with screws or glue. Metzech. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. Chicago. by 1-5/16 in. high. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. are secured in the base bar. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip.

Place the cardboard square in the nick B. wide and 5 in. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. plates should be made 8 in. Pa. square inside. . is fastened in the hole A. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. long. 1. from one end. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. 1. The trigger. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. Vanderslice. 1. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. whose dimensions are given in Fig. Phoenixville. Fig. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. or more. wide and 1 in. 3. --Contributed by Elmer A. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. 4. 2. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. square. as shown at A. Fig. by driving a pin through the wood.

by weight.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. square. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. 2 parts of whiting. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. as shown in the illustration. -Contributed by J.A. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. rubbing varnish and turpentine. Fostoria. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. one-half the length of the side pieces. Ohio. if only two bands are put in the . when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. 5 parts of black filler. Simonis. which allows 1/4 in.

but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. A double convex lens. which may be either of ground or plain glass. says the English Mechanic. G. in the opposite end of the box. In constructing helmets. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. as shown in Fig. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. A piece of metal. DeLoof. wide and about 1 ft. place tracing paper on its surface. and it may be made as a model or full sized. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. 1. is set at an angle of 45 deg. II. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. -Contributed by Abner B. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. is necessary. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. In use. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. No. London. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. deep. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. If a plain glass is used. Michigan.lower strings. Grand Rapids. Dartmouth. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. long. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. keeps the strong light out when sketching. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. Mass. and the picture can be drawn as described. It must be kept moist and well . 8 in. A mirror. Shaw. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. --Contributed by Thos. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. preferably copper.

The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. or some thin glue. and over the crest on top. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. take. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. 1. and left over night to soak. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. The clay. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. After the clay model is finished. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . shown in Fig. brown. 1. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. and continue until the clay is completely covered. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. a few clay-modeling tools. with a keyhole saw. as shown in Fig. the clay model oiled. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. All being ready. Scraps of thin. as in bas-relief. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. 2. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. on which to place the clay. and the deft use of the fingers. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. joined closely together. This being done.kneaded. will be necessary. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. 3.

which should be no difficult matter. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. as shown: in the design. then another coating of glue. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. The whole helmet. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. When dry. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. The band is decorated with brass studs. and so on. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. the piecing could not be detected. Before taking it off the model. one for each side. owing to the clay being oiled. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. When the helmet is off the model. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. In Fig. This contrivance should be made of wood. the skullcap. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. 7. They are all covered with tinfoil. 9. or. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. In Fig. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. will make it look neat. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. as seen in the other part of the sketch. 1. --Contributed by Paul Keller. a crest on top.as possible. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. 5. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The center of the ear guards are perforated. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. Indiana. square in shape. When perfectly dry. with the exception of the vizor. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. should be modeled and made in one piece. Indianapolis. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. and the ear guards in two pieces. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. a few lines running down. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable.

The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. Fig. if this cannot be obtained. Fig. 1. 4. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. is shown in Fig. when they are placed in opposite positions. The holes B and C are about 3 in. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . two ordinary binding posts. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. 3. also the switch B and the fuse block C. and. The mineral wool. of No. 3 in. as it stands a higher temperature. JJ. Fig. long. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. E and F. Fig. and C. about 1/4 in. Fig. thick. AA. one small switch. each 4-1/2 in. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. and two large 3in. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. The reverse side of the base. of the top. Fig. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. 4. above the collar. until it is within 1 in. 1 in. about 1 lb. 1. If a neat appearance is desired. long. 2. of fire clay. German-silver wire is better. The two holes. 4. Fig. The plate. 4 lb. or. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. Fig. the holes leading to the switch. GG. one oblong piece of wood. 4. thick sheet asbestos. wide and 15 in. AA. which can be bought from a local druggist. about 80 ft. screws. 1. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. long. one fuse block. 1. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. 12 in. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. 1. Fig. This will allow the plate. to receive screws for holding it to the base.same size. one glass tube. should extend about 1/4 in. 1. 22 gauge resistance wire. for connections. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. as shown in Fig. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. If asbestos is used. A round collar of galvanized iron. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. if the measurements are correct. as shown in Fig. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. with slits cut for the wires. 4. Fig. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. are allowed to project about 1 in. AA. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. Fig. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. This will make an open space between the plates. as shown in Fig. in diameter and 9 in. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. the fuse block. Fig. of mineral wool. high. 2. 4. 2. Fig. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. FF. 4. is then packed down inside the collar.

Jaquythe. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. Catherines. Can. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. Cover over about 1 in. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. when heated. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. When the tile is in place. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. using care not to get it too wet. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. --Contributed by W. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. when cool. steam will form when the current is applied. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. It should not be set on end. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. allowing a space between each turn. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. causing a short circuit. Cut a 1/2-in. H. Cal. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. As these connections cannot be soldered. Fig. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. above the rim. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. St. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. KK. A. II. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. This completes the stove. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. Richmond. Fig. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. The clay. When this is done. This point marks the proper length to cut it. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. apart. it leaves a gate for the metal. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. then. If this is the case. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. --Contributed by R. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. more wire should be added. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. If it is not thoroughly dry. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. 4. Cnonyn. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. A file can be used to remove any rough places. and pressed into it. Next. 2. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. deep. It should not be left heated in this condition. While the clay is damp. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. will slip and come in contact with each other. as the turns of the wires. so that the circuit will not become broken.

the pie will be damaged. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. Ky. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. but 12 by 24 in. Then clip a little off the . says the Photographic Times. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. is large enough. Thorne. the air can enter from both top and bottom. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. as shown. and the prints will dry rapidly. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. constructed of 3/4-in. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. and the frame set near a window. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. Louisville. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. square material in any size. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. --Contributed by Andrew G. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser.

The connections are made as shown in Fig. A 1/8-in. Two supports. wide and 3 in. 1. wide and 7 in. wide. in diameter. which are fastened to the base. long. 1/2 in. Figs. The board can be raised to place . causing a break in the current. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. high. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. long. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. The connecting rod E. slip on two cardboard washers. each 1 in. in diameter and about 4 in. thick and 3 in. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. each 1/2 in. Le Mars. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. 1/2 in. which gives the shaft a half turn. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. As the shaft revolves. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. Fig. W. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. 14 in. 22 gauge magnet wire. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. for the crank. as shown. The upright B. thick and 3 in. 1. 2-1/2 in. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. Herron. allowing each end to project for connections.Paper Funnel point. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. long. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. Fig. 3. high. 1. thereby saving time and washing. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. Fig. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. 4 in. Iowa. at GG. high. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. 2. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. long. -Contributed by S. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. 1. The driving arm D. open out. 1 and 3. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. thick. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. An offset is bent in the center. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig.

Dorchester. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. One or more pots may be used. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. Stecher. on a board. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. . The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. 3 in. Mass. in height. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. as shown in the sketch. making a framework suitable for a roost. --Contributed by William F. bottom side up. Place the pot. In designing the roost. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive.

If the meter is warmed 10 deg. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. that it is heated. Fig.. and give it time to dry.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. when combined. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. Wind the . odd corners. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. shelves. etc. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. adopt the method described. The materials required are rope or. windows. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which.. paraffin and paint or varnish. as shown in Fig. grills and gratings for doors. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. The bottom part of the sketch. preferably. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. without any corresponding benefit. 1. will produce the pattern desired. F. in diameter. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. 1. if it is other than straight lines. ordinary glue. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. F. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time.

Y. six designs are shown. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. Lockport. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. Fig. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry.Fig. M. 2. -Contributed by Geo. cut and glue them together. N. Harrer.

The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. says the English Mechanic. This piece of horse armor. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work.. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. which was used in front of a horse's head. when it will be observed that any organic matter. but no farther. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. London. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. As the .. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. 1. chips of iron rust. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. will be retained by the cotton. etc. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular.. etc. and the sides do not cover the jaws.

Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. and the clay model oiled. 2. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. the same as in Fig.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. This will make the model light and easy to move around. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. but the back is not necessary. except the thumb and fingers. All being ready. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. This being done. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. as the surface will hold the clay. 6 and 7. This can be made in one piece. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. This triangularshaped support. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. In Fig. the rougher the better. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. The armor is now removed from the model. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. and therefore it is not described. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. but for . It is not necessary to have smooth boards. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. 2. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. with the exception of the thumb shield. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. which can be made in any size. 8. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. 4. as shown in the sketch. which is separate. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. An arrangement is shown in Fig. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. and will require less clay. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. then another coat of glue.

cut into the shape shown in Fig. and the instrument is ready for use. Y. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. . but 3-1/2 in. are glued to it. fastened to the rod. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. Calif. two for the jaws and one a wedge. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. --Contributed by John G. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. running down the plate. Goshen. When locating the place for the screw eyes. A piece of board. the top of the rod. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. The two pieces of foil. La Rue. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. two in each jaw. 2. are better shown in Fig.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. long. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. If it does not hold a charge. Fasten a polished brass ball to. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. the two pieces of foil will draw together. 9. wide and 1/2 in. --Contributed by Ralph L. Redondo Beach. 1/2 in. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. Buxton. the foils will not move. in depth. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. N. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. each about 1/4 in. will be about right. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge.

used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. long. The can may be bronzed. At a point 6 in. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. hole bored through it. as this will cut under the water without splashing. When a fish is hooked. pine board. is made of a 1/4-in. M. as shown in the illustration. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. --Contributed by Mrs. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. A. 2-1/2 in. from the smaller end. silvered. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. about 15 in. as indicated in the . Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. Corsicana. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. enameled or otherwise decorated. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. Bryan. Texas.

A good size is 5 in. wide by 6 in. take a piece of thin wood. Polish the metal. Any kind of wood will do. Basswood or butternut. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. thick. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. as shown. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. then with a nail. using powdered pumice and lye. 3/8 or 1/4 in. such as basswood or pine was used. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. using a piece of carbon paper. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. long over all. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. Having completed the drawing. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. will do as well as the more expensive woods. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. punch the holes. If soft wood. put a coat or two of wax and polish . The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. Next prepare the metal holder. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. When it has dried over night." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. 22 is plenty heavy enough.Match Holder accompanying sketch. and trace upon it the design and outline. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. or even pine.

of pure olive oil. wide and 5 in. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. If carving is contemplated. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. . Instead of the usual two short ropes. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. --Contributed by W. long. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. Two wire nails. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. 2 in. the whole being finished in linseed oil. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. If one has some insight in carving. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. Cal. can be made on the same standards. A. each 1 in. is used for the base of this instrument. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. are used for the cores of the magnets. It is useful for photographers. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. long. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. Jaquythe. Richmond. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. thick. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. 1/2 in. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze.

H. All of the parts for the armor have been described. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. A rubber band. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. when the key is pushed down. the paper covering put on. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. then covered with red. . 25 gauge. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. similar to that used in electric bells. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. London. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. leaving about 1/4 in. 3. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. about No. A piece of tin. Lynas. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. cloth or baize to represent the legs. cut in the shape of the letter T. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. except that for the legs. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. acts as a spring to keep the key open. 1. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. as shown by the dotted lines. at A. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by W. in the shape shown in the sketch. About 1 in. says the English Mechanic. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw.

holes. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. Cut them to a length or 40 in. apart. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. for the sake of lightness. flat headed carriage bolt. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. completes the equipment. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. So set up. and eight small holes. can be made in a few minutes' time. In one end of the piece. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. These can be purchased at a stationery store. at each end. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. By moving the position of the bolt from.. make the same series of eight small holes and. not too tight. 1 and drill a 1/4in. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. Fig. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. Instead of using brass headed nails. Silver paper will do very well. drill six 1/4-in. A 1/4-in. 3 in. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. in the other end. says Camera Craft. hole in the center. Secure two strips of wood. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. one to another . 2. The two pieces are bolted together. apart. long. about 1 in. or ordinary plaster laths will do. 1 in. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. Take the piece shown in Fig.

as in portraiture and the like. in Fig. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. taking the same start as for the square fob. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. A round fob is made in a similar way. the one marked A. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. 2. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. D over A and C. then B over C and the end stuck under A. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. A is the first string and B is the second.of the larger holes in the strip. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. long. 4. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. and lay it over the one to the right. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. Start with one end. In this sketch. but instead of reversing . Then draw all four ends up snugly. C over D and B. 2. Fig. lay Cover B and the one under D. and the one beneath C. doubled and run through the web of A. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. 1. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. 2. as shown in Fig. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. Then take B and lay it over A. of the ends remain unwoven. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. for instance.

as B. Other designs can be made in the same manner. The round fob is shown in Fig. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. 5. as at A in Fig. especially if silk strings are used. is left out at the center before starting on one side. Ohio. as in making the square fob. over the one to its right. --Contributed by John P. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. Monroeville. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. long. the design of which is shown herewith. is to be made of leather.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. always lap one string. 1-1/2 in. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. A loop. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . Rupp. 3. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat.

On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. When the supply of wax is exhausted. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. filling them with wax.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. such as a nut pick. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. Northville. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. pressing it against the wood. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. Mich. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. -Contributed by A. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. door facing or door panel. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. beeswax or paraffin. using the reverse side. it can be easily renewed. A. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. Any smooth piece of steel. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. . This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. Houghton.

--Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. D. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. it is best to leave a plain white margin. Select the print you wish to mount. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. E and F. N. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. leaving about 1/4 in. Enough plaster should. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. those on matte paper will work best. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. place it face down in the dish. says Photographic Times. Petersburg.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. thick. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. long. J. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. Thompson. The tacks should be about 1 in. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. and about 12 in. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. but any kind that will not stick may be used. remaining above the surface of the board. --Contributed by O. if blueprints are used. Ill. Fold together on lines C. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. Y. . New York. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. although tin ones can be used with good success. and after wetting. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. apart and driven in only part way. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin.

violets.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. bell flowers. etc. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. roses. Lower into the test tube a wire. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. filling the same about onehalf full. as shown in the right of the sketch. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution.. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. as shown at the left in the sketch. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. One of the . will be rendered perfectly white. without mixing the solutions.

When soldering these parts together. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. made of heavy tin. as shown. not too tightly. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. should be soldered to the box. South Dakota. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. The first point should be ground blunt. The tin horn can be easily made. or delicate tints of the egg. The diaphragm. long and made of wood. The sound box. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. in diameter and 1 in. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. about 1/8s in. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. Shabino. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. turned a little tapering. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. A rod that will fit the brass tube. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. --Contributed by L. L. is about 2-1/2 in.. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . 2. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. Millstown. 1. as shown in the sketch.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. 1-7/8 in. shading. to keep the core from coming off in turning. thick. long. and at the larger end. Fig. 3. but which will not wobble loose.

open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. wondering what it was. Ill. Gold. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. E. put a board on top. Jr. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. says the Iowa Homestead. and. mice in the bottom.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. Chicago. Colo. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. Victor. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] .Contributed by E. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. and weighted it with a heavy stone.

Y. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. Pereira. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. Ottawa. Buffalo. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. N. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. Can.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. --Contributed by Lyndwode. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. .

--Contributed by W. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. as shown. through which several holes have been punched. by means of a flatheaded tack. a piece of tin. Jaquythe. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. Cal. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. and at one end of the stick fasten. Richmond. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. De Loof. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. as it can be made quickly in any size. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . This cart has no axle. Mich. --Contributed by Thos. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. A. Put a small nail 2 in. cut round. longer than the length of the can. Grand Rapids. above the end of the dasher.

The strip of wood is 1/4 in. Pa. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. 1-1/2 in. long. 1. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. 1/4 in. wide and as long as the box. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. cut in the center of the rounding edge. Kane. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. The candles. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. board.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. Fig. 1 ft. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. New Orleans. of course. deep and 3 in. wide. --Contributed by James M. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. were below the level of the bullseye. 2. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. screwed it on the inside of a store box. 2 in. 2. Doylestown. I reversed a door gong. The baseboard and top are separable. A wedge-shaped piece of . thick. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. Notches 1/8 in. La. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. 2. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. as shown. wide and 3 ft. wide and 1/8 in.1. apart.

the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. This device is very convenient for invalids. etc. Mass. Needles. scissors. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. stone or wood. the shelf could not be put on the window. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade.Book Back Holders metal. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. A. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. as shown in Fig. The block can also be used as a paperweight. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. when placed as in Fig. After the glue has dried. Worcester. --Contributed by G. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. wide into each side of the casing. Wood. the reason being that if both were solid. take two pieces of hard wood. 1. Ia. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. Cover the block with rubber. can be picked up without any trouble. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. 3. the blade is put back into the groove . --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. wide rubber bands or felt. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. it can be removed without marring the casing. by cutting away the ends.. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. After completing the handle. When not in use. to prevent its scratching the desk top. West Union. dressing one surface of each piece. For the handle. will.

and sharpened to a cutting edge. . Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. If desired. --Contributed by Maud McKee. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. A notch is cut in one side. is shown in the accompanying sketch. square and 4 in. Erie. Each one is made of a hardwood block. S. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. as shown in Fig. 2. -Contributed by W. as shown in Fig. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. Ohio. long. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. A. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. Jacobs. Hutchins. Cleveland. 1. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. Mass. thus carrying the car up the incline. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. 1 in. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. Pa. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. Malden. --Contributed by H.

. and an awl and hammer. a board on which to work it. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. 6 by 9-1/2 in. If one such as is shown is to be used. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. N. This will insure having all parts alike.J. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. Prepare a design for the front. . --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. The letters can be put on afterward. will be needed. One sheet of metal. Cape May Point. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first.

Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. 3/4 part. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. So impressive are the results. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick.Fasten the metal to the board. . One coat will do. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands." In all appearance. in the waste metal. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. to right angles. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. paste the paper design right on the metal. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. behind or through the center of a table leg. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. turpentine. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. mandolin or guitar. Remove the metal. If any polishing is required. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. if desired. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. which is desirable. as shown. The music will not sound natural. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. applied by means of a brush. flat brush. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. or. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. varnish. that can be worked in your own parlor. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. only the marginal line is to be pierced. 2 parts white vitriol. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. placed on a table. 1/4 part. says Master Painter. 1 part. but weird and distant. On the back. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. a violin. The stick may be placed by the side of.

Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. London. across the top. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. 2. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. is bent square so as to form two uprights. Two pairs of feet. and is easy to construct. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. it might be difficult. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. long. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. apart. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. round-head machine screws. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. thick by 1/2 in. square bar iron.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. are shaped as shown in Fig. wide. each 6 in. . as would be the case with ordinary calipers. each 28 in. 3. With proper tools this is easy. says Work. long and measuring 26 in. The longest piece. without them. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. long and spread about 8 in.

A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. Fig. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. The brads are then removed. cut a long piece of lead. Place the corner piece of glass. the latter being tapped to . using rosin as a flux. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. D. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. While the piece of lead D. 7. on it as shown. 5. The glass. as shown in Fig. better still. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. and the base border. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. is held by the brads. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. 4. 5. B. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. Fig. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. lead. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. A. 6. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. or. The design is formed in the lead. C. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. special flux purchased for this purpose. in the grooves of the borders. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. After the joints are soldered. After the glass is cut.

Concrete is much better if it can be secured. and two wood blocks. and round the corners of one end for a ring.the base of the clip. long. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post.. Bore a 5/8-in. --Contributed by W. Jr. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. holes through their centers. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. bolt. plank about 12 ft. not less than 4 in. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. thick and drill 3/4-in. The center pin is 3/4-in. rounded at the top as shown. J. Make three washers 3-in. long. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. then flatten its end on the under side. 8. square and of the length given in the drawing. This . wood screws in each washer. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. N. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. This ring can be made of 1-in. Bore a 3/4-in. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. Camden. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. in diameter and about 9 in. H. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. Two styles of hand holds are shown. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. Secure a post. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. plates. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. then drill a 3/4-in. A and B. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. in diameter and 1/4 in. long. rocker bolt. bolt. as shown in Fig. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. one on each side and central with the hole. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. Fasten the plates to the block B. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. Dreier.

50 ft. of 1/4-in. 2-1/2 in. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. by 6-1/2 ft. long. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. and some one can swing an axe. bolts and rope. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. chestnut or ash. 9 in. can make a first class gymnasium. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. New Orleans. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. La. horse and rings.will make an excellent cover for a pot. square by 9-1/2 ft. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. bit. straight-grained hickory. long. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. long and 1 piece. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . 1-1/4in. shanks. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. 3/4 by 3 in. 4 pieces. 4 filler pieces. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. maple. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. long. 3 in. from one edge. because it will not stand the weather. 7 in. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. screws. Draw a line on the four 7-in. To substitute small. 1. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. 16 screws. If trees are convenient. 4 in. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. apart for a distance of 3 ft. long. by 3 ft. 4 pieces. by 2 ft. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. 2 by 4 in. long. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. The four 7-in. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. in diameter and 7 in. long. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. 1/2 in. square by 5 ft. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. the money outlay will be almost nothing. hickory. 1 by 7 in. boards along the side of each from end to end. 4 in.

which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. so the 1/2-in. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. from the end. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. apart. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. deep and remove all loose dirt. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. each 3 ft.bored. at each end. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. apart. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. 8 in. 2. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved.. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. boards coincide. Bore a 9/16-in. piece of wood. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter.. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground.

not much to look at in daytime. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. If the tumbler is rotated. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. . and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. disappearing only to reappear again. passing through a screweye at either end. the effect is very striking. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. was at its height.. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. apart. but most deceptive at dusk. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. and materially heightened the illusion. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. it follows the edge for about 1 in. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. And all he used was a black thread. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. about 100 ft. W. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. just visible against the dark evening sky. When the interest of the crowd. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. not even the tumbler. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. and then passes in a curve across the base. it is taken to the edge of the foot. and ascends the stem. in an endless belt. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. He stretched the thread between two buildings. which at once gathered. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room." which skimmed along the distant horizon. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses.

and turned in a spiral D. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. long. so the point will be on top. Chisel out two notches 4 in. long. The cork will come out easily. long. New Orleans. 8 bolts. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. 7 in. 2 side braces. long. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. 2 by 4 in. 1. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. Bevel the ends of . Fig. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. from either side of the center.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. long. deep. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. 2 in. long. 2 by 3 in. large spikes. 4 knee braces. 2 cross braces. A wire about No. beginning at a point 9 in. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. square and 6 ft. 2 by 4 in. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. 8 in. square and 51/2 ft. 8 in. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. by 10 ft. by 2 ft. preferably cedar. long. 2 base pieces. 4 in. long and 1 doz. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. by 7 ft. 4 bolts. To make the apparatus. 8 in. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. long. 6 in. La. wide and 1 in. 4 in. 2 by 4 in. by 3 ft. 4 wood screws.

( To be Continued. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. Richmond. These will allow the ladle to be turned. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. Jaquythe. which face each other. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. After the trenches are dug. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. leaving the strainer always in position. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. as shown in the diagram. If using mill-cut lumber. A large sized ladle. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. screws. except the bars. etc. --Contributed by W. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. equipped with a strainer.the knee braces. of 7 ft. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. The wood so treated will last for years. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. and countersinking the heads. using four of the 7-in bolts. A. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. jellies. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. Cal. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place.. additional long. leave it undressed. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. but even unpainted they are very durable. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. Two endpieces must be made.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. . so the bolts in both will not meet. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. save the bars. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly.

between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. of sufficient 1ength. partly a barrier for jumps. or various cutting compounds of oil. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. it is necessary to place a stick. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. In order to accomplish this experiment. milling machine. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. A. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. which seems impossible. Oil. . thus holding the pail as shown. drill press or planer.

from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. 7 in. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. 2 adjusting pieces. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. These are placed 18 in. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. long. bolts. The material required is as follows: Two posts. square by 5 ft. is a good length. projections and splinters. bolt. 1 in. 1 cross brace. beginning 1-1/2 in. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. 4 in. but 5 ft. 2 bases. to fasten the knee braces at the top. bolts. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. piece of 2 by 4-in. long. 2 by 4 in. long. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. These are well nailed in place. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. two 1/2-in. by 3 ft. in diameter--the larger the better. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. and free from knots. stud cut rounding on one edge. Hand holds must be provided next. long. Procure from a saw mill. bolts. apart. long. long. To construct.. 4-1/2 in. long.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. wood yard or from the woods. The round part of this log must be planed. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. by 3 ft. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. ten 1/2-in. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. by 3 ft. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. 4 in.. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. 4 knee braces. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. 4 in. square by 5-1/2 ft. long. 2 by 4 in. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. 2 by 4 in. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . from each end. apart in a central position on the horse. in the ground. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. 3 in.

snow. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. Also. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. it is caused by some obstruction. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. it is caused by an overloaded shell.horse top. but nevertheless. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. A. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. such as a dent. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. over and around. no one is responsible but himself.--Contributed by W. Richmond. Such a hand sled can be made in a . Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. etc. then bending to the shape desired. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. Jaquythe. Cal. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. water. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. pipe and fittings. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed.

. Mass. which. Toronto. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. W. --Contributed by J. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. 2. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. --Contributed by Arthur E. France. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. Paris. 1. The end elevation. thick. are all the tools necessary. Joerin. Noble. when complete. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. Vener. Boston. Ontario. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. 1/4 or 3/16 in. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. will give the length. then run a string over each part. --Contributed by James E.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. at E and F. These. when straightened out. in width and 1/32 in. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. is much better than a wood sled. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron.

The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. nor that which is partly oxidized. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. . The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. 4. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. 3. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. It is best to use soft water. are nailed. AA and BB. The method shown in Figs. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. and the latter will take on a bright luster. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked.

If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. or various rulings may be made. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. as shown in Fig. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. Percy Ashley in Rudder. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. . Broad lines can be made. class ice-yacht. 8 and 9. 2. or unequal widths as in Fig. as shown in Fig. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. 1). Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. 4. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. 3. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. The materials used are: backbone. 2.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. The point should extend about 11/2 in. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. pipe. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. long. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. out from the collar. The headstock is made of two tees. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. 1-Details of Lathe sort. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. Both the lower . A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. pins to keep them from turning. bent and drilled as shown. A good and substantial homemade lathe. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. but if it is made much longer. It can be made longer or shorter. a tee and a forging. about 30 in. 1.Fig. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. a larger size of pipe should be used. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee.

2.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. Fruitvale. Indiana. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. --Contributed by M. 2. as shown in Fig. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. 2. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. as shown in Fig. 3/4 or 1 in. --Contributed by W. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. Man. --Contributed by W. but also their insulating properties. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. W. M. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. To do this. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. a straight line should be scratched Fig. a corresponding line made on this. Held. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. Musgrove. and will answer for a great variety of work. 1. Laporte. UpDeGraff. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. thick as desired. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. . Cal. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. else taper turning will result. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. It is about 1 in. or a key can be used as well. Boissevain.

Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . long. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. J. Ft. Cline. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. Ark. In use. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. To obviate this. Smith.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. The handle is of pine about 18 in. as shown. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. --Contributed by E. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn.

Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. which should be backed out of contact. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. take . The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. face off the end of the piece. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. White. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. if this method is followed: First. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. the drill does not need the tool. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. centering is just one operation too many. After being entered.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. and when once in true up to its size. This prevents the drill from wobbling. Denver. on starting the lathe. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. La. --Contributed by Walter W. New Orleans. Colo. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand.

Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. as shown in D. all the better. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. The glass tube B. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. The handkerchief rod. unknown to the spectators. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. the cap is placed over the paper tube. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. by applying caustic soda or . The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. vanishing wand. and can be varied to suit the performer. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. It can be used in a great number of tricks. After the wand is removed. is put into the paper tube A. In doing this. after being shown empty. shown at C. a long piece of glass tubing. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. shorter t h a n the wand. says the Sphinx. and this given to someone to hold. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. a bout 1/2 in.

A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. with the back side rounding. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. End. cut to any shape desired. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. Cut a piece of hard wood. 1 End. preferably hard maple. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. With care and patience. 1/4 in. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. Glue the neck to the box. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. thick. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. as shown by K. The sides. and glue it to the neck at F. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. 1 Bottom. As the cement softens. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. 1. Glue strips of soft wood. across the front and back to strengthen them. The brace at D is 1 in. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. by 14 by 17 in. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. This dimension and those for the frets . 1 Neck. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. 3/16. and if care is taken in selecting the material. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in.potash around the edges of the letters. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. 2 Sides. long. square and 1-7/8 in. can be made by the home mechanic.

This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. H. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. Six holes. 1) on which to stretch the paper.should be made accurately. wide and 11-1/2 ft. thick and about 1 ft. Norwalk. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. long is used for a keel. but it is not. in diameter. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. When it is completed you will have a canoe. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. 3/16 in. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. Stoddard. and beveled . and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. E. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. --Contributed by Chas. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. O. Carbondale.Pa. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. Frary. toward each end. A board 1 in. -Contributed by J. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. or backbone.

C. For the gunwales (a. 1 and 2. as shown in Fig. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. 3). The ribs. which are easily made of long. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. when made of green elm. Fig. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. the loose strips of ash (b. Any tough. C. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. 13 in. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. as they are apt to do. 2. b. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. 3. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. slender switches of osier willow. . procure at a carriage factory. Fig. thick. by means of a string or wire. B.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. Fig. The cross-boards (B. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. and so. two strips of wood (b. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. but before doing this. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. will answer nearly as well. twigs 5 or 6 ft. Fig. such as hazel or birch. with long stout screws. Fig.. 4). Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. Shape these as shown by A. 1. in such cases. two twigs may be used to make one rib. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. or other place. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. are next put in. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. thick. a. Fig. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. 2). or similar material. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. wide by 26 in. long are required. but twigs of some other trees. 3). For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. 3. and. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. 4. and are not fastened. These are better. Osiers probably make the best ribs. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. Fig. buy some split cane or rattan. in thickness and should be cut. 2). as before described. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position.) in notches. b. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. such as is used for making chairbottoms. as shown in Fig. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. In drying. probably. Fig. some tight strips of ash. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. Green wood is preferable. apart. 3/8 in. b. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. and notched at the end to receive them (B. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. Fig. long.

For this purpose buy about 18 yd. The paper is then trimmed. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. preferably iron. When the paper is dry. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. Being made in long rolls. wide. but with less turpentine. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. and light oars. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. When thoroughly dry. but neither stiff nor very thick. If not. tacking it to the bottom-board. of very strong wrapping-paper. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. and as soon as that has soaked in. and steady in the water. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. after wetting it. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. apply a second coat of the same varnish. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. You may put in . Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. Then take some of the split rattan and. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. It should be drawn tight along the edges. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. however. It should be smooth on the surface. if it has been properly constructed of good material. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. B. If the paper be 1 yd. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. 5). and very tough. Fig. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. and held in place by means of small clamps. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale.

We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. 5). then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. to fit it easily. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. and if driven as shown in the cut. We procured a box and made a frame. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. Drive the lower nail first. they will support very heavy weights.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. Fig. 2. 1. Fig. and make a movable seat (A. 1 and the end in . which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. 5. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. Fig. fore and aft.

Pittsburg. this makes the tube airtight. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. A good way to handle this work. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. This is an easy . One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. 4. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. and the result is. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. 5. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. and the glass. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. being softer where the flame has been applied. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. 3. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. Close the other end with the same operation. Pa.Fig. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. This way has its drawbacks. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another.

Sixth. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. above the work and striking it with the hammer. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. Oswald. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. After the bulb is formed. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. third. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. file. thin screw. second. four. 23 gauge. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. extra metal all around. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. three. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. fourth. flat and round-nosed pliers.way to make a thermometer tube. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. above the metal. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. rivet punch. also trace the decorative design. Give the metal a circular motion. with a piece of carbon paper. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. -Contributed by A. Seventh. The candle holders may have two. fifth. metal shears. very rapid progress can be made. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. then reverse. or six arms. stamp the background of the design promiscuously.

The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. and holder. Small copper rivets are used. Having pierced the bracket. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. How To Make a Hectograph [326] .Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. drip cup. Metal polish of any kind will do. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing.

Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. and it will be ready for future use. sugar 1 part. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. except they had wheels instead of runners. of glycerine to about 200 deg. deep. if it has not absorbed too much ink. thus it was utilized. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. Fifty. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. I steer with the front wheel. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. when it will be ready for use. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. The boom. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. and add the gelatine. hammer. A saw. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. and brace and bit were the tools used. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. alcohol 2 parts. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. The gaff. the stick at the bottom of the sail. on a water bath. and in a week . It will bear a perfect copy of the original. Mother let me have a sheet. Soak 1 oz. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. Heat 6-1/2 oz. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. using a steel pen. Shiloh. they were like an ice boat with a sail. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. is a broomstick. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. winding the ends where they came together with wire. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. all the rest I found. and other things as they were needed. F. Twenty cents was all I spent. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. J. glycerine 4 parts. N. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. and water 24 parts. smooth it down and then remove as before. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast.

a projecting lens .Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up. A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly.

H. A table. or glue. G.. and 14 in. This ring is made up from two rings. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. E. wire brads. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. DD. wide. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. If a small saw is used. describe a 9-in. focus enlarging a 3-in. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. well seasoned pine. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. wide and 15 in. 1. provided the material is of metal. slide to about 6 ft. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. A and B. high. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. but if such a box is not found. or a lens of 12-in. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. and the work carefully done. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. thick. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. long. are . and. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. and a projecting lens 2 in. The slide support. The board is centered both ways. 8 in. and the lens slide. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. about 2 ft. above the center. at a distance of 24 ft. 3. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. Fig. at a point 1 in. 1/2 to 3/4 in. as desired.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other.

A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. St. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. apply two coats of shellac varnish.-Contributed by G. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use.constructed to slip easily on the table. The arrangement is quite safe as. should the glass happen to upset. To reach the water. E. A sheet . JJ. Minn. light burning oil. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. the strips II serving as guides. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. P. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. placed on the water. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. and when the right position is found for each. B. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. of safe. but not long enough. Small strips of tin. the water at once extinguishes the flame. Paul.

I ordered a canvas bag. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one.H. If one of these clips is not at hand. 4. --Contributed by J. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. to cover the mattresses. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. Crawford. from a tent company. Y. Fig. 3.. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. by 12 ft. N. 3 in. form a piece of wire in the same shape. then the corners on one end are doubled over. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. 3. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. Fig.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. Schenectady. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . 1. 9 in. 2. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. 12 ft.

Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. wide. long. Fasten the wire with gummed label. holes in the edge. Do not use too strong a rubber. 1/2 in. as shown in Fig. open on the edges. D. and insert two binding-posts. Attach a piece of steel rod. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. White. 2. A rubber band. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. 1. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. 3/4 in. 2. A Film Washing Trough [331] . 2. through which the indicator works. Colo. Teasdale. An arc is cut in the paper. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. in the center coil. drill two 3/16 in. thick. Denver. Fig. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. apart. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. Warren. Pa.each edge. to the coil of small wire for volts. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. Fig. long and 3/16 in. 1. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. so as to form two oblong boxes. to keep it from unwinding. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. --Contributed by Edward M. V. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. 3 to swing freely on the tack. --Contributed by Walter W. C. 3/4 in. for amperes and the other post. first mark the binding-post A. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. insulating them from the case with cardboard. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. To calibrate the instrument. Fold two strips of light cardboard. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. 1/2 in. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig.

with the large hole up. Cut a 1/4-in. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. O. Place this can on one end of the trough. M. as shown. Dayton. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. --Contributed by M. Hunting. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. Wood Burning [331] .

Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. mouth downward. then into this bottle place.

--Contributed by John Shahan. If the cork is adjusted properly. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. If the small bottle used is opaque. 2. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . provided the bottle is wide. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. This will make a very pretty ornament. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. but not very thick. 1. as shown in the sketch. long. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. Upper Troy. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. many puzzling effects may be obtained. Whitehouse.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. Auburn. Ala. thick. N. Place the small bottle in as before. --Contributed by Fred W. 3/4 in. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. wide and 4 in.Y.

or ordinary telephone transmitters. thick. was 1/4in. Fig. sugar pine on account of its softness. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. A staple. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. The wire L was put . such as blades and pulleys. W. On a 1000-ft. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. K. 2. which was 6 in. --Contributed by D. to the shaft. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. Fig. thick. iron rod. Milter. which gave considerable power for its size. 1. in diameter and 1 in. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. wide. pulley. as shown in Fig. 1. thick and 3 in. 1. long. 1. If a transmitter is used. 4. pulley F. was keyed to shaft C. The 21/2-in. Both bearings were made in this manner. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. line. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. Fig. Its smaller parts. Fig. which extended to the ground. I. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. The bearing blocks were 3 in. were constructed of 1-in.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. 3. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. B. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. by the method shown in Fig. The shaft C. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. even in a light breeze. G. Fig. 2 ft. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. which was nailed to the face plate. 1. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. 1 in. high without the upper half.

Cut a piece of tin 2 in. Fig. pine 18 by 12 in. R. 1. was 2 ft. 25 ft. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. with all parts in place. The bed plate D. square to the board P at the top of the tower. was tacked. 6. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. through the latter. 6. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. so that the 1/4-in. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. The other lid. strips. long and 1/2 in. Fig. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. 3 in. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. washers were placed under pulley F. wide and 1 in. as. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. To make the key. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. To lessen the friction here. This completes the receiver or sounder. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. 1. This board was 12 in. long.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. 1) 4 in. long and bend it as . 0. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. 2. If you have no bell. G. and was cut the shape shown. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. top down also. Two washers were placed on shaft C. The power was put to various uses. long and bend it as shown at A. H. providing one has a few old materials on hand. cut out another piece of tin (X. 1. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. This fan was made of 1/4-in. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. with brass headed furniture tacks. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. Fig. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. hole for the shaft G was in the center. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. in the center of the board P. when the windmill needed oiling. in diameter. a 1/2-in. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. long. Fig. Fig. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. 1. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. across the thin edge of a board. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. Fig. Fig. There a 1/4-in. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. apart in the tower. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. hole was bored for it. for instance. 5. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. The smaller one. long and 3 in.

The rear barrels are. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. leaving the other wire as it is. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . after the manner of bicycle wheels. 2. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. -Contributed by John R. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. 1. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. at the front. like many another device boys make. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. although it can be made with but two. Thus a center drive is made. By adjusting the coils. and.shown. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. When tired of this instrument. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. as indicated. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. McConnell. Going back to Fig. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. using cleats to hold the board frame. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. as shown at Water. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. Now. Before tacking it to the board. causing a buzzing sound. fitted with paddles as at M.

or even a little houseboat. can be built. If the journals thus made are well oiled. The speed is slow at first. as shown in Fig. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. feet on the pedals. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. which will give any amount of pleasure. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. To propel it. 1. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. there will not be much friction. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. There is no danger. copper piping and brass tubing for base. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. 3. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety.

the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. 2. Fig. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. B. Then melt out the rosin or lead. and so creating a false circuit. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. C. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. A. then the glass disc and then the other ring. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. If magnifying glass cannot be had. If it is desired to make the light very complete. Shape small blocks of boxwood. Turn a small circle of wood. 1. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter.of pleasure for a little work. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. or it may be put to other uses if desired. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. 1. Fig. D. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. Place one brass ring in cylinder. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. 2. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . 2. Fig. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. 1. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. Fig.

near the bed. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. and pulled tight. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. F. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. Throw lever off from the right to center. if too small. To throw on light throw levers to the left. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. dry batteries. --Contributed by Geo. some glue will secure them. wide and 1/16 in. after setting alarm. Swissvale. E. The parts indicated are as follows: A. G. wire from batteries to switch. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. In placing clock on shelf. brass strip. Pa. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. Brinkerhoff. When alarm goes off. C. Ogden. long. copper tubing. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. long. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. To get the cylinder into its carriage. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. or 1/4in. 3/8 in. C. I. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . such as is used for cycle valves.. after two turns have been made on the key. Chatland. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. H. switch. bell.india rubber tubing. B. set alarm key as shown in diagram. 5-1/4 by 10 in. wire from bell to switch. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . bracket. 4 in. S. 4-1/2 in. Utah. brass rod. X. shelf. wire from light to switch. thick. --Contributed by C. while lying in bed. contact post. key of alarm clock. by having the switch on the baseboard. J. T. which stops bell ringing. To operate this. D.

being careful not to get the sand in it. as . Lanesboro. in diameter. 1/4 in. as at A. a bed warmer. A flannel bag. Make the spindle as in Fig. as in Fig. --Contributed by Chas.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. 1. place stick and all in a pail of sand. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. gives the heater a more finished appearance. making it as true and smooth as possible. from one end. in diameter. which can be made of an old can. wide. S. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. as at A. 4 in. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. long. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. Fig. 3. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. 2. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. Fig. Fig. 2. Having finished this. about 3-1/2 in. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. This is to form the fuse hole. Chapman. Pull out the nail and stick. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. beyond the end of the spindle. 1. will do the heating. about 6 in. Minn. Make a shoulder. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. All that is required is a tin covering. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. as at B. A small lamp of about 5 cp. letting it extend 3/4 in. for instance.

thick. this is to keep the edges from splitting. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. 1 in. long. or hickory. Joerin. 5/8 in. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. long. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . ash. 3/8 in. spring and arrows. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. long. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. wide and 6 ft. wide and 3 ft. deep. 1.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. will be sufficient to make the trigger. good straight-grained pine will do. thick. The illustration shows how this is done. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. A piece of tin. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. 6 in. but if this wood cannot be procured. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. 11/2 in. The material must be 1-1/2 in. --Contributed by Arthur E. A piece of oak. thick. wide and 3/8 in. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire.

Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. 2. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. having the latter swing quite freely. The bow is not fastened in the stock. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. it lifts the spring up. E. To throw the arrow. 6. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. When the trigger is pulled. and one for the trigger 12 in. as shown in Fig. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. Such a temporary safe light may be . hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. which is 1/4 in. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. The stick for the bow. place the arrow in the groove. --Contributed by O. from the end of the stock. 8. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. Fig. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. better still. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. thick. Fig. from the opposite end. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. 9. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. 7. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. Wilmette. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. 4. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. wide at each end. as shown in Fig. Trownes. Fig. A spring. or through the necessity of. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. Ill. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. in diameter. To shoot the crossbow.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. The trigger. 3.

from the ground. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. Remove one end. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. and replace as shown at B. is used as a door. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. Moreover. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. make the frame of the wigwam. and nail it in position as shown at A. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. The hinged cover E. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. the bark lean-to is a . so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. The cut should be about 5 ft. By chopping the trunk almost through. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. or only as a camp on a short excursion. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. making lighting and trimming convenient. it is the easiest camp to make. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. says Photo Era. since the flame of the candle is above A. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. apart. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. C.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. This lamp is safe. Remove the bottom of the box. from the ground. respectively. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover.

and when the camp is pitched. long and 2 or 3 ft. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. long and 1-1/2 in. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. deep and covered with blankets. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. make the best kind of a camp bed. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. are a convenient size for camp construction. a 2-in.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. piled 2 or 3 ft. 3 ft. will dry flat. For a foot in the middle of the stick. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. wide and 6 ft. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. and split the tops with an ax. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. spruce. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. . In the early summer. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. Sheets of bark. and cedar. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. wide. thick. nails are necessary to hold it in place. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. Tongs are very useful in camp. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. selecting a site for a camp. For a permanent camp. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. A piece of elm or hickory. makes a good pair of tongs. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. long. Where bark is used. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. 6 ft. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. The bark is easily pried off with an ax.

and affording accommodation for several persons. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. or even a rough lock for the camp larder. . and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. hinges. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard.

When the temperature outside is 10 deg. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. changing the water both morning and night. wide. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. B. I drove a small cork. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. Fig. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within.. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. deep and 4 in. the interior can. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. A. B. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. to another . Doylestown. 1. about 4 in. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. and provide a cover or door. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. Kane. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. Pa. --Contributed by James M.

The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. fused into one side. C. if necessary. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. Fig. such as ether. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. limit. until. a liquid. for instance. which project inside and outside of the tube.glass tube. 4 and 5). The diagram. The current is thus compelled. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. for instance. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. 2. 2. to pass through an increasing resistance. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. This makes . the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. 3. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. E. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter.

clamp the template. brass or iron. The bearing studs are now made. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. or pattern. in diameter. thick. two holes. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. These holes are for the bearing studs. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. 3-3/8 in. they will make a frame 3/4 in. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. After cleaning them with the solution. 3. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. as shown in Fig. set at 1/8 in.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. assemble and rivet them solidly. mark off a space. Fig. When the frame is finished so far. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. thicker. Alpena. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. but merely discolored. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. screws. A 5/8in. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. between centers. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. which may be of any thickness so that. If the thickness is sufficient. cannot be used so often. as shown in the left-hand sketch. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. making it 1/16 in. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. is composed of wrought sheet iron. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. 2. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. Then the field can be finished to these marks. brass. Michigan. hole is . drill the four rivet holes. when several pieces are placed together. therefore. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. tap. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. 4-1/2 in. on a lathe. 1. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. 3-3/8 in. by turning the lathe with the hand. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. After the template is marked out. and for the outside of the frame. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. or even 1/16 in. bent at right angles as shown. to allow for finishing. A. in diameter. thick. which will make it uniform in size. Fig. larger than the dimensions given. Before removing the field from the lathe. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in.

When the bearings are located. file them out to make the proper adjustment.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. Fig. is turned up from machine steel. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . or otherwise finished. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. soldered into place. The shaft of the armature. solder them to the supports. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. 4. brass rod is inserted. and build up the solder well. into which a piece of 5/8-in. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft.

3. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. deep and 7/16 in. 8. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. 3. brass rod. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. 5. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. as shown in Fig. washers. 1/8 in. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. as shown in Fig. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. or segments. thick are cut like the pattern. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. and held with a setscrew. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. When this is accomplished. as shown in Fig. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. 7. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. The sides are also faced off and finished. Make the core 3/4 in. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. When annealed. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. inside diameter. 9. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. After the pieces are cut out. 1-1/8 in. Armature-Ring Core. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. wide. thick. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. holes through them for rivets. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. being formed for the ends. thick. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. 6. wide. 3/4 in. Procure 12 strips of mica. as shown in Fig. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. Find the centers of each segment at one end. then drill a 1/8-in. thick and 1/4 in. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. to allow for finishing to size. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. Rivet them together. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. as shown in Fig. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. After they . The pins are made of brass.. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. sheet fiber. as shown m Fig. by 1-1/2 in. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. threaded. hole and tap it for a pin. and then they are soaked in warm water. 3/4 in. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. 6. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. thick.

have dried. 1. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. by bending the end around one of the projections. Fig. This winding is for a series motor. or side. 1. The winding is started at A. shown at A. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. Fig. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. and wind on four layers. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. All connections should be securely soldered. 8 in. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. thick. the two ends of the wire. wide and 1 in. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. and bring the end of the wire out at B. of the end to protrude. sheet fiber. of the wire. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. sheet fiber. After one coil. of No. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. which will take 50 ft. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. being required. about 100 ft. after the motor is on the stand. In starting to wind. they are glued to the core insulation. are soldered together. The field is wound with No. When the glue is set. 6 in. The source of current is connected to the terminals. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. Run one end of the field wire. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. until the 12 slots are filled. 5. To connect the wires. shown at B. yet it shows a series of . through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. The two ends are joined at B. long.

A 1/2-in. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. Nine wires run from the timer. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . as in the case of a spiral. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. still more simply. is fastened to the metallic body. one from each of the eight contacts. or. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. which serves as the ground wire. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. and one.

thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. 6 in. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. Covering these is a thin.The Wind Vane. circle. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. It should be . 45 deg. thus giving 16 different directions. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. of the dial. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. Without this attachment. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. long. board. These magnets are placed in a 10-in.

first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. thus making a universal joint. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. Fill the box with any handy ballast. . or. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. To make it. To work these outlines. according to who is going to use it. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown.about 6 ft." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. also a piece of new carpet. high. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. will answer the purpose just as well. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. is most satisfactory. Place the leather on some level. Y. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. Cut 3-in. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. Buffalo. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. if not too high. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. and securely nail on the top of the box. though a special knife. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. 14 by 18 in. will be sufficient. and about 6 in. Before tacking the fourth side. called a chip carving knife. -Contributed by James L. N. long to give the best results. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. however. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. Blackmer. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. will be enough for the two sides. making it heavy or light.

Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine. An ordinary sewing-machine .Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. A good leather paste will be required. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. Paste the silk plush to the inner side. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing.

can be thrown away when no longer needed. away from it. of water. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. Morse. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. N. a needle and some feathers. square and tying a piece of . It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. --Contributed by Katharine D. Y. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. and fasten the feathers inside of it. temporary lameness. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. as in cases of a sprained ankle. or a hip that has been wrenched. and put the solution in thin glass bottles.will do if a good stout needle is used. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. of common salt and 10 lb. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. If a fire breaks out. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. rather than the smooth side. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. Syracuse. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. B. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. and tie them together securely at the bottom.

which is the essential part of the instrument. 1/8 in. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. is cut on the wood. cut to the length of the spool. thus helping the rats to enter. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. Hellwig. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. Albany. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. board all around the bottom on the inside. long. setting traps. and the receiver is ready for use. When the distance to produce the right sound is found.. E. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. as shown. wound on the head end. This not only keeps the rats out. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. The end is filed to an edge. There is a 1-in. commonly called tintype tin. N. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. One end is removed entirely. G. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. Y. B. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. -Contributed by Ben Grebin.J. wide and 1/16 in. Paterson. long. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. A. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. etc. The strings should be about 15 in. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. letting it go at arm's length. --Contributed by John A. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. The coil is 1 in. N. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. The diaphragm C. the corners being wired. high. F. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. Ashland. --Contributed by J. The body of the receiver. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. and tacked it to the boards. deep. and a coil of wire. made up of four layers of No. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. Gordon Dempsey. but not sharp. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. Wis.string to each corner. . A small wooden or fiber end. laying poisoned meat and meal.

and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. The vase is to have three supports. begin with the smallest scrolls. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. a piece of small wire. gold. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. wide. A single line will be sufficient. better still. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. and bend each strip in shape. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. to . The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. To clean small articles. Take a piece of string or. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls.

Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF.which the supports are fastened with rivets. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. 3-1/2 in.. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. Work down the outside line of the design. After taking off the pattern. from E to F. from C to D. 6-3/8 in. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. Press or model down the leather all around the design. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. as shown in the sketch..000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. 3-1/4 in. and does not require coloring. thus raising it. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. . sharp pencil. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. through which to slip the fly AGH. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. using a duller point of the tool. Trace also the line around the purse. About 1 in. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. wide when stitching up the purse. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. 4-1/4 in. Fold the leather on the line EF. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. from the lines EF on the piece.

This also should be slightly beveled. When it is finished. deep. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. as well as useful. and. leaving the lug a. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. following the dotted lines. with the largest side down. then nail it. square. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. It can be made without the use of a lathe. Then nail the wheel down firmly.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. and the projections B. with the open side down. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. Now take another piece of wood. with pins or small nails. Fit this to the two . all the way around. First. by 12 ft. and a model for speed and power. 1/2 in. b. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. Make the lug 1/4 in. 1. as shown in Fig. with a compass saw. the "open" side. 2. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. around the wheel. It is neat and efficient. deep. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. and tack the other piece slightly. thick. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. and cut out a wheel. being cast in wooden molds. then place the square piece out of which Fig. and which will be very interesting. 3.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. long. 1 was cut. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. and cut it out as shown in Fig. Cut off six pieces 12 in.

then bolt it together. Now put mold No. hole entirely through at the same place. hole bored through its center. as shown by the black dots in Fig.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. After it is finished. and clean all the shavings out of it. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. and bore six 1/4-in. Take the mold apart. Now take another of the 12-in.pieces just finished. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. square pieces of wood. bolts. 1. hole 1/4 in. slightly beveled. in the center of it. 4. and lay it away to dry. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. and boring a 3/8-in. deep. and cut it out as shown in Fig. holes through it. square pieces of wood. place it between two of the 12-in. one of which should have a 3/8-in. as shown by the .

and drill them in the same manner. 1. the other right-handed. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. 5. and run in babbitt metal again. 6. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. and 3/8-in. over the defective part. and bore three 1/4-in. place it under the drill. one in the lug. This is mold No. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. 6. fasten a 3/8-in. d. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench.2. take an ordinary brace. see that the bolts are all tight. one in the projections. This is for a shaft.1. where the casting did not fill out. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. This will cast a paddle-wheel. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. from the one end. in diameter must now be obtained. until it is full. and drill it entirely through. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. Now cut out one of the 12-in.2. This is the same as Fig. only the one is left-handed. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. so that it will turn easily. Put this together in mold No. as shown in illustration. instead of the right-handed piece. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. wide and 16 in. and the other in the base. and connect to the boiler. put the top of the brace through this hole. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. as shown by the black dots in Fig. A piece of mild steel 5 in. B. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. After it is fitted in. Using the Brace . Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. and pour babbitt metal into it. holes. and pouring metal in to fill it up. long. true it up with a square.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. long. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. Pour metal into mold No.1. screw down. Let it stand for half an hour. and lay it away to dry. drill in it. Then bolt the castings together. and the exhaust hole in projection b. and two 1/4-in. place the entire machine in a vise. lay it on a level place. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. holes at d. 4. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. Fig. b. Now take mold No. Also bore the port-hole in projection B.black dots in Fig. Commencing 1-1/2 in.

Your turbine engine is now ready for work. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. turn the wheel to the shape desired. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal.. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. with a boss and a set screw. and. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. At each end of the 6ft. Plan of Ice Boat . while it is running at full speed. piece and at right angles to it. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. will do good service. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. and if instructions have been carefully followed. and the other 8 ft. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. and with three small screw holes around the edge. long. one 6 ft. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. Then take a knife or a chisel.

Run the seam on a machine. 8 a reef point knot. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. in front of the rudder block. piece and at right angles to it. at the butt and 1 in. as the runners were fastened. 1. which may come in handy in heavy winds. projecting as in Fig. Over the middle of the 6-ft. 1. plank nail 8-in. 3. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. plank. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. in diameter. where they often did considerable damage. tapering to 1-1/2 in. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in. The tiller. so much the better will be your boat.These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used. leaving 1 ft. in diameter in the center. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. Fig. Make your runners as long as possible. To the under side of the 8-ft. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. long. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. and about 8 in. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. Fig. at the top. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. distant. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. long and 2-1/2 in. 2 by 3 in. should be of hardwood. in the top before the skate is put on. boards to make the platform. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. at the end. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . This fits in the square hole. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. long. in diameter at the base. bolt the 8-ft. The spar should be 9 ft. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in.

Electric Rat Trap How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359] A fire alarm which is both inexpensive and simple in construction is shown in the illustration. Adams. Ariz. The arrangement proved quite too effective. and the alarm bell will ring. To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359] This is a very simple device. in the air and let out a terrific squeak. allowing the springs to contact at C. P. It is quite evident that when a rat put its two fore feet on the edge of the pan in order to eat the mush which it contained. R. Pa. but one that will afford any amount of amusement. and place it behind a stove. When these parts have been put together in the manner described. wide. The . --Contributed by J. for after a week the rats all departed and the boys all regretted that their fun was at an end. Comstock.another from the zinc plate through the intervening yard and into the shop. Mechanicsburg. that an electrical connection would be made through the body of the rat. Simple Fire Alarm When the stove becomes too hot the wax will melt at the ends. to block B. bent into a hook at each end. P. S S. small piece of wood. and when we pushed the button up in the shop the rat would be thrown 2 or 3 ft. two pieces of sheet brass about 1/4 in. Its parts are as follows: A. connect the device in circuit with an electric bell. B. --Contributed by John D. binding-posts fastening the springs S S. W is a piece of wax crayon just long enough to break the contact at C when inserted as shown in the illustration. block of wood nailed to A. so that they come in contact at C. A good sized induction coil was through connected with these wires and about six dry batteries were used to run the induction coil whenever a push button was manipulated. Phoenix.

Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360] An inexpensive and easy way to make an unique ornament of a clock The Clock with Holder for kitchen use is to take an old alarm clock or a new one if preferred. says the American Boy. Gild the pan all over. Then get a 10-cent frying pan. A passenger rides in each seat and the motorman takes his station at the middle. An old wheel is mounted at the top of the pole. The seat arms may be any length desired. 2. The stump makes the best support. and make it into a clock to hang on the wall. Put the works back in the metal shell and solder it to the frying pan by the pieces turned out as in Fig. high. Arbor Wheels [359] Emery wheel arbors should be fitted with flanges or washers having a slight concave to their face. The center pole should be 10 ft. 6 in. and the pole works in the wheel as an axle. The wheel is anchored out by sev