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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial

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08/17/2011

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Sections

  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother

THE BOY MECHANIC VOLUME I

Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)

BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I

THE

700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
HOW TO CONSTRUCT
WIRELESS OUTFITS, BOATS, CAMP EQUIPMENT, AERIAL. GLIDERS, KITES, SELF-PROPELLED VEHICLES ENGINES, MOTORS, ELECTRICAL APPARATUS, CAMERAS
AND

HUNDREDS OF OTHER THINGS WHICH DELIGHT EVERY BOY

WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
COPYRIGHTED, 1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO

POPULAR MECHANICS CO.
PUBLISHERS

A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

wide and 2 ft. Fig. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . grasp it and hold the same as a club.Fig. 2. 2 -. E. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. It is held in this curve until dry. Noble. 2. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. with the hollow side away from you. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. The pieces are then dressed round. Ontario. away. 1. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by J. Toronto. A piece of plank 12 in. 1. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. 1. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. long will make six boomerangs. apart. as shown in Fig. distant. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. To throw a boomerang. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. until it is bound as shown in Fig. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. The finished preserver is shown in Fig.

long. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. dry snow will not pack easily. forcing it down closely. the block will drop out. one inside of the circle and the other outside. or rather no bottom at all. and it may be necessary to use a little water. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. but about 12 in. blocks . high and 4 or 5 in. it is not essential to the support of the walls. however. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. 6 in. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. which makes the building simpler and easier. First. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. made of 6-in. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. A wall. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. and with a movable bottom. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. A very light. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. minus the top. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. If the snow is of the right consistency. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. thick.

1. 2. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. which is about 1 ft. Union. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. Fig. Fig. 3. which can be made of wood.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. D. The piece of wood. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. and the young architect can imitate them. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. above the ground. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. --Contributed by Geo. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. 2. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. wide. 1. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. long and 1 in. Goodbrod. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. There is no outward thrust. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. 3 -. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. A nail. or an old safe dial will do. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. It also keeps them out. a. Fig. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . is 6 or 8 in. Ore. C. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door.

Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. the box locked . The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. Syracuse. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string.When taking hot dishes from the stove. --Contributed by R. If ordinary butts are used. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. New York. as the weight always draws them back to place. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. S. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. one pair of special hinges. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. says the Sphinx. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. Merrill. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang.

Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. one for each corner. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. 2. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. draw one-half of it. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. Fig. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. If the measuring has been done properly. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. 3. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. With the metal shears. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. All .and the performer steps out in view. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. Augusta. allowing each coat time to dry. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. as shown. If they do not. Alberta Norrell. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. To make a design similar to the one shown. smooth surface. proceed as follows: First. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. on drawing paper. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. It remains to bend the flaps. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. 1. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. When the sieve is shaken. Place the piece in a vise. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. about 1-32 of an inch. Ga. -Contributed by L.

separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. of No. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. A piece of porcelain tube. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. In boring through rubber corks. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . To keep the metal from tarnishing. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. --Contributed by R. as shown at AA. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. is fitted tightly in the third hole. B. from the back end. if rolled under the shoe sole. which is about 6 in. causing it to expand. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. about 6 in. H. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. 25 gauge German-silver wire. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. in diameter. The current. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. Denver. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. Colo. and in the positions shown in the sketch. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. in passing through the lamp. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. After this has dried. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. A resistance. heats the strip of German-silver wire. used for insulation. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. Galbreath. should be in the line. 25 German-silver wire. When the current is turned off. R. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. long. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. If a touch of color is desired. The common cork. C.the edges should be left smooth. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly.

Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by David Brown. 2. between them as shown in Fig. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. . 1. leaving a space of 4 in. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering.bottom ring. Purchase two long book straps. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. 3. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. Mo. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. with thin strips of wood. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. Kansas City. Fig.

Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. 1. Fig. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. and one weighing 25 lb. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. The string is then tied. --Contributed by James M. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. C. having a gong 2-1/2 in. Morse. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. and tack smoothly. long. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. 36 in. When the aeroplane tips. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. The folds are made over the string. Two strips of brass. and a pocket battery. Fig. to form a handle. Pa.An ordinary electric bell. 3. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. --Contributed by Katharine D.. one weighing 15 lb. Doylestown. are mounted on the outside of the box. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. which is the right weight for family use. just the right weight for a woman to use. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well.. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. N. as . Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. Syracuse. 2. These are shown in Fig. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. Fig. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. Kane. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. 1. in diameter. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. Y. 1. 4. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. A.

The rod should be 36 or 38 in. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. Day. in diameter. Y. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. The saw. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. four washers and four square nuts. such as brackets. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. N. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. if once used. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. 2.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. Floral Park. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. bent as shown in Fig. and many fancy knick-knacks. two 1/8 -in. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. 2. --Contributed by Louis J. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. Frame Made of a Rod . long. AA. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. machine screws. 1. 3/32 or 1/4 in. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it.

They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. File these edges. For etching.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. of course. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. Detroit. after breaking up. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. using a swab and an old stiff brush. it has the correct strength.. A. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. Of the leathers. though almost any color may be obtained. green and browns are the most popular. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. copper. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. use them in place of the outside nuts. Silver is the most desirable but. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. of water. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. as well as brass and copper. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. therefore. In the design shown. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. If it colors the metal red. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. be covered the same as the back.may be made of either brass. 1 part sulphuric acid. treat it with color. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. Watch Fob For coloring silver. of water in which dissolve. Scranton. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. Drying will cause this to change to purple. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. An Austrian Top [12] . as well as the depth of etching desired. Rub off the highlights. 1 part nitric acid. --Contributed by W. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. Apply two coats. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. The buckle is to be purchased. or silver. the most expensive. Michigan. allowing each time to dry. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. if copper or brass.

long. Tholl. A handle. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. is formed on one end. hole. Bore a 3/4-in. . The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. thick. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. Michigan. in diameter. starting at the bottom and winding upward. wide and 3/4 in.F. The handle is a piece of pine. allowing only 1-1/4 in. pass one end through the 1/16-in. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. set the top in the 3/4 -in. Ypsilanti. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. 1-1/4 in. Parts of the Top To spin the top. 3/4 in. A 1/16-in. --Contributed by J. long. hole in this end for the top.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. When the shank is covered. 5-1/4 in.

the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. Alberta Norrell. --A. Northville. For black leathers. Augusta.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. The baking surface. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. Ga. tarts or similar pastry. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. . the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. --Contributed by Miss L. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. Mich. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. having no sides. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. A. Houghton. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven.

It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. the same as shown in the illustration. Mo. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. glass fruit jar. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. Stringing Wires [13] A. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. two turns will remove the jar. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. then solder cover and socket together. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. When you desire to work by white light. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. says Studio Light. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. Centralia. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt.

for loading and development. Wis. and not tip over. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. Janesville. square by 62 in. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. square by 12 in. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. 4 Braces. 1-1/4 in. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. 16 Horizontal bars. They are fastened. 4 Vertical pieces. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. so it can be folded up. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. 1-1/4 in. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. as shown in the cross-section sketch. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. .

The front can be covered . to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. -Contributed by Charles Stem. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. from scrap material. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. The whole. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. --Contributed by Dr. Rosenthal. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. and a loop made in the end. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. C. If the loop is tied at the proper place. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. New York. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. after filling the pail with water. H. Cincinnati. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. After rounding the ends of the studs. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. Phillipsburg. O. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same.

principally mayonnaise dressing. thoroughly fix. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. the mouth of which rests against a. Develop them into strong prints. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. 1 FIG. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. you are. sickly one. either for contact printing or enlargements. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. FIG. if you try to tone them afterward.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. By using the following method. The . you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. by all rules of the game. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. In my own practice. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. and. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. The results will be poor. If the gate is raised slightly. Md. Baltimore. Wehr. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. --Contributed by Gilbert A. the color will be an undesirable.

.. L... The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper. 5 by 15 in... as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away..bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison. San Francisco. wide and 4 in... three times.. preferably the colored kind.. 20 gr.. It will bleach slowly and evenly." Cyanide of potassium ....... as it will appear clean much longer than the white... thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses.. transfer it to a tray of water. 1 and again as in Fig. in this solution.. With a little practice... --Contributed by T.. Place the dry print. this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain.... 2. to make it 5 by 5 in.. Iodide of potassium . Gray.. long to admit the angle support... The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table.. Cal.... A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper... when it starts to bleach.. etc... The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished. where it will continue to bleach. The blotting paper can .. Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper. Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete. Water .. 2 oz.. in size.. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig.... stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax. A good final washing completes the process........ but... Put one on each corner of the blotting paper. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects... without previous wetting.. An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes.. The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone.. This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print.. When the desired reduction has taken place. 16 oz.

Corners complete are shown in Fig.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. Monahan. --Contributed by J. and a length of 5 in. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. 20 gauge. Wisconsin. the head of which is 2 in. Make a design similar to that shown. Canada. Oshkosh. wide. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. the shaft 1 in. Wilson Aldred Toronto.J. --Contributed by L. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. 3. having a width of 2-1/4 in. wide below the . and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments.

but use a swab on a stick. Allow this to dry. Make one-half of the design. After this has dried. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. 1 part sulphuric acid. 3. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. as shown in Fig. 1 part nitric acid. Pierce a hole with a small drill. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. 2. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. . 4. using carbon paper. Apply with a small brush. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. then coloring. Fig. Trace the design on the metal. being held perpendicular to the work.FIG. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. after folding along the center line. then put on a second coat. With the metal shears. then trace the other half in the usual way. which gives the outline of the design Fig. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. After the sawing. using a small metal saw. The metal must be held firmly. using turpentine. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. freehand. Do not put the hands in the solution. For coloring olive green. With files. deep. 1 Fig. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. 1. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum.

Conn. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. then stain it a mahogany color. New York. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. .Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. After the stain has dried. Carl Cramer. Richmond. Burnett. When this is cold. --Contributed by M. --Contributed by H. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. Syracuse. Cal. thick. Morse. --Contributed by Katharine D. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. East Hartford. attach brass handles. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. on a chopping board. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. it does the work rapidly. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. M. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. as shown. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. Ii is an ordinary staple.

1/4 in. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. one shaft. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. thick and 4 in.. --Contributed by W. --Contributed by Mrs. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. two enameled. as shown in Fig. A. . also locate the drill holes. brass. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. in width at the shank. Atwell. 4. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. Florida. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. Richmond. or tin. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. saucers or pans. Fig. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. indicating the depth of the slots. 53 steel pens. Jaquythe. square. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. H. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. Cal. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. holes. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. not over 1/4 in. thick. WARNECKE Procure some brass. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. and several 1/8-in. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. Kissimmee. 1. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. L. about 3/16 in. machine screws. as shown at A. some pieces of brass.

hole is drilled to run off the water. a square shaft used. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. as shown in Fig. 7. machine screws. long by 3/4 in. brass and bolted to the casing. If the shaft is square. and pins inserted. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. These are connected to a 3/8-in. wide. 2. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. using two nuts on each screw. wide and bend as shown in Fig. machine screws and nuts. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. about 1/32 in. 3. as in Fig. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. thick. with a 3/8-in. There should be a space of 1/16 in. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . can be procured. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. 6. and the ends filed round for the bearings. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. 5. into the hole. lead should be run into the segments. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. hole in the center. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. thick. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. as shown. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. 1. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. with 1/8-in. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig.. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. 2. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. Bend as shown in Fig. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. The shaft hole may also be filed square. each about 1 in. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. with the face of the disk. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. 3. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. hole. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. Fig. in diameter and 1/32 in. Fig. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. long and 5/16 in. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. Fig. supply pipe. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. A 3/4-in. If metal dishes.

Be sure to have the cover. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. or more in diameter. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. 8-1/2 in. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. make these seams come between the two back legs. three of which are in the basket. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. deep and 1-1/4 in. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. --Contributed by F. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. from the bottom end of the legs. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. square and 30-1/2 in. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. Ill. Fasten with 3/4-in. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. La Salle. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. from the top of the box. Cooke. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. The lower part. With a string or tape measure. V. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. The four legs are each 3/4-in. deep over all. we will call the basket. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. Canada. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. Hamilton. using four to each leg. to make the bottom. high and 15 in. When assembling. long. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. Now you will have the box in two pieces.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. screws. Stain the wood before putting in the . The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. Smith. --Contributed by S.

Cover them with the cretonne. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. you can. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. wide and four strips 10 in. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. Fig. The folded part in the center is pasted together. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. wide. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. If all the parts are well sandpapered. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. The side.2 Fig. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in.lining. --also the lower edge when necessary. Sew on to the covered cardboards. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. and gather it at that point. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. Mass. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. Packard. 2. Baltimore. Md. sewing on the back side. Boston. 1. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. -Contributed by Stanley H.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. When making the display. as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker.

This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. It is cleanly. Fig. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. with slight modifications. Gloversville. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. --Contributed by H. Orlando Taylor. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. When through using the pad.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. saving all the solid part. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. Mo. It is not difficult to . These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. N. --Contributed by B. Y. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. and. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. Cross Timbers. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. Crockett. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. L. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. 3.

a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . S. are shown in the diagram. Mass. Texas. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. Bourne. After this is done. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. Lane. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. After stirring. El Paso. remove the contents. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. Both of these methods are wasteful. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. it should be new and sharp. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. and secure it in place with glue or paste. across the face. or if desired. --Contributed by Edith E. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. Lowell. and scrape out the rough parts. -Contributed by C. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. If a file is used.

Des Moines. F.cooking utensil. --Contributed by Geo. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. Turl. Those having houses . Greenleaf. After several hours' drying. The process works well and needs no watching. Iowa. Ill. Oregon. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. Oak Park. He captured several pounds in a few hours. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. As these were single-faced disk records. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. A Postcard Rack [25]. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. --Contributed by Loren Ward. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. The insects came to the light. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. Wheeler. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. --Contributed by Marion P. Canton. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. Ill. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. circled over the funnel and disappeared. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask.

and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. the bottom being 3/8 in. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. The single boards can then be fixed. Dobbins. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. Both sides can be put together in this way. the best material to use being matched boards. Rosenberg. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. Only three pieces are required. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. and both exactly alike. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. one on each side of what will be the . Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. material. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. Conn. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. 6 in. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. Worcester. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. boards are preferable. by 2 ft. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. will do as well.. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way.. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. but for cheapness 3/4 in. --Contributed by Wm. not even with the boards themselves. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. plane and pocket knife. Glenbrook. Lay the floor next. --Contributed by Thomas E. and the second one for the developing bench. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. and as they are simple in design. 6 in. Mass. thick.

. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. 5. 9). fix a narrow piece between the side boards. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. and act as a trap for the light.. the closing side as at B. and to the outside board of the sides. which is fixed on as shown . 2 in section. The developing bench is 18 in. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. 3 and 4. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. below which is fixed the sink. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. and the top as at C in the same drawing.. In hinging the door. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. 6. 7. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. 6 and 9. 11. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. The roof boards may next be put on. Fig. by screwing to the floor. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig.doorway. nailing them to each other at the ridge. so that it will fit inside the sink. At the top of the doorway. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. hinged to it. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. and should be zinc lined. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. brown wrapping paper. 9 by 11 in. wide. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. of the top of the door for the same reason. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. etc. 6. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. so that the water will drain off into the sink. as shown in Figs. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. 10). These are all in section and are self-explanatory. It is shown in detail in Fig. and in the middle an opening. is cut. 8. and shown to a larger scale in Fig.

Details of the Dark Rook .

and filed or dressed to a point on the other. it is better than anything on the market. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. Fig. 13. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. A circular piece about 2 in. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. 6. as at M. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. if desired.in Fig. or red light as at K. four coats at first is not too many. preferably maple or ash. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. Fig. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. mixing flour and water. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. and a 3/8-in. Fig. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. these being shown in Fig. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. 13. 1. after lining with brown paper. In use. as at I. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. 20. 15. 14. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. 17. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. as shown in the sections. The house will be much strengthened if strips. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. Karl Hilbrich. but not the red glass and frame. 18. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. For beating up an egg in a glass. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. are fastened in the corners inside. or the room may be made with a flat roof. 2. 19. 16. as in Fig. 16. and a tank stand on it. screwing them each way into the boards. Pennsylvania. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. which makes it possible to have white light. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. Fig. hole bored in the center for a handle. The handle should be at least 12 in. Erie. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . as shown in Fig. --Contributed by W. though this is hardly advisable. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater.

about 3/8 in. as shown in the sketch. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. Smith. To operate. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. Eureka Springs. --Contributed by Wm. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. -Contributed by E.copper should be. Yonkers. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. L. D. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. New York. Ark. which. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. long. Mo. Kansas City. Mitchell. for a handle. Schweiger. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. G. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. --Contributed by L. when put together properly is a puzzle. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in.

especially for filling-in purposes. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. If the sill is inclined. in order to thoroughly preserve it. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. as well as improve its appearance. 3. for the moment. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. The corks in use are shown in Fig. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. need them. 2. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. A number of 1/2-in. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. as shown in Fig. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. as is usually the case. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. the rustic work should be varnished. The design shown in Fig. After the box is trimmed. Having completed the bare box. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. to make it set level. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. the box will require a greater height in front.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. 3. Each cork is cut as in Fig. holes should be drilled in the bottom. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. which binds them together. 1. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. . as shown in Fig. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig.

but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. as shown in Fig.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. too dangerous. 3. F. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. When the corn is gone cucumbers. . and observe results. etc. 4. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. being partly eaten into. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. share the same fate. Traps do no good. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. life in the summer time is a vexation. But I have solved the difficulty.. 1. cabbages. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. Each long projection represents a leg. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. drilled at right angles. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. it's easy. 2. can't use poison. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary.

The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. cut in 1/2-in. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. . the coil does not heat sufficiently. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. of No. The solution can be used over and over again. by trial. and made up and kept in large bottles. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. -.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. Iowa. strips. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. About 9-1/2 ft. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. cut some of it off and try again. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. If. long. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way.

Kane. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. but with unsatisfactory results. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. . The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. and a strip.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. coffee pot. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. 1) removed. of oleic acid with 1 gal. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. Knives. Dallas. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. D. to cause the door to swing shut. hot-water pot. --Contributed by Katharine D. Syracuse. Do not wash them. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. Fig 2. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. forks. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. of whiting and 1/2 oz. of gasoline. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. In cleaning silver. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. as shown in the sketch. Doylestown. C. Morse. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. Texas. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. is a good size--in this compound. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. Pa. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. --Contributed by James M. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. Y. it falls to stop G. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. N. Stir and mix thoroughly.

If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. Sprout. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Oliver S. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. Pa. later fixed and washed as usual. Ill. negatives. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. using the paper dry. --Contributed by Theodore L. . The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. of course. Waverly. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. New Orleans. Fisher. Harrisburg. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. but unfixed. La. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. which is.

Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. metal. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. then . Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. The harmonograph. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. To obviate this difficulty. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. 1. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. Fig. a harmonograph is a good prescription. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. In this uncertainty lies the charm.

A weight. is attached as shown at H. A length of 7 ft. --Contributed by James T. exactly one-third. Rosemont. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. To saw and file it out takes time and skill.. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. A small table or platform. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . ceiling. A pedestal. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. one-fifth. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. 1-3/4 by 2 in. for instance. Chicago. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. makes respectively 3. A small weight. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. as long as the other. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. such as a shoe buttoner. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. in diameter. or the lines will overlap and blur.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. as shown in the lower part of Fig. which can be regulated. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. is about right for a 10-ft. 1. Gaffney. and unless the shorter pendulum is. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. that is. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. what is most important. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. with a nail set or punch. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. 1. Ingham. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. G.. Arizona. K. provides a means of support for the stylus. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. Punch a hole. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. to prevent any side motion. Holes up to 3 in. The length of the short pendulum H. of about 30 or 40 lb. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. R. one-fourth. --Contributed by Wm. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. J. in the center of the circle to be cut. etc. Another weight of about 10 lb. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. as shown in Fig.

2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. 5. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. one for the sender and one for the receiver. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. distributing them over the whole card. of course. --Contributed by J. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. Fig. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. Morey. Cruger. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. a correspondent of .H. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. 3.J. -Contributed by W. then 3 as in Fig. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. The capacity of the vise. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. dividing them into quarters. 1. and proceed as before. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. Chicago. then put 2 at the top. 4. 6. Cape May City. and 4 as in Fig. N.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. Fig.J. The two key cards are made alike. 2. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints.

After preparing the base and uprights. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. 1/4 in. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. --Contributed by L. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. of water. wood-screws. respectively. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. Ga. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. If constructed of the former. the portion of the base under the coil. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. sheet of well made asbestos paper. of 18-per-cent No. says Popular Electricity. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. Wind the successive turns of . 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. acetic acid and 4 oz. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. long. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. 1/2 oz. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. drill 15 holes. deep.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. citrate of iron and ammonia. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. from the top and bottom. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. of ferricyanide of potash. Augusta. 6 gauge wires shown. Asbestos board is to be preferred. Cut through the center. Alberta Norrell. of the uprights. 30 gr. remove the prints. To assemble. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. After securing the tint desired. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. 22 gauge German-silver wire. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No.

wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. etc. then fasten the upright in place. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. N.. Y. Ward. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. --Contributed by Frederick E. Ampere. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. which. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . but these are not necessary. rivets. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. cut and dressed 1/2 in. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. square. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. Labels of some kind are needed. Small knobs may be added if desired. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. The case may be made of 1/2-in. screws. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. 16 gauge copper wire. if one is not a smoker. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. as they are usually thrown away when empty. 14 gauge.

galvanized iron. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. --Contributed by W. and rub the point of the copper on it. lead. Wis. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. sandpaper or steel wool. the pure muriatic acid should be used. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. If the soldering copper is an old one. Heat it until hot (not red hot). zinc. tinner's acid. E and F. Jaquythe. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. A. Kenosha. The parts are put together with dowel pins. being careful about the heat. of glycerine to 16 oz. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. The material can be of any wood. brass. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. This is considerable annoyance. --C. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. S. In soldering galvanized iron. and labeled "Poison. or has become corroded. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. particularly so when the iron has once been used. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. a piece of solder. Copper. then to the joint to be soldered. Ark. as shown in the sketch. . California. tin. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions.14 oz. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. Richmond. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. --Contributed by A." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. especially if a large tub is used. Eureka Springs. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning.. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. Larson. D. C. it must be ground or filed to a point. and one made of poplar finished black. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. of water. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. B. G. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered.

The covers of the magazines are removed. and drill out the threads. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. This will leave a clear hole. I bind my magazines at home evenings. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. The punch A. wide. N. 1. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. Troy. in diameter. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. This completes the die. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. round iron. 2. nut. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. which gives two bound volumes each year. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. in diameter. a ring may be made from any metal. The disk will come out pan shaped. brass and silver. -Contributed by H. Brass rings can be plated when finished. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. such as copper. Place the band. W. C. however. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. Take a 3/4-in. The dimensions shown in Fig. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. B. Hankin. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . with good results.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. 7/8 in. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. thick and 1-1/4 in. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. Y. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. Six issues make a well proportioned book. D. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. Apart from this. Fig. Fig.

and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. 1. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. and then to string No. size 16 or larger. C.4. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. Coarse white thread. 1. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. 2. allowing about 2 in. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. The string No. 5.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. . are made with a saw across the back of the sections. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. and place them against the strings in the frame. Five cuts. 1. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. using . The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. is nailed across the top. Start with the front of the book. 2. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. deep. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. on all edges except the back. and a third piece. After drawing the thread tightly. of the ends extending on each side. through the notch on the left side of the string No. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. which is fastened the same as the first. is used for the sewing material. Place the cardboard covers on the book. The covering can be of cloth. If started with the January or the July issue. threaded double. 1 in Fig. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. as shown in Fig. then back through the notch on the right side. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. The sections are then prepared for sewing. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. The covering should be cut out 1 in. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. 1/8 in.

iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. College View. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. at opposite sides to each other.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. For the blade an old talking-machine . Divine. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. Tinplate. round iron. on which to hook the blade. --Contributed by Clyde E. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. Cal. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. and. Nebr. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. and mark around each one. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. Encanto. Place the cover on the book in the right position.

Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. Make the blade 12 in. Hays. C. and 1/4 in. Moorhead.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. and 1/4 in. or double extra heavy. by 4-1/2 in. bore. and a long thread plug. thick. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. A. by means of a U-bolt or large staple.. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. as shown. thick. Miss. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. F. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. On the upper side. Then on the board put . Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. in order to drill the holes in the ends. hydraulic pipe. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. as it is sometimes called. Summitville. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. with a steel sleeve. E. B. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. Ohio.. long. by 1 in. fuse hole at D. at the same end. with 10 teeth to the inch. and another piece (B) 6 in. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. and file in the teeth. -Contributed by Willard J.

Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. of rubber-covered wire. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. If you are going to use a current of low tension. A lid may be added if desired. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. Connect up as shown. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. of wire to each coil. the jars need not be very large. high around this apparatus. some sheet copper or brass for plates. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. and some No. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. using about 8 in. about 5 ft. Boyd. --Contributed by Chas.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . H. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. Philadelphia. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. as from batteries. 4 jars.

Put arm of switch on point No. two pieces 14 in. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. 15-1/2 in. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. The stock required for them is oak. 7 in. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. with the cushion about 15 in. on No. 1 and so on for No. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. No. The current then will flow through the motor. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. An iron washer. B. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. wide and 3/4 in. 3 in. wide. In proportioning them the points A. apart. 5 on switch. making them clear those in the front runner.. by 1-1/4 in. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. as they "snatch" the ice. On the door of the auto front put the . Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. Equip block X with screw eyes. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. by 2 in. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered.. by 6 in. Construct the auto front (Fig. 2. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. however. 3. long. First sandpaper all the wood. For the front runners these measurements are: A. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. 4 in. is used to reduce friction. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. and for the rear runners: A. At the front 24 or 26 in. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. The connection between point No. or source of current. and bolt through. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar... refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. . 1 on switch. as they are not substantial enough. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. two pieces 34 in. See Fig. B and C. by 5 in. oak boards. long by 22 in. above the ground. 1. 16-1/2 in. 27 B. 4. Z. long. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. direct to wire across jars. Use no screws on the running surface. by 1-1/4 in. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. The top disk in jar No. wide by 3/4 in. 4) of 3/4-in. thick.. square by 14 ft.the way. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. The sled completed should be 15 ft. 34 in. C. 2 is lower down than in No. and plane it on all edges. 3 and No. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. The illustration shows how to shape it. 1 is connected to point No. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft.. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. C. thick. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. and four pieces 14 in. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. For the brass trimmings use No. long. 2 and 3. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. long. 2. Use no nails. two for each jar. A variation of 1/16 in. sheet brass 1 in. wide and 2 in. gives full current and full speed. by 2 in. A 3/4-in. by 5 in. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. by 1 in. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. Their size also depends on the voltage. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch.. B. beginning at the rear. 2. Fig. steel rod makes a good steering rod. two pieces 30 in. 2 in. 30 in. are important. then apply a coat of thin enamel. To wire the apparatus. & S. 11 in.

cheap material. such as used on automobiles. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. to the wheel. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. long. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. a brake may be added to the sled. If desired. Then get some upholstery buttons. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. If desired. such as burlap. The best way is to get some strong. a number of boys may share in the ownership. which is somewhat moist. parcels. by 30 in. may be stowed within. or with these for $25. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. brass plated. overshoes. etc. Fasten a horn. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. lunch. cutting it out of sheet brass. If the expense is greater than one can afford. to improve the appearance. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. Make the cushion for the back in the same way.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. by 1/2 in. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. fasten a cord through the loop. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance.

the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. Lexington. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. Leland. . the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same.tree and bring. Ill. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. --Contributed by Stewart H.

A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. The first tooth may now be cut. a compass. made from 1/16-in. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. 4). mild steel or iron. Draw a circle on paper. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. with twenty-four teeth. FC. Fig. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. though more difficult. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. CD.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. outside diameter and 1/16 in. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. which. London. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. First take the case of a small gearwheel. will be over the line FG. when flat against it. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. E. 3. say 1 in. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. some files. With no other tools than a hacksaw. sheet metal. Fig. The Model Engineer. The straight-edge. Fig. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. A small clearance space. from F to G. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. the cut will be central on the line. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. so that the center of the blade. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. 1. 2. thick. This guide should have a beveled edge. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. by drawing diameters. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. the same diameter as the wheel.

With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. electric lamp. Then take one outlet wire. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. ground it with a large piece of zinc. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. 1. hold in one hand. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. and the other outlet wire. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. either the pencils for arc lamps. No shock will be perceptible. 1. Focus the camera in the usual manner. R. as shown in Fig. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. each in the center. some wire and some carbons. B. as shown in Fig. If there is no faucet in the house. transmitter. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. A bright. Make a hole in the other. . as shown in Fig. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. place the prepared slide with the corner cut.Four Photos on One Plate of them. or several pieces bound tightly together. B. 2. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts.

a transmitter which induces no current is used. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. as shown. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. They have screw ends. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. and about that size. Wrenn. or more of the latter has been used. as indicated by E E. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. Emsworth. For a base use a pine board 10 in. of course. 36 wire around it. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. by 1 in. Several battery cells. leaving about 10 in. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. D D are binding posts for electric wires. But in this experiment. A is a wooden block. Then set the whole core away to dry. Slattery. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. B. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. by 12 in. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. one at the receiver can hear what is said. One like a loaf of bread. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. If desired. serves admirably. and will then burn the string C. --Contributed by Geo. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. at each end for terminals. J. under the gable. Pa. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . Ohio. and again wind the wire around it. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. Ashland. Dry batteries are most convenient. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. are also needed. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations.

and the lamps. Place 16-cp. E. Newark. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. These should have hollow ends. for the . Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board.wire. Fig. At one side secure two receptacles. 2. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. 14 wire. connecting lamp receptacles. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. Jr. From the other set of binding-posts. while C is open. Ohio. as shown. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. the terminal of the coil. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. as shown. B B. Fig. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. The coil will commence to become warm. and one single post switch. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. C. until the hand points to zero on the scale. D. and switch. B B. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles.. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. Connect these three to switch. C. The oven is now ready to be connected. in series with bindingpost. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. First make a support. Turn on switch. in parallel. 12 or No. run a No. 1. D. F. The apparatus is now ready for operation.

E. wide and 1-3/4 in. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. Fig.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. Fig. 3 amperes. --Contributed by J. 1/2 in. deep. long. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. although copper or steel will do. remove the valve. At a point a little above the center. drill in only to the opening already through. C. a battery. 5. 1. wide and 1/8 in. is then made and provided with a glass front. B.or 4-way valve or cock. 14. The pointer or hand. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. Fig. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. inside measurements. high. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. although brass is better. 2. 1/4 in. 36 magnet wire instead of No. This may be made of wood. The core. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. D. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. long and make a loop. until the scale is full. E. is made of iron. If for 3-way. drill a hole as shown at H. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument.. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. 14 wire. long. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. This is slipped on the pivot. 5. where A is the homemade ammeter. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. A wooden box. 4 in. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . wind with plenty of No. Dussault. and D. 6. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. 4. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. 3. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. Continue in this way with 2 amperes.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. 1. It is 1 in. Fig. Mine is wound with two layers of No. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. from the lower end. as shown in the cut. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. etc. 4 amperes. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. a standard ammeter. is made of wire. After drilling. drill through the entire case and valve. To make one. but if for a 4way. 7. a variable resistance. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. Montreal. to prevent it turning on the axle. 10 turns to each layer. The box is 5-1/2 in. D. thick. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes.

When the metal rod is lowered the current increases.performing electrical experiments. A. E. making two holes about 1/4 in. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. F. To start the light. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. as shown. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. and the other connects with the water rheostat. B. By connecting the motor. and a metal rod. high. which is used for reducing the current. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. One wire runs to the switch. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. and the arc light. in diameter. in thickness . D. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. provided with a rubber stopper. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. This stopper should be pierced. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators.

a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. A piece of wood. as shown in C. where he is placed in an upright open . N. 1. Turn on the current and press the button. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. Fig. 1. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. B. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. Fig. Having fixed the lead plate in position. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. 2. Carthage. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. Y. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. Fig. as shown in B. As there shown. Having finished the interrupter. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. To insert the lead plate. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. 2. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. Jones. If all adjustments are correct. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. Fig. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. 1. long. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. If the interrupter does not work at first. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. A. --Contributed by Harold L. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A.

with the exception of the glass. The model. L and M. If it is desired to place the box lower down. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. inside dimensions. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. high. which can be run by three dry cells. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. especially the joints and background near A. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. by 7-1/2 in. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. as the entire interior. and wave his arms up and down. The skeleton is made of papier maché. A. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. The glass should be the clearest possible. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. is constructed as shown in the drawings. Its edges should nowhere be visible. should be miniature electric lamps. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. If everything is not black. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. All . has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. loosejointed effect. and can be bought at Japanese stores. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. They need to give a fairly strong light. from which the gong has been removed. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall.coffin. to aid the illusion. The lights. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. could expect from a skeleton. giving a limp. the illusion will be spoiled. dressed in brilliant.. within the limits of an ordinary room. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. and must be thoroughly cleansed. until it is dark there. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. light-colored garments. especially L. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. figures and lights. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. A white shroud is thrown over his body. by 7 in. should be colored a dull black. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away.

If a gradual transformation is desired. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. Two finishing nails were driven in. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. fat spark. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. square block. placed about a foot apart. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in.that is necessary is a two-point switch. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. Fry. after which it assumes its normal color. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. San Jose. W. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. Cal. --Contributed by Geo. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. as shown in the sketch.

soldered in the top. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. This is a wide-mouth bottle. 1. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. New York. into the receiver G. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. The plates are separated 6 in. to make it airtight. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. In Fig. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. with two tubes. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. the remaining space will be filled with air. Cohen. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. In Fig. If a lighted match . and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. and should be separated about 1/8 in. B and C. by small pieces of wood. hydrogen gas is generated. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. or a solution of sal soda. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. A (see sketch). -Contributed by Dudley H.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. as shown. One of these plates is connected to metal top. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. F.

copper pipe. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. 1-5/16 in. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. One row is drilled to come directly on top. 1. 1/2 in. is then coiled around the brass tube.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. of No. A. long. as is shown in the illustration. A piece of 1/8-in. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. then a suitable burner is necessary. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . should be only 5/16 of an inch. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. A 1/64-in. by means of the clips. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. Fig. which forms the vaporizing coil. London. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. A. P. 36 insulated wire. or by direct contact with another magnet. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. N. is made by drilling a 1/8in. If desired. and the ends of the tube. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. A nipple. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. copper pipe. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. A. N. Fig. C C. The distance between the nipple. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. either by passing a current of electricity around it. long. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. A. in diameter and 6 in. which is plugged up at both ends. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. from the bottom. says the Model Engineer. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. 2 shows the end view. B. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in.

passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. smoothly.lamp cord. but if the paper knife cannot be used. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. Turn the book over and paste the other side. this makes a much nicer book. taking care not to bend the iron. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). cut to the size of the pages. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. about 8 or 10 in. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. should be cut to the diameter of the can. boards and all. larger all around than the book. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. fold and cut it 1 in. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. Fig. Cut four pieces of cardboard. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. longer and 1/4 in. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. 1/4 in. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . at the front and back for fly leaves. 1. trim both ends and the front edge. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. leaving the folded edge uncut. Fig. Fig. 3. Take two strips of stout cloth. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. A disk of thin sheet-iron. 2). Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. with a fine saw. duck or linen.

is fitted in it and soldered. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. This will cause some air to be enclosed. A gas cock. Noble. Bedford City. is turned on it. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. as shown. is made the same depth as B. E. deep. and a little can. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. A. 18 in. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. Another tank. without a head. but its diameter is a little smaller. is soldered onto tank A. --Contributed by James E. Toronto. the joint will be gas tight. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. or rather the top now. C. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. Another can. pasting them down (Fig. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. Ont. D. 4). .Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. Va. which will just slip inside the little can. in diameter and 30 in. H. Parker. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. is perforated with a number of holes. of tank A is cut a hole. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. --Contributed by Joseph N. as shown in the sketch. B. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. In the bottom.

A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. basswood or white pine. If the pushbutton A is closed. as shown at C. The armature. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. square by 42 in. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. 1. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. and the four diagonal struts. D. A. N. B. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. long. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. which moves to either right or left. and sewed double to give extra strength. 2. S. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. making the width. B. The longitudinal corner spines. thus adjusting the ..Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. Fig. Bott. J. The small guards. with an electric-bell magnet. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. B. by 1/2 in. tacks. The wiring diagram. are shown in detail at H and J. Fig. should be 3/8 in. should be 1/4 in. D. when finished. If the back armature. and about 26 in. Beverly. -Contributed by H. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. which may be either spruce. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. should be cut a little too long. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. long. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. H is a square knot. exactly 12 in. fastened in the bottom. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. A A. to prevent splitting. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. The diagonal struts. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. C. shows how the connections are to be made. E. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. The bridle knots.

If the kite is used in a light wind. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. the batteries do not run down for a long time. for producing electricity direct from heat. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. --Contributed by Edw. as shown. Clay Center. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. E. D. with gratifying results. Kan. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. however.lengths of F and G. --Contributed by A. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. thus shortening G and lengthening F. and. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. to prevent slipping. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. that refuse to slide easily. can be made of a wooden . loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. Chicago. A bowline knot should be tied at J. Stoddard. and if a strong wind is blowing. shift toward F. Harbert. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. Closing either key will operate both sounders.

with a pocket compass. by means of machine screws or. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. When the cannon is loaded. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . F. Fasten a piece of wood. A and B.frame. A. in position. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. E. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. E. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. placed on top.. B. A. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. and also holds the pieces of wood. C. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. or parallel with the compass needle. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. Chicago. which conducts the current into the cannon. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. C. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. --Contributed by A. spark. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. 14 or No. to the cannon. A. Then. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. and the current may then be detected by means. with a number of nails. The wood screw. 16 single-covered wire. D. C.

Ohio. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. when in position at A'. but no weights or strings. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. to receive the screw in the center. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. A hole for a 1/2 in. --Contributed by Henry Peck.the current is shut off. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. H. 1. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. A and S. A. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. In Fig. Marion. 1. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. press the button. To reverse. Keil. --Contributed by Joseph B. To lock the door. Connect as shown in the illustration. Fig. Big Rapids. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. where there is a staple. A and S. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. requiring a strong magnet. To unlock the door. Bend the strips BB (Fig. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. screw is bored in the block. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. within the reach of the magnet. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. with the long arm at L'. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. in this position the door is locked. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. Mich. now at A' and S'. square and 3/8 in. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. . Chicago. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. B. Fig. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. L. 1. The fulcrum of the lever is at C.

unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. When the holes are finished and your lines set. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. gas-pipe. or for microscopic work. are enameled a jet black. West Somerville. pipe with 1-2-in. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. The standard and base. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. Thread the other end of the pipe. long. J. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. When ready for use. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. and C is a dumbbell. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. Mass. and if desired the handles may . The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. put in the handle. --Contributed by C. hole. if enameled white on the concave side. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. and if the device is to be used on a polished table.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. and may be made at very slight expense. about 18 in. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. Rand.

To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. B. Fig. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. which shall project at least 2 in. as shown at A in the sketch. Make a cylindrical core of wood. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B.be covered with leather. M. across.. across. Mass. inside the pail. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. Fig. A. E. 8 in. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . Get an iron pail about 1 ft. D. 1. Warren. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. North Easton. long and 8 in. with a cover. This peculiar property is also found in ice. --Contributed by C. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. high by 1 ft. 1.

C. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in.mixture of clay. 25%. strip of sheet iron. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. Whatever burner is used. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. 1390°-1410°. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. W. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. This done. Wind about 1/8 in. in diameter. thick. 15%. pack this space-top. as dictated by fancy and expense. and with especial caution the first time. pipe. projecting from each end (Fig. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. wider than the kiln. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about.. hard porcelain. long over the lid hole as a chimney. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. if there is to be any glazing done. If the cover of the pail has no rim. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. which is the hottest part. the firing should be gradual. C. hotel china. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. C. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. E. After finishing the core. and 3/8 in. or make one yourself. L. such . The 2 in. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. to hold the clay mixture.. the point of the blue flame. 1330°. in diameter. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. make two wood ends.. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. and graphite. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. 1). 3) with false top and bottom. long. Line the pail. layer of the clay mixture. and cut it 3-1/2 in. carefully centering it. Fig. Cover with paper and shellac as before. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. and on it set the paper wrapped core. 1). and 3/4 in. as is shown in the sketch. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. about 1 in. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. diameter. Fit all the parts together snugly. and your kiln is ready for business. thick. 2. 2 in. bottom and sides. of fine wire. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. 60%. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. pipe 2-ft. but will be cheaper in operation. After removing all the paper. When lighted. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. let this dry thoroughly. sand. full length of iron core. say 1/4 in. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. It is placed inside the kiln. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. but it will burn a great deal of gas. passing wire nails through and clinching them. and varnish. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. cutting the hole a little smaller.-G. Set aside for a few days until well dried. if you have the materials. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe.

B. square them up. 1. and so on. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. every alternate card being the same color. with a plane. square them up and place in a vise. C. . The funnel. red and black. around the coil. T. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. taking care to have the first card red. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. procure a new deck. about 1/16 in. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. overlaps and rests on the body. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. C. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. Then. Then take the black cards. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. diameter. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. Next restore all the cards to one pack. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. D. 2). Chicago. as in Fig. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. Of course. all cards facing the same way. 2. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. Washington. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall.. as shown in the sketch herewith. 2. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. A. as in Fig. You can display either color called for. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. C. and divide it into two piles. length of . How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. bind tightly with black silk. 8 in. and discharges into the tube. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. and plane off about 1/16 in. R. Take the red cards. the next black. leaving long terminals. --Contributed by J. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch.53 in.

to form a dovetail joint as shown. Fig. 1 gill of fine white sand. B. the same ends will come together again. B. through the holes already drilled. A. When the glass is put in the frame a space. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. so that when they are assembled. E. thus making all the holes coincide. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. 1 gill of litharge.J. A. It should be placed in an exposed location. stove bolts. 1. and then the frame is ready to assemble. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. The cement. C.C. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. N. the first thing to decide on is the size. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. about 20 in. F. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. Drill all the horizontal pieces. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. Let . will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. To find the fall of snow. D. E. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents.. as the difficulties increase with the size. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. The bottom glass should be a good fit. angle iron for the frame. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. The upright pieces. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. stove bolts. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. All the horizontal pieces. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. Long Branch. B. and this is inexpensive to build. of the frame.

and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . D. if desired. on the door by means of a metal plate. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. A. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. to the door knob. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. Fasten the lever. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. B. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. and.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. Aquarium Finished If desired. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. Fig. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. a centerpiece (A. having a swinging connection at C.

which is 15 in. and another. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. D. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. 2 ft. A small piece of spring brass. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. 3 shows one of the paddles. Cut two of them 4 ft. long. C. for the top. Two short boards 1 in. Fig. 1 is the motor with one side removed. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. another. as at E. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. to keep the frame from spreading. another. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. Fig. Do not fasten these boards now. to form the slanting part. --Contributed by Orton E. 1. AA. several lengths of scantling 3 in. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. 2 is an end view. 1 . showing the paddle-wheel in position. to form the main supports of the frame. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. long. wide by 1 in. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. screwed to the door frame. N. Fig. 26 in. 1. long. from the outside top of the frame. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. according to the slant given C. hoping it may solve the same question for them. but mark their position on the frame. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. They are shown in Fig. and Fig. Fig. To make the frame. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. I referred this question to my husband. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. Cut two pieces 30 in. F. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. approximately 1 ft. Y.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. soldered to the end of the cylinder. White. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. B. E. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. with a water pressure of 70 lb. long. PAUL S. Fig. 6 in. Buffalo. wide . Fig. 2 at GG. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration.. will open the door about 1/2 in. thus doing away with the spring.

Fig. Now block the wheel. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. then drill a 3/16-in. by 1-1/2 in. long to the wheel about 8 in.along the edges under the zinc to form . Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. Make this hole conical. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. iron. with the wheel and shaft in place. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig.burlap will do -. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. as shown in Fig. 24 in. Drill 1/8-in. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. Next secure a 5/8-in. hole from the tops to the 1-in. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. remove the cardboard. and drill a 1-in. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. 4. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. When it has cooled. take down the crosspieces. These are the paddles. thick (HH. 2) form a substantial base. tapering from 3/16 in. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. Tack one side on. hole to form the bearings. (I. 2) with a 5/8-in. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. and a 1/4 -in. after which drill a 5/8 in. Take the side pieces. hole through their sides centrally. pipe. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. hole through its center. 2) and another 1 in. that is. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. Fig. Fasten them in their proper position. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. 1. Fig. thick. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. long and filling it with babbitt metal.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. hole through the exact center of the wheel. GG. and drill a 1/8-in. in diameter. from one end by means of a key. steel shaft 12 in. hole through them. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). holes. iron 3 by 4 in. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. to a full 1/2 in.

remove any white curtains there may be. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. of course. place the outlet over a drain. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. If sheet-iron is used. it would be more durable. as shown in the sketch at B. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. shutting out all light from above and the sides. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. Correct exposure depends. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. or what is called a process plate. as this makes long exposure necessary. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. on the lens.a water-tight joint. and leave them for an hour or so. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. but as it would have cost several times as much. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. and as near to it as possible. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. Drill a hole through the zinc. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. If the bearings are now oiled. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. Do not stop down the lens. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. . start the motor. and the subject may move. but now I put them in the machine. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. Focus the camera carefully. Darken the rest of the window. says the Photographic Times. Raise the window shade half way. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. light and the plate. sewing machine. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. any window will do. ice-cream freezer. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. It is obvious that. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. The best plate to use is a very slow one. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. drill press. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor.

and without fog. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. or wood. D. without detail in the face. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. until the core slowly rises. On completing . as shown in Fig. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. hard rubber. The core C. The current required is very small. by twisting. with binding posts as shown. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. which is made of iron and cork. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. 2. With a piece of black paper. a glass tube. The glass tube may be a test tube. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. B. an empty pill bottle may be used. and a base. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. C. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. full of water. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. as a slight current will answer. a core. or an empty developer tube. or can be taken from an old magnet. the core is drawn down out of sight. A. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. 2. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn.

water and 3 oz. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. 1 pt. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. and make a pinhole in the center. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. and are changed by reversing the rotation. and one not easy to explain. white lead. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. The colors appear different to different people. whale oil. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. finest graphite. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . is Benham's color top. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. 1. This is a mysterious looking instrument. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. according to his control of the current. 1 lb. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it.

players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. In making hydrogen. fan-like. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. or three spot. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant.B. B. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. As this device is easily upset. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. A. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. thus partly filling bottles A and C. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. when the action ceases. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. C.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. deuce. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. -Contributed by D. especially if the deck is a new one. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. before cutting. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out.L. Chicago. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. nearly every time. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack.. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. In prize games.

. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. Make a 10-sided stick. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. 2. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. Fig. W. long and 3 in. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. 10 in. --Contributed by F. Huron. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. (Fig. Detail of Phonograph Horn . 9 in. Detroit. Jr. 3). 12 in. that will fit loosely in the tube A. Fig. in length and 3 in. in diameter. --Contributed by C. 4. J. as shown in Fig. S.. long. Dak. S. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. Bently. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. 1. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. Form a cone of heavy paper.. connecting the bottom by cross pieces.

in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. C. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. but bends toward D. and walk in. making it three-ply thick. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. A piece of tin. Fig. bend it at right angles throughout its length. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. it is equally easy to block that trick. will cause an increased movement of C. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. Cut out paper sections (Fig. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. A. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. Fortunately. long. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. with a pin driven in each end. 6. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. Denver. Remove the form. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. push back the bolt. --Contributed by Reader. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. E. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. about the size of a leadpencil. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. on one side and the top. A second piece of silk thread. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. allowing 1 in. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere.

A. Minn. S. and rest on a brick placed under each end. The reverse switch. --Contributed by J. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. The feet. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. Jr. Fremont Hilscher. W. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. R. By this arrangement one. long. Two wood-base switches. B. Paul. or left to right. will last for several years. are made 2 by 4 in. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. 4 ft.. West St. as shown. B. are 7 ft. put together as shown in the sketch.strip.. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. is connected each point to a battery. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. posts. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. S S. The upper switch. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. S. long. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. The 2 by 4-in. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. while the lower switch.

every house. and in Fig. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. and a cylindrical . Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. 2 and 3. and has two wood blocks. and valve crank S. is an old bicycle pump. The valve motion is shown in Figs. cut in half. The steam chest D. thick. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. E. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. 2. either an old sewing-machine wheel. Fig. Fig. In Fig. 3/8 in. The base is made of wood. 1. which is made of tin. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. H and K. pulley wheel. The hose E connects to the boiler. with two washers. or anything available. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. The piston is made of a stove bolt. which will be described later. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. and the crank bearing C. FF. the other parts being used for the bearing B. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. the size of the hole in the bearing B. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder.

The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. The boiler. Schuh and A. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. This engine was built by W. can be an old oil can. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank.piece of hard wood. Fig. G. Wis. --Contributed by Geo. and saturated with thick oil. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. Fig. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. powder can. is cut out of tin. or galvanized iron. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. Cal. as it is merely a trick of photography. San Jose. First. . with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. of Cuba. 1. The valve crank S. This is wound with soft string. G. at that. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. W. J. and a very amusing trick. Fry. C. 4. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. and the desired result is obtained. using the positive wire as a pen. as shown in Fig. to receive the connecting rod H. Eustice. 3.

but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. and pass ropes around . and place a bell on the four ends. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. They may be of any size. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. 1 by covering up Figs. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. Cut half circles out of each stave. as shown. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. and Fig. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. to cross in the center. diameter. Fig. B. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. C. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. 1 will be seen to rotate. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. The smaller wheel. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. B. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. Fig. as shown at AA. Fig. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. When turning. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin.

--Contributed by H. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. To make this lensless microscope. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. but not on all. long. W. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. such as clothes lines. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. Louis. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. produces a higher magnifying power).M. procure a wooden spool.. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. A (a short spool.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. which allows the use of small sized ropes. Mo. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. from the transmitter. St. as shown in the illustration.G. which accounts for the sound. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. From a piece of thin . This in turn will act on the transmitter. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in.

bent as shown. Fig. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. C. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. C. The pivot. and look through the hole D. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. fastened to a wooden base. Viewed through this microscope. and at the center. the diameter will appear three times as large. as in all microscopes of any power. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. The lever. by means of brads.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. . As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. in which hay has been soaking for several days. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. if the distance is reduced to one-third. place a small object on the transparent disk. e. 3. H. B. D. 1. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in.. 2. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters.) But an object 3/4-in.. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. i. if the distance is reduced to one-half. An innocent-looking drop of water. E. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. otherwise the image will be blurred. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. cut out a small disk. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. the object should be of a transparent nature. The spring. D. and so on. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. which are pieces of hard wood. or 64 times. (The area would appear 64 times as large. A. B. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. is made of iron. can be made of brass and the armature. the diameter will appear twice as large. is fastened at each end by pins. To use this microscope. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. held at arm's length. which costs little or nothing to make. darting across the field in every direction.

long and 14-1/2 in. coils wound with No. KEY-A. Fig. D. The back. and are connected to the contacts. F. or a single piece. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. wide. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. A switch. wide and about 20 in. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. Fig.SOUNDER-A. 26 wire: E. E. 16 in. C. in length and 16 in. thick. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. DD. similar to the one used in the sounder. 16 in. long. C. D. FF. or taken from a small one-point switch. brass or iron soldered to nail. wood: C. between the armature and the magnet. The door. wide. 2. B. wide. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. should be about 22 in. HH. Cut the top. brass: B. . brass. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. B. A. D. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. AA. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. wide and set in between sides AA. binding posts: H spring The stop. wide. brass: E. is cut from a board about 36 in. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. wood: F. fastened near the end. K. can be made panel as shown. long by 16 in. K. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. Each side. The base of the key. The binding posts. connection of D to nail. nail soldered on A. which are made to receive a pivot. wood. 1. soft iron.

Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube.. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. as shown in the sketch. long. material. Ill. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. E. cut in them. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. brads. 2 and made from 1/4-in. In operation. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. When the electrical waves strike the needle. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. with 3/4-in. as shown. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. 13-1/2 in. Garfield. Make 12 cleats. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . AA. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle.

--Contributed by R. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. A. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . A fairly stiff spring. Brown. in order to increase the surface. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. will give a greater speed. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. --Contributed by John Koehler. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. Ridgewood. C. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. and. Y. N. pulls down the armature. Pushing the wire. when used with a motor. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. A (see sketch). When the pipe is used. The cord is also fastened to a lever. Fairport. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. down into the water increases the surface in contact. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. A.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. and thus decreases the resistance. the magnet. N. filled with water. J. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. through which a piece of wire is passed. B. F. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. E.

while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. B. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. N. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. if desired. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two.for the secret contact. Gachville. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. --Contributed by Perry A. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. even those who read this description. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. Of course. Borden.

for 10in. wide. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. Nails for stops are placed at DD. records and 5-5/8 in.. C. Dobson. long and full 12-in. Washington. Mangold. --Contributed by H. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. where the other end of wire is fastened. A. apart. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. for 6-in. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. Two drawers are fitted in this space. C. 1. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. D. H. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. and on both sides of the middle shelf. wide. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. in a semicircle 2 in. The top board is made 28-in. Cal. With about 9 ft. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. J. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. records. From a piece of brass a switch. wide. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. deep and 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. East Orange.whenever the bell rings. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. wide. Connect switch to post B. wide. N. 2. long and 5 in. The three shelves are cut 25-in. --Contributed by Dr. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. from the bottom. . as shown in Fig. E. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. Jr. thick and 12-in. Compton.

An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. 1. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . as shown by the dotted lines. as shown in Fig. A. B. When the cord is passed over pulley C. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. which in operation is bent. Roanoke. closed. E. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. Va. to which is fastened a cord. --Contributed by Douglas Royer.

D. in diameter. Put the rubber tube. In these grooves place wheels. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. which should be about 1/2 in. is compressed by wheels. 1. These wheels should be 3/4 in. 5) when they are placed. CC. but a larger one could be built in proportion. Notice the break (S) in the track. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. excepting the crank and tubing. thick. B. Now put all these parts together. The crankpin should fit tightly. through one of these holes. in diameter. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. 3). In the sides (Fig. wide. If the wheels fit too tightly. holes (HH. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. Do not fasten the sides too .Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. Fig. it too loose. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. Bore two 1/4 in. deep. Fig. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. they will bind. against which the rubber tubing. E. E. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. Figs. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. in diameter. deep and 1/2 in. 1 in. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. 1 in. apart. 4 shows the wheel-holder. Cut two grooves. Fig. they will let the air through. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. as shown in the illustration. one in each end. long. thick (A. 3. Figs. in diameter. to turn on pins of stout wire. wide. square and 7/8 in.

from each end. If the motion of the wheels is regular. as it gives steadiness to the motion. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. 2. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. The screen which is shown in Fig. from the bottom and 2 in. Cut six pieces. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. 1. and 3-1/2 in. mark again. 1. 1. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. Fig. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. is all the expense necessary. iron. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. beyond each of these two. AA. Hubbard. long. Fig. Two feet of 1/4-in. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. B. Kan. The three legs marked BBB. In the two cross bars 1 in. 2. Take the center of the bar. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. though a small iron wheel is better. and mark for a hole. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. A in Fig. as shown in Fig. the other wheel has reached the bottom. tubing. To use the pump. 1. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. the pump will give a steady stream. The animal does not fear to enter the box. 15 in. 1. Then turn the crank from left to right. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. from each end. For ease in handling the pump. from that mark the next hole. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. of material. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. and are 30 in. Fig. from each end. because he can . 17-1/2 in.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. mark for hole and 3 in. costing 10 cents. a platform should be added. AA. stands 20 in. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. --Contributed by Dan H. Idana. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. Fig.

Philadelphia. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. some of it should be poured out. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. acid 1 part). 1) must be prepared. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. If it is wet. until it is within 3 in. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. silvery appearance. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. potassium bichromate. there is too much liquid in the jar. or. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz.see through it: when he enters. . one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. --Contributed by H. sulphuric acid. dropping. of water dissolve 4 oz. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. and touches the bait the lid is released and. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. and the solution (Fig. C. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. The battery is now ready for use. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. When through using the battery. The truncated. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. or small electric motors. rub the zinc well. It is useful for running induction coils. Place the carbon in the jar. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. long having two thumb screws. giving it a bright. of the top. however. Meyer. If the solution touches the zinc. stirring constantly. When the bichromate has all dissolved. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. If the battery has been used before. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. 2). Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. The mercury will adhere. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. but if one casts his own zinc. shuts him in. To cause a flow of electricity. 14 copper wire. add slowly. The battery is now complete. 4 oz.

The price of the coil depends upon its size. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. however. If. Wis. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. After putting in the coal. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. while the coal door is being opened. the jump-spark coil . The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. i.Fig. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. the battery circuit. with slight changes. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. e. which opens the door. pressing the pedal closes the door. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. Madison. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch..

which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. while a 12-in. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. being a 1-in.described elsewhere in this book. 6. diameter. Fig. W W. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. coil. as shown in Fig. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. . made of No. 7). For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. in a partial vacuum. Change the coil described. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. This will make an excellent receiver. 6. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. 7. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. apart. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. which is made of light copper wire. 5. W W. Now for the receiving apparatus. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. This coil. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. and closer for longer distances. 7. as shown in Fig. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig.7. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. After winding. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. the full length of the coil. in a straight line from top to bottom. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece.

The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. being at right angles. A. . and hence the aerial line. Figs. For an illustration. 90°. The writer does not claim to be the originator. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). B the bed and C the tailstock.6 stranded. 1 to 4. Run a wire from the other binding post.The aerial line. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. but it could be run by foot power if desired. where A is the headstock. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. These circles. 1). in the air. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. using an electric motor and countershaft. at any point to any metal which is grounded. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. after all. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. No. I run my lathe by power. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. A large cone pulley would then be required. being vertical. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. above the ground. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. only. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. but simply illustrates the above to show that. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. which will be described later. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. 90°. are analogous to the flow of induction. as it matches the color well. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. to the direction of the current. may be easily made at very little expense.

thick. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. 4. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. but not hot enough to burn it. To make these bearings. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. Fig. 4. Fig. just touching the shaft. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. The bolts B (Fig. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. deep. The bearing is then ready to be poured. and it is well to have the shaft hot. B. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. A. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. If the bearing has been properly made. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. one of which is shown in Fig. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. 5. Fig. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. steel tubing about 1/8 in. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. on the under side of the bed. 6 Headstock Details D. and Fig. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. The headstock. After pouring. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . 6. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. 2 and 3. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. which are let into holes FIG. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. pitch and 1/8 in. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. Heat the babbitt well. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. too. which pass through a piece of wood. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. and runs in babbitt bearings. 5. Fig. tapered wooden pin.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs.

I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. N. B. If not perfectly true. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. Newark. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. of the walk . Take up about 5 ft. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. This prevents corrosion. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. and a 1/2-in. embedded in the wood. the alarm is easy to fix up. --Contributed by Donald Reeves.other machines. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. so I had to buy one. Oak Park. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. they may be turned up after assembling. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. A. lock nut. Ill. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig.J. FIG. If one has a wooden walk. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. The tail stock (Fig.

Minneapolis. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. hang the articles on the wires. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. before dipping them in the potash solution. --Contributed by R. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. clean the articles thoroughly. Fig. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. water. Jackson. save when a weight is on the trap. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. so that they will not touch. leaving a clear solution. Then make the solution . (A. add potassium cyanide again. Do not touch the work with the hands again. to roughen the surface slightly. Finally. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. of water. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. to remove all traces of grease. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. To avoid touching it. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. Minn. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. silver or other metal. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. S. Connect up an electric bell. 2). and the alarm is complete.

A (Fig. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. with water. German silver. If more solution is required. must be about 1 in. I. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. which . saw a piece of wood. of clothesline rope and some No. The wooden block C. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. 1). and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. with water. --Model Engineer. In rigging it to a sliding door. Then. 1). 1 not only unlocks.up to 2 qt. If accumulators are used. Fig. 3) directly over the hole. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. When all this is set up. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. 10 in. a circuit is completed. With an electric pressure of 3. long. Fig. Where Bunsen cells are used. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. Having finished washing the precipitate. make a key and keyhole. This solution. thick by 3 in. Repeat six times. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. such metals as iron. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. an old electric bell or buzzer. B should be of the same wood. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. shaking. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys.5 to 4 volts. of water. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. from the lower end. zinc. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. a hand scratch brush is good. 1 in. 18 wire. nickel and such metals. which is held by catch B. lead. and the larger part (F. copper. and 4 volts for very small ones. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. as at F. 1. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. piece of broomstick. Before silver plating. A 1/4 in. but opens the door. which is advised. To provide the keyhole. also. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. Fig. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. light strokes. Can be made of a 2-in. about 25 ft. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. hole in its center. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. as shown in Fig. square. will serve for the key. 3. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. 3) strikes the bent wire L. use 2 volts for large articles. The wooden catch. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. when the point of the key touches the tin. silver can be plated direct. and then treated as copper. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. long. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. pewter. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. Take quick. On brass. with the pivot 2 in. Screw the two blocks together. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. Fig. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. if one does not possess a buffing machine. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. Make a somewhat larger block (E.

The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. the box should be painted black both inside and out. 116 Prospect St. H. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. spoons and jackknives. One thing changes to another and back again. shows catch B. 2. B. cut in one side. .rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. and plenty of candles. Fig. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. Klipstein. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. one-third of the length from the remaining end. Objects appear and disappear. he points with one finger to the box. Heavy metal objects. Next. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. to throw the light toward the audience. 2. The box must be altered first. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. H. no painting inside is required. although a little more trouble. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. 1. with a switch as in Fig. or cave. and black art reigns supreme. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. 3. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. sides and end. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. and a slit. heighten the illusion. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. a few simple tools. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. To prepare such a magic cave. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. enlarged. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. in his shirt sleeves. He removes the bowl from the black box. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. Receiving the bowl again. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). surrounding a perfectly black space. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. Fig. Thus. half way from open end to closed end. some black paint. he tosses it into the cave. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. 0. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. --Contributed by E. the requisites are a large soap box. which unlocks the door. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. East Orange. the illumination in front must be arranged. between the parlor and the room back of it. The magician stands in front of this. should be cut a hole. In front of you. Fig. and hands its contents round to the audience. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. H. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. is the cut through which the rope runs. One end is removed. Fig. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. New Jersey. so much the better. some black cloth. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. and finally lined inside with black cloth. On either side of the box. with the lights turned low. top. such as forks. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. Next. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. 1.. The interior must be a dead black. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. floor.

But illusions suggest themselves. of course. the room where the cave is should be dark. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. you must have an assistant. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. The exhibitor should be . A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. and if portieres are impossible. one on each side of the box. was identical with this. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. only he. in which are oranges and apples. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. of course. a screen must be used. Consequently. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. as presented by Hermann.Finally. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. and several black drop curtains. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. if. had a big stage. which can be made to dance either by strings. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. The audience room should have only low lights. and pours them from the bag into a dish. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. The illusion. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. which are let down through the slit in the top. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. his confederate behind inserts his hand. is on a table) so much the better. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. into the eyes of him who looks. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave.

2. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. About the center piece H moves a disk. and c1 – electricity. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. or b2. 1.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. held down on disk F by two other terminals. by means of two wood screws. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. with three brass strips. is shown in the diagram. square. d. 2). e1 and e2. Then. respectively. 2. b2. their one end just slips under the strips b1. On the disk G are two brass strips. b2. as shown in Fig. when handle K is turned to one side. respectively. respectively. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. terminal c3 will show . vice versa. 1. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. FIG. held down on it by two terminals. b1. c4. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. c3. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). Finally. terminal c3 will show +. making contact with them. held down by another disk F (Fig. and c4 + electricity. so arranged that. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. c2. Fig. A represents a pine board 4 in. c1. and a common screw. f2.a boy who can talk.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. A. at L.. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. by 4 in. b3. b3. making contact with them as shown at y. if you turn handle K to the right. and c2 to the zinc. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. or binding posts.

By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. when on No. 4. . I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. Newark. E. -Contributed by A. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made.. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. Jr. from five batteries. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. and C and C1 are binding posts. B is a onepoint switch. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). and when on No. from four batteries. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . thus making the message audible in the receiver. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. 1. --Contributed by Eugene F. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. When switch B is closed and A is on No. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. 3. Tuttle. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. and then hold the receiver to your ear. Joerin. when A is on No.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. when on No. you have the current of one battery. jump spark coil. Ohio. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. 5. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. from three batteries.

then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. of Burlington. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. Redmond. per second for each second. Wis. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. mark. La. A. E. New Orleans. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Thus. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. B. per second. which may be a button or other small object. so one can see the time. When you do not have a graduate at hand. is the device of H.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. Handy Electric Alarm . Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. A. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second.. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. A. over the bent portion of the rule. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. P. mark. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. rule. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. as shown in the sketch. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. and placed on the windowsill of the car. traveled by the thread. and supporting the small weight. The device thus arranged.

At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. B. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. When the alarm goes off. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. which illuminates the face of the clock. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. --C. Then if a mishap comes. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. S. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward.which has a piece of metal. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. . you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. and with the same result. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. C. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. for a wetting is the inevitable result. but may be closed at F any time desired. Crafton. --Contributed by Gordon T. Pa. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. Lane. wrapping the wire around the can several times. Instead. soldered to the alarm winder. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal.

as the sand is sure to get on the floor. bearings.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. and duplicates of all these. and many other interesting and useful articles. when it is being prepared. small machinery parts. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. as shown. 1. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. Macey. It is possible to make molds without a bench. A. models and miniature objects. battery zincs. which may. cannons. --Contributed by A. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. The first thing to make is a molding bench. With the easily made devices about to be described. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. whence it is soon tracked into the house. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. Two cleats.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. If there is no foundry Fig. BE. L. engines. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. binding posts. as shown in Fig. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. New York City. C. but it is a mistake to try to do this. ornaments of various kinds. AA. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. 1 . About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment.

If desired the sieve may be homemade. by 8 in. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. 1. by 6 in. Fig. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. E. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. A wedge-shaped piece. CC. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. F. previous to sawing. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. An old teaspoon. 2. H. DD. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. as shown. will be required. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. G. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. which can be either aluminum. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. is nailed to each end of the cope. and the "drag. The dowels. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. A A.near at hand. but this operation will be described more fully later on. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. makes a very good sieve. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. is filled with coal dust. try using sand from other sources. white metal. CC. The rammer. Fig. is shown more clearly in Fig. is made of wood. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. If the box is not very strong. 2 . A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. A slight shake of the bag Fig.How to Make a Mold [96] . and saw it in half longitudinally. 1. It is made of wood and is in two halves. a little larger than the outside of the flask. which should be nailed in. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. The flask. and the lower pieces. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. J. and a sieve. The cloth bag. as shown. the "cope." or lower part. D. is about the right mesh. high. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. which can be made of a knitted stocking." or upper half. II . say 12 in. and this.

as described. The sand is then ready for molding. as shown at C. turn the drag other side up. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. and scatter about 1/16 in. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. where they can watch the molders at work. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together." in position. or "cope.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. Place another cover board on top. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. After ramming. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. or "drag. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. as shown at E. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. In finishing the ramming. It is then rammed again as before. and thus judge for himself. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. the surface of the sand at . and then more sand is added until Fig. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. as shown. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. and by grasping with both hands. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. and if water is added. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. as it is much easier to learn by observation. in order to remove the lumps. as shown at D. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. it has a sufficient amount of moisture.

wide and about 1/4 in. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. This is done with a spoon. as shown at J. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. as shown at H. in order to prevent overheating. . as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. made out of steel rod. and then pour. after being poured. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. The pattern is then drawn from the mold.E should be covered with coal-dust. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. as shown at F. it shows that the sand is too wet. The "sprue. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. III. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. is next cut. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. After drawing the pattern. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. thus making a dirty casting. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. in diameter. thus holding the crucible securely. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. as shown at H. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right." or pouring-hole. as shown at G. as shown in the sketch. deep. to give the air a chance to escape. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. place the cope back on the drag. Fig. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. Place a brick or other flat.

and. Minneapolis. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. used only for zinc. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. white metal and other scrap available. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. 15% lead. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. Although the effect in the illustration . The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. In my own case I used four batteries. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. although somewhat expensive.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. and the casting is then ready for finishing. but any reasonable number may be used. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. Morton. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. is very desirable. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. Referring to the figure. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. --Contributed by Harold S. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. babbitt. battery zincs. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. If a good furnace is available. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. or from any adjacent pair of cells. may be used in either direction. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. the following device will be found most convenient. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin.

2. connected by cords to the rudder. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. may be made of hardwood. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. shaft made. Then replace the table. The brass rings also appear distorted. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. outward. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. as shown in the illustration. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. B. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. backward. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. Fig. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. which will be sufficient to hold it. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. Make one of these pieces for each arm. The bearings. Put a sharp needle point. B. --Contributed by Draughtsman. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. A. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. If desired. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. To make it take a sheet-iron band. Then walk down among the audience.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. Chicago. as shown at A. 3/4 in. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . By replacing the oars with paddles.

is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. Fig. as shown in Fig.melted babbitt. but when in motion. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. should be made of wood. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. or the paint will come off. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. and a weight. In the same way. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. 1. E. or under pressure. Snow. C. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. A block of ice. 2 and 3. A. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. W. 1. 1. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. 2. If galvanized iron is used. as shown in Fig. spoiling its appearance. 3. If babbitt is used. The hubs. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. being simply finely divided ice. It may seem strange that ice . D. The covers. when it will again return to its original state. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure.

Lane. brass.should flow like water. as per sketch. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. The rate of flow is often very slow. by 5 in. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. but by placing it between books. by 1/4. Pa. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. and assume the shape shown at B. but. square. Crafton. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. in. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. no matter how slow the motion may be. P. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. Pressing either push button. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. it will gradually change from the original shape A. or supporting it in some similar way. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it.. thus giving a high resistance contact. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. by 1/2 in. sometimes only one or two feet a day. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. --Contributed by Gordon T. by 2 in. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. as shown on page 65. whenever there is any connection made at all. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . which resembles ice in this respect. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. B.

Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. horizontal lever. B. cord. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. Indianapolis. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. the induction coil. A is the circuit breaker. B. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. G.thumb screws. pulleys. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. draft chain. and five dry batteries. the battery. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. J. wooden supports. C. H. I. draft. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. and C. about the size used for automobiles. D. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. furnace. Pa. Wilkinsburg. G. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. alarm clock. E. F. The parts are: A. as shown. as shown. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. --Contributed by A. The success depends upon a slow current. In the wiring diagram. weight. K . A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. Ward. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat.000 ft. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. vertical lever.

The frame (Fig. material framed together as shown in Fig. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. 3. 2 are dressed to the right angle. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. Mich. Artistic Window Boxes The top. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. such as used for a storm window. where house plants are kept in the home. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. will fit nicely in them. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . which will provide a fine place for the plants. -Contributed by Gordon Davis.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. Kalamazoo. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. as well as the bottom.

However. after a rest. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. 1. 1 cp. since a battery is the most popular source of power. can be connected up in series. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series.. as indicated by Fig. N. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. in this connection. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. Push the needle into the cork. and cost 27 cents FIG. The 1/2-cp. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in.. one can regulate the batteries as required. and a suitable source of power. e. but maintain the voltage constant. in any system of lamps. which sells for 25 cents. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. as if drawn upon for its total output. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. so as to increase the current. for some time very satisfactorily. where they are glad to have them taken away. This is more economical than dry cells. in diameter. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. this must be done with very great caution. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. and the instrument will then be complete. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. by connecting them in series. a cork and a needle. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. Canada. It must be remembered.. multiples of series of three.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. i. Grant. and will give the . is something that will interest the average American boy. Halifax. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. However. Thus. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. W. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. A certain number of these. S. 1 each complete with base. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. --Contributed by Wm.

2 shows the scheme. or 22 lights. lamp. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. These will give 3 cp. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. each. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. for display of show cases. double insulated wire wherever needed. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. lamps. In conclusion. If wound for 10 volts. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. and diffused light in a room. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. if wound for 6 volts. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. especially those of low internal resistance. by the proper combination of these. 18 B & S. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. 3. . we simply turn on the water. 1-cp. as in Fig. lamps. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. FIG. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. and running the series in parallel. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. where the water pressure is the greatest.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. Fig. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. However. and for Christmas trees. So. 11 series. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. which is the same as that of one battery.. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. generates the power for the lights. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. Chicago. making. and then lead No. to secure light by this method. Thus. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. according to the water pressure obtainable. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. Thus.proper voltage. although the first cost is greater.

How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. and C. outside points of switch. brushes of motor. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. After I connected up my induction coil.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. bars of pole-changing switch. center points of switch. To reverse the motor. BB. Plymouth. switch. simply change the switch. a bait of meat. --Contributed by Leonard E. field of motor. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. are cut just alike. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. . or a tempting bone. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. A. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. thus reversing the machine. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. B. B. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. AA. Santa Clara. the letters indicate as follows: FF. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. or from one pattern. we were not bothered with them. as shown in the sketch. Cal. A indicates the ground. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. Ind. CC. Parker. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. Emig. --Contributed by F. DD. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. and the sides. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves.

as it is the key to the lock. merely push the button E. thus locking the door. The button can be hidden. attached to the end of the armature B. W. -Contributed by Claude B. Hutchinson. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. a piece of string. Cal. San Jose. Fry. or would remain locked. which is in the door. a hammer. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. Melchior. The experiment works best . Minn. When the circuit is broken a weight. A. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. one cell being sufficient. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. 903 Vine St. To unlock the door.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. and a table or bench. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. If it is not.. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock.

Schmidt. Tie the ends of the string together. 18 Gorham St. When the alarm rings in the early morning. the key turns. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. . A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. P. I. Canada.. in the ceiling and has a window weight. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. Ontario. which pulls the draft open. 1). where it will remain suspended as shown. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. Brockville. Culebra. C. 4). D. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. as shown in Fig.Contributed by F. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. 2. Crawford Curry. forming a loop. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. 3. Wis. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. --Contributed by Geo. Porto Rico. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. 3. run through a pulley. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. A. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. Madison. attached at the other end. W. releasing the weight. the stick falls away. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. the current flows with the small arrows.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. On another block of wood fasten two wires. -. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig.

First. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. 6 in. J. or from a bed of flowers. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. Connect two wires to the transmitter. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. made with his own hands. D.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. get two pieces of plate glass. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. and then to the receiver. Farley. Jr. and the other to the battery. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. S. and . which fasten to the horn. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. Use a barrel to work on. --Contributed by Wm. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. square and 1 in. thick. J. and break the corners off to make them round. N. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. including the mouthpiece. thence to a switch. or tree. running one direct to the receiver.. R. The cut shows the arrangement. Camden.

also rotate the glass. of water. and a large lamp. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. or less. while walking around the barrel. 2. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. Fig. 1. using straight strokes 2 in. When done the glass should be semitransparent. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. Fig. or it will not polish evenly. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. it should be tested with the knife-edge test.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. 2. unless a longer focal length is wanted.. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. twice the focal length away. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. When dry. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. L. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. and is ready for polishing. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. Fasten. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. so the light . a round 4-in. and label. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. A. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. by the side of the lamp. as in Fig. and the under glass or tool convex. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. Have ready six large dishes. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. 30 minutes and 90 minutes.. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. wetting it to the consistency of cream. then take 2 lb. Then warm and press again with the speculum. the coarse grinding must be continued. In a dark room. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. and spread on the glass. with pitch. When polishing the speculum. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. Use a binger to spread it on with. in length. with 1/4-in. wet till soft like paint. then 8 minutes. melt 1 lb. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. spaces. set the speculum against the wall. wide around the convex glass or tool.

100 gr. from the lamp. cement a strip of board 8 in. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. 4 oz. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. 2.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. Fig.. face down. deep. 2. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. must be procured. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears.……………………………. 840 gr.. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. Now add enough of the solution A. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin.. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. Then add 1 oz. Two glass or earthenware dishes.. Then add solution B. with distilled water.. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. When the focus is found. Solution D: Sugar loaf .……………. long to the back of the speculum. in the bath and leave until the silver rises. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. Fig. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. then ammonia until bath is clear. as in K. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. or hills. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. the speculum will show some dark rings. and pour the rest into the empty dish. When dry. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia.. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. If not. Fig. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. Place the speculum. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. that was set aside. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. fill the dish with distilled water. 100 gr. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. Nitric acid . 25 gr. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum).………………………………. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. Silver nitrate ……………………………. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. longer strokes. also how the rays R from a star . With pitch.. The knife should not be more than 6 in. Place the speculum S. add the ammonia solution drop by drop.. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. 39 gr.. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. 4 oz. touched with rouge. The polishing and testing done. the speculum is ready to be silvered. Alcohol (Pure) …………….. if a hill in the center.

telescope can be made at home. My telescope is 64 in. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. Place over lens. About 20. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. which proves to be easy of execution. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. deg. using strawboard and black paper. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. long and cost me just $15. Thus an excellent 6-in. Then I made the one described. . then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. cover with paper and cloth. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. slightly wider than the lens mount. The flatter they are the less they will distort. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. Mellish. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. two glass prisms. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch.. stop down well after focusing. Make the tube I of sheet iron. is a satisfactory angle. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms.John E. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. with an outlay of only a few dollars. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. and proceed as for any picture. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube.

Fig. Boody. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. A. then add a little sulphate of potash. or powdered alum. and reflect through the negative. instead of the contrary. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. Do not stir it. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. B. complete the arrangement. The paper is exposed. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. through the lens of the camera and on the board. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. 1. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. -Contributed by A. Zimmerman. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. push the button D. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. . How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. D. The rays of the clear. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. unobstructed light strike the mirror. Ill. 2. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. add the plaster gradually to the water. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. To unlock. but will not preserve its hardening. says the Master Painter. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. as shown in Fig.

Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. so that it can rotate about these points. as shown in the sketch. but will remain suspended without any visible support. Fasten on the switch lever. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. use a string. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. Then blow through the spool. throw . 1). Connect the wires as shown in Fig. Fig. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. 3. as in Fig. also provide them with a handle. as at A and B. 2. To reverse. 2. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass.

-Contributed by Morris L. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. Go McVicker. although this is not necessary. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. Push one end of the tire into the hole. Take out. Thomas. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Geo. B. C C. Levy. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. Tex. carbons. and rub dry with linen cloth. and E E. --Contributed by R. Neb. L. A is the electricbell magnet. Tex. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. San Marcos. San Antonio. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. North Bend. carbon sockets. the armature. wash in running water. D. . binding posts. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. rinse in alcohol. In the sketch.

If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. 36 magnet wire. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. Bell. Brooklyn. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and .Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. long or more. --Contributed by Joseph B. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. wound evenly about this core. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. 16 magnet wire. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. By means of two or more layers of No. 14 or No. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary.

and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. as the maker prefers. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. The condenser is next wrapped . The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. In shaping the condenser. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. When cut and laid in one continuous length. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. long and 5 in. This makes a condenser which may be folded. which is an important factor of the coil. long and 2-5/8 in. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. a box like that shown in Fig. No. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. and the results are often unsatisfactory. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. The primary is made of fine annealed No. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. making two layers. and finally the fourth strip of paper. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. about 6 in. one piece of the paper is laid down. 1. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. or 8 in. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. diameter. hole is bored in the center of one end. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. Beginning half an inch from one end. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. After the core wires are bundled. 4. wide. A 7/8-in. as shown in Fig. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. but if it is not convenient to do this work.which would be better to buy ready-made. in diameter. The following method of completing a 1-in. 2 yd. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. at a time. coil illustrates the general details of the work. then the strip of tin-foil. which is desirable. with room also for a small condenser. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. the entire core may be purchased readymade. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. in length. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case.

Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. lines H. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. long to key.) The wiring diagram. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. D. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. open switch C. G. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection.. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. and the other sheet. I. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. and one from battery. shelf for clock. flange turned on one side. B. E. copper lever with 1-in. C. by 12 in. 4 in. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. round so that the inside . shows how the connections are made. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. bell. the letters indicate as follows: A. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. which allows wiring at the back. battery . 3. Fig. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. one from bell. forms the other pole or terminal. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. V-shaped copper strip. switch. whole length. B. long and 12 in. go. A. wide. which is insulated from the first. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. to the door. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. ready for assembling. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board.securely with bands of paper or tape. F. The alarm key will turn and drop down. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. spark. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down.

This is for blowing. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. but with the circuit. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. If desired for use immediately. do not shortcircuit. Short-circuit for three hours. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. says the Model Engineer. That is what they are for. of blue stone. The circuit should also have a high resistance. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. and the battery is ready for use. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. but add 5 or 6 oz. . bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat.diameter is 7 in. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. Use a glass or metal shade. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. from the bottom. London. instead of close to it. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. 2 in.. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. and then rivet the seam. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. of zinc sulphate. Line the furnace.

. affects . for others the opposite way. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. To operate the trick. the second finger along the side.9 of a volt. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. 2. grip the stick firmly in one hand. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. Outside of the scientific side involved. Enlarge the hole slightly. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. below the bottom of the zinc. square and about 9 in. for some it will turn one way. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. At least it is amusing. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. while for others it will not revolve at all. Try it and see. changes white phosphorus to yellow. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. or think they can do the same let them try it. g. herein I describe a much better trick. Ohio. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. If too low. and therein is the trick. long. oxygen to ozone." which created much merriment. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. as in the other movement. This type of battery will give about 0. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. but the thing would not move at all. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. porcelain and paper. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. If any or your audience presume to dispute. 1. and then. imparting to them a violet tinge. thus producing two different vibrations. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig.

If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. and one of them is photomicrography.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. a means for holding it vertical. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. and. chemicals. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. however. insects. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. but not essential. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. if possible. but this is less satisfactory. To the front board is attached a box. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. an old tripod screw. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. but small flowers. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. earth.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. says the Photographic Times. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. a short-focus lens. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand .

179 11 lb.--Contributed by George C. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. 8 ft. Fig. 268 17 lb. If the balloon is 10 ft. 7-1/2 in. Madison. Boston. 6 ft. 12 ft. balloon. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. in Cu. Mass. 113 7 lb. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. 5 ft. 381 24 lb. Cap. A line. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. 7 ft. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. Divide one-quarter of the circle . 5 in. wide from which to cut a pattern. and a line. 10 ft 523 33 lb. 11 ft. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. CD. 9 ft. in diameter. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. while it is not so with the quill. The following table will give the size. AB. long and 3 ft. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. 7-1/2 in. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. or 31 ft. 65 4 lb. or 3 ft. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. 905 57 lb. Ft Lifting Power. 697 44 lb. 1. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. which is 15 ft. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper.

Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. 70 thread. Procure 1 gal. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. The amounts necessary for a 10- . The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. using a fine needle and No. Repeat this operation four times. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. This test will show if the bag is airtight. The pattern is now cut. 3. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. cutting all four quarters at the same time. keeping the marked part on the outside. of beeswax and boil well together.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. of the very best heavy body. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. and so on. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. The cloth segments are sewed together. on the curved line from B to C. making a double seam as shown in Fig. 4. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. 2. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. and after marked is cut the same shape and size.

which may sound rather absurd. or dusting with a dry brush. C. of gas in one hour. with water 2 in. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. pipe. About 15 lb. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. of iron. pipe extending down into the cooling tank.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris..Green Iron ammonium citrate . ]. Vegetable oils should never be used. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. by fixing. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. it is not fit to use. of sulphuric acid. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. of water will make 4 cu. balloon are 125 lb. 5 . C. 1 lb. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. as shown in Fig. capacity and connect them. using a fine brush. but if any grease remains on the hand. leaving the hand quite clean. if it is good it will dry off. B. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. to the bag. above the level of the water in barrel A. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. ft. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. Water 1 oz. until no more dirt is seen. In the barrel. oil the spindle holes carefully. A. A. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. 5. with 3/4in. or a fan. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings.ft. When the clock has dried. All FIG. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. with the iron borings. of iron borings and 125 lb. . This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. A. . should not enter into the water over 8 in. a clean white rag. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. this should be repeated frequently. B. After washing a part. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. Fill the other barrel. The 3/4-in. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. 150 gr. B. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. 1 lb. The outlet. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb.

Dry the plates in the dark. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. Printing is done in the sun.Water 1 oz. or battery. to avoid blackened skin. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. Exposure. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. This aerial collector can be made in . Port Melbourne. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. says the Moving Picture World. at the time of employment. keeping the fingers out of the solution. The negative pole. 20 to 30 minutes. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. Dry in the dark. fix in hypo. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. . or carbon. The miniature 16 cp. or zinc. A longer exposure will be necessary. of any make. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. and keep in the dark until used. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. and a vigorous negative must be used. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. dry atmosphere will give best results. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. A cold. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe.000 ft. toning first if desired. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. The positive pole.. .

To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. long. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. both positive and negative. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. lay a needle. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end.various ways. If the wave ceases. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. lead pipe. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. The storage cell. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. will soon become dry and useless. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. As the telephone offers a high resistance. This will complete the receiving station. as described below. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. and as less current will flow the short way. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. the resistance is less. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. holes . forming a cup of the pipe. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. making a ground with one wire. a positive and a negative. 5 in. when left exposed to the air. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. If the waves strike across the needle. and have the other connected with another aerial line. in diameter. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. which will cause the clickings that can be heard.

is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. The other plate is connected to the zinc. does not need to be watertight. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. This support or block. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. by soldering the joint. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. namely: a square hole. of course. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours.as possible. B. This. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. a round one. on each end. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. and the other to the negative. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. one to the positive. says the Pathfinder. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. except for about 1 in. This box can be square. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. or tube C. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. When mixing the acid and water. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. an oblong one and a triangular one. D. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. or tube B. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. Two binding-posts should be attached. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry.

This punt. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. C. as shown in Fig. The third piece of brass. back and under. 2. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. Ill. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. 1. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. Chicago. A and B. as it is not readily overturned. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. wide.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. all around the edge. thick cut two pieces alike. deep and 4 ft. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. leaving about 1/16 in. Only galvanized nails should be used. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. 2. . long. about 20 in. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. 3. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. is built 15 ft. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. were fitted by this one plug. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. wide. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. C. and has plenty of good seating capacity. and match them together. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. 1. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. in place on the wood.

Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. In Fig. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. Wash. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. A piece of 1/4-in. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. A. square (Fig 2). Tacoma. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . thick and 3-1/2 in. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. is cut 1 in.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. gas pipe. B. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light.

The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. which the writer has made. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. no special materials could be obtained. and to consume. no more current than a 16-cp. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C.--Contributed by Charles H. it had to be borne in mind that. lamp. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens." has no connection with the outside circuit. which can be developed in the usual manner. Wagner. without auxiliary phase. H. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. In designing. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. or "rotor. may be of interest to some of our readers. The winding of the armature. if possible. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. with the exception of insulated wire. says the Model Engineer. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of .

Holes 5-32 in. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. being used. 2. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. and filled with rivets." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. C. wrought iron. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. no steel being obtainable. 3. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. 4. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine.the field-magnet. to be filed out after they are placed together. After assembling a second time. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. or "stator. 1. A. about 2-1/2 lb. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. holes. this little machine is not self-starting. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. thick. with the dotted line. while the beginnings . in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. also varnished before they were put in. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. The stator is wound full with No. bolts put in and tightened up. as shown in Fig. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. B. 5. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. were then drilled and 1/4-in. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. Unfortunately. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. in diameter were drilled in the corners. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. and all sparking is avoided. They are not particularly accurate as it is. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig.

film to film. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. The lantern slide is a glass plate. as shown in Fig. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. if applied immediately. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. 3-Contributed by C. The rotor is wound with No. and as each layer of wire was wound. In making slides by contact. it would be very simple to build. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. as a means of illustrating songs. 2. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. Jr. as before stated. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. One is by contact. and as the motor runs at constant speed. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. McKinney. E. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. J. and all wound in the same direction. No starting resistance is needed. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. a regulating resistance is not needed. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. The image should . and the other by reduction in the camera. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. Newark. If too late for alcohol to be of use. having no commutator or brushes. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on.. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. This type of motor has drawbacks. and would not easily get out of order. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. 1.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. and especially of colored ones. N.

which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. over the mat. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. as shown in Fig. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. If the exposure has been correct. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. as shown in Fig. to use a plain fixing bath. also. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. D.appear in. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. 5. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. B. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. the formulas being found in each package of plates. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. These can be purchased from any photo material store. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. except that the binding is different. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. and development should be over in three or four minutes. Fig. about a minute. they are much used by travelers. Draw lines with a pencil. 3. A. Being unbreakable. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. 4. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. and then a plain glass. 2. Select a room with one window. a little extra work will be necessary. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. It is best. if possible. 1. C.

A piece of canvas. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. 1. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. 2. from the end piece of the chair. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. wide and 50 in. as shown at B. known as rods and cones. These longer pieces can be made square. 16 in. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. from the ends. 1. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. from the center of this dot draw a star. If the star is in front of the left eye. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. Fig.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. Corinth. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. Fig. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. is to be used for the seat. as shown in Fig. long. as shown at A. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. long. in diameter and 40 in. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. while the dot will be in front of the other. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. Vt. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. holes bored in the end pieces. in diameter and 20 in. or other stout cloth. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. long. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . Hastings.

An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. as shown in Fig. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. A disk 1 in. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft.-Contributed by P. as well as to operate other household machines. A belt. Cal. . and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. Auburn. made from an ordinary sash cord. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. J. as shown in Fig. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. in thickness and 10 in. 1. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. per square inch. 2. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. O'Gara. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole.

and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. wide. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. then removing the object. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. 3/4 in. Bore a 1/4-in. Put the bolt in the hole. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. leaving it shaped like a bench. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. divided by the number of threads to the inch. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. says the Scientific American. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. it serves a very useful purpose. will be the thickness of the object. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. or inconvenient to measure. thick and 2-1/2 in. A simple. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. fairly accurate. screwing it through the nut. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. square for a support. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. with as fine a thread as possible. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. and the construction is complete. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. . long. direction. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. to the top of the bench. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. Cut out a piece from the block combination. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. The part of a rotation of the bolt.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule.

A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. material 12 ft. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. Oal. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. globe that has been thrown away as useless. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. The wheel should be open . This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. bolt in each hole. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. Bore a 3/4-in. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. piece of wood 12 ft. long is used for the center pole. which show up fine at night. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. beyond the end of the wood. Place a 3/4-in. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. long. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. Santa Maria.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp.

as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. and the lower part 61/2 in. C. long. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. long. which should be 1/4 in. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in.-Contributed by A. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. C. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. at the bottom. at the top and 4 in. 1/2 in. made of the same material. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. A cross bar. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. in diameter. P. of the ends with boards. is soldered. H and J. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. to be operated by the magnet coil. B. pieces used for the spokes. from the ends. long. long. Fort Worth. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. Tex. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. from the top end. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. thick. The spool . O. The coil. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. thick. Graham. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. thick is used for the armature. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. wide and 1/8 in. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. L. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft.Side and Top View or have spokes. The boards may be nailed or bolted. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. square and 3 or 4 in. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. A. and on its lower end a socket. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. A piece of brass 2 in.

which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. This tie can be used on grain sacks. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. S. . Randolph. Mass. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. R. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. The armature. for insulating the brass ferrule. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. is drilled.J. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. 1. which may be had by using German silver wire. that holds the lower carbon. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. 2 the hat hanging on it. 2. This is a very neat trick if performed right. F. At the bottom end of the frame. or a water rheostat heretofore described. and directly centering the holes H and J.--A. by soldering. B. D and E. one without either rubber or metal end. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. A. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame.is about 2-1/2 in. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. --Contributed by Arthur D. When you slide the pencil along the casing. do it without any apparent effort.E. and in numerous other like instances. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. Bradlev. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. S.000 for irrigation work. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. C. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. and place it against a door or window casing. A soft piece of iron. long. then with a firm.000. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection.

hole in the center. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. 1. thick. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. about 1 in. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. in diameter. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. and then 1. About 70 turns of No. long and 1 in. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. The coil ends are made from cardboard. for the secondary. is connected to a flash lamp battery. leaving the projections as shown. with a 3/16-in. Fig. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. The core of the coil. C. in diameter and 1/16 in. mixed with water to form a paste. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. for adjustment. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. D. may be made from a 3/8-in. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. S. The switch. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. in diameter and 2 in. 2. B. 1. about 1/8 in. in diameter. about 3/16 in. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. F. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. Fig. A. The vibrator B. from the core and directly opposite. wide. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. is constructed in the usual manner. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. The vibrator. long. S. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. Experiment with Heat [134] . How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. for the primary.500 turns of No.

Place a small piece of paper. . which is only 3/8-in. and then well clinched. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. with which to operate the dial. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. 16 in. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. which is cut with two holes. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. The tin is 4 in. was to be secured by only three brass screws. The three screws were then put in the hasp. as shown in the sketch. 1. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. between the boards. thick on the inside. it laps down about 8 in. 1. in an ordinary water glass. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. The lock. long and when placed over the board. board. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. The knob on the dial extends out too far. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. brass plate. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. wide. 2 to fit the two holes. The hasp. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. as shown. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. lighted. and the same distance inside of the new board. which seemed to be insufficient. Fig.

or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. high for use in window displays. the glass. black color. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. and the back left dark. which completely divides the box into two parts.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. square and 10-1/2 in. or in the larger size mentioned. but when the front part is illuminated. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. When making of wood. any article placed therein will be reflected in. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. not shiny. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. When the rear part is illuminated. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . one in each division. If the box is made large enough. square and 8-1/2 in. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. clear glass as shown. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished.

Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. wide will be about the right size. alternately. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. as it appears. and with the proper illumination one is changed. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in.. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. as shown at A in the sketch. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. When using as a window display. into the other. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. long and 1 ft. . The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. When there is no electric current available. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. above the top of the tank. a tank 2 ft. as shown in the sketch.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

This hole must be continued . piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. square. using a 3/4-in. dried and mixed with linseed oil. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. lines gauged on each side of each. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. under sides together. and boring two holes with a 1-in. radius. and a solution of iron sulphate added. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. 2 ft. square and 40 in. but with a length of 12 in. 1 in. Shape the under sides first. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. long. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. each. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. or ferrous sulphate. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. This precipitate is then washed. and a door in front. wide. bit. O. bore from each end. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. hole bored the full length through the center. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. is the green vitriol. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. gauge for depth. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. hole. high. The pieces can then be taken out. If a planing mill is near. however. long. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. two pieces 1-1/8 in. from the ground. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. 5 ft. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. and 6 ft. thick and 3 in. Iron sulphate. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. Three windows are provided. 6 in. as shown. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. The 13-in. one for each side. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. is built on the front. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. Columbus. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. then use a red-hot iron to finish. A small platform. with a length of 13 in. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. wide.

square and drawing a diagonal on each. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. A better way. If the parts are to be riveted. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. hole in each block. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. For art-glass the metal panels are . is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. When this is dry. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. Electric globes--two. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. thick and 3 in.through the pieces forming the base. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. When the filler has hardened. if shade is purchased. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. The sketch shows one method of attaching. Directions will be found on the filler cans. three or four may be attached as shown. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. Saw the two blocks apart. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. apply two coats of wax. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit.

Construction of Shade . Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal. as brass. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. METAL SHADE . such as copper.The Completed Lamp cut out.

The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. the object and the background. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. The arms holding the glass. 2 the front view of this stand. Figure 1 shows the side. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. and Fig. the other. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. one way and 1/2 in. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. as shown in the sketch. as in ordinary devices. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired.

The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. thick 5/8-in. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. outside diameter. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . as shown in the sketch. as it is very poisonous. uncork and recork again. Cut another circular piece 11 in. channel in the circumference of the ring. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. Before mounting the ring on the base. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. about 1-1/4 in. pointing north and south. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. wide and 6-5/16 in. in diameter. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. An ordinary pocket compass. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. as shown in the cut. in diameter for a base. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. Put the ring in place on the base. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. long. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. wide and 11 in. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. thus forming a 1/4-in. and swinging freely. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. If the light becomes dim. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. and an inside diameter of 9 in. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents.

How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work.420 . the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. AA. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. Place on top the so- . from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. CC. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in.715 . The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg.600 . Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders. of the top. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. The results given should be multiplied by 1.500 .3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. above the half can. EE. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. Corresponding mirrors. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes . from the second to the third. to which a wire has been soldered for connections. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings. are mounted on a base. and north of the Ohio river.182 . are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. black oxide of copper.865 1. in diameter and 8 in. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. B.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. 1 oz.088 . into these cylinders.289 . high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. and mirrors.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country.

1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. 31 gr. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. the wheel will revolve in one direction. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. which otherwise remains clear. University Park. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. slender bottle. of pulverized campor. Put the solution in a long. 62 gr. In Fig. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. says Metal Worker.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. Colo. always remove the oil with a siphon. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. then they will not rust fast. When renewing. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . alcohol. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. little crystals forming in the liquid. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz.

Solder in the side of the box . leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. will allow the magnet to point north and south. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. A paper-fastener box. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. about 1-1/4 in. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. If zinc and copper are used. --Contributed by C. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. floating on a solution. on the under side of the cork. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. This is used in place of the spoon. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. If zinc and carbon are used. Attach to the wires. Lloyd Enos. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. If two of them are floating on the same solution.

as shown in Fig. The bottom of the box. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. A.not shorter than 18 in. brass tubing. away. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. The base. . C. wide and 6 in. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. 1-1/4 in. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. F. Wind evenly about 2 oz. long. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. Bore holes for binding-posts. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. The standard. thick. of No. Put ends. Take a small piece of soft iron.in. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. G--No. 1. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. 10 wire about 10 in. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. one on each side of the board. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. of wire on each end extending from the coil. The spring should be about 1 in. to it. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. 1/2. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. E.1-in. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. long. 14 wire will do. wide and 2-1/2 in. 3 in. Use a board 1/2. D. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. D. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube.in. E. and then solder on the cover. hole. Thos. A. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. D. and on the other around the glass tube. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. or made with a little black paint. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. stained and varnished. C. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. piece of 1/4-in. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. C. To this standard solder the supporting wire. is made from a piece of No.Contributed by J. If the hose is not a tight fit. long that has about 1/4-in. B. B. Rhamstine. A circular piece of cardboard. can be made of oak. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. glass tubing . H.

and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. of 8-oz. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. is drawn nearer to the coil. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. Cuba. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. When the glass becomes soft. four hinges. in diameter. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. 5. N. Smith. of mercury will be sufficient. long. from the right hand. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. long are used for the legs. long. two pieces 2 ft. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. . Teasdale. making a support as shown in Fig. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. long. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. 3. 2. about 1 in. 3-in. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. Wis. 1.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. D. as shown in Fig. J. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter.--Contributed by Edward M. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges.of the coil. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. long. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. Milwaukee. E. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. About 1-1/2 lb.--Contributed by R. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. 3 in. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. long. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. The iron plunger. Y. canvas. of No. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd.

The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. Take 1/2 in. --Contributed by David A. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. The tube now must be filled completely. of vacuum at the top. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. 3. long. Keys. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. leaving 8 in. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. Toronto. 4. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. Measure 8 in. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. holding in the left hand. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. 5. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury.. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. 2. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. expelling all the air. This tube as described will be 8 in. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. 6. Fig. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. small aperture in the long tube. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. Break off the piece of glass.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. thus leaving a.. Can.

Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. The large pulley is about 14 in. thick. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. 2. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. wide and 5 ft. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. 1 in. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. wide and 5 ft. 4. Four blocks 1/4 in. thick. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. cut in the shape shown in Fig. wide and 5 ft. wood screws. 6. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. 1 in. 4 in. FIG.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. wide and 12 in. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. 1. 7. in diameter. as shown in Fig. wide and 3 in. and 1/4 in. and the single projection 3/4 in. 3 in. as in Fig.6 -. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. These are bent and nailed. joint be accurately put together. with each projection 3-in. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. This forms a slot. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. 9 in. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. thick. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. thick. 3 in. long. Fig. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. A crosspiece 3/4-in. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. from the end of same. material 2 in. 3. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. long. as shown in Fig. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . long. 5. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. long. thick. but yellow pine is the best.

attach runners and use it on the ice. by 1-in. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. Welsh. above the runner level. Manhattan. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. Kan. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. says Photography. Water 1 oz. --Contributed by C. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. R. first removing the crank. . and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr.

3. as shown in Fig. of water. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. Mass. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. --Contributed by Wallace C. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. --Contributed by Edward M. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. 1 oz. from an ordinary clamp skate. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. Leominster. also. The print is washed. Printing is carried rather far. Treasdale. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. 1. Newton. as shown in Fig. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. . This is done with a camel's hair brush. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. 2. and very much cheaper.

How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. extending the width of the box. Church. 1. 1 ft. wide and 4 in. long. The swing door B. square piece. and 3 ft. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. high for rabbits.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. Take two glass tubes. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. Fig. wide. --Contributed by H. Fig. The thread is broken off at the . Then. Alexandria. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. Va. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. and to the bottom. hole. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. causing the door to swing back and up. Place a 10-in. F. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. from one end. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. 1. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. A. about 10 in. with about 1/8-in. which represents the back side of the door. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. say. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. as shown in the sketch. 2. high. and bend them as shown in the sketch. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. 1-1/2 ft. too. fasten a 2-in. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap.

wide and 5 in. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. Out two rectangular holes.by 5-in. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. Crilly. Fig. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. trolley cars. -Contributed by William M. B. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. shorter at each end. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. and exactly 5 by 7 in. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. 1 in. Chicago. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. says Camera Craft. high and 12 in. to be used as a driving pulley. camera and wish to use some 4. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. D. Jr. Paste a piece of strong black paper.. 10 in. wide. from the edge on each side of these openings. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. wide. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. . Take two pieces of pasteboard.proper place to make a small hole. being 1/8 in. and go in the holder in the same way. horses and dogs. inside of the opening. in size. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. automobiles.by 7-in. black surfaced if possible. say 8 in. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. C. 2. long. shorter. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. This opening. Fig. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. Cut an opening in the other piece. long. plates. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. 3. in size. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. but cut it 1/4 in. 1. as shown in Fig. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. A and B. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in.

The needle will then point north and south. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it.. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. long and 6 in. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. if it has previously been magnetized. in diameter. into which the dog is harnessed. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. making a . of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. wide will be required. A cell of this kind can easily be made. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed.in. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in.

Pack the paste in. filter. pull out the wire as needed. and a notch between the base and the pan. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. of water. Do not paint any surface. zinc oxide. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. beeswax melted together. . closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. of the top.watertight receptacle. Form a 1/2-in. 1 lb.in. plaster of paris. one that will hold about 1 qt. when the paraffin is melted. of rosin and 2 oz. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. pine. This makes the wire smooth. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. File the rods to remove the copper plate. long which are copper plated. in diameter and 6 in. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. leaving about 1/2-in. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. fuel and packing purposes. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. in which P is the pan. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. sal ammoniac. fodder. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. for a connection. short time. Place the pan on the stove. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. A is a block of l-in. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. F is a spool. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. with narrow flanges. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. under the spool in the paraffin. 3/4 lb. 1/4 lb. of the plate at one end. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. B is a base of 1 in. only the joints. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. says Electrician and Mechanic. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a.

One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. Toledo. At least it is amusing. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. g. long. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. 2. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics.. and one friend tells me that they were . Ohio. from vexation. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. and therein is the trick. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. and he finally. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. If any of your audience presume to dispute. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. as in the other movement. by the Hindoos in India. but the thing would not move at all. thus producing two different vibrations. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. and then. for others the opposite way. let them try it. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. while for others it will not revolve at all. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. Try it and see." which created much merriment. Enlarge the hole slightly. grip the stick firmly in one hand. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. or think they can do the same. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. square and about 9 in. for some it will turn one way. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee.

Speeds between 700 and 1. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. 2. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. gave the best results. and I think the results may be of interest. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. 3. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. A square stick with notches on edge is best. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. and. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. the rotation may be obtained. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. p. by means of a center punch. The experiments were as follows: 1. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. m. rotation was obtained. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. 6. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. 5. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. Thus a circular or . The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. 7. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. secondly.100 r. To operate. no rotation resulted. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. If the pressure was upon an edge. 4. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again.

All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. so far as can be seen from the photographs. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. Washington. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. Duluth. Minn. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. is driven violently away." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. as shown. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall.D. forming a handle for carrying. Lloyd. D. . unwetted by the liquid. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. the upper portion is. if the pressure is from the left. it will be clockwise. --Contributed by M. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. or greasy. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. Ph. Sloan. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). at first. --Contributed by G. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. A wire is tied around the can. G. A.. and the resultant "basket splash. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. C. and the height of the fall about 6 in. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. a piece of wire and a candle. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown..

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. 1. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. Each wheel is 1/4 in." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. about 2-5/8 in. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. hole drilled in the center. flange and a 1/4-in. long. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. with a 1/16-in. as shown. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. in diameter. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. axle. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. thick and 1 in. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. as shown in Fig.

The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. bottom side up. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. 6. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. or main part of the frame. The first piece. and the locomotive is ready for running. holes 1 in. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. 2. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. This will save buying a track. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. Texas. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. are shown in Fig. San Antonio. as shown in Fig. put together complete. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. 3. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. 4. as shown in Fig. Fuller. The current. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. These ends are fastened together.50. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. The motor is now bolted. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. lamp in series with the coil. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. which must be 110 volt alternating current. is made from brass. wood. A trolley. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. of No. --Contributed by Maurice E. each in its proper place. with cardboard 3 in. wide and 16 in. Fig. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. 3/4 in.brass. is made from a piece of clock spring. 1 from 1/4-in. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. 3. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. long. If the ends are to be soldered. bent as shown. 5. Fig. The parts. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. 2. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig.

and as this end . as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. When cold treat the other end in the same way. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. as shown in Fig. the length of a paper clip. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. Fig 1. O. Cincinnati. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. 3. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. and holes drilled in them. as shown in Fig. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. Fig. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. 1. The quarter will not go all the way down. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. but do not heat the center. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. 2. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. then continue to tighten much more. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed.

The frame is made from a 1/2 in. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. or apparent security of the knot. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. In the sketch. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. When the trick is to be performed. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. and adjusted . 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. or should the lathe head be raised. 2 and 1 respectively. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. When the cutter A. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. has finished a cut for a tooth. A pair of centers are fitted. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel.

lady's belt bag. watch fob ready for fastenings. coin purse. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. dividing it into as many parts as desired. lady's card case.) Make on paper the design wanted. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. Bunker. swing lathe. --Contributed by Samuel C. (4. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. Fold over along these center lines. and a nut pick. tea cosey. N. such as brass or marble. 2. tea cosey. about 1-1/2 in. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). Fig. Bott. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. (5. or one-half of the design. if but two parts. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. trace the outline. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. above the surface.to run true. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. Second row: -Two book marks. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord.) Place the paper design on the leather and. draw center lines across the required space. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. (2. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. at the same time striking light. blotter back. (3. When connecting to batteries. note book. holding it in place with the left hand. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. long. gentleman's card case or bill book. (6. Brooklyn. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. if four parts are to be alike. In this manner gears 3 in. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . book mark. --Contributed by Howard S. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. The frame holding the mandrel. Y. 1. (1. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. An ordinary machine will do. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. twisted around itself and soldered. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. With such objects as coin purses and card cases.

some heavy rubber hose.How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. Secure . and an ordinary bottle.

and push it through a cork. Florida. pull it through the cork to one side or the other.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. Thrust a pin. A. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. B. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. D. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls.C. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches.. a distance of 900 miles. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. The electrodes are made . C. into which fit a small piece of tube. from Key West. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. and bore a hole through the center. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. where it condenses. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. If the needle is not horizontal.

The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. apart and extend 1 ft. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. Washington. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. All wiring is done with No. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. as shown in Fig. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. long. 1-1/4 in. thick. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. D. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. --Contributed by Edwin L. wide and 3 ft. free from knots. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. as shown in Fig. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. wide and 4 ft. 1. 3/4 in. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. 1/2. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. as shown in Fig. long. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. using a high resistance receiver. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. 1. wide and 20 ft. and also to keep it steady in its flight. both laterally and longitudinally. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. which is tacked to the front edge. slacken speed and settle. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. C. by 3/4 in. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. square and 8 ft long. 1-1/2 in. long. apart and connect with the 12 uprights.in. 2. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. thick. To make a glide. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. long for the body of the operator. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. The operator can then land safely and . The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. Powell. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. 2. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. wide and 3 ft. lumber cannot be procured. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. long. use 10-ft. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. long. 16 piano wire. Four long beams 3/4 in. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. wide and 4 ft long. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. thick. 2 arm sticks 1 in. take the glider to the top of a hill. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. or flying-machine. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. lengths and splice them. 12 uprights 1/2 in. wide and 4 ft. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. thick. 2 in. If 20-ft. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. 1. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. 3. thick. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. several strips 1/2 in. Connect as shown in the illustration.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other.

but this must be found by experience. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. Great care should be . Glides are always made against the wind.gently on his feet. Of course. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes.

otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. as shown in Fig. When heated a little. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . 1. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from.exercised in making landings. 2. --Contributed by L. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. Bellingham. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. Olson. which causes the dip in the line. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. M. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. half man and half horse. a creature of Greek mythology. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop.

The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. of small rubber tubing. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. this will cost about 15 cents. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. While at the drug store get 3 ft. outside the box. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. will complete the material list. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. in diameter. about the size of door screen wire. at the other. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. square. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. a piece of brass or steel wire. making it 2-1/2 in. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. long and about 3/8 in.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. about the size of stove pipe wire. 14 in. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. The light from the . To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. long. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight.

2. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. If done properly the card will flyaway. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. --Photo by M. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. Hunting. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. 1. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. Dayton. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. M. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. while others will fail time after time. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. This is very simple when you know how.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. O. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. as shown in Fig. as shown in the sketch. . as shown in Fig.

it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. place the other two. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. closing both hands quickly. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand." or the Chinese students' favorite game. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. as before. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. Cool in water and dry. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. This game is played by five persons. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. then put it on the hatpin head. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. If a certain color is to be more prominent. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. as described. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. as shown. When the desired shape has been obtained. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. hold the lump over the flame. while the one in the right shall have disappeared.

How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. distribute electric charges . Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. these sectors. or more in width. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. passing through neutralizing brushes. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in.

Two plates are necessary to make this machine. and the outer end 11/2 in. as shown in Fig. in diameter. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. wide at one end. in diameter. in diameter. material 7 in. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. These pins. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. as shown in Fig. D. 2. C C. and of a uniform thickness. 1 in. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. free from wrinkles. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. the side pieces being 24 in. Fig. to which insulating handles . A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. 3. Fig. at the other. are made from 7/8-in. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. 3/4 in. wide. in diameter. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. 3. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. RR. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. Two pieces of 1-in. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. The plates. brass tubing and the discharging rods. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. are made from solid. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. EE. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. from about 1/4-in. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. 4. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. The plates are trued up. and this should be done before cutting the circle. turned wood pieces. The drive wheels. long and the shank 4 in. The collectors are made. long.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. and pins inserted and soldered. The fork part is 6 in. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. The two pieces. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. after they are mounted. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. long. 1. or teeth. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. in diameter. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. in diameter. Two solid glass rods. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. 1-1/2 in. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. in diameter and 15 in. and 4 in. GG. long and the standards 3 in. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate.

one having a 2-in. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. and the work was done by themselves. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. --Contributed by C. which are bent as shown. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. Colo. Lloyd Enos. in diameter. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. ball and the other one 3/4 in. long. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. Colorado City. wide and 22 ft. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. KK. 12 ft. D. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods.are attached. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete.. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays .

using a 1-in. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. They can be used to keep pins and needles. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. bit. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. yet such a thing can be done. as at A. deep. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork.is a good one. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. and bore a hole 1/2 in. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. The key will drop from the string. string together. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. pens . How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place.

They are easily made. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. above the metal. inside the first on all. 8. 9. stamp the background promiscuously. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. 6. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. Use . the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined.. about 3/4-in. When the stamping is completed. 5. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. they make attractive little pieces to have about. two spikes. extra metal on each of the four sides. very rapid progress can be made. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. slim screw. 4. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. then the other side. above the work and striking it with the hammer. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. This is to make a clean. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. flat and round-nosed pliers. etc. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. inside the second on all. Inside this oblong. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. 7. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. sharp division between background and design. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. file. Draw one-half the design free hand. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. etc. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. The second oblong was 3/4 in. also trace the decorative design. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. or cigar ashes. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. 2. 3. using a nail filed to chisel edge. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. and the third one 1/4 in. Raise the ends. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. Having determined the size of the tray. Proceed as follows: 1. unless it would be the metal shears.and pencils. 23 gauge.. screw-driver and sheet copper of No.

7. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. and the effect will be most pleasing. third fingers. first fingers. In the first numbering. The eyes. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. 10. 8. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. 6. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. and fourth fingers. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. second fingers. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. 9. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot.

below the thumbs are four units on each hand. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. which tens are added. . or 80. etc. thumbs.. 2 times 2 equals 4. renumber your fingers. At a glance you see four tens or 40. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144.. or 60. 12. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. Still. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. or numbers above 10. or the product of 8 times 9. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. viz. as high as you want to go. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. or the product of 6 times 6. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. Let us multiply 12 by 12. In the second numbering. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. etc. etc. At a glance you see seven tens or 70.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. there are no fingers above. 600. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. which would be 16. and the six lower fingers as six tens. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. above 20 times 20. Put your thumbs together. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. which would be 70. first fingers. if we wish. Two times one are two. 25 times 25.. but being simple it saves time and trouble. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. the product of 12 times 12. above 15 times 15 it is 200. 400. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. 11.

Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. thirties. at the will of the observer. forties. when he removes his spectacles. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. 75 and 85. in the case of a nearsighted person. For example. the lump sum to add. The inversion and reversion did not take place. adding 400 instead of 100. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. first fingers 22. 2. . 8. the revolution seems to reverse. the inversion takes place against his will. Proceed as in the second lumbering.. 3. any two figures between 45 and 55. as one might suppose. and so on. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. 21. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. whether the one described in second or third numbering. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. which is the half-way point between the two fives. It takes place also. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. For figures ending in 6. the value which the upper fingers have. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. or from above or from below. And the lump sum to add. beginning the thumbs with 16. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. further. twenties. thumbs. and. etc. lastly. not rotation. or what. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. about a vertical axis. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. being 80). with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. however. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. the value of the upper fingers being 20. first finger 17. 7. Take For example 18 times 18. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering.

the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. Looking at it in semidarkness. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. tee. as . and putting a cork on the point.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. when he knows which direction is right. sometimes the point towards him. the other appearance asserts itself. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. A flat slide valve was used. The ports were not easy to make. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances.

How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. about 2 in. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. saw off a section of a broom handle. inexpensive. secure a piece of No. Beating copper tends to harden it and. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. -Contributed by W. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. Next take a block of wood. as in a vise. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. If nothing better is at hand. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. The eccentric is constructed of washers. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. pipe. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. such as is shown in the illustration. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. pipe 10 in. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. bottom side up. . in diameter. The steam chest is round. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. Ill. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. deep. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. Kutscher. across and 1/2 in. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim.. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. While this engine does not give much power. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. across the head. The tools are simple and can be made easily. and make in one end a hollow. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. if continued too long without proper treatment. apart. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. H. Fasten the block solidly.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. Springfield. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. it is easily built.

cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. Vinegar. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. especially when the object is near to the observer. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border.will cause the metal to break. as it softens the metal. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. S. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. --Contributed by W. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. Hay. To produce color effects on copper. C. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. Camden. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. To overcome this hardness. This process is called annealing. O. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. the other to the left. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. and.

diameter. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. . disappears fully. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. But they seem black. would serve the same purpose. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. The further apart the pictures are. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil.stereoscope. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. with the stereograph. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. while both eyes together see a white background. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. It is just as though they were not there. as for instance red and green. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. they must be a very trifle apart. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. the left eye sees through a blue screen. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. it. however. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. The red portions of the picture are not seen. because of the rays coming from them. So with the stereograph. because. In order to make them appear before the card. from the stereograph. that for the right. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. in the proper choice of colors. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. and lies to the right on the picture. although they pass through the screen. the further from the card will the composite image appear. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. not two mounted side by side. the one for the left eye being blue. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. orange. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. only the orange rays may pass through. and without any picture. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture.

long and a hole drilled in each end.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. or the middle of the bottle. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. in diameter. This should only be bored about half way through the block. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. etc. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. 12 gauge wire. A No. Cal. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. thick. Place a NO.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. 1/4 in. San Francisco. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. in the shape of a crank. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. wireless. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. wide and 1 in. The weight of the air in round . Two types of make-and-break connection are used.

or. high.. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. long. wide and 40 in. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. inside diameter and 2 in. the instrument. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. or a column of mercury (density 13. . square. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. pine 3 in. high. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. square. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. a glass tube 1/8 in. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. long. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. 34 ft. and a slow fall. But if a standard barometer is not available. Only redistilled mercury should be used. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. if you choose. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. Before fastening the scale. In general. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. high. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. but before attempting to put in the mercury. The 4 in. a bottle 1 in. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. if accurately constructed. 30 in. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel.6) 1 in. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. thick. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. will calibrate itself. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. the contrary.numbers is 15 lb. long. internal diameter and about 34 in. wide and 4 in. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in.

5. Procure a metal can cover. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. 2. Mark out seven 1-in.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. a cover from a baking powder can will do. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. and place them as shown in Fig. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. Number the pieces 1. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. 6 and 7. 1. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. wide and 10 in. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. which is slipped quickly over the end. thick. the size of the outside of the bottle. 3. long.

Move ll-Jump No. in diameter. 3 over No. Cape May Point. Move 5-Jump No. 7's place. 1 into No. 5 over No. Move 13-Move No. Woolson. 1 to No.J. 2's place. 6. Move 6-Move No. shaped like Fig. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. 6 into No. Move 9-Jump No. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. 5's place. Move 15-Move No. 1. Move 7-Jump No.Position of the Men move only one at a time. 2's place. l over No. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns.-Contributed by W. 6 over No. 3 into No. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. 7 over No. Move 3-Move No. 3. 2 . as shown in Fig. Move 14-Jump No. Move 2-Jump No. To make such a tent. 3. This can be done on a checker board. 2 over No. long and 2 ft. procure unbleached tent duck. 6 to No. 7 over No. 2. Make 22 sections. 3. which is the very best material for the purpose. L. N. 5 over No. 5's place. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. 3 to the center. Move 4-Jump No. 1. 2 over No. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. using checkers for men. 7. 5. 6. Move 12-Jump No. Move 10-Move No. Move 8-Jump No. 2. 6 in. each 10 ft. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer.

long and 4 in. diameter. Punch holes in the brass in . How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. round galvanized iron. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. made in two sections. from the top. 6-in. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. Pa. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. 9 by 12 in. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. 3 in. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. Tress. about 9 in. --Contributed by G. 6. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. After transferring the design to the brass. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. in diameter. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. as in Fig.J. wide by 12 in. These are ventilators. added. high. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. 2. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. wide at the bottom. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. wide at the bottom. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. In raising the tent. long. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. As shown in the sketch. 5. fill with canvas edging. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. Use blocks. 5) stuck in the ground. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. will do. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. Fig. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised.in.. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. Nail a thin sheet of brass. 2 in. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. leaving the rest for an opening. to a smooth board of soft wood. Have the tent pole 3 in. Fig. Emsworth.

The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. The pattern is traced as before. Corr. . The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. cut out the brass on the outside lines. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. excepting the 1/4-in. bend into shape. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. Chicago. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. It will not. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. When all the holes are punched. around the outside of the pattern. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. but before punching the holes. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. When the edges are brought together by bending. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. apart. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E.the spaces around the outlined figures.

Oregon. A 6-in. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making.however.. --Contributed by H. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. better still. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. Dunham. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. Mayger. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. These pipes are . G. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. or. or center on which the frame swings. E. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. partially filled with cream. pipe. or less. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. A cast-iron ring. pipe is used for the hub. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. Stevens. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. between which is placed the fruit jar. If a wheel is selected. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. --Contributed by Geo. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. Badger. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. allowing 2 ft. Que.

The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. Four braces made from 1/2-in. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. An extra wheel 18 in. pipe clamps. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. bent to the desired circle. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. pipe. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel.

2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. and dropped on the table. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. while doing this. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. which was placed in an upright position. The performer. as shown in Fig. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. 1. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. 3. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. and the guide withdrawn. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others.

The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. The box can be made of selected oak or . Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. Colo. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. -Contributed by C. Denver. St. Louis.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. first. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. in a half circle. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. Mo. in diameter on another piece of tin. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. and second. F. it requires no expensive condensing lens. 1. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. Harkins. --Contributed by H. 2. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. D. White.

from each end. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. The door covering this hole in the back. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. 2. 1. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. as shown in Fig. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. This will be 3/4 in. wide by 5 in. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. long. wide and 5 in. and 2 in. fit into the runners. wide.mahogany. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. long. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. 3-1/2 in. represented by the dotted line in Fig. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. Two or three holes about 1 in. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. AA. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. but not tight. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. high and must . and tacked to the inside surface of the door. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. An open space 4 in. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. from each end of the outside of the box. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. wide and 6-1/2 in. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. If a camera lens is used. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. focal length. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. 5-1/2 in. high and 11 in. and. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. long and should be placed vertically. wide and 6-1/2 in.

The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. Bradley. and extending the whole height of the lantern. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger." etc. then the second knuckle will be March. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. West Toledo. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. provided it is airtight. and so on. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. April. Ohio. June and November. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. C. calling this February. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. --Contributed by Chas. This process is rather a difficult one. the article may be propped up . as it requires an airtight case. calling that knuckle January.. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. 1.

which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. . 1 and 2. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. and the lead 24 sq. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. Y. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. in. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. taking care to have all the edges closed. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. Crawford. Pour in a little turpentine. N. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. 2. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. 1. giving it an occasional stir. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. The top of a table will do. running small motors and lighting small lamps. in. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. or suspended by a string. In both Fig. --Contributed by J. and set aside for half a day. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. H. but waxed. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. one of lead and one of aluminum. In each place two electrodes. the lid or cover closed. Schenectady. fruit jars are required. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown.with small sticks.

Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. Cleveland. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. you remove the glass. as you have held it all the time. After a few seconds' time. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. which you warm with your hands. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. he throws the other. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. He. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. O. This trick is very simple. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. at the time of request for handkerchiefs.. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. as well as others. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . You have an understanding with some one in the company. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture.

Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. Colo. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. Be sure that this is the right one. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. put it under the glass. but by being careful at shores.-Contributed by E. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. Crocker. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. but in making one. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. J. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. Pull the ends quickly. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. on a table. near a partition or curtain. if any snags are encountered. Victor.take the handiest one. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. . it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. in diameter in the center. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use.

wide and 12 ft.. 3 and 4.. Fig. 2 gunwales. wide and 12 ft. from the bow and the large one. 2 in. by 15 ft. 1 in. and. as illustrated in the engraving. 2 and braced with an iron band. from each end to 1 in. selected pine. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. by 10 ft. wide 12-oz. drilled and fastened with screws. 1 in. 1 in. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. The keelson. long. wide. long. apart. 1/4 in. at the ends. and fastened with screws. for the bow. Both ends are mortised. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. one 6 in. square by 16 ft. are as follows: 1 keelson. 50 ft. and the other 12 in. from the stern. 7 ft. 1 piece. 1 mast. by 2 in. 1/8 in. 14 rib bands. 9 ft. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. 8 in. 8 yd. wide unbleached muslin. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. by 16 ft. of rope. 1 piece. for the stern piece. for center deck braces. ducking. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. by 12 in. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. is 14 ft. by 8 in. Paint. 1. by 16 ft. clear pine. of 1-1/2-yd. screws and cleats. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . thick and 3/4 in. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. for cockpit frame. of 1-yd. 1 in. long. 3 in. 11 yd. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. long. and is removed after the ribs are in place. by 2 in. 3 in. the smaller is placed 3 ft. 4 outwales.

long is well soaked in water. a piece 1/4 in. thick. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. 6 in. long. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. Figs. 1 in. from the bow. 6 and 7. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. thick 1-1/2 in. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. Braces. .Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. This block. doubled. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. long. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. The deck is not so hard to do. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. The trimming is wood. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. These are put in 6 in. 3-1/2 ft. screws. long. A piece of oak. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. and fastened to them with bolts. 6. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. 1/4 in. wide and 3 ft. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. length of canvas is cut in the center. is a cube having sides 6 in. 1 in. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. thick and 12 in. 5. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. They are 1 in. wide. in diameter through the block. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. Fig. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. Fig. 7 and 8. apart. A seam should be made along the center piece. A 6-in. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. A block of pine. thick and 1/2 in. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. wide. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. gunwales and keelson. The block is fastened to the keelson. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. wide and 24 in. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. 9. thick. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. wide and 14 in. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. also. 4 in. is cut to fit under the top boards. corner braces. Before making the deck. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. The 11-yd. wood screws.

The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. Ill. The sail is a triangle. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. wide. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. at the other. long. is 6 in. long. . in diameter and 10 ft. The mast has two side and one front stay. thick by 2 in. Wilmette. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. 10 with a movable handle. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. The house will accommodate 20 families. Fig. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. Tronnes. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. wide at one end and 12 in. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. 11. --Contributed by O. E. apart in the muslin. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. each 1 in. are used for the boom and gaff. A strip 1 in. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. 12. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. The keel.

Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. five 1/2-in. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. long and five 1/2-in. Wilmette. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. Ill. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. flat on one side. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. wide and 2 ft. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. Tronnes. long. thick. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. about 5/16 in. 3. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. one 11-1/2 in. 2-1/2 in. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. long. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. Take this and fold it over . square. Cut the maple. with the ends and the other side rounding. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. 5. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. and the other 18 in. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. as shown in Fig. thick. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. long. 2-1/2 in. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. thick. wide. wide and 30 in. --Contributed by O. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. wide. 2. 2 in. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. flat-headed screws. and 3 ft. Fig.into two 14-in. E. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. Bevel both sides of the pieces. 1 yd. 4. flat headed screws. 1.

and glue to this board two smaller pieces.once. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. the top and bottom. long. wide and 6-1/2 in. 1. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. Another piece. long. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. long. thick and 3 in. 3 in. wide and 3 ft. 3-1/4 in. and take care that the pieces are all square. of each end unwound for connections. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. The sides are 3-1/4 in. About 1/2 in. F. The bag is then turned inside out. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. C. and make a turn in each end of the wires. wide and 4-1/2 in. C. Mo. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. soaked with water and blown up. thick. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. wide . The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. this square box is well sandpapered. and the four outside edges. Wind three layers of about No. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. After the glue. leaving a small opening at one corner. Make a double stitch all around the edge. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. are rounded. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. Bliss. 2 and 3. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. E. When the glue is set. The front. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. pieces 2-5/8 in. as well as the edges around the opening. 1-1/4 in. long. square. D. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. long. B. Fig. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. the mechanical parts can be put together. wide and 5 in. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. --Contributed by W. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. is set. long. 5 from 1/16-in. A. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. forming an eye for a screw. St. long. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. 6-1/2 in. Glue a three cornered piece. then centered. but can be governed by circumstances. wide and 2-3/4 in. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. thick. Cut another piece of board. A. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. If carefully and neatly made. about 3/8 in. wide and 6-3/4 in. 3/8 in. Figs. square. Louis. long. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels.

from one end. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. that has the end turned with a shoulder. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. 5-1/2 in. Like poles repel each other. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. W. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. Another strip of tin. G. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. the same size as the first. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. and fasten in place. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in.A. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. The end of the polar axis B. hole is fastened to the pointer. Austwick Hall. thick. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. the part carrying the pointer moves away. Richmond Hill. The resistance is now adjusted to show . Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut.and 2-5/8 in. in diameter. from the spindle. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place.R. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. C. 1/4 in. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. board. 5. --Contributed by George Heimroth. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. wide and 9 in. so it will just clear the tin. long. long. Fig. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. bored in the back. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. Chapman. R. These wires should be about 1 in. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. long. When the current flows through the coil. A pointer 12 in. 4. and as the part Fig. Yorkshire. Fig.S. wide and 2-1/2 in. 4. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. I. L. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. and the farther apart they will be forced. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. F. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. showing a greater defection of the pointer. The stronger the current. 4 is not movable. The base is a board 5 in. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. Place the tin. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. 1/16 in. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured.

and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. A. and vice . If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. shows mean siderial. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. 1881. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. 10 min. M. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. thus: 9 hr. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. 10 min. The following formula will show how this may be found. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. 30 min. say Venus at the date of observation. at 9 hr. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index.

Conn. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. and then verify its correctness by measurement. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. . Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. owing to the low internal resistance.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. Hall. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. --Contributed by Robert W. New Haven.m.f. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. or. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. if one of these cannot be had. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell.

Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. 1-3/4 in. especially for cooking fish. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. Wet paper will answer. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. as shown in the accompanying picture. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. arsenic to every 20 lb. inside diameter and about 5 in. When the follower is screwed down. cover up with the same. of alum and 4 oz. leaves or bark. Fig.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. 1. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. fresh grass. thick. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. 3/8 in. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. long. and heap the glowing coals on top. put the fish among the ashes. Then. The boring bar. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting.

a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. pipe. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. when they were turned in. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. about 1/2 in. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . fastened with a pin. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. thick. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. pipe. and threaded on both ends.

Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. If the valve keeps dripping. Iowa. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. as the one illustrated herewith. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. long. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. however. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. a jump spark would be much better. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. bent in the shape of a U. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing.valve stems. 5. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. the float is too high. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. It . then it should be ground to a fit. labor and time. thick and 3 in. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. 4. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. This plate also supports the rocker arms. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. Fig. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. A 1-in. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. 3. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. 2. was then finished on an emery wheel. Clermont. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. wide. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. The rough frame. Fig. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. square iron. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. but never one which required so little material. and which gave such satisfactory results. Fig. 30 in.

--Contributed by C. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. square and 5 ft. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. The illustration largely explains itself. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. As there is no bracing. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. long. strong clear material only should be employed. completes the merry-go-round. long. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. square and 2 ft. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. being held in position by spikes as shown. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. Nieman. and a little junk." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. square. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. rope is not too heavy. long. from all over the neighborhood. long is the pivot. set 3 ft. This makes an easy adjustment. in the ground with 8 ft. hole bored in the post. timber. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. from the center. strengthened by a piece 4 in. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. for the "motive power" to grasp. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . so it must be strong enough. Use a heavy washer at the head. 3/4 in. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. in diameter and 15 in. A 3/4 -in. extending above. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. If it is to be used for adults. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. butting against short stakes. no matter what your age or size may be. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. in fact. and. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. The crosspiece is 2 in. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. with no trees or buildings in the way. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail." little and big. The seats are regular swing boards. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. W. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. 12 ft. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. A malleable iron bolt. It looks like a toy.

all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. as shown in Fig. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. then it is securely fastened. Both have large reels full of . long. These ends are placed about 14 in. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. and sent to earth. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. away.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. A reel is next made. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. square. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. one for the backbone and one for the bow. if nothing better is at hand. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. 1. and 18 in. light and strong. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down.the fingers. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. 4. The backbone is flat. 2.2 emery. The bow is now bent. a wreck. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. 1/4 by 3/32 in. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. To wind the string upon the reel. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. Having placed the backbone in position.

The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. Brooklyn. Newburyport. N. common packing thread. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. First. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. often several hundred yards of it. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. or glass-covered string.string. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. The handle end is held down with a staple. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. Moody. Bunker. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. Mass. If the second kite is close enough. C. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. the balance. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. --Contributed' by Harry S. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites.-Contributed by S. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. Y. he pays out a large amount of string.

Cut four pieces of canton flannel. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. make the pad as shown in the illustration. Vt. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. length of 2-in. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. Corinth. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. Hastings. such as mill men use. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . cutting the circular piece into quarters. lengths (Fig. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. must be attached to a 3-ft. square (Fig. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. then draw the string up tight. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. each the size of half the table top. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. If the table is round. --Contributed by Earl R. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. then a dust protector.

non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work.. Wharton. from C to D. from E to F. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. 6-1/4 in. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. Moisten the . 17-1/2 in. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. 2-1/4 in. trace the design carefully on the leather. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather.. 16-1/4 in. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. which spoils the leather effect. G to H. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. Oakland. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather.. E. hard pencil.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. Use a smooth. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. .-Contributed by H. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. and E to G.9-1/4 in. Calif. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions.

Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. I made this motor . and lace through the holes. Trace the openings for the handles. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. and corresponding lines on the other side. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. Cut it the same size as the bag. H-B. also lines A-G. Now cut narrow thongs. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. with the rounded sides of the tools. get something with which to make a lining. apart. and E-G. if not more than 1 in. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. wide. To complete the bag. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. about 1/8 in.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. is taken off at a time. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. place both together and with a leather punch. G-J. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool.

Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. 24 gauge magnet wire. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. --Contributed by J. Pasadena. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. as shown in Fig.M. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. iron. long. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. Calif. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. 1. each being a half circle. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. 2-1/4 in. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. of No. .Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. Shannon. 1. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. D. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. B. 2. in length. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base.

1. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. are the best kind to make. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. and the gores cut from these. balloon should be about 8 ft. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. near the center. from the bottom end. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. pasted in alternately. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. The gores for a 6-ft. high. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass.

Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. leaving a long wake behind. The steam. 3. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. If the gores have been put together right. After washing. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. --Contributed by R. Fig. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. somewhat larger in size. so it will hang as shown in Fig. 1. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. lap on the edges. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. 2. In removing grease from wood. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. 5. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. The boat soon attains considerable speed. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. coming through the small pipe A. in diameter. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. In starting the balloon on its flight. These are to hold the wick ball. As the boat is driven forward by this force. as shown in Fig. E. as shown in Fig. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. leaving the solution on over night. saturating it thoroughly. using about 1/2-in. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. after which the paint will adhere permanently. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. A. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig.widest point. 4. Staunton. B.

The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. if you have several copies of the photograph. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. long and each provided with a handle. Third. as is shown in Fig. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. Second. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. wide by 6 in. There are three ways of doing this: First. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. The blocks are about 6 in. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. apart on these lines. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. in bowling form. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. 1. high and 8 in. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. In using either of the two methods described. long.

1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. Rinse the plate in cold water. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. Albany. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. being careful not to dent the metal. Hellwig. Fig. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. --Contributed by John A. 2. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution.Fig. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. not pointed down at the road at an angle. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. N. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. Y. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. thick. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead.

any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. S. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. A circular piece of wood. wide and 8 in. are screwed to the circular piece. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. 6 in. CC. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. with a set screw. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. is fastened to a common camera tripod. and Fig. With this device. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. --Contributed by R. These corner irons are also screwed to. through which passes the set screw S. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . and. 2 the front view. Paine. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. Va. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. In Fig. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. which is 4 in. wide and of any desired height. 5 in. Break off the frame. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. Corner irons. and not produce the right sound. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. Richmond. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. A. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. thick. B. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. 1 Fig. long for the base.upon any particular object. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. A. in diameter.

pine boards. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. S. thus producing sound waves. -1. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. in diameter of some 1-in. Ill. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. This will make a very compact electric horn. This horn. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. Lake Preston. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. . Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. as only the can is visible. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. Kidder. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. D. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. R. I made a wheel 26 in. Mount the bell vibrator on the base.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. La Salle. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on.

--Contributed by C. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. the same thickness as the coins. Fig. Feet may be added to the base if desired. 1. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. If the collection consists of only a few coins. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. O. Purdy. --Contributed by James R. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. A. Kane. square. Ghent. The frame is made of a heavy card. 2. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. B. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. thick and 12 in. 1. If there is a large collection of coins. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. Doylestown. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them.

A lead pencil. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. and then glued together as indicated. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper.E. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. The material required is a sheet of No. A rivet punch is desirable. into which to place the screws . a hammer or mallet. Canada. plus a 3/8-in. Toronto. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. they become uninteresting. If desired. --Contributed by J. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. for after the slides have been shown a few times. border all around. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. thick. melted and applied with a brush. One Cloud. Wis. Cal. several large nails. cut and grooved. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. Noble. Smith.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. It will hold 4 oz. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. Neyer. --Contributed by R. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. of developer. Milwaukee. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry.J. --Contributed by August T. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. though not absolutely necessary. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur.

at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. like the one shown. and file it to a chisel edge. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . Remove the screws. There are several ways of working up the design. screws placed about 1 in. never upon the metal directly. Take the nail. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. Punch rivet holes in holder and band.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. both outline and decoration. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. using 1/2-in. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. draw one part. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal.

This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. in the other. 2. being ball bearing. long. long. each 1 in. square. square and 181/2 in. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. up from the lower end. .wall. 3/4 in. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. and two lengths. square and 11 in. 1. l-1/8 in. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. as shown in Fig. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. 3. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. for the top. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. for the lower rails. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. The pedal. of 11-in. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. long. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. About 1/2 yd. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. Do not bend it over or flatten it. Rivet the band to the holder. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. using a 1/2in. two lengths. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. Provide four lengths for the legs. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces.

Ala. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. --Contributed by W. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. F. having quite a length of threads. New York City. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. Attalla. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. --Contributed by John Shahan. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. Quackenbush. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way.

in depth. and 3/8 in. and two holes in the other. Ironwood. long. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. making a lap of about 1 in. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. stitched on both edges for appearance. Assemble as shown in the sketch. from the end. and the other 2-3/4 in. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. Two pieces of felt. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. using class. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. college or lodge colors. long. long. initial. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. The desired emblem. from one end.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. Mich. --Contributed by C. each 1-1/4 in. Purchase a 1/2-in. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. D. one about 1 in. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. wide and 4-1/4 in. something that is carbonated.. wide and 8-1/4 in. the end of the other piece is folded over. Luther.

The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. which can be procured from a plumber. if desired by the operator. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. and the cork will be driven out. Ind. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . 2. or a pasteboard box. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. A piece of lead.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. Fig. Punch two holes A. in the cover and the bottom. as shown in the sketch. This method allows a wide range of designs. --Contributed by John H. in diameter and 2 in. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. or more in height. Indianapolis. from the center and opposite each other. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. about 2 in. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. Schatz. as shown at B. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. 1/4 in. 1.

are turned up as in Fig. 1. Fig. metal. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. it winds up the rubber band. 5. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. O. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. 3. putting in the design. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. When the can is rolled away from you. as shown in Fig. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing.Rolling Can Toy lead. or marble will serve. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. allowing the two ends to be free. The pieces of tin between the holes A. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. on both top and bottom. . and the ends of the bands looped over them. Columbus. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. A piece of thick glass. 4.

one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. deep in its face. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. hole through it. Next place the leather on the glass. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. or more thick on each side. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. thicker than the pinion.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. long and bored a 1/2-in. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . face up. mark over the design. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. thick. and. New York City. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. I secured a board 3/4 in. wide and 20 in. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. If it is desired to "line" the inside. After this has been done. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. The edges should be about 1/8 in. 3 in. A pencil may be used the first time over. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. from each end. 1 in. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done.

Make the lower frame first. Syracuse. N. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. Y. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. pieces for the vise slides. 1 by 12 by 77 in. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. 1 back board. M. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. --Contributed by A. Rice. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard.in the board into the bench top. 2 side rails. New York. 1 piece. 4 guides. thick top board. countersinking the heads of the vise end. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. 1 top board. Cut the 2-in. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. and fit it in place for the side vise. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. Now fit up the two clamps. Fig. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. 2 end rails. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. 3 by 3 by 20 in. 2. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. 1 piece for clamp. 1. 2 by 12 by 77 in. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. 2 crosspieces. 3 by 3 by 6 in. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. lag screws as shown. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. in diameter. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. Brooklyn. 2 by 2 by 18 in. much of the hard labor will be saved. 1 piece for clamp. 3 by 3 by 36. 1 screw block. 1 top board. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. 1 by 9 by 80 in. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time.

The bench is now complete. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. 1 marking gauge. 1 compass saw.. They can be purchased at a hardware store.. 1 cross cut saw. 1 countersink. Only the long run. 1 pair dividers. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. 1 2-ft. 1 bench plane or jointer. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. it can be easily found when wanted. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. 1 pair pliers. rule. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. 1 brace and set of bits. 1 rip saw. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used.. If each tool is kept in a certain place. . The amateur workman. 1 jack plane or smoother. 1 set chisels. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. in diameter. 3 and 6 in. 24 in. as well as the pattern maker. 2 screwdrivers. 1 wood scraper. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. 1 set gimlets. 1 nail set. 1 monkey wrench. 1 pocket level. 1 claw hammer. 24 in. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view.screws.

No. Fig. Fig. 3. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. The calf skin. will be easier to work. Kane.1 6-in. after constant use. becomes like A. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. 1. Pa. will sink into the handle as shown at D. 1 oilstone. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. ---Contributed by James M. but will not make .1. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. being softer. the projecting point A. 2. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. Fig. 2 and 00 sandpaper. Fig. 1. try square. Doylestown.

which steam.as rigid a case as the cow skin. First draw the design on paper. Turn the leather. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. New York City. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. the same method of treatment is used. Two pieces will be required of this size. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. . Having prepared the two sides. The form can be made of a stick of wood. when dry. If cow hide is preferred. then prepare the leather. and the length 6-5/8 in. lay the design on the face. cover it completely with water enamel and. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. If calf skin is to be used. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. -Contributed by Julia A. will do just as well. but a V-shaped nut pick. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. such as copper or brass. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. White. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. After the outlines are traced. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. secure a piece of modeling calf. water or heat will not affect. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together.

and an adjustable friction-held loop. --Contributed by Chas. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. Maine. New York City. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. --Contributed by W. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. --Contributed by Chester L. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. Portland. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. C. Cobb. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. Richmond.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. A. Herrman. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. Cal. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. as shown in the sketch. Jaquythe. .

Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner.. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. B. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. an inverted stewpan. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. Wright. Middletown. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. Mass. This was very difficult. Conn. A thick piece of tin. was marked out as shown. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. for instance. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. . The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. --Contributed by Wm. --Contributed by Geo. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. Cambridge. Roberts. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones.

often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. . face down. F. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. Herbert. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. and quite new. apply powdered calcined magnesia. so some bones were quickly calcined. The next morning there was no trace of oil. If the article is highly polished. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. but not running over.. --Contributed by C. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. --Contributed by Paul Keller. Indianapolis. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. of boiling water. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. If any traces of the grease are left. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. as shown.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. Bone. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. such as chair seats. Chicago. L. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. and the grease will disappear. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. but only an odor which soon vanished. used as part of furniture. pulverized and applied. on a clear piece of glass. A beautifully bound book. well calcined and powdered. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. When dry. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. Illinois. Ind. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. There was no quicklime to be had. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. which has been tried out several times with success. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture.

Howe. long. This coaster is simple and easy to make.. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. says Scientific American. set and thumbscrews. high and are bolted to a block of wood. The pieces marked S are single. --Contributed by Geo. 6 in. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. New York. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. Tarrytown.. If properly adjusted. the pieces .Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. thick. deep and 5 in. 2 in. A. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. soft steel with the opening 6 in. wide and 12 in.

Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. says Camera Craft. no doubt. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. albums and the like. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. E. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes .Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. to the underside of which is a block. for sending to friends. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. Their size depends on the plate used. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. A sharp knife. they will look remarkably uniform. If the letters are all cut the same height. The seat is a board. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork.

In cutting out an 0.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. pasting the prints on some thin card. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. and." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. using care to get it in the right position. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. photographing them down to the desired size. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. mount them on short pieces of corks. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. So made. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. So arranged. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. after. The puzzle is to get . and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. for example. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable.

Cape May Point. with the longest end outside. Old-Time Magic . when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. snow or anything to hide it. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. so they will lie horizontal. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. long that will just fit are set in. says the American Thresherman. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. A hole 6 or 7 in. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. hung on pivots. the tube righting itself at once for another catch.J. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. G. of its top. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. N. squeezes along past the center of the tube. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand .Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. Bayley.-Contributed by I. He smells the bait.

saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. or rub the hands a little before doing so. Szerlip. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. Y. then expose again. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. --Contributed by Charles Graham. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. Idaho. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. Pocatello. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. --Contributed by L. Parker. N. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. Press the hands together. then spread the string. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. Rhode Island.faced up. --Contributed by L. E. Pawtucket. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. Brooklyn.

The pieces. 4 on the blade. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in.Genuine antique swords and armor. 1. in building up his work from the illustrations. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. using a straightedge and a pencil. narrower. or green oil paint. The blade should be about 27 in. wipe the blade . then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. in width.. 1 Fig. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. The handle is next made. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. wide and 2 in. they will look very much like the genuine article. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. whether he requires a single sword only. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. end of the blade. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. When the whole is quite dry. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. Glue the other side of the blade. or a complete suit of armor. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. 3 Fig. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. and if carefully made. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. long. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. if any. 2 Fig. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. says the English Mechanic. When the glue is thoroughly dry. thick.. dark red. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. near the point end. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. full size.

The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. take two pieces of wood. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. 1. Fig. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. about 1-1/2 in. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. in diameter. thick and 5 in. 2. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated.. Both edges of the blade are sharp. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. the other is flat or halfround. 1. 1. In making. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. square and of any length desired. not for use only in cases of tableaux. In the finished piece. 2. and 3 in. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. the length of the blade 28 in. 3. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. The pommel is a circular piece of wood.with light strokes up and down several times. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. allowing for a good hold with both hands. the other two are identical. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. This sword is about 68 in. should be about 9 in. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. preferably of contrasting colors. the other is flat or half-round. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. 1/8 in. In making this scimitar. long. the illustration. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. as it is . 3. shows only two sides. 4. follow the directions as for Fig. of course. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. The length of the handle.. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. 1. in the widest part at the lower end.

in an attempt to remove it. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. at the lower end. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. A cold . Morse. Both can be made easily. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. Syracuse. 2 in. It is made of a plank. piping and jackets by hard water. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. A piece of mild steel. and if so. Franklin. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. Mass. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. N. as there was some at hand. each about 1 ft. or an insecure fastening. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. --Contributed by John Blake. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. --Contributed by Katharine D. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. The thinness of the plank. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. and. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. Y. square. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. as shown in the sketch. about 3/8 in.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. as can the pitch bed or block. however. On each edge of the board. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. Doctors probed for the button without success. long.

a file to reduce the ends to shape. To put it in another way. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. Trim up the edges and file them .. When the desired form has been obtained. When this has been done. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. 5 lb. secure a piece of brass of about No. 18 gauge. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. plaster of Paris. using a small metal saw. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. To remedy this. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. 5 lb. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. tallow.. design down. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. on the pitch.

A. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. in one minute or 550 lb. one 18 in. per second. That is lifting 33. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. Before giving the description. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. The smaller is placed within the larger. Clean the metal thoroughly. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. in one second. lb.000 ft. but not to stop it. space between the vessels with water. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. Fill the 3-in. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. 1) and the other 12 in. living together in what seems like one receptacle. 30 ft. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. make an unusual show window attraction. to keep it from floating.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. and still revolve. 1 ft. using powdered pumice with lye. . lb. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. or fraction of a horsepower.000 lb. it may be well to know what horsepower means. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. --Contributed by Harold H. 3. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. This in turn divided by 33. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. per minute. Fig. in diameter (Fig. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. 2). which divided by 1/6 gives 180. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. Cutter. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. 1 ft. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. or 550 ft. in diameter (Fig.smooth. in the center. and hang a bird swing. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. over the smaller vessel.

--Contributed. F. Campbell. Diameter Fig.3 Fig. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. Mass.18 in. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. by L. 1 Fig. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. The effect is surprising. or on a pedestal. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. --Contributed by J. Y. N. Szerlip. Somerville. Diameter 12 in.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. 2 Fig. Brooklyn.

A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. Rivet the cup to the base. Polish both of these pieces. which may be of wood or tin. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. unsatisfactory. keeping the center high. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. with the pliers. the same as removing writing from a slate. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. as a rule. which. then by drawing a straightedge over it. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. and cut out the shape with the shears.copper of No. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. after which it is ready for use. to keep the metal from tarnishing. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. using any of the common metal polishes. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. This compound is impervious to water. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. and then. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. with other defects. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. is. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. Do not be content merely to bend them over. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. away from the edge. often render it useless after a few months service. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. and the clay . This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. In riveting. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time.

The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. 1. Dunlop. The siphon is made of glass tubes. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. Mich. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. --Contributed by A. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. DeLoof.can be pressed back and leveled. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. Shettleston. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. . as shown in Fig. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. It is made of a glass tube. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. 3/4 in. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. the device will work for an indefinite time. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. Mich. A. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. 2. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. -Contributed by Thos. --Contributed by John T. long. Houghton. in diameter and 5 in. Northville. Scotland. Grand Rapids.

The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. in width and 2 in.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. long with the crossguard and blade of steel. 1. put up as ornaments. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. long. This sword is 4 ft. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic.FIG. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. stilettos and battle-axes. As the handle is to . The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade.1 FIG. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. London.

When the whole is quite dry. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. A German stiletto. 3 is shown a claymore. These must be cut from pieces of wood. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. This stiletto has a wood handle. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. 7. The handle is of wood. When the glue is thoroughly dry. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. 6. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. sometimes called cuirass breakers. sharp edges on both sides. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. one about 1/2 in. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. In Fig. 8. then glued on the blade as shown. 5. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. The sword shown in Fig. which is about 2-1/2 ft. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. In Fig. This sword is about 4 ft. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. in length. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. Both handle and axe are of steel. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. When dry. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. The lower half of the handle is of wood. This axe is made similar to the one . The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. 4. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. with both edges of the blade sharp. string. 20 spike. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. the same as used on the end of the handle. glue and put it in place. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. in length. 9. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. 11 were used. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. This weapon is about 1 ft. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. is shown in Fig. studded with brass or steel nails. the axe is of steel. In Fig. Three large. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. wood with a keyhole saw. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. small rope and round-headed nails. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. The crossbar and blade are steel. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. This weapon is also about 1 ft. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. The ball is made as described in Fig. with wire or string' bound handle. with both edges sharp. in width. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. very broad. paint it a dark brown or black. Cut two strips of tinfoil. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. A German poniard is shown in Fig. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. narrower. long with a dark handle of wood. long.represent copper. firmly glued on. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. the upper part iron or steel.

use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. W. This will make a very good flexible belt. such as braided fishline. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. . 10. 2. together as shown in Fig. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. Davis.described in Fig. Old-Time Magic . --Contributed by E. the ends are tied and cut off. When wrapped all the way around. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. high. will pull where other belts slip. Chicago. so the contents cannot be seen.

Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. filled with water. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. Calif. held in the right hand. causing the flowers to grow. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . The dotted lines in Fig. about one-third the way down from the top. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. Before the performance. Macdonald. four glass tumblers. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. Bridgeton. in a few seconds' time. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. As zinc is much lighter than iron. There will be no change in color.J. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. --Contributed by A. 1 and put together as in Fig. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. 2. an acid. Oakland. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. with the circle centrally located. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. N. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. S. some of the liquid. or using small wedges of wood. To make the flowers grow in an instant. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. These wires are put in the jar. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. apparently.

2 for height. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. If the size wanted is No. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. A. Cal. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. and equally worthy of individual treatment.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. Richmond. --Contributed by W. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. When many slides are to be masked. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. unless some special device is used. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. says a correspondent of Photo Era. Jaquythe. practical and costs nothing. which are numbered for convenience in working. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. not only because of the fact just mentioned. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. This outlines the desired opening. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. and kept ready for use at any time. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. 4 for width and No.

Etching copper is not a very difficult process. not the water into the acid. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. This done. possibly. 16 gauge. With a stick. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. is about right for the No. The one shown is merely suggestive. and the extreme length 7 in. the paper is folded along the center line. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. The decoration. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. or. a little less acid than water. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. about half and half. too. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. When etched to the desired depth. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. paint the design. may be changed. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. or a pair of old tongs. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. and do not inhale the fumes. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. but they can be easily revived. Draw a design. Secure a sheet of No. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. which is dangerous. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. the margin and the entire back of the metal. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. using the carbon paper.

Fig. or more wide. Fig. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. Fig. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. the bell will ring. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. and bore two holes. about 8 in. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. 5. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. long. . Fig. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. in diameter and 1/4 in. J is another wire attached in the same way. through it. repeat as many times as is necessary. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. high. Cut out a piece of tin. 2. with the wires underneath. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. as in Fig. C and D. to the table. and about 2-1/2 ft. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. 2. so that when it is pressed down. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. The connections are simple: I. Nail a board. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. A. about 3 ft. 24 parts water. as at H. as shown in the illustration. it will touch post F. thick. as shown in Fig. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. When the button S is pressed. Paint the table any color desired. It may be either nailed or screwed down. wide. 1. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. 3/8 in. long and 1 ft. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. 0 indicates the batteries. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. about 1 in. about 2-1/2 in. attached to a post at each end. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. Then get two posts. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. 4. Fig. 2. 5. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. 3. wide and of the same length as the table. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired.

but they are somewhat difficult to make. the wood peg inserted in one of them. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. says the English Mechanic. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. A wood peg about 2 in.. is to appear as steel. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. handle and all. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. thick. long. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. 2. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. The circle is marked out with a compass. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. 1. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig.Imitation Arms and Armor . Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. This weapon is about 22 in. These rings can be carved out. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. After the glue is dry. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. such as . remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. long serves as the dowel. The entire weapon. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. The imitation articles are made of wood.

it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. The axe is shown in steel. If such a tool is not at hand. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. or the amateur cannot use it well. The spikes are cut out of wood. is shown in Fig. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. flowers. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. used at the end of the fifteenth century. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. The upper half of the handle is steel. long. etc. Its length is about 3 ft. leaves. as described in Fig. 8. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. . 6. as before mentioned. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. the hammer and spike. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. All of these axes are about the same length. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. The handle is of steel imitation. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in.ornamental scrolls. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. as shown. This weapon is about 22 in. 2. 3. The lower half of the handle is wood. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. The handle is of wood. also. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. studded with large brass or steel nails. 5. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. The entire handle should be made of one piece. with a sharp carving tool. covered with red velvet. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. sharp-pointed and coneshaped.

4). 6. Fig. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. 2. 5. and so on for nine innings. Chicago. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. then the other plays. Each person plays until three outs have been made. as shown in Fig. the knife resting on its back. calls for a home run. 1. 7) calls for one out.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. 3. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. . The knife falling on its side (Fig. a three-base hit. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. as in Fig.

3. hypo to 1 pt. 1. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath.-Contributed by J. with the rope laced in the cloth. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. one of them burning . the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. as shown in Fig. Somerville. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. while the committee is tying him up. F. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. If it is spotted at all. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. It may be found that the negative is not colored. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. of water for an hour or two. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. 2. Mass. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. This he does. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. Old-Time Magic . Campbell. of the rope and holds it. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. as shown in Fig. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through.

Brown. . thick. of plumbago. invisible to them (the audience). 4 oz. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. New York City. the other without a light. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. thus causing it to light. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger.. of sugar. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. bolt. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. Thome. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. Evans. showing that there is nothing between them. of turpentine. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. Ky. --Contributed by C. etc. He then walks over to the other candle. 4 oz.Contributed by Andrew G. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. --Contributed by L. shades the light for a few seconds. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. with which he is going to light the other candle. Lebanon. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper.brightly. Louisville. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. and. B. 3/4 in. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. Drill Gauge screw. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. Ky. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. of water and 1 oz. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. The magician walks over to the burning candle. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down.

with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. --Contributed by C. thick. or blotting paper. Do not add water to the acid. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. diameter. steady current. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. for the material. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. into a tube of several thicknesses. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. which will give a strong. Pulteney. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. long. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. To make the porous cell. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. Denniston. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. H. N. Y. about 5 in. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . Its current strength is about one volt. 5 in. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. In making up the solution. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. but is not so good. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in.

The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. Finally. As to thickness. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument.) may be obtained. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. a positive adjustment was provided. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. One hole was bored as well as possible. while the other end is attached by two screws. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. steel. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. steel. carrying the hour circle at one end. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. The . To insure this. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. steel. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. but somewhat lighter. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. the other holding them apart. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. long with a bearing at each end.station. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. After much experimentation with bearings. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. one drawing them together. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame.

The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. To locate a known star on the map. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. If the result is more than 24 hours. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. It is. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. Point it approximately to the north star. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. subtract 24. Instead. The aperture should be 1/4 in. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously.. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. need not be changed. Cassiopiae. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. When properly set it will describe a great circle. in each direction from two points 180 deg. The pole is 1 deg. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. and if it is not again directed to the same point. Declination is read directly. are tightened. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. To find a star in the heavens. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. save the one in the pipe. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. excepting those on the declination axis." Only a rough setting is necessary. and 15 min. The pointer is directed to Alpha. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. 45 min. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method.. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. Each shaft. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. All these adjustments. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. turn the pointer to the star. apart." When this is done. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. Set the declination circle to its reading. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. is provided with this adjustment. once carefully made. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. All set screws. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar.

is folded several times. taking care not to add too much. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. Strosnider. the others . Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. New Orleans. of ether. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. La. 3 or 4 in. long. a great effect will be produced. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. cannon balls. In reality the first ball. Plain City. benzole. If this will be too transparent. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. is the real cannon ball. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. Ohio. then add 1 2-3 dr. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. of gum sandarac and 4 gr.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. -Contributed by Ray E. as shown in the sketch. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. The dance will begin. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. add a little more benzole. The ball is found to be the genuine article. which is the one examined.. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb.

Campbell. etc. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. Cal. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. without taking up any great amount of space. San Francisco. Mass. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. Return the card to the pack. --Contributed by J. small brooches. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. Wis. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. Milwaukee. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. In boxes having a sliding cover. 1). and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. F. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. Somerville. taps. Fig. as shown in the illustration.. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. 2.

round pieces 2-1/4 in. This box has done good service. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. Connecticut. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. as shown in the illustration. prints. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. Beller.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. Hartford. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. from the bottom of the box. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. thus giving ample store room for colors. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. slides and extra brushes. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. . Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time.

with well packed horse manure. When the ends are turned under. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. West Lynn. about threefourths full. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. will answer the purpose. . Fill the upper tub. holes in the bottom of one. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. 1). Mass. and pour water on it until it is well soaked.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. 2). When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. or placed against a wall. O.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. FIG. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. tacking the gauze well at the corners. Darke. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. costing 5 cents. -Contributed by C. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet.

they should be knocked out. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. cutting the cane between the holes. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. if this is not available. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. --Contributed by L. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. If the following directions are carried out. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. oil or other fluid. Eifel. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. If plugs are found in any of the holes. Chicago. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. M. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. when they are raised from the pan. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. and each bundle contains .

In addition to the cane. No plugs . Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. it should be held by a plug. after having been pulled tight. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. then across and down. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. and. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. as shown in Fig. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. put about 3 or 4 in. a square pointed wedge. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. as it must be removed again. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. 1. held there by inserting another plug. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side.

4. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. is the base (5 in. 41 °-30'. using the same holes as for the first layer.5 in. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. W.075 in. 41°-30'. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. as shown in Fig. and for lat. for 2°. From table No. Their difference is . They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. 5. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. stretch the third one. Michigan.2 in. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. Fig. in this case) times the . After finishing this fourth layer of strands. 5 in.075 in. Even with this lubrication. and for 1° it would be . The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. 3. and the one we shall describe in this article. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. 3. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. When cool.2+. as it always equals the latitude of the place. 40°. 1 lat. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. Detroit. as shown in Fig. lat. No weaving has been done up to this time. -Contributed by E. 1. All added to the lesser or 40°. Patrick. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. It consists of a flat circular table. The style or gnomon. 1. R. There are several different designs of sundials. the next smallest. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. called the gnomon. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. we have 4. 42° is 4. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. This will make three layers. Fig. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig.15+. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. the height of which is taken from table No. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. During the weaving. the height of the line BC. 1. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. as the height of the line BC for lat. but the most common. it is 4. After completing the second layer. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. is the horizontal dial. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place.15 in. as for example. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or .= 4. D. trim off the surplus rosin. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. --Contributed by M.42 in. If handled with a little care. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. or the style.3 in. If you have a table of natural functions.

The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight.77 2.57 1.82 3.10 6.66 1.50 26° 2.40 34° 3.19 1.56 .49 3.16 40 .97 5 7 4.55 46° 5.20 60° 8.tangent of the degree of latitude.02 1. and for this size dial (10 in.27 2. base. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 .68 5-30 6-30 5.59 2.44 44° 4. which will represent the base in length and thickness.89 50° 5. and perpendicular to the base or style. or more.12 52° 6. A line EF drawn through the points A and C.88 36° 3.33 42° 4.96 32° 3. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed.64 4 8 3.42 1. Draw two semi-circles.40 1. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No.00 40° 4. draw two parallel lines AB and CD.81 4.07 4.29 4-30 7-30 3.99 2. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks.37 54° 6. 2.76 1.06 2.42 .66 48° 5.85 35 . For latitudes not given. 1.55 4. 2 for given latitudes.55 30° 2. To layout the hour circle.79 4.93 6. long.41 38° 3.39 . using the points A and C as centers.28 . circle Sundial. gives the 6 o'clock points.46 3. Chords in inches for a 10 in.37 5. Draw the line AD.82 2.42 45 . or if of stone. an inch or two.38 .66 latitude.93 2. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown. 2.57 3. Fig. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial.30 2.32 6.49 30 . in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in. Height of stile in inches for a 5in.18 28° 2.26 4.63 56° 7.83 27° 2.11 3.94 1. according to the size of the dial. and intersecting the semicircles.85 1.23 6.46 .87 4.16 1. Table NO. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points.33 . if of metal.82 5. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2.30 1. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No.91 58° 8.03 3. Its thickness.55 5. . with a radius of 5 in.14 5. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in.87 1.

reducing the answer to minutes and seconds. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen. 3. and on these dates the dial needs no correction. it will be faster.08 1.49 3. This correction can be added to the values in table No. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality.12 5.53 1. and the .72 5. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid.46 4. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 25.21 2. 3 Corrections in minutes to change. and for the difference between standard and local time. Sept.57 1. An ordinary compass. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached.06 2. 3. Sioux City. --Contributed by J.68 3. June 15. 900 Chicago.71 2. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3.63 1. each article can be labelled with the name. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. adding to each piece interest and value.01 1. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No. Each weapon is cut from wood. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face. Mitchell. Iowa.30 2.93 6. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole.46 5.79 6.from Sundial lime.82 3.50 .89 3.49 5.means that the dial is faster than the sun.add those marked + subtract those Marked . or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time. E.54 60 .14 1. says the English Mechanic. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco. then the watch is slower. after allowing for the declination. As they are the genuine reproductions. Sun time to local mean time. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker.37 2. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time.87 6. London. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York.98 4. will enable one to set the dial. 2 and Dec.50 55 .60 4.10 4.34 5.. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the . Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year. April 16.19 2. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon.24 5. if west.52 Table No.77 3. The + means that the clock is faster. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15.

The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. the length of which is about 5 ft. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. Partisan. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth.. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. When putting on the tinfoil. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. 3. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. 1. . Glaive and Voulge brass nails. long from the point where it is attached to the handle.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil.

This weapon is about 6 ft. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. A gisarm or glaive. The length of this bar is about 5 in. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. which are a part of the axe. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. 7.which is square. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. It is about 6 ft. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. . The extreme length is 9 ft. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. press it well into the carved depressions. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. the holes being about 1/4 in. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. sharp on the outer edges. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. The spear is steel. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in.. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. 8. The edges are sharp. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. used about the seventeenth century. 6 ft. long with a round wooden handle. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. 5. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. about 4 in. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. long. is shown in Fig. long with a round staff or handle. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. in diameter. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. long.

B. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. 2 and 3. used for spacing and binding the whole together. as shown in Fig. The twisted cross cords should . 5. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. Loudonville. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. are put in place. Ohio. Cut all the cords the same length. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. Substances such as straw. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. H. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. 1. the most durable being bamboo. the cross cords.-Contributed by R. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. are less durable and will quickly show wear. or in holes punched in a leather strap. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. This is important to secure neatness. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. Workman. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. In Figs. apart. 4. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. They can be made of various materials.

The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. Four V-shaped notches were cut. as shown at B. of the bottom. for a length extending from a point 2 in. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. shaped as shown at C. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. bamboo or rolled paper. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. below the top to within 1/4 in. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. To remedy this. New Orleans. wide. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle.be of such material. in which was placed a piece of glass. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. 3 in. A slit was cut in the bottom. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. -Contributed by Geo. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. The first design shown is for using bamboo. M. Lockport. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . La. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. Harrer. This was turned over the top of the other can. New York. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth.

--Contributed by Joseph H. wide. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. Shay. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. Schaffner. Sanford. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. and two along the side for attaching the staff. do not throw away the gloves. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. N. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. Ill. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. Maywood. Pasadena. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. about 1/16 in. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. Cal. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. --Contributed by Chas. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. It would be well to polish the brass at first. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. turned over but not fastened. H. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. After this is finished. Y. Newburgh. is shown in the accompanying sketch. This plank. --Contributed by W. the brass is loosened from the block. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. This should be done gradually. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright.tape from sticking to the carpet. giving the appearance of hammered brass.

Richmond. A. Unlike most clocks. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. in diameter. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. Ill. the pendulum swings .by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. -Contributed by W. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. Marshall. bent as shown. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. Jaquythe. Cal. K. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. --E. Oak Park.

The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. --Contributed by V. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. 5/16 in. Secure a board. high. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. 6 in. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. 7-1/2 in. about 6 in. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. Chicago. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. high. away. high and 1/4 in. says the Scientific American. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. to the first one with screws or glue. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. bar. wide. only have the opposite side up. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. Two uprights. bearing on the latter. are secured in the base bar. by 1-5/16 in. on the board B. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. wide that is perfectly flat. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. The construction is very simple. such as this one. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. the center one being 2-3/4 in. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. Fasten another board. in diameter. about 12 in.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. long and at each side of this. is an electromagnet. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. Now place the board to be joined. thick. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. . and the other two 2-5/8 in. A. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. C. Metzech. B. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. high. 3/4 in.. In using this method.

The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. Vanderslice. . Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. 2. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. 3. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. 1. 1. long. square inside. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. The trigger. plates should be made 8 in. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. whose dimensions are given in Fig. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. or more. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. as shown at A. is fastened in the hole A.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. 1. Phoenixville. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. wide and 1 in. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. by driving a pin through the wood. --Contributed by Elmer A. Fig. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. Fig. Pa. wide and 5 in. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. square. from one end. 4.

one-half the length of the side pieces. by weight. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. Simonis. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. as shown in the illustration. rubbing varnish and turpentine. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. square. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. Ohio. 5 parts of black filler.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. Fostoria. which allows 1/4 in. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. -Contributed by J.A. if only two bands are put in the . 2 parts of whiting. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces.

is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. is set at an angle of 45 deg. as shown in Fig. G. in the opposite end of the box.lower strings. A double convex lens. place tracing paper on its surface. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. is necessary. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. London. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. 8 in. It must be kept moist and well . keeps the strong light out when sketching. says the English Mechanic. II. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. 1. --Contributed by Thos. Dartmouth. which may be either of ground or plain glass. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. and the picture can be drawn as described. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. Grand Rapids. A mirror. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. Shaw. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. -Contributed by Abner B. If a plain glass is used. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. preferably copper. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. DeLoof. Michigan. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. long. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. deep. and it may be made as a model or full sized. In use. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. wide and about 1 ft. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. In constructing helmets. Mass. A piece of metal. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. No.

and continue until the clay is completely covered. 2. shown in Fig. the clay model oiled. 1. as shown in Fig. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . take. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. The clay. and the deft use of the fingers. on which to place the clay. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses.kneaded. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. will be necessary. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. and left over night to soak. joined closely together. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. as in bas-relief. or some thin glue. This being done. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. 3. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. 1. All being ready. Scraps of thin. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. and over the crest on top. brown. a few clay-modeling tools. with a keyhole saw. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. After the clay model is finished. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich.

This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. 9. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. Before taking it off the model. the skullcap. which should be no difficult matter. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. should be modeled and made in one piece.as possible. a few lines running down. with the exception of the vizor. Indianapolis. The whole helmet. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. When the helmet is off the model. Indiana. and so on. 1. a crest on top. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. --Contributed by Paul Keller. The center of the ear guards are perforated. the piecing could not be detected. In Fig. one for each side. and the ear guards in two pieces. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. This contrivance should be made of wood. as shown: in the design. square in shape. The band is decorated with brass studs. then another coating of glue. When dry. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. will make it look neat. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. or. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. 7. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. In Fig. When perfectly dry. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. as seen in the other part of the sketch. 5. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. owing to the clay being oiled. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. They are all covered with tinfoil. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century.

The two holes. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. long. about 1/4 in. of No. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. 4 lb. the fuse block. should extend about 1/4 in. in diameter and 9 in. as shown in Fig. Fig. The mineral wool. wide and 15 in. This will make an open space between the plates. Fig. Fig. 4.same size. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. 4. each 4-1/2 in. Fig. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. about 80 ft. 1. for connections. one fuse block. If a neat appearance is desired. 4. which can be bought from a local druggist. and C. screws. are allowed to project about 1 in. and. the holes leading to the switch. about 1 lb. The holes B and C are about 3 in. is shown in Fig. 2. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . Fig. 2. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. This will allow the plate. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. AA. 1. of mineral wool. AA. until it is within 1 in. Fig. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. one small switch. Fig. if the measurements are correct. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. if this cannot be obtained. Fig. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. long. 3. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. 12 in. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. one glass tube. JJ. of the top. with slits cut for the wires. when they are placed in opposite positions. 1. of fire clay. The reverse side of the base. 1. 2. also the switch B and the fuse block C. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. 4. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. A round collar of galvanized iron. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. long. thick. Fig. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. Fig. German-silver wire is better. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. If asbestos is used. 1. The plate. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. 1 in. AA. as it stands a higher temperature. one oblong piece of wood. 1. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. as shown in Fig. thick sheet asbestos. Fig. as shown in Fig. two ordinary binding posts. above the collar. is then packed down inside the collar. 4. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. 22 gauge resistance wire. or. 3 in. and two large 3in. Fig. Fig. GG. to receive screws for holding it to the base. high. 4. 4. E and F. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. FF.

When this is done. and pressed into it. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. Richmond. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. using care not to get it too wet. H. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. more wire should be added. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. A file can be used to remove any rough places. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. It should not be set on end. will slip and come in contact with each other. above the rim. Catherines. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. While the clay is damp.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. so that the circuit will not become broken. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. Cut a 1/2-in. St. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. Next. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. II. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. Fig. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. If it is not thoroughly dry. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. it leaves a gate for the metal. steam will form when the current is applied. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. Fig. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. A. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. KK. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. allowing a space between each turn. --Contributed by W. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. The clay. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. This point marks the proper length to cut it. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. 2. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. Jaquythe. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. then. Cal. As these connections cannot be soldered. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. When the tile is in place. deep. This completes the stove. It should not be left heated in this condition. when heated. Cover over about 1 in. Can. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. when cool. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. causing a short circuit. Cnonyn. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. 4. as the turns of the wires. apart. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. --Contributed by R. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. If this is the case. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay.

bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. the air can enter from both top and bottom. Thorne. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. as shown. and the prints will dry rapidly. --Contributed by Andrew G. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. square material in any size. but 12 by 24 in. Ky. Louisville. the pie will be damaged. and the frame set near a window. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. Then clip a little off the . The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. is large enough. says the Photographic Times. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. constructed of 3/4-in." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter.

A 1/8-in. wide. each 1/2 in. thick. An offset is bent in the center. 2-1/2 in. which are fastened to the base. high. 1/2 in. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. at GG. thick and 3 in. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. as shown. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. 2. The connecting rod E. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. 1 and 3. 1. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. each 1 in. 1/2 in. high. 3. Fig. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. allowing each end to project for connections. long. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. wide and 3 in. wide and 7 in. As the shaft revolves. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. Le Mars. Iowa. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. long. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. long. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. open out. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. causing a break in the current. Fig. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. high. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. thereby saving time and washing. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. slip on two cardboard washers.Paper Funnel point. Figs. -Contributed by S. The connections are made as shown in Fig. in diameter. 1. Herron. for the crank. thick and 3 in. Fig. in diameter and about 4 in. 22 gauge magnet wire. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. 1. long. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. W. 14 in. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. Two supports. 1. The board can be raised to place . hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. 4 in. which gives the shaft a half turn. The upright B. The driving arm D. The contact F is made of a strip of copper.

the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. In designing the roost. in height. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. . Stecher. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. --Contributed by William F. 3 in. bottom side up. making a framework suitable for a roost. Dorchester. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. as shown in the sketch. on a board. Mass. One or more pots may be used. Place the pot.

Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. that it is heated. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. when combined. shelves. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. and give it time to dry. paraffin and paint or varnish. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. will produce the pattern desired. The bottom part of the sketch. F. F. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. Fig. without any corresponding benefit. if it is other than straight lines.. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. Wind the .. ordinary glue. grills and gratings for doors. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. 1. 1. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. odd corners. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. as shown in Fig. etc. The materials required are rope or. preferably.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. windows. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. adopt the method described. in diameter. The design must be considered first and when one is selected.

These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. cut and glue them together. six designs are shown. Fig. Lockport. -Contributed by Geo. 2. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. Harrer. M. N.Fig. Y. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig.

The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. London. but no farther. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig.. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. which was used in front of a horse's head. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. etc. will be retained by the cotton.. and the sides do not cover the jaws. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. chips of iron rust. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. says the English Mechanic. This piece of horse armor. etc.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. As the .. when it will be observed that any organic matter. 1. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure.

When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. This triangularshaped support. as the surface will hold the clay. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. The armor is now removed from the model. and will require less clay. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. 2. with the exception of the thumb shield. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. An arrangement is shown in Fig. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. In Fig. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. and therefore it is not described. except the thumb and fingers. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. and the clay model oiled. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. the same as in Fig. which is separate. This being done. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. the rougher the better. which can be made in any size. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. 8. but the back is not necessary. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. but for . A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. then another coat of glue. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. 2.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. This can be made in one piece. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. 4. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. as shown in the sketch. 6 and 7. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. This will make the model light and easy to move around. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. All being ready. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper.

Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. are better shown in Fig. N. wide and 1/2 in. A piece of board. 2. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. each about 1/4 in. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. fastened to the rod. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. Goshen. .convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. two in each jaw. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. --Contributed by John G. 1/2 in. When locating the place for the screw eyes. in depth. long. La Rue. --Contributed by Ralph L. Calif. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. the two pieces of foil will draw together. Y. two for the jaws and one a wedge. and the instrument is ready for use. the top of the rod. Fasten a polished brass ball to. Buxton. cut into the shape shown in Fig. If it does not hold a charge. will be about right. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. Redondo Beach. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. The two pieces of foil. 9. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. but 3-1/2 in. running down the plate. are glued to it. the foils will not move.

thus making it ornamental as well as useful. M. about 15 in. Bryan. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. as shown in the illustration. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. is made of a 1/4-in. The can may be bronzed. pine board. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. 2-1/2 in. At a point 6 in. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. When a fish is hooked. Texas. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. as this will cut under the water without splashing. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. hole bored through it. long. from the smaller end. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. A. silvered. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. enameled or otherwise decorated. --Contributed by Mrs. as indicated in the . How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. Corsicana. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can.

This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. wide by 6 in. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. punch the holes. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. will do as well as the more expensive woods. When it has dried over night. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. Any kind of wood will do. Polish the metal. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running.Match Holder accompanying sketch. such as basswood or pine was used. then with a nail. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. 22 is plenty heavy enough. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. A good size is 5 in. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. Next prepare the metal holder. put a coat or two of wax and polish . or even pine. If soft wood. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. long over all. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. as shown. using a piece of carbon paper. take a piece of thin wood. Basswood or butternut. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. Having completed the drawing. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. 3/8 or 1/4 in. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. thick. using powdered pumice and lye. and trace upon it the design and outline. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit.

A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. Richmond. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. wide and 5 in. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. is used for the base of this instrument. are used for the cores of the magnets. . tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. It is useful for photographers. each 1 in. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. 2 in. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. the whole being finished in linseed oil. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. A. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. --Contributed by W. Instead of the usual two short ropes. If one has some insight in carving. Two wire nails. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. 1/2 in. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. Jaquythe. can be made on the same standards. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. If carving is contemplated.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. of pure olive oil. long. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. thick. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. Cal. long.

The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. . passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. acts as a spring to keep the key open. About 1 in. as shown in Fig. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. 1. A rubber band. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. similar to that used in electric bells. 3. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. about No. in the shape shown in the sketch. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. All of the parts for the armor have been described. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. says the English Mechanic. leaving about 1/4 in. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. Lynas. the paper covering put on. --Contributed by W. A piece of tin. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. except that for the legs. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. London. cut in the shape of the letter T.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. at A. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. cloth or baize to represent the legs. 25 gauge. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. then covered with red. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. when the key is pushed down. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. H. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. as shown by the dotted lines.

apart. or ordinary plaster laths will do. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. holes. long. 2. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. Secure two strips of wood. can be made in a few minutes' time. 1 and drill a 1/4in. in the other end. Take the piece shown in Fig. 1 in. one to another .. Silver paper will do very well. and eight small holes.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. 3 in. for the sake of lightness. apart. completes the equipment. By moving the position of the bolt from. flat headed carriage bolt. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. hole in the center. says Camera Craft. These can be purchased at a stationery store. drill six 1/4-in. Fig. So set up. In one end of the piece. at each end. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. A 1/4-in. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. Instead of using brass headed nails. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. The two pieces are bolted together. not too tight. about 1 in. Cut them to a length or 40 in. make the same series of eight small holes and. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position.

the one marked A. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. Then draw all four ends up snugly. D over A and C. 1. 2. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. Then take B and lay it over A. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. lay Cover B and the one under D. A round fob is made in a similar way. taking the same start as for the square fob. as shown in Fig. then B over C and the end stuck under A. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. Start with one end. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. C over D and B. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. and the one beneath C. in Fig. 2. but instead of reversing . long. for instance. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. and lay it over the one to the right. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. In this sketch. 2. as in portraiture and the like. doubled and run through the web of A. Fig. 4.of the larger holes in the strip. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. A is the first string and B is the second. of the ends remain unwoven.

Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. is to be made of leather. as B. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. the design of which is shown herewith. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. as at A in Fig. Other designs can be made in the same manner. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. 1-1/2 in. The round fob is shown in Fig. Rupp. is left out at the center before starting on one side. as in making the square fob. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. Monroeville. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. --Contributed by John P. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. 5. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . Ohio.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. A loop. always lap one string. 3. long. especially if silk strings are used. over the one to its right.

it can be easily renewed. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. using the reverse side. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. such as a nut pick. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. Northville. filling them with wax. Any smooth piece of steel. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. pressing it against the wood. When the supply of wax is exhausted. -Contributed by A. A. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. Mich. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. Houghton. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. door facing or door panel. beeswax or paraffin. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. . The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness.

nearly as wide as the envelope is long. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. E and F. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. Petersburg. it is best to leave a plain white margin. J. and about 12 in. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. leaving about 1/4 in. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. long. remaining above the surface of the board. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. . any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. Select the print you wish to mount. but any kind that will not stick may be used. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. apart and driven in only part way. although tin ones can be used with good success. New York. place it face down in the dish. those on matte paper will work best. D. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. The tacks should be about 1 in. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. Ill. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. if blueprints are used. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. and after wetting. Thompson. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. Y. Enough plaster should. --Contributed by O. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. Fold together on lines C. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. says Photographic Times. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. thick. N. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable.

as shown at the left in the sketch. will be rendered perfectly white. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. without mixing the solutions. etc.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. One of the . When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. bell flowers. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. as shown in the right of the sketch. Lower into the test tube a wire. filling the same about onehalf full.. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. violets. roses. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes.

Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. turned a little tapering. thick. 2. 1. shading. long and made of wood. Fig. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. L. as shown in the sketch. not too tightly.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. Millstown. should be soldered to the box. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. about 1/8s in. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing.. The first point should be ground blunt. in diameter and 1 in. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. --Contributed by L. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. as shown. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. A rod that will fit the brass tube. South Dakota. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. The tin horn can be easily made. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. to keep the core from coming off in turning. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. Shabino. is about 2-1/2 in. 1-7/8 in. made of heavy tin. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. or delicate tints of the egg. but which will not wobble loose. The sound box. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. long. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. 3. and at the larger end. The diaphragm. When soldering these parts together.

says the Iowa Homestead. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. E. Victor. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. Jr.Contributed by E. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. Ill. Chicago. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. and. Colo. and weighted it with a heavy stone. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. Gold. put a board on top. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. wondering what it was. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. mice in the bottom.

or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. Ottawa. . Can. N. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. --Contributed by Lyndwode. Buffalo. Pereira. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. Y.

which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. Richmond. Put a small nail 2 in.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. Mich. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. cut round. Cal. through which several holes have been punched. Grand Rapids. Jaquythe. by means of a flatheaded tack. and at one end of the stick fasten. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. longer than the length of the can. a piece of tin. De Loof. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. above the end of the dasher. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. as shown. This cart has no axle. --Contributed by W. A. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. as it can be made quickly in any size. --Contributed by Thos. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so .

2. 1-1/2 in. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. of course. cut in the center of the rounding edge. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. A wedge-shaped piece of . 1/4 in. long. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. The candles. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. 1 ft. Fig. wide and as long as the box. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. I reversed a door gong. as shown. The baseboard and top are separable. wide and 1/8 in. Kane. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. screwed it on the inside of a store box. deep and 3 in. thick. New Orleans. La. wide and 3 ft. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. 2. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. wide. 2. 1. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. were below the level of the bullseye. Pa. 2 in. Doylestown. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. board. apart. Notches 1/8 in. --Contributed by James M.1. The strip of wood is 1/4 in.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock.

wide rubber bands or felt. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. When not in use. by cutting away the ends. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. Ia. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. Wood. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. Cover the block with rubber. Mass. --Contributed by G. A. to prevent its scratching the desk top.. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. After completing the handle. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. wide into each side of the casing. can be picked up without any trouble. the shelf could not be put on the window. This device is very convenient for invalids. 1. as shown in Fig. 3. it can be removed without marring the casing. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. the reason being that if both were solid. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants.Book Back Holders metal. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. For the handle. After the glue has dried. etc. Worcester. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. Needles. take two pieces of hard wood. the blade is put back into the groove . scissors. stone or wood. when placed as in Fig. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. dressing one surface of each piece. will. The block can also be used as a paperweight. West Union.

Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. Malden. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. long. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. Jacobs. A notch is cut in one side. -Contributed by W. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. 1. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. . Ohio. 2. 1 in. S. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. A. --Contributed by H. If desired. --Contributed by Maud McKee.and sharpened to a cutting edge. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. Each one is made of a hardwood block. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. Mass. Cleveland. as shown in Fig. Hutchins. square and 4 in. as shown in Fig. is shown in the accompanying sketch. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. Erie. thus carrying the car up the incline. Pa.

A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy.. N. will be needed. One sheet of metal. The letters can be put on afterward. Cape May Point. Prepare a design for the front. If one such as is shown is to be used. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material.J. . and an awl and hammer. 6 by 9-1/2 in. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. a board on which to work it.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. This will insure having all parts alike.

paste the paper design right on the metal. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. . mandolin or guitar. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. turpentine. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. Remove the metal. that can be worked in your own parlor. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. applied by means of a brush. behind or through the center of a table leg. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. The music will not sound natural. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. in the waste metal. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. a violin. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. 1 part. varnish. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. only the marginal line is to be pierced. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. to right angles. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. if desired." In all appearance. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. which is desirable. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. On the back. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. but weird and distant. as shown. or. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. One coat will do. placed on a table. So impressive are the results. 2 parts white vitriol. flat brush. If any polishing is required. says Master Painter. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick.Fasten the metal to the board. 3/4 part. 1/4 part. The stick may be placed by the side of. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it.

thick by 1/2 in. each 6 in. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. square bar iron. The longest piece. without them. With proper tools this is easy. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. is bent square so as to form two uprights. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. across the top. each 28 in. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. long and spread about 8 in. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. Two pairs of feet. long and measuring 26 in. says Work. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. it might be difficult. apart.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. are shaped as shown in Fig. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. London. 2. . round-head machine screws. 3. and is easy to construct. long. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. wide. One thing is always at hand and that is wood.

This method is pursued until the glass is complete. in the grooves of the borders. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. special flux purchased for this purpose. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. 5. After the joints are soldered. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. C. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. 6. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. Fig. Place the corner piece of glass. as shown in Fig. The glass. The design is formed in the lead. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. is held by the brads. cut a long piece of lead. D. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. 4. After the glass is cut. or. using rosin as a flux. better still. While the piece of lead D. 7. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. Fig. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. on it as shown. the latter being tapped to . The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. The brads are then removed. 5. lead. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. and the base border. A. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. B.

Bore a 3/4-in. one on each side and central with the hole. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. 8. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. and round the corners of one end for a ring. bolt. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. This ring can be made of 1-in. long. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. thick and drill 3/4-in. --Contributed by W. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. A and B. J. then drill a 3/4-in. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block.. N. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. and two wood blocks. plank about 12 ft. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. long. as shown in Fig. The center pin is 3/4-in. H. rounded at the top as shown. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. Two styles of hand holds are shown. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. in diameter and about 9 in. Jr. wood screws in each washer. Dreier. This . Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. Fasten the plates to the block B. then flatten its end on the under side. Make three washers 3-in. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. in diameter and 1/4 in. square and of the length given in the drawing. Camden. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. plates. bolt. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. Secure a post. not less than 4 in. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid.the base of the clip. holes through their centers. long. Bore a 5/8-in. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. rocker bolt.

1. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. 1 by 7 in. hickory. can make a first class gymnasium. of 1/4-in. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. 3/4 by 3 in. 2 by 4 in. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. 4 in. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. 1/2 in. 7 in. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. bit. boards along the side of each from end to end. horse and rings. straight-grained hickory. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. by 2 ft. 16 screws. square by 9-1/2 ft. 2-1/2 in. 4 filler pieces. by 3 ft. long. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. because it will not stand the weather. the money outlay will be almost nothing. 4 pieces. chestnut or ash. 3 in. 9 in. 50 ft. 4 in. New Orleans. apart for a distance of 3 ft. long. maple. and some one can swing an axe. screws. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. If trees are convenient. 1-1/4in. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. in diameter and 7 in. long. long. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. Draw a line on the four 7-in. shanks. by 6-1/2 ft. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. bolts and rope. long. long.will make an excellent cover for a pot. The four 7-in. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. La. from one edge. 4 pieces. To substitute small. square by 5 ft. long and 1 piece.

piece of wood. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. deep and remove all loose dirt. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. 8 in. 2. apart.. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. at each end. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. so the 1/2-in. Bore a 9/16-in. each 3 ft. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground.. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. from the end. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft.bored. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. boards coincide. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. apart.

it is taken to the edge of the foot. not much to look at in daytime. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. If the tumbler is rotated. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference.. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. W. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. which at once gave the suggestion of distance." which skimmed along the distant horizon. apart. And all he used was a black thread. and materially heightened the illusion. not even the tumbler. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. it follows the edge for about 1 in. just visible against the dark evening sky. When the interest of the crowd. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. the effect is very striking. passing through a screweye at either end. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. was at its height. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. and ascends the stem. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. in an endless belt. which at once gathered. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. He stretched the thread between two buildings. disappearing only to reappear again. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. . The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. and then passes in a curve across the base. but most deceptive at dusk. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. about 100 ft. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII.

deep. 8 in. 4 bolts. 2 base pieces. 4 knee braces. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. Chisel out two notches 4 in. 2 by 3 in. by 10 ft. long. wide and 1 in. 2 by 4 in. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. Bevel the ends of . The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. long. so the point will be on top. square and 6 ft. long. long. 7 in. long. A wire about No. square and 51/2 ft. Fig. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. 8 in. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. long. 6 in. beginning at a point 9 in. To make the apparatus. long and 1 doz. by 7 ft. from either side of the center. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. large spikes. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. 2 cross braces. 8 in. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. La. New Orleans.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. long. and turned in a spiral D. 4 in. 8 bolts. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. The cork will come out easily. long. 4 in. preferably cedar. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 2 in. 1. by 3 ft. 2 by 4 in. 2 side braces. 2 by 4 in. by 2 ft. 4 wood screws.

. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. A large sized ladle.the knee braces. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. --Contributed by W. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. and countersinking the heads. Cal. equipped with a strainer. After the trenches are dug. Two endpieces must be made. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. screws. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. so the bolts in both will not meet. These will allow the ladle to be turned. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. jellies. A. save the bars. The wood so treated will last for years. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. leave it undressed. leaving the strainer always in position. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. additional long. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. If using mill-cut lumber. using four of the 7-in bolts. of 7 ft. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. Richmond. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. Jaquythe. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. but even unpainted they are very durable. as shown in the diagram. which face each other. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. ( To be Continued.. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. except the bars. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. etc.

it is necessary to place a stick. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. or various cutting compounds of oil. thus holding the pail as shown. drill press or planer. partly a barrier for jumps. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. which seems impossible. milling machine. of sufficient 1ength. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. . A. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. In order to accomplish this experiment. Oil. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work.

Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in.. bolts. in diameter--the larger the better. bolts. Hand holds must be provided next. in the ground. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. 1 cross brace. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. The material required is as follows: Two posts. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. two 1/2-in. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. long. to fasten the knee braces at the top. 2 by 4 in. piece of 2 by 4-in. long. beginning 1-1/2 in. from each end. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. 4-1/2 in. 2 by 4 in. 2 by 4 in. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. apart in a central position on the horse. by 3 ft. by 3 ft. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. 2 adjusting pieces. but 5 ft. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. ten 1/2-in. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. wood yard or from the woods. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. long. 4 in. 2 bases. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. square by 5-1/2 ft. long. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. by 3 ft. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. long. long. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. Procure from a saw mill. is a good length. bolts. These are placed 18 in. These are well nailed in place. The round part of this log must be planed. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. 4 knee braces. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . 7 in. 3 in.. and free from knots. square by 5 ft. long. bolt. 4 in. projections and splinters. stud cut rounding on one edge.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. apart. To construct. 4 in. 1 in. long. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces.

provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. it is caused by an overloaded shell. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. pipe and fittings. such as a dent. but nevertheless. Also. water. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. it is caused by some obstruction. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. then bending to the shape desired. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. Cal. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. A. over and around. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. Richmond. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. etc. Such a hand sled can be made in a . and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. no one is responsible but himself. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration.--Contributed by W. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. Jaquythe. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. snow.horse top.

Paris. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. are all the tools necessary. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. Boston. which. W. is much better than a wood sled. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. 1. will give the length. when complete. 2.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. These. in width and 1/32 in. Ontario. when straightened out. France. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. at E and F. then run a string over each part. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. thick. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. --Contributed by James E. . Noble. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. Vener. Joerin. Toronto. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. The end elevation. 1/4 or 3/16 in. Mass. --Contributed by Arthur E. --Contributed by J.

The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. 4. nor that which is partly oxidized. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. and the latter will take on a bright luster. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. . Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. It is best to use soft water. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. AA and BB.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. 3. are nailed. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. The method shown in Figs.

or various rulings may be made. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. The materials used are: backbone. or unequal widths as in Fig. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. Percy Ashley in Rudder. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. 1). class ice-yacht. 4. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. 3. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. 2. as shown in Fig. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. 2. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. 8 and 9.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. as shown in Fig. Broad lines can be made. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. . The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

pipe.Fig. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. a larger size of pipe should be used. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. long. out from the collar. about 30 in. pins to keep them from turning. The point should extend about 11/2 in. It can be made longer or shorter. 1-Details of Lathe sort. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. but if it is made much longer. 1. bent and drilled as shown. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. Both the lower . a tee and a forging. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. The headstock is made of two tees. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. A good and substantial homemade lathe. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig.

Laporte. as shown in Fig. and will answer for a great variety of work. --Contributed by W. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. Musgrove. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. 2. 1. M. thick as desired. Fruitvale. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. Cal. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. 3/4 or 1 in.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. 2. a corresponding line made on this. else taper turning will result. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. 2. W. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. Man. as shown in Fig. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. It is about 1 in. --Contributed by M. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. or a key can be used as well. a straight line should be scratched Fig. To do this. Indiana. . The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. but also their insulating properties. UpDeGraff. --Contributed by W. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. Held. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. Boissevain. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors.

as shown. long. In use. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. --Contributed by E.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. The handle is of pine about 18 in. Smith. Ft. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. To obviate this. J. Cline. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . and the two loops are made of heavy wire. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. Ark.

La. --Contributed by Walter W. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. After being entered. This prevents the drill from wobbling. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. face off the end of the piece. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. and when once in true up to its size. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. centering is just one operation too many. which should be backed out of contact. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. the drill does not need the tool. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. Denver. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. White. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. on starting the lathe. New Orleans. take . trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. if this method is followed: First. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. Colo.

as shown in D. says the Sphinx. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. vanishing wand. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. After the wand is removed. by applying caustic soda or . If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. and can be varied to suit the performer. shown at C. the cap is placed over the paper tube. In doing this. a long piece of glass tubing. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. unknown to the spectators. all the better. The glass tube B.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. The handkerchief rod. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. is put into the paper tube A. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. after being shown empty. and this given to someone to hold. shorter t h a n the wand. a bout 1/2 in. It can be used in a great number of tricks.

1/4 in. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. As the cement softens. 3/16. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. thick. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. can be made by the home mechanic. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. long. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. The brace at D is 1 in. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them.potash around the edges of the letters. preferably hard maple. and glue it to the neck at F. and if care is taken in selecting the material. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. 1 End. with the back side rounding. This dimension and those for the frets . and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. 1 Neck. The sides. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. by 14 by 17 in. 1 Bottom. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. as shown by K. Cut a piece of hard wood. 2 Sides. With care and patience. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. 1. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. End. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. Glue strips of soft wood. square and 1-7/8 in. Glue the neck to the box. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. cut to any shape desired. across the front and back to strengthen them.

Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. H. Stoddard. thick and about 1 ft. 1) on which to stretch the paper. --Contributed by Chas. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. toward each end. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. Carbondale. Norwalk.should be made accurately. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. When it is completed you will have a canoe. 3/16 in. and beveled . E. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. in diameter. O. A board 1 in. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. -Contributed by J. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. or backbone. wide and 11-1/2 ft. Frary. long is used for a keel. but it is not.Pa. Six holes. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand.

procure at a carriage factory. twigs 5 or 6 ft. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. 2). with long stout screws. Shape these as shown by A. . For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. long. long are required. or similar material. Osiers probably make the best ribs. such as is used for making chairbottoms. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. For the gunwales (a. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. some tight strips of ash. b. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. as shown in Fig.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. 1. These are better. but twigs of some other trees. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. which are easily made of long. Fig. C. C. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. a. 3. and notched at the end to receive them (B. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. 3). fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. thick. Fig. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. Fig. and are not fastened. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. wide by 26 in. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. as shown in Fig. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. apart. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. slender switches of osier willow. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. b. 3. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable.) in notches. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. the loose strips of ash (b. two twigs may be used to make one rib. 4). Any tough. in such cases. 2. and so. or other place. Fig. Fig. 2). 13 in. 1 and 2. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. when made of green elm. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. as before described.. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. buy some split cane or rattan. Fig. are next put in. Fig. will answer nearly as well. b. and. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. In drying. 4. 3). 3/8 in. thick. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. The cross-boards (B. Fig. Green wood is preferable. Fig. as they are apt to do. probably. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. by means of a string or wire. in thickness and should be cut. The ribs. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. B. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. such as hazel or birch. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. but before doing this. two strips of wood (b.

preferably iron. The paper is then trimmed. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. and held in place by means of small clamps. wide. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. and light oars. Fig. Being made in long rolls. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. B. if it has been properly constructed of good material. When thoroughly dry. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. of very strong wrapping-paper. tacking it to the bottom-board. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. but with less turpentine. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. 5). If not. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. and as soon as that has soaked in. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. It should be smooth on the surface. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. and steady in the water. apply a second coat of the same varnish. however. When the paper is dry. You may put in . Then take some of the split rattan and. If the paper be 1 yd. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. It should be drawn tight along the edges. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. but neither stiff nor very thick. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. and very tough. after wetting it. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper.

1. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. Fig. Fig. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. they will support very heavy weights. 5. Fig. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. 5). and make a movable seat (A. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. Drive the lower nail first. fore and aft. to fit it easily. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. 2. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. 1 and the end in . then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. We procured a box and made a frame. and if driven as shown in the cut. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C.

A good way to handle this work. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. Pa. 3. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. This way has its drawbacks. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast.Fig. 5. this makes the tube airtight. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. being softer where the flame has been applied. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. This is an easy . and the glass. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. and the result is. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. 4. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. Close the other end with the same operation. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. Pittsburg. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg.

Give the metal a circular motion. metal shears. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. fifth. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. The candle holders may have two. Oswald. second. thin screw. four. above the work and striking it with the hammer.way to make a thermometer tube. third. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. After the bulb is formed. very rapid progress can be made. 23 gauge. then reverse. above the metal. Sixth. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. Seventh. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . or six arms. extra metal all around. rivet punch. file. with a piece of carbon paper. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. also trace the decorative design. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. flat and round-nosed pliers. fourth. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. -Contributed by A. three. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. stamp the background of the design promiscuously.

It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . Metal polish of any kind will do. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. and holder. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. Small copper rivets are used. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. drip cup. Having pierced the bracket.

Mother let me have a sheet. and water 24 parts. and add the gelatine. Heat 6-1/2 oz. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. glycerine 4 parts. deep. thus it was utilized. except they had wheels instead of runners. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. all the rest I found. and in a week . Soak 1 oz. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. The gaff. is a broomstick. smooth it down and then remove as before. of glycerine to about 200 deg. on a water bath. the stick at the bottom of the sail. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. and brace and bit were the tools used. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. F. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. when it will be ready for use. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. I steer with the front wheel. J. Twenty cents was all I spent. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. if it has not absorbed too much ink. using a steel pen. and other things as they were needed. they were like an ice boat with a sail. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. Fifty. A saw. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. N. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. sugar 1 part. hammer. The boom. Shiloh. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. winding the ends where they came together with wire. and it will be ready for future use. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. alcohol 2 parts. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours.

Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. a projecting lens . Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up. A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly.

Fig. wide. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. and a projecting lens 2 in. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. describe a 9-in. are . the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. and the lens slide. 1/2 to 3/4 in. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. H. The board is centered both ways. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. G. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. at a distance of 24 ft. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. provided the material is of metal. as desired. well seasoned pine. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. about 2 ft. A table. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. high. at a point 1 in. or a lens of 12-in. wide and 15 in. This ring is made up from two rings. E. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. wire brads. If a small saw is used. 8 in. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. slide to about 6 ft. and 14 in. thick. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. The slide support. or glue. focus enlarging a 3-in. and the work carefully done. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. 3. but if such a box is not found. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. A and B. long.. 1. DD. above the center. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. and.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other.

The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. To reach the water. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. the strips II serving as guides. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. JJ. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. St. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. E. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. apply two coats of shellac varnish. the water at once extinguishes the flame. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. and when the right position is found for each.-Contributed by G. of safe. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. The arrangement is quite safe as. Paul. A sheet . The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick.constructed to slip easily on the table. light burning oil. should the glass happen to upset. Minn. but not long enough. P. Small strips of tin. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. B. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. placed on the water.

I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. 12 ft. form a piece of wire in the same shape. 1. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . to cover the mattresses. 9 in. from a tent company. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. If one of these clips is not at hand. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. Fig. then the corners on one end are doubled over. 3. Fig.H. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. N. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig.. 3 in. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. 2. --Contributed by J. 4. by 12 ft. Y.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. Crawford. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. Schenectady. 3. I ordered a canvas bag. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat.

Pa. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. long and 3/16 in. Warren. --Contributed by Edward M. holes in the edge. as shown in Fig. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. 2. in the center coil. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. and insert two binding-posts. long. for amperes and the other post. 2. to keep it from unwinding. C. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. A rubber band. 3/4 in. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. Colo. apart. wide. open on the edges. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. 1/2 in. Fig. A Film Washing Trough [331] . --Contributed by Walter W. Attach a piece of steel rod. drill two 3/16 in. Denver. to the coil of small wire for volts. 1. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. 1/2 in. 3/4 in. Do not use too strong a rubber. 1. Teasdale. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. Fig. insulating them from the case with cardboard. 3 to swing freely on the tack. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. V. first mark the binding-post A. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. 2. through which the indicator works.each edge. so as to form two oblong boxes. An arc is cut in the paper. D. Fold two strips of light cardboard. To calibrate the instrument. Fasten the wire with gummed label. thick. White. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax.

Place this can on one end of the trough. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. with the large hole up. Wood Burning [331] . Hunting. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. Cut a 1/4-in. as shown. Dayton. M. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. O. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. --Contributed by M.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather.

The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. then into this bottle place. mouth downward. a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water.Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the .

and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . as shown in the sketch. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. Whitehouse. --Contributed by Fred W. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. Place the small bottle in as before. Ala. N. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. 1. Auburn. If the cork is adjusted properly. provided the bottle is wide. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. wide and 4 in. --Contributed by John Shahan. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. If the small bottle used is opaque. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. Upper Troy. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. thick. 3/4 in. long.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend.Y. many puzzling effects may be obtained. This will make a very pretty ornament. 2. but not very thick.

On a 1000-ft. thick. 1. Fig. B. The 21/2-in. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. Fig. sugar pine on account of its softness. which extended to the ground. --Contributed by D. K. thick and 3 in. such as blades and pulleys. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. was keyed to shaft C. Fig. which was 6 in. The shaft C. Its smaller parts. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. was 1/4in. line. long. A staple. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. to the shaft. as shown in Fig. in diameter and 1 in. wide. The bearing blocks were 3 in. G. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. even in a light breeze. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. 1. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. 1. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. pulley F. 2. pulley. iron rod. The wire L was put . 1. high without the upper half. 2 ft. Milter. which gave considerable power for its size. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. 4. If a transmitter is used. 1. were constructed of 1-in.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. I. Both bearings were made in this manner. by the method shown in Fig. Fig. which was nailed to the face plate. Fig. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. 1 in. W. thick. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. 3. or ordinary telephone transmitters.

1. Two washers were placed on shaft C. providing one has a few old materials on hand. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. 3 in. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. with all parts in place. R. This completes the receiver or sounder. 1. was 2 ft. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. This fan was made of 1/4-in. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. long and 1/2 in. with brass headed furniture tacks. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. H. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. 1. Fig. wide and 1 in. hole was bored for it. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. top down also. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. in diameter. square to the board P at the top of the tower. There a 1/4-in. The other lid. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. Fig. Fig. long and bend it as shown at A. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. long and bend it as . square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. G. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. Fig. in the center of the board P. long and 3 in. through the latter. long. apart in the tower. 5. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. If you have no bell. when the windmill needed oiling. This board was 12 in. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. To lessen the friction here. Fig. The bed plate D. strips. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. 6. cut out another piece of tin (X. Fig. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. hole for the shaft G was in the center. for instance. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. long. To make the key.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. The smaller one. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. as. across the thin edge of a board. and was cut the shape shown. The power was put to various uses. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. so that the 1/4-in. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. 1) 4 in. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. Fig. 1. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. washers were placed under pulley F. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. 0. pine 18 by 12 in. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. was tacked. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. 25 ft. a 1/2-in. 6. 2.

Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. Going back to Fig. like many another device boys make. after the manner of bicycle wheels. By adjusting the coils. 2.shown. and. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. using cleats to hold the board frame. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. leaving the other wire as it is. at the front. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. Before tacking it to the board. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. 1. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. as indicated. McConnell. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. fitted with paddles as at M. Now. Thus a center drive is made. although it can be made with but two. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. The rear barrels are. causing a buzzing sound. as shown at Water. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. When tired of this instrument. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. -Contributed by John R.

Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. there will not be much friction. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. can be built. 1. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. as shown in Fig. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. or even a little houseboat. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. copper piping and brass tubing for base. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. feet on the pedals. To propel it. If the journals thus made are well oiled. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . which will give any amount of pleasure. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. There is no danger. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. 3. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. The speed is slow at first. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage.

or it may be put to other uses if desired. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . Turn a small circle of wood. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. If magnifying glass cannot be had. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. 2. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. B. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. Then melt out the rosin or lead. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. If it is desired to make the light very complete. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. Fig. 1. 2. D. A. 1. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. Shape small blocks of boxwood. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. then the glass disc and then the other ring. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig.of pleasure for a little work. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. Fig. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. Fig. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. C. 2. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. 1. and so creating a false circuit. Fig. Place one brass ring in cylinder. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder.

When alarm goes off. wire from batteries to switch. To operate this. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. while lying in bed. contact post. S. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. shelf. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes.. D. J. C. --Contributed by C.india rubber tubing. Utah. long. --Contributed by Geo. bracket. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. Brinkerhoff. G. To throw on light throw levers to the left. key of alarm clock. which stops bell ringing. near the bed. Pa. and pulled tight. wire from bell to switch. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. E. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. after setting alarm. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. wire from light to switch. T. switch. by having the switch on the baseboard. I. H. 3/8 in. Chatland. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. dry batteries. wide and 1/16 in. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. such as is used for cycle valves. Swissvale. 5-1/4 by 10 in. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. X. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. long. or 1/4in. F. some glue will secure them. copper tubing. Ogden. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. bell. set alarm key as shown in diagram. if too small. The parts indicated are as follows: A. 4-1/2 in. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. brass strip. To get the cylinder into its carriage. 4 in. C. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. In placing clock on shelf. B. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. thick. after two turns have been made on the key. Throw lever off from the right to center. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. brass rod.

Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. Make the spindle as in Fig. 2. A small lamp of about 5 cp. as at A. gives the heater a more finished appearance. in diameter. Fig. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. S. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. Chapman. Make a shoulder. 1. for instance. a bed warmer. about 6 in. Fig. long. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. 4 in. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. as at B. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. from one end. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. 2. Minn. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. as at A. being careful not to get the sand in it. making it as true and smooth as possible. 1/4 in. Having finished this. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. 1. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. about 3-1/2 in. All that is required is a tin covering. --Contributed by Chas. Lanesboro. 3. beyond the end of the spindle. This is to form the fuse hole. place stick and all in a pail of sand. in diameter. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. Fig. but the bed warmer is probably the best example.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. as in Fig. wide. as . which can be made of an old can. will do the heating. letting it extend 3/4 in. Pull out the nail and stick. A flannel bag.

3/8 in. long. thick. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. wide and 3/8 in. A piece of oak. The material must be 1-1/2 in. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. will be sufficient to make the trigger. The illustration shows how this is done. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. 11/2 in. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. this is to keep the edges from splitting. good straight-grained pine will do. or hickory. but if this wood cannot be procured. thick. spring and arrows. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. long.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . --Contributed by Arthur E. 5/8 in. 6 in. deep. 1 in. ash. wide and 3 ft. A piece of tin. long. Joerin. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. wide and 6 ft. 1. thick. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in.

To throw the arrow. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. as shown in Fig. Trownes. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. 3. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. 2. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. Fig. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. as shown in Fig. Ill. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. 4. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. 7. The stick for the bow. --Contributed by O.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. To shoot the crossbow. from the end of the stock. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. Wilmette. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. The trigger. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. Fig. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. in diameter. The bow is not fastened in the stock. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. place the arrow in the groove. wide at each end. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. thick. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. from the opposite end. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. or through the necessity of. it lifts the spring up. Such a temporary safe light may be . better still. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. 6. and one for the trigger 12 in. 9. A spring. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. which is 1/4 in. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. E. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. Fig. having the latter swing quite freely. 8. When the trigger is pulled.

The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. This lamp is safe. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. The hinged cover E. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. By chopping the trunk almost through. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. it is the easiest camp to make. Remove one end. is used as a door. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. from the ground. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. and replace as shown at B. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. and nail it in position as shown at A. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. the bark lean-to is a . respectively. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. apart. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. Moreover. from the ground. make the frame of the wigwam. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. or only as a camp on a short excursion. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. making lighting and trimming convenient. C. Remove the bottom of the box. since the flame of the candle is above A. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. The cut should be about 5 ft. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. says Photo Era.

pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. long. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. piled 2 or 3 ft. deep and covered with blankets. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. spruce. In the early summer. wide. . and cedar. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. 3 ft. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. wide and 6 ft. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. For a permanent camp. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. long and 2 or 3 ft. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. A piece of elm or hickory. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. and split the tops with an ax. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. are a convenient size for camp construction. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. Sheets of bark. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. makes a good pair of tongs. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. will dry flat. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. 6 ft. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. long and 1-1/2 in. nails are necessary to hold it in place. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. Tongs are very useful in camp. make the best kind of a camp bed. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. a 2-in. For a foot in the middle of the stick. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. selecting a site for a camp.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. thick. and when the camp is pitched. Where bark is used. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space.

and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. hinges. .Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. and affording accommodation for several persons. or even a rough lock for the camp larder.

B. I drove a small cork. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. Doylestown. about 4 in. Pa.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. --Contributed by James M. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge.. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. and provide a cover or door. 1. wide. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. to another . B. changing the water both morning and night. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. Kane. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. the interior can. deep and 4 in. A. Fig.

2. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. for instance. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. 4 and 5). 2. a liquid. The current is thus compelled. to pass through an increasing resistance. such as ether. Fig. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. 3. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. if necessary. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. C. fused into one side. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. until.glass tube. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. which project inside and outside of the tube. The diagram. limit. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. This makes . E. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. for instance.

to allow for finishing. bent at right angles as shown. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. Before removing the field from the lathe. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. when several pieces are placed together. 4-1/2 in. or pattern. but merely discolored. thick. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. therefore. 1. they will make a frame 3/4 in. in diameter. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. Alpena. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. hole is . Then the field can be finished to these marks. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. as shown in the left-hand sketch. is composed of wrought sheet iron. which may be of any thickness so that. These holes are for the bearing studs. assemble and rivet them solidly. making it 1/16 in. Michigan. as shown in Fig. 3-3/8 in. between centers. or even 1/16 in. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. When the frame is finished so far. thicker. screws. 2. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. set at 1/8 in. in diameter. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. After the template is marked out. 3. After cleaning them with the solution. brass. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. drill the four rivet holes. which will make it uniform in size. Fig. Fig. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. cannot be used so often. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. brass or iron. larger than the dimensions given. 3-3/8 in. A. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. and for the outside of the frame. clamp the template. mark off a space. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. If the thickness is sufficient. tap. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. The bearing studs are now made.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. thick. two holes. A 5/8in. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. on a lathe. by turning the lathe with the hand. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth.

Fig. is turned up from machine steel. When the bearings are located. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. and build up the solder well. or otherwise finished. brass rod is inserted. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. into which a piece of 5/8-in. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . file them out to make the proper adjustment. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. solder them to the supports. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. 4. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. The shaft of the armature.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. soldered into place.

brass rod. 7. as shown in Fig. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. When annealed. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. being formed for the ends. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. hole and tap it for a pin. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. by 1-1/2 in. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. Make the core 3/4 in. 1-1/8 in.. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. The sides are also faced off and finished. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. Rivet them together. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. as shown in Fig. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. After they . 9. holes through them for rivets. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. 5. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. as shown m Fig. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. 8. Procure 12 strips of mica. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. wide. Find the centers of each segment at one end. sheet fiber. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. to allow for finishing to size. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. The pins are made of brass. thick. or segments. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. After the pieces are cut out. thick are cut like the pattern. thick and 1/4 in. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. 6. When this is accomplished. and held with a setscrew. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. Armature-Ring Core. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. then drill a 1/8-in. 3. threaded. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. thick. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. 1/8 in. inside diameter. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. and then they are soaked in warm water. deep and 7/16 in. as shown in Fig. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. 6. 3. as shown in Fig. 3/4 in. thick. wide. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. washers.

of the wire. the two ends of the wire. shown at A. which will take 50 ft. about 100 ft. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. yet it shows a series of . is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. Run one end of the field wire. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. by bending the end around one of the projections. and bring the end of the wire out at B. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. long. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. To connect the wires. All connections should be securely soldered. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. In starting to wind. 1. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. wide and 1 in. When the glue is set.have dried. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. The two ends are joined at B. 6 in. The source of current is connected to the terminals. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. The field is wound with No. of No. sheet fiber. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. The winding is started at A. thick. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. or side. are soldered together. they are glued to the core insulation. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. Fig. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. This winding is for a series motor. Fig. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. 8 in. of the end to protrude. 5. 1. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. After one coil. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. being required. and wind on four layers. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. shown at B. after the motor is on the stand. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. until the 12 slots are filled. sheet fiber. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust.

The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. and one. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. A 1/2-in. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. as in the case of a spiral. or. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. Nine wires run from the timer. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. is fastened to the metallic body. still more simply. one from each of the eight contacts. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. which serves as the ground wire. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws.

perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. 45 deg. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. board. of the dial. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center.The Wind Vane. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. long. 6 in. Without this attachment. Covering these is a thin. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. It should be . the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. circle. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. thus giving 16 different directions. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button.

A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. will be enough for the two sides. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown.about 6 ft. Blackmer. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. will be sufficient. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. Before tacking the fourth side." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. if not too high. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. -Contributed by James L. To make it. thus making a universal joint. and about 6 in. called a chip carving knife. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. according to who is going to use it. will answer the purpose just as well. N. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. 14 by 18 in. Place the leather on some level. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. also a piece of new carpet. however. Cut 3-in. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. making it heavy or light. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. is most satisfactory. Fill the box with any handy ballast. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. though a special knife. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. . or. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. high. To work these outlines. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. Y. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. and securely nail on the top of the box. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. Buffalo. long to give the best results.

A good leather paste will be required. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. Paste the silk plush to the inner side. An ordinary sewing-machine . Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show.

Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. Morse. or a hip that has been wrenched. N. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. and fasten the feathers inside of it. square and tying a piece of . The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. If a fire breaks out. a needle and some feathers. temporary lameness. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. of water. B. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. can be thrown away when no longer needed. and tie them together securely at the bottom. rather than the smooth side. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. away from it. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. as in cases of a sprained ankle. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. of common salt and 10 lb. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. Syracuse.will do if a good stout needle is used. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. Y. --Contributed by Katharine D. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire.

A. long. This not only keeps the rats out. F. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. thus helping the rats to enter. Wis. The body of the receiver. wound on the head end. and tacked it to the boards. long.string to each corner. The coil is 1 in. Ashland. made up of four layers of No. but not sharp. etc. Hellwig. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint.J. and the receiver is ready for use. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. The strings should be about 15 in. Gordon Dempsey. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. board all around the bottom on the inside. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. laying poisoned meat and meal. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. the corners being wired. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. E. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. high. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. Albany. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. cut to the length of the spool. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. B. letting it go at arm's length. Paterson. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. A small wooden or fiber end. N. There is a 1-in. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration.. deep. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. N. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. --Contributed by J. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. and a coil of wire. --Contributed by John A. The end is filed to an edge. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. commonly called tintype tin. Y. wide and 1/16 in. setting traps. which is the essential part of the instrument. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. One end is removed entirely. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. is cut on the wood. as shown. G. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. 1/8 in. The diaphragm C. .

Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. wide. and bend each strip in shape. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. Take a piece of string or. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. begin with the smallest scrolls. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. a piece of small wire. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. The vase is to have three supports. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. A single line will be sufficient. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. to . better still. gold. To clean small articles. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver.

Fold the leather on the line EF. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. using a duller point of the tool. 3-1/4 in. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. from C to D. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. wide when stitching up the purse. 6-3/8 in. from the lines EF on the piece. Work down the outside line of the design. . as shown in the sketch. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. through which to slip the fly AGH. thus raising it. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily.. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. After taking off the pattern.which the supports are fastened with rivets.. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. from E to F. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. sharp pencil. Trace also the line around the purse. About 1 in.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. 3-1/2 in. Press or model down the leather all around the design. and does not require coloring. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. 4-1/4 in.

procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. 3. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. and cut out a wheel. deep. the "open" side. by 12 ft. First. leaving the lug a. then nail it. It can be made without the use of a lathe. Now take another piece of wood. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. 2. This also should be slightly beveled. and cut it out as shown in Fig. and the projections B. with the largest side down. following the dotted lines. Cut off six pieces 12 in. Make the lug 1/4 in. all the way around. being cast in wooden molds. square. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. as well as useful. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. and tack the other piece slightly. When it is finished. b.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. with pins or small nails. cut out one piece as shown in Fig.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. Fit this to the two . and. It is neat and efficient. long. Then nail the wheel down firmly. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. 1 was cut. with a compass saw. 1/2 in. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. and which will be very interesting. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. as shown in Fig. thick. 1. deep. and a model for speed and power. with the open side down. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. then place the square piece out of which Fig. around the wheel.

place it between two of the 12-in. and boring a 3/8-in. slightly beveled. 4. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. hole bored through its center. then bolt it together. bolts. hole 1/4 in. and clean all the shavings out of it.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. in the center of it. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. After it is finished. square pieces of wood. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. square pieces of wood. Take the mold apart. hole entirely through at the same place. 1. and lay it away to dry. holes through it. as shown by the . and bore six 1/4-in.pieces just finished. one of which should have a 3/8-in. Now take another of the 12-in. and cut it out as shown in Fig. deep. as shown by the black dots in Fig. Now put mold No.

and lay it away to dry. Put this together in mold No.2. only the one is left-handed. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. and pouring metal in to fill it up. until it is full. and the exhaust hole in projection b. d. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. long. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. take an ordinary brace. instead of the right-handed piece. wide and 16 in. and 3/8-in. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. and the other in the base. and drill them in the same manner. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. Using the Brace . This is mold No. in diameter must now be obtained. and bore three 1/4-in. and connect to the boiler. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. one in the lug. holes. true it up with a square. long. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. and drill it entirely through. one in the projections. Commencing 1-1/2 in. and run in babbitt metal again. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. A piece of mild steel 5 in. put the top of the brace through this hole. This is the same as Fig. 6. B. screw down. see that the bolts are all tight.black dots in Fig. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. as shown by the black dots in Fig. 6.1. This is for a shaft. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting.1. Then bolt the castings together. Let it stand for half an hour. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. Now take mold No. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. place it under the drill. the other right-handed. place the entire machine in a vise. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. This will cast a paddle-wheel. drill in it. Fig. holes at d. over the defective part. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. and two 1/4-in. 4. as shown in illustration. where the casting did not fill out. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. fasten a 3/8-in. Now cut out one of the 12-in. from the one end. 5. and pour babbitt metal into it. Pour metal into mold No. After it is fitted in. 1. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. b. so that it will turn easily.2. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. lay it on a level place.

and the other 8 ft. will do good service. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. while it is running at full speed.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. with a boss and a set screw. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. Plan of Ice Boat . At each end of the 6ft. and if instructions have been carefully followed. and with three small screw holes around the edge. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. long.. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. and. Then take a knife or a chisel. one 6 ft. piece and at right angles to it. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. turn the wheel to the shape desired.

tapering to 1-1/2 in. The tiller. Make your runners as long as possible. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. at the top. distant. Fig. 3. On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. 1. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. long and 2-1/2 in. leaving 1 ft. which may come in handy in heavy winds. long. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. Fig. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. 2 by 3 in. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. in diameter. at the butt and 1 in. in diameter in the center. This fits in the square hole. so much the better will be your boat. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. where they often did considerable damage. in the top before the skate is put on. plank nail 8-in. boards to make the platform. as the runners were fastened. 8 a reef point knot. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. To the under side of the 8-ft. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. bolt the 8-ft. and about 8 in. 1. Over the middle of the 6-ft. piece and at right angles to it. projecting as in Fig. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. The spar should be 9 ft. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. should be of hardwood. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. in diameter at the base. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. plank. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. long. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. Run the seam on a machine. in front of the rudder block.These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used. at the end.

The arrangement proved quite too effective. in the air and let out a terrific squeak. It is quite evident that when a rat put its two fore feet on the edge of the pan in order to eat the mush which it contained. binding-posts fastening the springs S S. two pieces of sheet brass about 1/4 in. B. Phoenix. wide. --Contributed by John D. but one that will afford any amount of amusement. Comstock. and when we pushed the button up in the shop the rat would be thrown 2 or 3 ft. Mechanicsburg. S S. and place it behind a stove. and the alarm bell will ring. P. Adams. allowing the springs to contact at C. Simple Fire Alarm When the stove becomes too hot the wax will melt at the ends. so that they come in contact at C. Its parts are as follows: A. that an electrical connection would be made through the body of the rat. W is a piece of wax crayon just long enough to break the contact at C when inserted as shown in the illustration. To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359] This is a very simple device. --Contributed by J.another from the zinc plate through the intervening yard and into the shop. for after a week the rats all departed and the boys all regretted that their fun was at an end. to block B. When these parts have been put together in the manner described. R. Ariz. P. small piece of wood. block of wood nailed to A. connect the device in circuit with an electric bell. Pa. A good sized induction coil was through connected with these wires and about six dry batteries were used to run the induction coil whenever a push button was manipulated. Electric Rat Trap How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359] A fire alarm which is both inexpensive and simple in construction is shown in the illustration. bent into a hook at each end. The .

and make it into a clock to hang on the wall.center post rests in an auger hole bored in an old stump or in a post set in the ground. in diameter. The center pole should be 10 ft. says the American Boy. The wheel is anchored out by several guy Home-Made Merry-Go-Round wires. 6 in. Gild the pan all over. A passenger rides in each seat and the motorman takes his station at the middle. An old wheel is mounted at the top of the pole. including the . and drill a hole in the center so the shaft for the hands will easily pass through and extend out far enough to replace the two hands. Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360] An inexpensive and easy way to make an unique ornament of a clock The Clock with Holder for kitchen use is to take an old alarm clock or a new one if preferred. Put the works back in the metal shell and solder it to the frying pan by the pieces turn