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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial

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08/17/2011

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Sections

  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother

THE BOY MECHANIC VOLUME I

Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)

BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I

THE

700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
HOW TO CONSTRUCT
WIRELESS OUTFITS, BOATS, CAMP EQUIPMENT, AERIAL. GLIDERS, KITES, SELF-PROPELLED VEHICLES ENGINES, MOTORS, ELECTRICAL APPARATUS, CAMERAS
AND

HUNDREDS OF OTHER THINGS WHICH DELIGHT EVERY BOY

WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
COPYRIGHTED, 1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO

POPULAR MECHANICS CO.
PUBLISHERS

A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

The pieces are then dressed round. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. It is held in this curve until dry. Fig. 2.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . --Contributed by J. E. long will make six boomerangs. To throw a boomerang. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E.Fig. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. 2 -. until it is bound as shown in Fig. distant. 1. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. as shown in Fig. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. A piece of plank 12 in. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. grasp it and hold the same as a club. Ontario. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. apart. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. away. 1. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. 1. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. wide and 2 ft. with the hollow side away from you. 2. as shown in Fig. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. Toronto. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. Noble.

A very light. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. it is not essential to the support of the walls. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. A wall. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. forcing it down closely. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. one inside of the circle and the other outside. First. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. 6 in. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. and it may be necessary to use a little water. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. but about 12 in. made of 6-in. the block will drop out. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. thick. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. long. which makes the building simpler and easier. blocks . minus the top. or rather no bottom at all. high and 4 or 5 in. dry snow will not pack easily. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. If the snow is of the right consistency. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. however. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. and with a movable bottom. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout.

These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. 1. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. D. There is no outward thrust. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. which can be made of wood. Fig. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. wide. A nail. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. --Contributed by Geo. The piece of wood. 3 -. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. Goodbrod. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. 1. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. Fig. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. Ore. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. 2. It also keeps them out. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. which is about 1 ft. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. 2. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. is 6 or 8 in. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. Fig. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. C. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. long and 1 in. or an old safe dial will do. Union. and the young architect can imitate them. 3. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. a.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. above the ground.

When taking hot dishes from the stove. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. one pair of special hinges. says the Sphinx. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. S. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. --Contributed by R. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. New York. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. Merrill. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. Syracuse. as the weight always draws them back to place. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. the box locked . If ordinary butts are used. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal.

as shown. 2. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. -Contributed by L. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. Fig. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. allowing each coat time to dry. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. If they do not. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. one for each corner. 3. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. Ga. on drawing paper. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. about 1-32 of an inch. draw one-half of it. smooth surface. as shown in Fig. All . Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. 1. Place the piece in a vise. as shown in Fig. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. To make a design similar to the one shown. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. It remains to bend the flaps.and the performer steps out in view. Augusta. When the sieve is shaken. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. If the measuring has been done properly. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. proceed as follows: First. Alberta Norrell. With the metal shears.

B. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. R. as shown at AA. from the back end. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. causing it to expand. about 6 in. The common cork. is fitted tightly in the third hole. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. should be in the line. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. in passing through the lamp. 25 German-silver wire. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . To keep the metal from tarnishing. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. 25 gauge German-silver wire. --Contributed by R. When the current is turned off. which is about 6 in. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. if rolled under the shoe sole. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. in diameter. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. long. Denver. Colo. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. In boring through rubber corks. A resistance. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. If a touch of color is desired. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. heats the strip of German-silver wire. used for insulation. and in the positions shown in the sketch. A piece of porcelain tube. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. Galbreath. H.the edges should be left smooth. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. After this has dried. C. of No. The current.

Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. 2. Purchase two long book straps. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. 3. Kansas City. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. with thin strips of wood.bottom ring. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. as shown in Fig. Mo. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. --Contributed by David Brown. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. . leaving a space of 4 in. Fig. between them as shown in Fig. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. 1. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely.

and a pocket battery. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. having a gong 2-1/2 in. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. are mounted on the outside of the box. 4. Fig. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig.. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. 36 in. 3. The string is then tied. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. When the aeroplane tips. long. Syracuse. The folds are made over the string. just the right weight for a woman to use. and tack smoothly.. Y. 2. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. 1. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. Fig. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. C. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. Morse. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. as . Pa. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. Kane. Two strips of brass. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. --Contributed by James M. one weighing 15 lb. A. in diameter. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. --Contributed by Katharine D. These are shown in Fig. and one weighing 25 lb.An ordinary electric bell. 1. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. 1. to form a handle. Doylestown. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. N. Fig. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. which is the right weight for family use.

machine screws. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. two 1/8 -in. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. Y. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. in diameter. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. AA. such as brackets. Floral Park. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. 2. and many fancy knick-knacks. bent as shown in Fig. 2. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. --Contributed by Louis J. four washers and four square nuts. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. if once used. Frame Made of a Rod . 1. Day. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. long. The saw. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. 3/32 or 1/4 in. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. N.

The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. it has the correct strength. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. copper. Apply two coats. if copper or brass. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. Rub off the highlights. of water. or silver. as well as the depth of etching desired. of course. In the design shown. The buckle is to be purchased. using a swab and an old stiff brush. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. as well as brass and copper. Detroit. treat it with color. the most expensive.may be made of either brass. therefore. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. though almost any color may be obtained. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. use them in place of the outside nuts.. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. of water in which dissolve. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. Watch Fob For coloring silver. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. --Contributed by W. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. A. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. 1 part sulphuric acid.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. Drying will cause this to change to purple. Michigan. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. File these edges. An Austrian Top [12] . Scranton. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. For etching. allowing each time to dry. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. green and browns are the most popular. If it colors the metal red. Silver is the most desirable but. 1 part nitric acid. be covered the same as the back. Of the leathers. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. after breaking up.

of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. Michigan. 5-1/4 in. Tholl. The handle is a piece of pine. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. is formed on one end. in diameter. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. hole. pass one end through the 1/16-in. set the top in the 3/4 -in. wide and 3/4 in. long. 3/4 in. thick. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. hole in this end for the top. Ypsilanti. --Contributed by J. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. 1-1/4 in. . A 1/16-in. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. allowing only 1-1/4 in. A handle. Parts of the Top To spin the top. When the shank is covered. starting at the bottom and winding upward.F. Bore a 3/4-in. long. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously.

--Contributed by Miss L. A. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. The baking surface. Augusta. --A. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. Ga. having no sides. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. tarts or similar pastry. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. Houghton. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. Alberta Norrell. Mich. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. For black leathers. Northville. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. .

just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. the same as shown in the illustration. says Studio Light. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. two turns will remove the jar. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. Stringing Wires [13] A. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. Mo. then solder cover and socket together. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. glass fruit jar. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. Centralia. When you desire to work by white light.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light .

1-1/4 in. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. square by 12 in. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration.for loading and development. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. 16 Horizontal bars. 4 Braces. They are fastened. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. 4 Vertical pieces. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. square by 62 in. Wis. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. Janesville. 1-1/4 in. as shown in the cross-section sketch. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. and not tip over. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. . so it can be folded up.

C. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. after filling the pail with water. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. After rounding the ends of the studs. Rosenthal. New York. Phillipsburg. The whole. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. If the loop is tied at the proper place. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. O. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. H. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. -Contributed by Charles Stem. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. from scrap material. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. and a loop made in the end. --Contributed by Dr. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. The front can be covered . The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. Cincinnati.

you can turn these very dark prints into good ones.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. thoroughly fix. If the gate is raised slightly. The results will be poor. Baltimore. by all rules of the game. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. Develop them into strong prints. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. the mouth of which rests against a. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. --Contributed by Gilbert A. either for contact printing or enlargements. In my own practice. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. The . principally mayonnaise dressing. By using the following method. sickly one. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. if you try to tone them afterward. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. Wehr. Md. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. 1 FIG. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. the color will be an undesirable. and. you are. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. FIG. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more.

. 2 oz.. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table. preferably the colored kind. in this solution.. When the desired reduction has taken place... --Contributed by T..... San Francisco... where it will continue to bleach... without previous wetting. Iodide of potassium . thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses. The blotting paper can . The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone. 5 by 15 in.... Water .. Gray........... long to admit the angle support... when it starts to bleach. stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax. It will bleach slowly and evenly... They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder.. 1 and again as in Fig. With a little practice......... etc. as it will appear clean much longer than the white. An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in.. Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper... to make it 5 by 5 in. The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper.. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away... A good final washing completes the process. The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished.. Cal.. This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print.. Place the dry print. wide and 4 in. but.... 2. transfer it to a tray of water.. L. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper.. in size. Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects...bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison... 20 gr.. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes... Put one on each corner of the blotting paper. three times. this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain. 16 oz.." Cyanide of potassium . Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig..

having a width of 2-1/4 in. Wisconsin.J. 3. --Contributed by L. Oshkosh. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. the shaft 1 in. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. 20 gauge. wide below the . Canada. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. --Contributed by J. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. Wilson Aldred Toronto.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. and a length of 5 in. Corners complete are shown in Fig. Monahan. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. wide. the head of which is 2 in. Make a design similar to that shown.

1. With the metal shears. using carbon paper. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. then coloring. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. 1 Fig. . Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. After this has dried. then trace the other half in the usual way. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. The metal must be held firmly. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. using turpentine. 3. Apply with a small brush. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. using a small metal saw. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. Pierce a hole with a small drill. which gives the outline of the design Fig. After the sawing. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. 1 part sulphuric acid. Allow this to dry.FIG. Make one-half of the design. 2. Do not put the hands in the solution. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. as shown in Fig. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. then put on a second coat. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. With files. Fig. 4. deep. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. after folding along the center line. freehand. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. being held perpendicular to the work. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. Trace the design on the metal. but use a swab on a stick. 1 part nitric acid. For coloring olive green.

thick. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. East Hartford. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. then stain it a mahogany color. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. Morse. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. Conn. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. --Contributed by Katharine D. When this is cold. Syracuse. New York. Ii is an ordinary staple. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. . The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. --Contributed by H. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. M. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. Carl Cramer. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. attach brass handles. on a chopping board. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. it does the work rapidly. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. --Contributed by M. Burnett. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. After the stain has dried. as shown. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. Cal. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. Richmond.

The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. as shown at A. in width at the shank. WARNECKE Procure some brass. not over 1/4 in. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. also locate the drill holes. 1/4 in. Florida. Fig. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. 4. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. Richmond. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. and several 1/8-in. or tin. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. indicating the depth of the slots. square. L. Cal. thick and 4 in. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. --Contributed by Mrs. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. H. as shown in Fig. some pieces of brass. saucers or pans. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. brass. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes.. thick. . one shaft. 53 steel pens. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. Atwell. about 3/16 in. --Contributed by W. A. Jaquythe. machine screws. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. holes. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. two enameled. 1. Kissimmee.

can be procured. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. 2.. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. as shown. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. into the hole. about 1/32 in. machine screws. a square shaft used. hole is drilled to run off the water. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. The shaft hole may also be filed square. Fig. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. as in Fig. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. as shown in Fig. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. 7. thick. wide. lead should be run into the segments. brass and bolted to the casing. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. Fig. If metal dishes. in diameter and 1/32 in. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. These are connected to a 3/8-in. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. and pins inserted. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. 1. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. hole in the center. A 3/4-in. with a 3/8-in. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. Bend as shown in Fig. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. If the shaft is square. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. long and 5/16 in. 3. with 1/8-in. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. and the ends filed round for the bearings. Fig. 6. using two nuts on each screw. long by 3/4 in. thick. 3. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. There should be a space of 1/16 in. machine screws and nuts. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. each about 1 in. with the face of the disk. 2. hole. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. 5. wide and bend as shown in Fig. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. supply pipe.

Fasten with 3/4-in. three of which are in the basket. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. from the bottom end of the legs. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. square and 30-1/2 in. make these seams come between the two back legs. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. Be sure to have the cover. Canada. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. Cooke. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. from the top of the box. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. La Salle. Ill. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. or more in diameter. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. Now you will have the box in two pieces. 8-1/2 in. Stain the wood before putting in the . With a string or tape measure. Smith. high and 15 in. The four legs are each 3/4-in. using four to each leg. we will call the basket. screws. deep over all. --Contributed by S. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. deep and 1-1/4 in. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. to make the bottom. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. long. When assembling. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. Hamilton. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. The lower part. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. --Contributed by F. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. V.

as shown in the sketch. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. sewing on the back side. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker.2 Fig. 1. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. and gather it at that point. When making the display. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. with the crudest of tools and a little practice.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . you can. --also the lower edge when necessary. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. Packard. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. If all the parts are well sandpapered. wide and four strips 10 in. The folded part in the center is pasted together. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. Cover them with the cretonne. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. Md. Mass. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. Boston. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. wide. 2. Baltimore. -Contributed by Stanley H. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen.lining. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. The side. Sew on to the covered cardboards. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. Fig.

saving all the solid part. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. --Contributed by H. --Contributed by B. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. Mo. Orlando Taylor. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. It is not difficult to . It is cleanly. Crockett. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. Y. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. Gloversville. Fig. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. 3. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. with slight modifications. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. and. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. When through using the pad. N. Cross Timbers. L. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow.

After stirring. it should be new and sharp. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. or if desired. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. and secure it in place with glue or paste. If a file is used. Lane. --Contributed by Edith E. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. El Paso. -Contributed by C. across the face. S. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. are shown in the diagram. Both of these methods are wasteful. Lowell. Bourne. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. Mass. and scrape out the rough parts. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. After this is done. Texas. remove the contents. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell.

Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. F. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall.cooking utensil. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. --Contributed by Loren Ward. Those having houses . Des Moines. Wheeler. As these were single-faced disk records. --Contributed by Geo. The process works well and needs no watching. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. Canton. He captured several pounds in a few hours. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. The insects came to the light. --Contributed by Marion P. A Postcard Rack [25]. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. Oregon. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. Ill. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. Iowa. Turl. Greenleaf. circled over the funnel and disappeared. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. Oak Park. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. Ill. After several hours' drying. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics.

and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. Lay the floor next. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. --Contributed by Wm. boards are preferable. Rosenberg.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. Worcester. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. material. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. not even with the boards themselves. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. plane and pocket knife. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. the bottom being 3/8 in. Dobbins. and as they are simple in design. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. Mass. by 2 ft. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. Glenbrook.. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. but for cheapness 3/4 in. and the second one for the developing bench. will do as well. 6 in. Both sides can be put together in this way. --Contributed by Thomas E. Conn. and both exactly alike. the best material to use being matched boards. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. The single boards can then be fixed. Only three pieces are required. one on each side of what will be the .. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. 6 in. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. thick.

the closing side as at B. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig... The developing bench is 18 in. of the top of the door for the same reason. and to the outside board of the sides. The roof boards may next be put on. nailing them to each other at the ridge. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. below which is fixed the sink. 11. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room.doorway. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. 6. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. 10). They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. 2 in section. etc. 6 and 9. It is shown in detail in Fig. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. so that it will fit inside the sink. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. and in the middle an opening. In hinging the door. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. by screwing to the floor. as shown in Figs. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. At the top of the doorway. and should be zinc lined. hinged to it. 9 by 11 in. 7. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. 8. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. and act as a trap for the light. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. 9).. which is fixed on as shown . 5. is cut. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. 6. wide. and the top as at C in the same drawing. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. brown wrapping paper. so that the water will drain off into the sink. 3 and 4. Fig. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig.

Details of the Dark Rook .

mixing flour and water. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. 17. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. 13. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. For beating up an egg in a glass. 14. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. --Contributed by W. preferably maple or ash. as shown in Fig. and a tank stand on it. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . screwing them each way into the boards. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. which makes it possible to have white light. The house will be much strengthened if strips. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. Erie. these being shown in Fig. 20. Fig. The handle should be at least 12 in. Fig. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. or red light as at K. as shown in the sections. if desired. it is better than anything on the market. 13. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. A circular piece about 2 in. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. 19. 16.in Fig. are fastened in the corners inside. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. 15. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. In use. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. 6. and a 3/8-in. 1. but not the red glass and frame. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. 16. 2. or the room may be made with a flat roof. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. as at M. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. Fig. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. as in Fig. Fig. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. Karl Hilbrich. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. though this is hardly advisable. 18. Pennsylvania. hole bored in the center for a handle. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. as at I. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. after lining with brown paper. four coats at first is not too many. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig.

copper should be. Mo. G. Mitchell. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. which. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. --Contributed by Wm. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. Kansas City. New York. as shown in the sketch. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. L. Ark. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. Schweiger. Smith. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. about 3/8 in. --Contributed by L. To operate. Yonkers. -Contributed by E. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. for a handle. when put together properly is a puzzle. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. long. Eureka Springs. D.

A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. 1. the box will require a greater height in front. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. 3. A number of 1/2-in. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. 3. the rustic work should be varnished. as well as improve its appearance. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. Having completed the bare box.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. as shown in Fig. which binds them together. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. . to make it set level. Each cork is cut as in Fig. for the moment. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. as shown in Fig. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. especially for filling-in purposes. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. The corks in use are shown in Fig. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. After the box is trimmed. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. If the sill is inclined. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. need them. in order to thoroughly preserve it. holes should be drilled in the bottom. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. as is usually the case. 2. The design shown in Fig.

can't use poison. drilled at right angles. too dangerous. cabbages. When the corn is gone cucumbers. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. as shown in Fig. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. 3. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. and observe results. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections.. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. life in the summer time is a vexation. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. Traps do no good. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. share the same fate. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. F. Each long projection represents a leg. being partly eaten into. 2. 1. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. But I have solved the difficulty. it's easy. . 4. etc. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place.

Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. cut some of it off and try again. cut in 1/2-in. the coil does not heat sufficiently. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. and made up and kept in large bottles. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. strips. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. . tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. If. About 9-1/2 ft. Iowa. The solution can be used over and over again.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. -. by trial. long. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. of No. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do.

Pa. is a good size--in this compound. and a strip. Doylestown. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. of whiting and 1/2 oz. Y. Do not wash them. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. as shown in the sketch. Fig 2. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. to cause the door to swing shut. of oleic acid with 1 gal. hot-water pot. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. Dallas. but with unsatisfactory results. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. --Contributed by James M. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. forks. Syracuse. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. Knives. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. coffee pot. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. Kane. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. N. Morse. Stir and mix thoroughly. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. D. Texas. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. --Contributed by Katharine D. of gasoline. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. . Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. In cleaning silver. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. C. it falls to stop G. 1) removed. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel.

later fixed and washed as usual. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. Waverly. Ill. . which is. of course.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. La. New Orleans. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. Pa. Harrisburg. but unfixed. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. Sprout. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. --Contributed by Oliver S. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. --Contributed by Theodore L. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. Fisher. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. negatives. using the paper dry.

Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. a harmonograph is a good prescription. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. then . The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. metal. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. The harmonograph. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. Fig. To obviate this difficulty. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. 1. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. In this uncertainty lies the charm. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy.

This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. what is most important. as shown in Fig. to prevent any side motion. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. G.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table.. J. 1. ceiling. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. Chicago. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. and unless the shorter pendulum is. which can be regulated. is attached as shown at H. one-fifth. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . in the center of the circle to be cut. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. --Contributed by James T. K. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. A small weight. as shown in the lower part of Fig. R. Arizona. Ingham. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. 1-3/4 by 2 in. with a nail set or punch. 1. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. such as a shoe buttoner. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. is about right for a 10-ft. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. A pedestal. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. Rosemont. in diameter. or the lines will overlap and blur.. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. Punch a hole.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. A small table or platform. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. Another weight of about 10 lb. that is. for instance. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. The length of the short pendulum H. A length of 7 ft. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. Holes up to 3 in. of about 30 or 40 lb. provides a means of support for the stylus. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. makes respectively 3. exactly one-third. one-fourth. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. --Contributed by Wm. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. etc. Gaffney. as long as the other. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. A weight.

The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. and proceed as before. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig.H. distributing them over the whole card. The capacity of the vise. 1. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. Fig. and 4 as in Fig. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made.J. Cape May City. 2. N. dividing them into quarters. 5. --Contributed by J. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. 3. then 3 as in Fig. -Contributed by W. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. Chicago. of course. 4. The two key cards are made alike. then put 2 at the top. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. Morey. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. Fig. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. a correspondent of . and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter.J. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. one for the sender and one for the receiver. Cruger. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. 6.

--Contributed by L. from the top and bottom. sheet of well made asbestos paper. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. 22 gauge German-silver wire. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. deep. Wind the successive turns of . remove the prints. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. respectively. 1/2 oz. wood-screws. 30 gr. Ga. citrate of iron and ammonia. If constructed of the former. After securing the tint desired. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. long. of water. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. of the uprights. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. Alberta Norrell. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. 6 gauge wires shown. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. says Popular Electricity. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. of ferricyanide of potash. the portion of the base under the coil. Augusta. of 18-per-cent No. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. To assemble. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. acetic acid and 4 oz. Asbestos board is to be preferred. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. Cut through the center. drill 15 holes. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. After preparing the base and uprights. 1/4 in. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make.

then fasten the upright in place. as they are usually thrown away when empty. The case may be made of 1/2-in. Small knobs may be added if desired. 14 gauge. Y. if one is not a smoker. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. screws. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . These may be procured from electrical supply houses. 16 gauge copper wire. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. Ward. etc. Labels of some kind are needed. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. Ampere. but these are not necessary. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. N. which. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. rivets. --Contributed by Frederick E. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No.. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. square. cut and dressed 1/2 in. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration.

tinner's acid. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. --C. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. and rub the point of the copper on it. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. zinc. Heat it until hot (not red hot). B. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. S. as shown in the sketch. especially if a large tub is used. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. Wis. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. Larson. C. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. then to the joint to be soldered. E and F. A. brass. the pure muriatic acid should be used. G. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. being careful about the heat. D. or has become corroded. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. . melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. The parts are put together with dowel pins. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. In soldering galvanized iron. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub.14 oz. galvanized iron. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. and labeled "Poison. it must be ground or filed to a point.. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. --Contributed by W. sandpaper or steel wool. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. Kenosha. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. Copper. particularly so when the iron has once been used. of glycerine to 16 oz. Eureka Springs. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. Richmond. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. and one made of poplar finished black. Ark. California. of water. The material can be of any wood. --Contributed by A. If the soldering copper is an old one. a piece of solder. lead. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. Jaquythe. tin. This is considerable annoyance. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper.

How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. and drill out the threads. 2. in diameter. in diameter. brass and silver. -Contributed by H. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. N. Hankin. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. This will leave a clear hole. Fig. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. a ring may be made from any metal. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. W. Y. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. such as copper. wide. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. thick and 1-1/4 in. with good results. Brass rings can be plated when finished. nut. C. I bind my magazines at home evenings. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . Troy. Take a 3/4-in. This completes the die. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. 7/8 in. D. 1. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. round iron. Six issues make a well proportioned book. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. which gives two bound volumes each year. however. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. Place the band. The covers of the magazines are removed. B. Fig. The dimensions shown in Fig. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. Apart from this. The punch A. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. The disk will come out pan shaped.

the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. is nailed across the top. as shown in Fig. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. deep. on all edges except the back. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. 1. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. of the ends extending on each side. The sections are then prepared for sewing. The covering should be cut out 1 in. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. 5. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. C. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. using . Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle.4. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. After drawing the thread tightly. Coarse white thread. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. 1 in Fig. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. Five cuts. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. and then to string No. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. 1. size 16 or larger. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. The string No. is used for the sewing material. If started with the January or the July issue. threaded double. which is fastened the same as the first. Place the cardboard covers on the book. and a third piece. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. 2. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. . leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. allowing about 2 in. then back through the notch on the right side. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. Start with the front of the book. 2. and place them against the strings in the frame. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. The covering can be of cloth. 1/8 in. 1. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. through the notch on the left side of the string No.

For the blade an old talking-machine . fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. Tinplate. Divine. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. Nebr. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. Encanto. and mark around each one. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. on which to hook the blade. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. Place the cover on the book in the right position. at opposite sides to each other. and. round iron. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. College View. --Contributed by Clyde E.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. Cal.

fuse hole at D. A. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. and 1/4 in. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. Moorhead. or double extra heavy. bore.. with 10 teeth to the inch. Miss. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. E. and file in the teeth. at the same end. and a long thread plug. thick. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. and another piece (B) 6 in.. B. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. C. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. -Contributed by Willard J. and 1/4 in. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. with a steel sleeve. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. Make the blade 12 in. by 1 in. Summitville. as shown. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. On the upper side. Then on the board put . To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. in order to drill the holes in the ends. thick. long. by 4-1/2 in. Hays. as it is sometimes called. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. Ohio. F.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. hydraulic pipe.

18 gauge wire for the wiring. of wire to each coil. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. If you are going to use a current of low tension. Connect up as shown. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. 4 jars.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . of rubber-covered wire. the jars need not be very large. about 5 ft. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. as from batteries. H. high around this apparatus. Philadelphia. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. and some No. Boyd. A lid may be added if desired. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. using about 8 in. some sheet copper or brass for plates. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. --Contributed by Chas. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal.

The illustration shows how to shape it.. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. are important. 3 in. two for each jar. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. long. 1. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. oak boards. & S. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. The top disk in jar No. wide and 3/4 in. sheet brass 1 in. Equip block X with screw eyes.. 3. 15-1/2 in. square by 14 ft. making them clear those in the front runner. is used to reduce friction. 7 in. by 5 in. C. on No. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. wide and 2 in. For the front runners these measurements are: A.. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. long. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. two pieces 14 in. 30 in. wide by 3/4 in. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. apart. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. Construct the auto front (Fig. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. The connection between point No. as they "snatch" the ice. 27 B. and plane it on all edges. 2 in. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. direct to wire across jars. Their size also depends on the voltage. two pieces 30 in. On the door of the auto front put the . long. however. 4) of 3/4-in. by 6 in. 3 and No. and four pieces 14 in. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. 5 on switch. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. two pieces 34 in. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. beginning at the rear. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. by 1-1/4 in. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch.. 11 in. 2. as they are not substantial enough. An iron washer.. The current then will flow through the motor. and for the rear runners: A. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. See Fig. . 1 on switch.. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. by 1 in. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. Use no nails. Put arm of switch on point No. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. 34 in. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. 4 in. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. thick. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. B. or source of current. by 2 in. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. 2 and 3. A 3/4-in. 2. For the brass trimmings use No.. 1 is connected to point No. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. 1 and so on for No. by 1-1/4 in. Use no screws on the running surface. wide. These are to keep the cushion from falling out.the way. First sandpaper all the wood. 2. with the cushion about 15 in. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. Z. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. by 5 in. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. The sled completed should be 15 ft. by 2 in. thick. gives full current and full speed. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. above the ground. steel rod makes a good steering rod. then apply a coat of thin enamel. 16-1/2 in. 4. B. At the front 24 or 26 in. long. The stock required for them is oak. A variation of 1/16 in. No. In proportioning them the points A. Fig. long by 22 in. C. 2 is lower down than in No. To wire the apparatus. and bolt through. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. B and C.

lunch. overshoes. may be stowed within. If desired. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. such as used on automobiles. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. If desired.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. by 30 in. cheap material. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . long. etc. The best way is to get some strong. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. parcels. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. cutting it out of sheet brass. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. which is somewhat moist. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. fasten a cord through the loop. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. If the expense is greater than one can afford. Then get some upholstery buttons. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. Fasten a horn. by 1/2 in. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. a brake may be added to the sled. such as burlap. a number of boys may share in the ownership. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. to improve the appearance. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. brass plated. or with these for $25. to the wheel. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance.

Leland. --Contributed by Stewart H. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same.tree and bring. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. Lexington. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. Ill. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. .

and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. say 1 in. CD. The Model Engineer. Draw a circle on paper. A small clearance space. though more difficult. sheet metal. With no other tools than a hacksaw. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. 4). A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. 2. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . some files. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. 3. so that the center of the blade. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. The first tooth may now be cut. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. This guide should have a beveled edge. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. FC. with twenty-four teeth. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. Fig. which. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. The straight-edge. from F to G. Fig. First take the case of a small gearwheel. will be over the line FG. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. London. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. the cut will be central on the line. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. by drawing diameters. Fig. made from 1/16-in. a compass. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. outside diameter and 1/16 in. thick. the same diameter as the wheel. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. E. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. mild steel or iron. when flat against it. 1. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle.

The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. B. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. hold in one hand. transmitter. and the other outlet wire. If there is no faucet in the house.Four Photos on One Plate of them. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. Make a hole in the other. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. No shock will be perceptible. some wire and some carbons. . place the prepared slide with the corner cut. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. or several pieces bound tightly together. 1. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. R. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. 2. each in the center. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. Then take one outlet wire. B. 1. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. electric lamp. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. Focus the camera in the usual manner. ground it with a large piece of zinc. as shown in Fig. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. as shown in Fig. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. A bright. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. either the pencils for arc lamps. as shown in Fig.

or more of the latter has been used. Ashland. 36 wire around it. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. --Contributed by Geo. B. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. under the gable. leaving about 10 in. Emsworth. serves admirably. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. Pa. as indicated by E E. One like a loaf of bread. a transmitter which induces no current is used. are also needed. at each end for terminals. and again wind the wire around it. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. If desired. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. But in this experiment. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. D D are binding posts for electric wires. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. and will then burn the string C. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. They have screw ends. one at the receiver can hear what is said. Dry batteries are most convenient. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. and about that size. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. Wrenn. by 12 in. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. Several battery cells. as shown. of course. A is a wooden block. Slattery. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. Then set the whole core away to dry. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. For a base use a pine board 10 in. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . J. Ohio. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. by 1 in. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core.

B B. D. C. connecting lamp receptacles. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. while C is open. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. Jr. D. 2. 1.wire. as shown. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. At one side secure two receptacles. and switch. the terminal of the coil. These should have hollow ends. The apparatus is now ready for operation. and one single post switch. Place 16-cp. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. Ohio. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. F. until the hand points to zero on the scale. 12 or No. run a No. in series with bindingpost. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. The coil will commence to become warm. as shown. Fig. 14 wire. E. B B. in parallel. and the lamps. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. The oven is now ready to be connected. C. Connect these three to switch. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. Turn on switch. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer.. From the other set of binding-posts. for the . Fig. First make a support. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. Newark.

consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. To make one. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. If for 3-way. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. Fig. Montreal. E. Fig. long and make a loop.E. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. is then made and provided with a glass front. 4 in. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. C. but if for a 4way. 14. long. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. a variable resistance. wide and 1-3/4 in. 1/2 in. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. B. although copper or steel will do. This is slipped on the pivot. 1/4 in. etc.or 4-way valve or cock. 36 magnet wire instead of No. is made of wire. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. 3. where A is the homemade ammeter. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. and D. D. remove the valve. from the lower end. 1.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. inside measurements. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. high. It is 1 in. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. thick. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. a standard ammeter. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. drill a hole as shown at H. 14 wire.. Fig.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. 6. D. to prevent it turning on the axle. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. 1. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. Dussault. 3 amperes. 10 turns to each layer. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. drill through the entire case and valve. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by J. 2. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. wind with plenty of No. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. At a point a little above the center. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. drill in only to the opening already through. long. is made of iron. The box is 5-1/2 in. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. although brass is better. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. a battery. 4 amperes. The pointer or hand. After drilling. 4. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. The core. Fig. until the scale is full. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. Mine is wound with two layers of No. 7. This may be made of wood. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. A wooden box. wide and 1/8 in. 5. deep. as shown in the cut. Make the wire 4-1/2 in.

Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. A. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. and the arc light. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large.performing electrical experiments. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. provided with a rubber stopper. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. in thickness . One wire runs to the switch. This stopper should be pierced. B. D. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. F. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. E. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. which is used for reducing the current. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. and a metal rod. By connecting the motor. To start the light. making two holes about 1/4 in. and the other connects with the water rheostat. as shown. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. high. in diameter.

connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. 2. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. long.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. 1. If all adjustments are correct. as shown in B. Having fixed the lead plate in position. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. Turn on the current and press the button. 1. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. 1. Carthage. Y. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. B. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. N. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. Jones. 2. Fig. If the interrupter does not work at first. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. where he is placed in an upright open . Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. A piece of wood. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. Fig. as shown in C. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. --Contributed by Harold L. To insert the lead plate. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. A. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. Having finished the interrupter. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. As there shown. Fig. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. Fig. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings.

and can be bought at Japanese stores. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. the illusion will be spoiled. The model. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. light-colored garments. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry.. If it is desired to place the box lower down. especially L. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. with the exception of the glass. as the entire interior. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. within the limits of an ordinary room. and wave his arms up and down. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. L and M. especially the joints and background near A. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. If everything is not black. giving a limp. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view.coffin. inside dimensions. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. All . other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. Its edges should nowhere be visible. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. A. from which the gong has been removed. The lights. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. until it is dark there. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. which can be run by three dry cells. could expect from a skeleton. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. The glass should be the clearest possible. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. A white shroud is thrown over his body. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. The skeleton is made of papier maché. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. They need to give a fairly strong light. and must be thoroughly cleansed. by 7 in. by 7-1/2 in. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. should be miniature electric lamps. high. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. loosejointed effect. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. should be colored a dull black. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. dressed in brilliant. is constructed as shown in the drawings. to aid the illusion. figures and lights.

Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. square block. placed about a foot apart. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. after which it assumes its normal color. as shown in the sketch. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. If a gradual transformation is desired. a double-pointed rheostat could be used.that is necessary is a two-point switch. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. Cal. San Jose. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. Two finishing nails were driven in. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. --Contributed by Geo. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. fat spark. W. Fry.

or a solution of sal soda. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. A (see sketch). Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. New York. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. F. as shown. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. -Contributed by Dudley H. B and C. with two tubes. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. In Fig. This is a wide-mouth bottle. 1. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. One of these plates is connected to metal top. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. and should be separated about 1/8 in. hydrogen gas is generated. soldered in the top. The plates are separated 6 in. Cohen. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. to make it airtight.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. the remaining space will be filled with air. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. into the receiver G. If a lighted match . and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. In Fig. by small pieces of wood. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar.

of No. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . copper pipe. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. as is shown in the illustration. long. N. A. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. or by direct contact with another magnet. London. long. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. and the ends of the tube. is made by drilling a 1/8in. N. then a suitable burner is necessary. A. copper pipe. 1. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. C C. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. 1-5/16 in. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. One row is drilled to come directly on top. If desired. from the bottom. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. A. Fig. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. in diameter and 6 in. which forms the vaporizing coil. P. A nipple. says the Model Engineer. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. A. 36 insulated wire. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. is then coiled around the brass tube. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. either by passing a current of electricity around it. by means of the clips. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. Fig.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. A 1/64-in. which is plugged up at both ends. A piece of 1/8-in. 2 shows the end view. should be only 5/16 of an inch. The distance between the nipple. B. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. 1/2 in. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D.

leaving the folded edge uncut. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. trim both ends and the front edge. cut to the size of the pages. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. 3. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). but if the paper knife cannot be used. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. 1/4 in. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. boards and all. Fig. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . larger all around than the book. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. A disk of thin sheet-iron. fold and cut it 1 in. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. longer and 1/4 in. with a fine saw. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. 2). While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. taking care not to bend the iron. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. Take two strips of stout cloth. Fig. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. duck or linen. smoothly. Fig. this makes a much nicer book.lamp cord. Turn the book over and paste the other side. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. at the front and back for fly leaves. 1. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. should be cut to the diameter of the can. about 8 or 10 in. Cut four pieces of cardboard.

which will just slip inside the little can. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. and a little can. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. This will cause some air to be enclosed. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. B. H. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. E.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. Parker. 18 in. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. Va. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. in diameter and 30 in. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. A gas cock. Bedford City. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. of tank A is cut a hole. but its diameter is a little smaller. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. --Contributed by Joseph N. as shown in the sketch. is perforated with a number of holes. . It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. In the bottom. is turned on it. Another tank. A. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. without a head. pasting them down (Fig. or rather the top now. --Contributed by James E. as shown. deep. the joint will be gas tight. C. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. Ont. Toronto. 4). Noble. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. is fitted in it and soldered. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. is soldered onto tank A. D. is made the same depth as B. Another can. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank.

J. If the back armature. tacks. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. 1. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. which moves to either right or left. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. The wiring diagram. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. The diagonal struts. basswood or white pine. The bridle knots. Beverly. C. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. If the pushbutton A is closed. The armature. thus adjusting the . are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. B. square by 42 in. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. B. to prevent splitting. when finished. B. should be 1/4 in. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. Fig. Fig. A. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. and about 26 in. long. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. D. and the four diagonal struts. N. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. by 1/2 in. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. S. making the width. should be 3/8 in. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. The small guards.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. and sewed double to give extra strength. Bott. E. fastened in the bottom. D. should be cut a little too long. H is a square knot. -Contributed by H. are shown in detail at H and J. exactly 12 in. shows how the connections are to be made. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. long. which may be either spruce.. as shown at C. A A. The longitudinal corner spines. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. 2. with an electric-bell magnet.

If the kite is used in a light wind. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. Clay Center. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. thus shortening G and lengthening F. for producing electricity direct from heat. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. that refuse to slide easily. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. the batteries do not run down for a long time. Closing either key will operate both sounders. D. and if a strong wind is blowing. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. --Contributed by Edw. however. with gratifying results. to prevent slipping. Harbert. can be made of a wooden . In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. shift toward F. Chicago. Kan. Stoddard. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high.lengths of F and G. --Contributed by A. and. A bowline knot should be tied at J. E. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. as shown.

driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. in position. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. which conducts the current into the cannon. The connections should all be soldered to give good results.. E. A. When the cannon is loaded. Then. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. B. by means of machine screws or. placed on top. 14 or No. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. E. and also holds the pieces of wood. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. spark. to the cannon. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. C. C. Chicago. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. or parallel with the compass needle. 16 single-covered wire. A. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. with a number of nails. with a pocket compass. A and B. and the current may then be detected by means. C. The wood screw. --Contributed by A. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. A. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. D. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon.frame. F. Fasten a piece of wood. if there are no trunnions on the cannon.

L. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. Big Rapids. 1.the current is shut off. To lock the door. To unlock the door. Marion. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. in this position the door is locked. within the reach of the magnet. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. . to receive the screw in the center. square and 3/8 in. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. Mich. A hole for a 1/2 in. 1. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. Fig. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. --Contributed by Henry Peck. H. --Contributed by Joseph B. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. now at A' and S'. Chicago. screw is bored in the block. Connect as shown in the illustration. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. when in position at A'. B. A. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. press the button. A and S. Keil. Ohio. Bend the strips BB (Fig. 1. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. A and S. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. In Fig. requiring a strong magnet. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. where there is a staple. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. Fig. To reverse. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. with the long arm at L'. but no weights or strings. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L.

J. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. When the holes are finished and your lines set. long. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. about 18 in. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. Thread the other end of the pipe.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. Mass. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. gas-pipe. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. and if desired the handles may . and if the device is to be used on a polished table. or for microscopic work. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. and may be made at very slight expense. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. Rand. and C is a dumbbell. West Somerville. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. if enameled white on the concave side. pipe with 1-2-in. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. The standard and base. hole. --Contributed by C. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. When ready for use. put in the handle. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. are enameled a jet black. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple.

B. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. --Contributed by C. high by 1 ft. E. 1. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. A. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. with a cover. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. Mass. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. Make a cylindrical core of wood. as shown at A in the sketch. M. This peculiar property is also found in ice. Fig. Warren. 8 in. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1.be covered with leather. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. 1. across. inside the pail. Fig. D. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . long and 8 in. across.. North Easton. which shall project at least 2 in.

and varnish. sand. cutting the hole a little smaller. and graphite. W. If the cover of the pail has no rim. When lighted. 1330°. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. C. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. Wind about 1/8 in. This done. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. thick. pipe. diameter. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. bottom and sides. Line the pail. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. pack this space-top. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. and your kiln is ready for business. C. Set aside for a few days until well dried. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. 25%. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. and 3/4 in. of fine wire. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. about 1 in. 3) with false top and bottom. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. 1). full length of iron core. E. After finishing the core. After removing all the paper. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. 1). Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. Fit all the parts together snugly. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in.mixture of clay. in diameter. pipe 2-ft. in diameter. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. 15%. to hold the clay mixture. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in.-G. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. say 1/4 in. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. The 2 in. make two wood ends. the point of the blue flame. strip of sheet iron. the firing should be gradual. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. and 3/8 in. 2. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. if you have the materials. 2 in. layer of the clay mixture. but it will burn a great deal of gas. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. carefully centering it. Cover with paper and shellac as before. 1390°-1410°.. but will be cheaper in operation. which is the hottest part. and cut it 3-1/2 in. thick. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. hard porcelain. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. 60%. as is shown in the sketch. and with especial caution the first time. C. Whatever burner is used. Fig. passing wire nails through and clinching them.. long over the lid hole as a chimney. long. or make one yourself. It is placed inside the kiln. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. as dictated by fancy and expense.. hotel china. if there is to be any glazing done. let this dry thoroughly. such . and on it set the paper wrapped core. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. wider than the kiln. projecting from each end (Fig. L. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in.

The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. around the coil. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. as in Fig. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. red and black. diameter. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. as shown in the sketch herewith. Then take the black cards. --Contributed by J. all cards facing the same way. You can display either color called for.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. A. and divide it into two piles. every alternate card being the same color. with a plane. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. the next black.. as in Fig. B. Of course. R. The funnel. 2. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. C. 8 in. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. 2. square them up. . Take the red cards. taking care to have the first card red. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. Then. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. procure a new deck. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. and so on. C. leaving long terminals. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. and plane off about 1/16 in. D. Chicago. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. C. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. length of .53 in. bind tightly with black silk. Next restore all the cards to one pack. and discharges into the tube. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. 1. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. 2). T. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. overlaps and rests on the body. about 1/16 in. Washington. square them up and place in a vise.

the same ends will come together again. E. A. A. and this is inexpensive to build. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. It should be placed in an exposed location. stove bolts. thus making all the holes coincide.. through the holes already drilled. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. stove bolts. 1 gill of litharge. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. Long Branch. F. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. Let . It is well not to attempt building a very large one. 1 gill of fine white sand. B. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. to form a dovetail joint as shown. N. The cement. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. about 20 in. E. Drill all the horizontal pieces. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. Fig. as the difficulties increase with the size. so that when they are assembled. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. All the horizontal pieces. The upright pieces. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. and then the frame is ready to assemble. the first thing to decide on is the size. of the frame. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. B.J. 1. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents.C. C. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. B. D. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. To find the fall of snow. The bottom glass should be a good fit. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. When the glass is put in the frame a space. angle iron for the frame.

a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. a centerpiece (A. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. Aquarium Finished If desired. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. A. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. D. on the door by means of a metal plate. and. B. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. to the door knob. Fasten the lever. having a swinging connection at C. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. if desired. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . Fig. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium.

1. They are shown in Fig. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. AA. according to the slant given C. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. several lengths of scantling 3 in. with a water pressure of 70 lb. I referred this question to my husband.. hoping it may solve the same question for them. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. wide . to form the slanting part. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. Fig. 1. F. Fig. wide by 1 in. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. thus doing away with the spring. Buffalo. 2 ft. E. Fig. will open the door about 1/2 in. 6 in. A small piece of spring brass. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. soldered to the end of the cylinder. B. screwed to the door frame. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. another. Do not fasten these boards now. N. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. To make the frame. Cut two of them 4 ft. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. showing the paddle-wheel in position. long. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. approximately 1 ft. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. 2 is an end view. for the top. as at E. Fig. D. to keep the frame from spreading. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. C. 2 at GG. Two short boards 1 in. long. 1 . but mark their position on the frame. Fig. which is 15 in. to form the main supports of the frame. Y. and Fig. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. Fig. 3 shows one of the paddles. Cut two pieces 30 in. White. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. 26 in. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. and another. PAUL S. from the outside top of the frame. long. long. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. another. 1 is the motor with one side removed. --Contributed by Orton E. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically.

from one end by means of a key. (I. Drill 1/8-in. and drill a 1-in. in diameter. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. 2) and another 1 in. hole through them. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. take down the crosspieces. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. Fig. Now block the wheel. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. pipe. hole through their sides centrally. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in.burlap will do -.along the edges under the zinc to form . holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. Fig. Tack one side on. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. Fasten them in their proper position. that is. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. by 1-1/2 in. tapering from 3/16 in. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. hole through the exact center of the wheel. hole through its center. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. long to the wheel about 8 in. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. remove the cardboard.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. When it has cooled. hole to form the bearings. iron 3 by 4 in. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. GG. Fig. holes. and drill a 1/8-in. These are the paddles. 24 in. then drill a 3/16-in. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. Make this hole conical. steel shaft 12 in. thick (HH. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. hole from the tops to the 1-in. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. and a 1/4 -in. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. 2) with a 5/8-in. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. iron. as shown in Fig. Take the side pieces. with the wheel and shaft in place. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. Next secure a 5/8-in. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. long and filling it with babbitt metal. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. 4. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). 2) form a substantial base. 1. to a full 1/2 in. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. after which drill a 5/8 in. thick.

Raise the window shade half way.a water-tight joint. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. on the lens. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. Do not stop down the lens. as this makes long exposure necessary. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. It is obvious that. of course. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. ice-cream freezer. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. but as it would have cost several times as much. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. . Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. If the bearings are now oiled. drill press. any window will do. but now I put them in the machine. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. says the Photographic Times. Focus the camera carefully. start the motor. it would be more durable. as shown in the sketch at B. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. shutting out all light from above and the sides. and as near to it as possible. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. sewing machine. remove any white curtains there may be. and leave them for an hour or so. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. place the outlet over a drain. or what is called a process plate. Correct exposure depends. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. Darken the rest of the window. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. The best plate to use is a very slow one. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. If sheet-iron is used. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. light and the plate. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. and the subject may move. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. Drill a hole through the zinc.

D. or can be taken from an old magnet. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. which is made of iron and cork. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. a core. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. or an empty developer tube. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. by twisting. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. A. and without fog. and a base. 2. 2. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. On completing . as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. as a slight current will answer. C. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. B. without detail in the face. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. full of water. the core is drawn down out of sight. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. The glass tube may be a test tube. With a piece of black paper. with binding posts as shown. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. The current required is very small. an empty pill bottle may be used. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. hard rubber. as shown in Fig. a glass tube. until the core slowly rises. or wood. The core C.

and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. 1 pt. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. water and 3 oz. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. is Benham's color top. and make a pinhole in the center. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. The colors appear different to different people. according to his control of the current. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. finest graphite. whale oil.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. and are changed by reversing the rotation. This is a mysterious looking instrument. 1. 1 lb. white lead. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. and one not easy to explain.

A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. deuce. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. before cutting.B. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . B. -Contributed by D.. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. or three spot. nearly every time. Chicago. thus partly filling bottles A and C. In prize games. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. fan-like. when the action ceases. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. A. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. especially if the deck is a new one. In making hydrogen. As this device is easily upset.L. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. C. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken.

Make the saw cut along the line of the crack.. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. .requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. 2. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. W. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. 3). 12 in. in diameter. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. (Fig. --Contributed by F. Make a 10-sided stick. as shown in Fig. 10 in. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. Fig. Fig. 4. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. 1. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. that will fit loosely in the tube A. 9 in. J. in length and 3 in. long and 3 in.. Jr. Detail of Phonograph Horn . Dak. Bently. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. S. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. S. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. --Contributed by C. Detroit. long. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. Huron. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. Form a cone of heavy paper.

It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. about the size of a leadpencil. bend it at right angles throughout its length. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the .The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. A second piece of silk thread. with a pin driven in each end. A piece of tin. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. Denver. 6. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. but bends toward D. long. E. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. push back the bolt. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. allowing 1 in. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. Cut out paper sections (Fig. Fortunately. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. --Contributed by Reader. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. and walk in. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. making it three-ply thick. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. Remove the form. C. Fig. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. A. it is equally easy to block that trick. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. on one side and the top. will cause an increased movement of C.

The feet. are made 2 by 4 in. S S. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. By this arrangement one. long. and rest on a brick placed under each end. S. --Contributed by J. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. Jr. is connected each point to a battery. R. W. Two wood-base switches. Minn. long. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire.strip.. posts. as shown. or left to right. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. Paul. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . The 2 by 4-in. Fremont Hilscher. The reverse switch. West St. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. 4 ft. are 7 ft.. while the lower switch. The upper switch. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. will last for several years. A. put together as shown in the sketch. S. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. B. B. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch.

and the bearing B is fastened by staples. The steam chest D. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. the other parts being used for the bearing B. with two washers. The valve motion is shown in Figs. thick. and has two wood blocks. which will be described later. or anything available. In Fig. Fig. Fig. 2. which is made of tin. The hose E connects to the boiler. either an old sewing-machine wheel. is an old bicycle pump. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. and a cylindrical . The base is made of wood. the size of the hole in the bearing B. and in Fig. H and K. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. The piston is made of a stove bolt. 2 and 3. 1. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. E. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. 3/8 in. and the crank bearing C. and valve crank S. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. pulley wheel. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. FF. cut in half. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel.every house. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A.

or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. G. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. . using the positive wire as a pen. Eustice. The valve crank S. This is wound with soft string. Fig. 4. Schuh and A. at that.piece of hard wood. Fig. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. can be an old oil can. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. as shown in Fig. of Cuba. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. 3. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. --Contributed by Geo. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. Wis. and a very amusing trick. 1. powder can. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. C. Fry. Cal. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. J. is cut out of tin. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. W. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. The boiler. or galvanized iron. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. and the desired result is obtained. San Jose. This engine was built by W. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. as it is merely a trick of photography. First. to receive the connecting rod H. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. and saturated with thick oil. G.

to cross in the center. Cut half circles out of each stave. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. B. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. They may be of any size. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. Fig. 1 will be seen to rotate. C. B. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. When turning. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. and Fig. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. Fig. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. Fig.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. 1 by covering up Figs. as shown. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. and pass ropes around . If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. and place a bell on the four ends. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. The smaller wheel. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. as shown at AA. diameter.

such as clothes lines. --Contributed by H. W. procure a wooden spool. This in turn will act on the transmitter. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. Mo. produces a higher magnifying power). St. which accounts for the sound. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. as shown in the illustration. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. from the transmitter.. To make this lensless microscope. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. From a piece of thin . long. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. A (a short spool. Louis.M.G. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. which allows the use of small sized ropes. but not on all. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in.

is made of iron. fastened to a wooden base. An innocent-looking drop of water. as in all microscopes of any power. bent as shown. held at arm's length. or 64 times. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. D. i. if the distance is reduced to one-third. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. place a small object on the transparent disk. To use this microscope. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. by means of brads. reveals hundreds of little infusoria.. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. the object should be of a transparent nature. Viewed through this microscope.) But an object 3/4-in. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. is fastened at each end by pins. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. . and at the center. the diameter will appear three times as large.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. which costs little or nothing to make. otherwise the image will be blurred. D.. E. 2. C. C. Fig. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. The pivot. (The area would appear 64 times as large. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. H. B. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. can be made of brass and the armature. A. 1. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. The spring. cut out a small disk. in which hay has been soaking for several days. darting across the field in every direction. the diameter will appear twice as large. The lever. which are pieces of hard wood. and look through the hole D. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. B. if the distance is reduced to one-half. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. e. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. and so on. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. 3.

nail soldered on A. is cut from a board about 36 in. wood: F. D. and are connected to the contacts. in length and 16 in. K. B. wide. wide and set in between sides AA. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. long by 16 in. D. wood: C. The door. . 2. coils wound with No. KEY-A. or taken from a small one-point switch. C. F. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. long and 14-1/2 in. DD. similar to the one used in the sounder. 26 wire: E. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. Each side. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. wide. The base of the key. 16 in. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. or a single piece. E. 1. brass: B. FF. wide. C.SOUNDER-A. Fig. connection of D to nail. A. brass: E. HH. B. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. A switch. soft iron. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. AA. The binding posts. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. fastened near the end. wide. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. thick. Fig. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. wide and about 20 in. 16 in. which are made to receive a pivot. The back. long. binding posts: H spring The stop. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. K. wood. brass. between the armature and the magnet. should be about 22 in. D. can be made panel as shown. brass or iron soldered to nail. Cut the top.

from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. as shown in the sketch. brads. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . long. E. with 3/4-in. as shown. Ill. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. When the electrical waves strike the needle. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. Garfield. cut in them. Make 12 cleats. material. In operation. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. AA. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle.. 2 and made from 1/4-in. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. 13-1/2 in.

it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. and. E. --Contributed by John Koehler. in order to increase the surface. will give a greater speed. C. A (see sketch). Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. The cord is also fastened to a lever. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. down into the water increases the surface in contact. Fairport. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. When the pipe is used. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. Ridgewood. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. Brown. when used with a motor. the magnet. filled with water. J. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. through which a piece of wire is passed. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . A. N. Y. A fairly stiff spring. N. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. B. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. Pushing the wire. F. pulls down the armature. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. --Contributed by R.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. A. and thus decreases the resistance.

When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two.for the secret contact. Borden. --Contributed by Perry A. B. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. N. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. Of course. even those who read this description. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. Gachville. if desired. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch.

long and 5 in. for 6-in. from the bottom. wide. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. H. The three shelves are cut 25-in. . E. C. records and 5-5/8 in. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. for 10in. --Contributed by H. Compton. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. J. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. --Contributed by Dr. Mangold. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. 2. From a piece of brass a switch. records. wide. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in.whenever the bell rings. apart. deep and 3/4 in. wide. C. in a semicircle 2 in. Cal. where the other end of wire is fastened. N. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. Dobson. long and full 12-in. Nails for stops are placed at DD. East Orange. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. Washington.. and on both sides of the middle shelf. With about 9 ft. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. The top board is made 28-in. 1. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. Connect switch to post B. Jr. A. thick and 12-in. as shown in Fig. wide. wide. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. as shown in Fig. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. D. Two drawers are fitted in this space.

the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. to which is fastened a cord. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. E. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. as shown by the dotted lines. When the cord is passed over pulley C. which in operation is bent. closed.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. as shown in Fig. B. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . --Contributed by Douglas Royer. Va. A. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. Roanoke. 1.

in diameter. to turn on pins of stout wire. holes (HH. 1 in. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. E. Fig. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. CC. but a larger one could be built in proportion. in diameter. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. In the sides (Fig. square and 7/8 in. they will let the air through. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. as shown in the illustration. 3). thick (A. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. Figs. 4 shows the wheel-holder.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. D. through one of these holes. 1. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. Do not fasten the sides too . wide. Fig. long. which should be about 1/2 in. deep. deep and 1/2 in. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. Now put all these parts together. These wheels should be 3/4 in. thick. Bore two 1/4 in. Fig. 3. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. it too loose. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. Put the rubber tube. 5) when they are placed. Notice the break (S) in the track. The crankpin should fit tightly. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. in diameter. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. B. in diameter. In these grooves place wheels. one in each end. Figs. is compressed by wheels. E. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. If the wheels fit too tightly. Cut two grooves. they will bind. wide. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. excepting the crank and tubing. 1 in. apart. against which the rubber tubing. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels.

A in Fig. The animal does not fear to enter the box. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. Cut six pieces. In the two cross bars 1 in. The three legs marked BBB. as shown in Fig. because he can . and mark for a hole. costing 10 cents. Hubbard. 1. B. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. a platform should be added. 1. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. Fig. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. beyond each of these two. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. 1. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. Idana. from each end. from that mark the next hole. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. To use the pump. the pump will give a steady stream. Fig. mark for hole and 3 in. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. AA. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. For ease in handling the pump. Fig. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. The screen which is shown in Fig. 2. as it gives steadiness to the motion. and are 30 in. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. long. --Contributed by Dan H. from each end. Fig. of material. is all the expense necessary. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. though a small iron wheel is better. If the motion of the wheels is regular. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. Then turn the crank from left to right. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. from the bottom and 2 in. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. 1. iron. Take the center of the bar. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. 17-1/2 in. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. Two feet of 1/4-in. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. from each end. 15 in. the other wheel has reached the bottom. tubing. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. Kan. 1. AA. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. 2. stands 20 in. mark again. and 3-1/2 in. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely.

add slowly. Philadelphia. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. When the bichromate has all dissolved. however. Meyer. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. some of it should be poured out. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. shuts him in. of water dissolve 4 oz. The battery is now ready for use. If the battery has been used before. When through using the battery. The battery is now complete. giving it a bright. silvery appearance. acid 1 part). --Contributed by H. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful.see through it: when he enters. there is too much liquid in the jar. To cause a flow of electricity. and touches the bait the lid is released and. and the solution (Fig. C. long having two thumb screws. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. sulphuric acid. . Then pour the solution into the battery jar. until it is within 3 in. The truncated. but if one casts his own zinc. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. Place the carbon in the jar. potassium bichromate. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. 14 copper wire. dropping. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. or small electric motors. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. 2). It is useful for running induction coils. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. If the solution touches the zinc. 1) must be prepared. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. of the top. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. rub the zinc well. or. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. stirring constantly. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. The mercury will adhere. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. If it is wet. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. 4 oz.

When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. Madison. Wis. After putting in the coal. pressing the pedal closes the door. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. while the coal door is being opened. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. --Contributed by Edward Whitney.. the jump-spark coil . With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. e. however. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. the battery circuit. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. If. The price of the coil depends upon its size. i. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch.Fig.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. with slight changes. which opens the door.

This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. the full length of the coil. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. 6. in a straight line from top to bottom. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. W W. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. in a partial vacuum. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. . 7. while a 12-in. 5. being a 1-in. which is made of light copper wire. This will make an excellent receiver. This coil. 6. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. After winding.7. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. Now for the receiving apparatus. Fig. and closer for longer distances. diameter. as shown in Fig. Change the coil described. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece.described elsewhere in this book. 7. as shown in Fig. W W. apart. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. coil. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. 7). made of No. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig.

and hence the aerial line. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. in the air. are analogous to the flow of induction. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe.6 stranded. No. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. at any point to any metal which is grounded. A large cone pulley would then be required. but simply illustrates the above to show that. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles.The aerial line. A. above the ground. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. . only. as it matches the color well. after all. but it could be run by foot power if desired. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. B the bed and C the tailstock. These circles. using an electric motor and countershaft. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. being vertical. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). The writer does not claim to be the originator. which will be described later. 90°. 1). an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. being at right angles. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. 1 to 4. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. Figs. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. I run my lathe by power. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. may be easily made at very little expense. 90°. Run a wire from the other binding post. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. to the direction of the current. For an illustration. where A is the headstock.

2 and 3. just touching the shaft. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. 5.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. and it is well to have the shaft hot. 4. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. deep. Fig. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. B. steel tubing about 1/8 in. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. 5. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. 6 Headstock Details D. Fig. The bolts B (Fig. The bearing is then ready to be poured. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. The headstock. which pass through a piece of wood. but not hot enough to burn it. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . If the bearing has been properly made. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. 6. which are let into holes FIG. A. After pouring. 4. thick. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. and Fig. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. too. and runs in babbitt bearings. tapered wooden pin. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. on the under side of the bed. Fig. one of which is shown in Fig. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. Heat the babbitt well. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. Fig. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. To make these bearings. pitch and 1/8 in.

Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin.other machines. B. Newark. they may be turned up after assembling. embedded in the wood. of the walk . If one has a wooden walk. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. lock nut. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. the alarm is easy to fix up. FIG. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft.J. N. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. so I had to buy one. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. If not perfectly true. This prevents corrosion. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. The tail stock (Fig. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. Ill.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. A. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. Oak Park. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. Take up about 5 ft. and a 1/2-in.

Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. before dipping them in the potash solution. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. Do not touch the work with the hands again. clean the articles thoroughly. To avoid touching it. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. to roughen the surface slightly. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. and the alarm is complete. Jackson. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. Minn. Connect up an electric bell.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. Minneapolis. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. S. Finally. so that they will not touch. save when a weight is on the trap. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. hang the articles on the wires. add potassium cyanide again. Then make the solution . --Contributed by R. Fig. to remove all traces of grease. 2). add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. water. (A. silver or other metal. leaving a clear solution. of water.

the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. as shown in Fig. with water. but opens the door. zinc. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. which is advised. when the point of the key touches the tin. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. and the larger part (F. a hand scratch brush is good. light strokes. and 4 volts for very small ones. 1 not only unlocks. 18 wire. Before silver plating. 3) directly over the hole. 3) strikes the bent wire L. The wooden catch. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. of clothesline rope and some No. which is held by catch B. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. with water.up to 2 qt. On brass. I. nickel and such metals. 10 in. an old electric bell or buzzer. In rigging it to a sliding door. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. If accumulators are used. Fig. 1. copper. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. Can be made of a 2-in. hole in its center. 1). Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. If more solution is required. a circuit is completed. shaking. long. B should be of the same wood. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. must be about 1 in. about 25 ft. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. German silver. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. Fig. Repeat six times. Fig. Having finished washing the precipitate. A 1/4 in. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. will serve for the key. as at F. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. silver can be plated direct. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. use 2 volts for large articles. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. This solution. The wooden block C. and then treated as copper. 1). --Model Engineer. 1 in. 3. of water. Fig. saw a piece of wood. make a key and keyhole. long. lead. Take quick. square. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. if one does not possess a buffing machine. from the lower end. A (Fig. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. When all this is set up. Then. such metals as iron.5 to 4 volts. With an electric pressure of 3. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. Where Bunsen cells are used. with the pivot 2 in. which . pewter. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. also. piece of broomstick. Make a somewhat larger block (E. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. Screw the two blocks together. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. To provide the keyhole. thick by 3 in.

is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. such as forks. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. some black cloth. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. He removes the bowl from the black box. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. although a little more trouble. In front of you. Heavy metal objects. so much the better. Thus. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. floor. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. is the cut through which the rope runs. the illumination in front must be arranged. sides and end. Fig. and black art reigns supreme. Fig. The box must be altered first. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. surrounding a perfectly black space. the requisites are a large soap box. One end is removed. Next. 2. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. shows catch B. Fig. he points with one finger to the box. or cave. no painting inside is required. the box should be painted black both inside and out. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. spoons and jackknives. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. in his shirt sleeves. H. should be cut a hole. enlarged. 1. heighten the illusion. Next. East Orange. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. half way from open end to closed end. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. H. To prepare such a magic cave. to throw the light toward the audience. he tosses it into the cave. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. H. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. with a switch as in Fig. a few simple tools. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. one-third of the length from the remaining end. On either side of the box. Objects appear and disappear. Receiving the bowl again. Klipstein. Fig. top. some black paint. 2. . and hands its contents round to the audience. and plenty of candles. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. between the parlor and the room back of it.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. One thing changes to another and back again. 0. New Jersey. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. --Contributed by E. which unlocks the door. The interior must be a dead black. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. and finally lined inside with black cloth. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. 1. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. The magician stands in front of this. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. cut in one side. and a slit. 3. with the lights turned low.. B. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. 116 Prospect St.

was identical with this. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. if. a screen must be used. you must have an assistant. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. his confederate behind inserts his hand. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. The audience room should have only low lights. only he. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye.Finally. the room where the cave is should be dark. is on a table) so much the better. and pours them from the bag into a dish. of course. as presented by Hermann. and several black drop curtains. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. one on each side of the box. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. of course. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. Consequently. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. into the eyes of him who looks. The exhibitor should be . which can be made to dance either by strings. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. had a big stage. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. which are let down through the slit in the top. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. and if portieres are impossible. in which are oranges and apples. But illusions suggest themselves. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. The illusion. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen.

making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). c4. or binding posts. b1. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. held down by another disk F (Fig. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. so arranged that. 2. d. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. if you turn handle K to the right. On the disk G are two brass strips. b3. b3. when handle K is turned to one side. terminal c3 will show +. Then. with three brass strips. About the center piece H moves a disk. square. terminal c3 will show . f2. and c2 to the zinc. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. at L. b2. Finally. making contact with them as shown at y. and c4 + electricity. c1. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -..is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. FIG. and c1 – electricity. b2. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. respectively. respectively. A. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. held down on it by two terminals. and a common screw. is shown in the diagram. their one end just slips under the strips b1. 2). A represents a pine board 4 in. 1. c3. vice versa. Fig. as shown in Fig. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. 1. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. e1 and e2. making contact with them. 2. by means of two wood screws. respectively. or b2. by 4 in. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal.a boy who can talk. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. c2.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. held down on disk F by two other terminals.

thus making the message audible in the receiver. Ohio. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. E. -Contributed by A. 1. . By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. Tuttle. and C and C1 are binding posts. 5. from five batteries. when on No. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). When switch B is closed and A is on No. you have the current of one battery. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. from four batteries. 4. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. 3. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. jump spark coil. from three batteries. and then hold the receiver to your ear. and when on No.. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. B is a onepoint switch. when on No. Joerin. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. Newark. --Contributed by Eugene F. Jr. when A is on No. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) .in the connections and providing a suitable antenna.

then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. E. A. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. and placed on the windowsill of the car. A. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. as shown in the sketch. Wis. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. Handy Electric Alarm . of Burlington. A. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. is the device of H. If the thread is tied at the 17-in.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. mark. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position.. La. per second for each second. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. rule. mark. P. The device thus arranged. per second. Thus. B. New Orleans. which may be a button or other small object. Redmond. so one can see the time. and supporting the small weight. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. traveled by the thread. over the bent portion of the rule. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. When you do not have a graduate at hand. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in.

then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. Crafton. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. and with the same result. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. wrapping the wire around the can several times. but may be closed at F any time desired. which illuminates the face of the clock. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. . Then if a mishap comes. soldered to the alarm winder. C. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. Instead. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. --C. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. for a wetting is the inevitable result. Pa. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. --Contributed by Gordon T. B. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. Lane. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. When the alarm goes off. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C.which has a piece of metal. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. S. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point.

The first thing to make is a molding bench. A. and many other interesting and useful articles. If there is no foundry Fig. L. small machinery parts. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. battery zincs. Macey. Two cleats. C. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. --Contributed by A. New York City. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. BE. ornaments of various kinds. bearings. With the easily made devices about to be described. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. cannons. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. engines. as shown in Fig.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. as shown. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. and duplicates of all these. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. models and miniature objects. but it is a mistake to try to do this. which may. binding posts. It is possible to make molds without a bench. 1. 1 . whence it is soon tracked into the house.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . AA. when it is being prepared. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough.

thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. An old teaspoon. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. Fig. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. as shown. H. which should be nailed in. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. 1. previous to sawing.near at hand. 2 . as shown. is shown more clearly in Fig. and this. The flask. 1. a little larger than the outside of the flask. E. will be required. II . and saw it in half longitudinally. try using sand from other sources. CC. A slight shake of the bag Fig. CC. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. is nailed to each end of the cope. by 6 in. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. say 12 in. is about the right mesh. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. If the box is not very strong. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. is made of wood. and the lower pieces. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. DD. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. The dowels.How to Make a Mold [96] . but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. and the "drag. The cloth bag." or upper half. 2. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. F. J. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. by 8 in. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. white metal.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described." or lower part. Fig. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. A wedge-shaped piece. A A. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. the "cope. which can be either aluminum. makes a very good sieve. which can be made of a knitted stocking. and a sieve. G. The rammer. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. is filled with coal dust. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. It is made of wood and is in two halves. If desired the sieve may be homemade. but this operation will be described more fully later on. high. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. D. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal.

A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. where they can watch the molders at work. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. and then more sand is added until Fig. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. the surface of the sand at . but care should be taken not to get it too wet. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. turn the drag other side up. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. in order to remove the lumps. as it is much easier to learn by observation. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. and if water is added. as shown at E. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. Place another cover board on top. After ramming. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. as shown at C. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. or "drag.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. It is then rammed again as before. as shown. and thus judge for himself. In finishing the ramming. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. and scatter about 1/16 in. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. as described." in position. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. The sand is then ready for molding. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. or "cope. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. and by grasping with both hands. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. as shown at D.

which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. as shown at G. wide and about 1/4 in. The "sprue. After drawing the pattern. as shown at H. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. as shown at H. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. and then pour.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. as shown at F. thus holding the crucible securely. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. Fig. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. place the cope back on the drag. in order to prevent overheating. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. Place a brick or other flat. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. in diameter. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. is next cut. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. as shown in the sketch. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. thus making a dirty casting. to give the air a chance to escape. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. This is done with a spoon. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. made out of steel rod. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured." or pouring-hole. as shown at J. III.E should be covered with coal-dust. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. after being poured. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. deep. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. . which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. it shows that the sand is too wet. the next operation is that of melting and pouring.

One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. --Contributed by Harold S. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. may be used in either direction. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. and the casting is then ready for finishing. battery zincs. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. or from any adjacent pair of cells. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. babbitt. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. 15% lead. but any reasonable number may be used. is very desirable. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. Minneapolis. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. the following device will be found most convenient. Referring to the figure. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. although somewhat expensive. white metal and other scrap available.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. and. If a good furnace is available. In my own case I used four batteries. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. Morton. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. used only for zinc. Although the effect in the illustration . In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible.

Then walk down among the audience. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. To make it take a sheet-iron band. 3/4 in. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. A. The brass rings also appear distorted. outward. Chicago.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. as shown at A. Put a sharp needle point. --Contributed by Draughtsman. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. 2. backward. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. Make one of these pieces for each arm. as shown in the illustration. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. shaft made. If desired. Fig. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. which will be sufficient to hold it. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. Then replace the table. B. The bearings. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. By replacing the oars with paddles. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. may be made of hardwood. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. connected by cords to the rudder. B.

This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. If galvanized iron is used. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. D. 3. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. when it will again return to its original state. In the same way. C. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. A. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. but when in motion. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. as shown in Fig. 2 and 3. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. or the paint will come off. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. 1.melted babbitt. The covers. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. spoiling its appearance. If babbitt is used. W. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. as shown in Fig. 1. It may seem strange that ice . ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. A block of ice. being simply finely divided ice. 2. 1. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. Fig. should be made of wood. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. The hubs. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. or under pressure. and a weight. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. Snow. E.

Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. which resembles ice in this respect. but by placing it between books. no matter how slow the motion may be. --Contributed by Gordon T. P. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. thus giving a high resistance contact. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. Pressing either push button. square. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. Pa. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. but. or supporting it in some similar way. Crafton. it will gradually change from the original shape A. as shown on page 65. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . by 1/4. as per sketch. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in.. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. brass. The rate of flow is often very slow. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice.should flow like water. by 1/2 in. Lane. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. by 5 in. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. by 2 in. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. B. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. and assume the shape shown at B. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. sometimes only one or two feet a day. whenever there is any connection made at all. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. in. the large body of ice has to bend in moving.

and five dry batteries. Pa. B. I. In the wiring diagram. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. G. K . J. cord. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. as shown. The parts are: A. alarm clock. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. The success depends upon a slow current. vertical lever. as shown. the battery. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. H. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. pulleys. draft chain. wooden supports. weight. B. Wilkinsburg. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. Indianapolis. the induction coil. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires.thumb screws. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. horizontal lever. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. furnace. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. about the size used for automobiles. E. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. D. draft. Ward. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. and C. F. G. C. A is the circuit breaker.000 ft. --Contributed by A.

A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. Mich. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. material framed together as shown in Fig. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . such as used for a storm window. as well as the bottom. 2 are dressed to the right angle. Artistic Window Boxes The top. will fit nicely in them. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. Kalamazoo. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. 3.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. which will provide a fine place for the plants. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. The frame (Fig. where house plants are kept in the home.

It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. as indicated by Fig. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. N. is something that will interest the average American boy. This is more economical than dry cells. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. i. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. and a suitable source of power. 1 each complete with base. 1. one can regulate the batteries as required. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. in diameter.. The 1/2-cp. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. and will give the . a cork and a needle. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp.. e. which sells for 25 cents. S. can be connected up in series. Halifax. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. and cost 27 cents FIG. as if drawn upon for its total output. but maintain the voltage constant. However. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. in any system of lamps. this must be done with very great caution. by connecting them in series. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. 1 cp. However. where they are glad to have them taken away. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. Grant. Canada. Push the needle into the cork. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it.. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. W. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. Thus. since a battery is the most popular source of power. It must be remembered. after a rest. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. and the instrument will then be complete. in this connection. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. --Contributed by Wm. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. multiples of series of three. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. so as to increase the current.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. for some time very satisfactorily. A certain number of these. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series.

Thus. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. as in Fig. to secure light by this method. lamps. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. according to the water pressure obtainable. where the water pressure is the greatest. if wound for 6 volts. . The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. Chicago. Thus. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. lamp. each. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. FIG. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical.. by the proper combination of these. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. So. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. and diffused light in a room. generates the power for the lights. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. These will give 3 cp. we simply turn on the water. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. and running the series in parallel. 11 series. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. 1-cp. and for Christmas trees. Fig. However. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. making. especially those of low internal resistance. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. which is the same as that of one battery. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. 18 B & S. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. although the first cost is greater. 3. double insulated wire wherever needed. and is wound for any voltage up to ten.proper voltage. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. 2 shows the scheme. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. lamps. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. or 22 lights. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. and then lead No. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. In conclusion. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. for display of show cases. If wound for 10 volts. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose.

Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. or from one pattern. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. Emig. outside points of switch. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. Santa Clara. and C. Cal. Plymouth. thus reversing the machine. A.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. field of motor. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. center points of switch. DD. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. B. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. we were not bothered with them. are cut just alike. --Contributed by F. and the sides. switch. simply change the switch. AA. To reverse the motor. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. bars of pole-changing switch. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. or a tempting bone. Ind. brushes of motor. Parker. the letters indicate as follows: FF. . CC. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. a bait of meat. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. After I connected up my induction coil. as shown in the sketch. B. --Contributed by Leonard E. BB. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. A indicates the ground.

The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. and a table or bench. W. Melchior. Hutchinson. Fry. The button can be hidden. -Contributed by Claude B. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. which is in the door. San Jose.. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. To unlock the door. a piece of string. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. 903 Vine St. When the circuit is broken a weight. If it is not. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. Cal. merely push the button E. attached to the end of the armature B. one cell being sufficient. or would remain locked. The experiment works best . A.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. thus locking the door. a hammer. as it is the key to the lock. Minn.

so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. which pulls the draft open. --Contributed by Geo. attached at the other end. forming a loop. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. in the ceiling and has a window weight. 3. Madison. Ontario. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. releasing the weight. the stick falls away. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. D. 18 Gorham St. Crawford Curry. When the alarm rings in the early morning. Porto Rico. the current flows with the small arrows. W. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. as shown in Fig. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. A.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. P. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. 1). Brockville. Wis. 4). I. the key turns. Canada. 3. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. 2. -. Culebra. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. run through a pulley. On another block of wood fasten two wires.. C.Contributed by F. where it will remain suspended as shown. Tie the ends of the string together. . Schmidt.

S. and the other to the battery. square and 1 in. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. Connect two wires to the transmitter. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. J. thick. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. First. N. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. Farley. The cut shows the arrangement. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. J.. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. Camden. 6 in. get two pieces of plate glass. made with his own hands. or from a bed of flowers. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. --Contributed by Wm. and . or tree. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. D. and break the corners off to make them round. running one direct to the receiver. Jr. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. thence to a switch.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. including the mouthpiece. which fasten to the horn. Use a barrel to work on. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. R. and then to the receiver.

L. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. then take 2 lb.. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. with pitch. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. while walking around the barrel. and is ready for polishing. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. When dry. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. 1. or less. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. Have ready six large dishes. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. Fig. and spread on the glass. as in Fig. in length. twice the focal length away. by the side of the lamp. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper.. using straight strokes 2 in. and a large lamp. or it will not polish evenly. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. melt 1 lb. In a dark room. the coarse grinding must be continued. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. then 8 minutes. wide around the convex glass or tool. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. Then warm and press again with the speculum. Fig. set the speculum against the wall. of water. and label. When done the glass should be semitransparent. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. which is necessary to make it grind evenly.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. a round 4-in. wet till soft like paint. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. 2. Use a binger to spread it on with.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. Fasten. and the under glass or tool convex. unless a longer focal length is wanted. 2. When polishing the speculum. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. spaces. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. so the light . wetting it to the consistency of cream. with 1/4-in. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. A. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. also rotate the glass.

long to the back of the speculum. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use..100 gr. in the bath and leave until the silver rises. with distilled water. add the ammonia solution drop by drop. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. Silver nitrate ……………………………. 840 gr.………………………………. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. 2. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. also how the rays R from a star .. 39 gr. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. Place the speculum. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. 4 oz. Alcohol (Pure) ……………. 25 gr.. that was set aside.. Now add enough of the solution A. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark.. Then add solution B. Fig. longer strokes. Fig. face down. The knife should not be more than 6 in.. cement a strip of board 8 in. or hills. Two glass or earthenware dishes. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. Fig. 2. must be procured. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside.. the speculum is ready to be silvered.……………………………. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. The polishing and testing done. and pour the rest into the empty dish. then ammonia until bath is clear. if a hill in the center. as in K. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade.. If not. the speculum will show some dark rings.. from the lamp. 4 oz. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. When the focus is found. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in.. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. 100 gr. Nitric acid . with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. touched with rouge. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) ….Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film.……………. Solution D: Sugar loaf . Then add 1 oz. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. deep. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. fill the dish with distilled water. With pitch. Place the speculum S. When dry.

How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. two glass prisms. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. which proves to be easy of execution. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. and proceed as for any picture. slightly wider than the lens mount. About 20. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. . with an outlay of only a few dollars. Then I made the one described. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. Thus an excellent 6-in.John E. stop down well after focusing. cover with paper and cloth. The flatter they are the less they will distort. is a satisfactory angle. Place over lens. Mellish. telescope can be made at home. My telescope is 64 in. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. Make the tube I of sheet iron. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. deg. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. long and cost me just $15.. using strawboard and black paper. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold.

Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. says the Master Painter. Zimmerman. B. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. push the button D. complete the arrangement. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. D. To unlock. The paper is exposed. add the plaster gradually to the water. or powdered alum. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. -Contributed by A. Fig. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. then add a little sulphate of potash. Ill. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. . 2. unobstructed light strike the mirror. as shown in Fig. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. through the lens of the camera and on the board. and reflect through the negative. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. Do not stir it. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. 1. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. The rays of the clear. instead of the contrary. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. Boody. but will not preserve its hardening. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. A.

2. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. 2. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. 1). If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. To reverse. throw .Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. Fig. as shown in the sketch. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. Then blow through the spool. as in Fig. so that it can rotate about these points. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. use a string. also provide them with a handle. 3. as at A and B. Fasten on the switch lever. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. but will remain suspended without any visible support. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away.

rinse in alcohol. C C. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. carbon sockets. .Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. binding posts. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. and E E. L. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. North Bend. --Contributed by Geo. In the sketch. as shown in the sketch. Thomas. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. carbons. and rub dry with linen cloth. wash in running water. Go McVicker. Neb. A is the electricbell magnet. Tex. D. although this is not necessary. Tex. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. Push one end of the tire into the hole. San Antonio. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. --Contributed by R. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. the armature. Take out. -Contributed by Morris L. Levy. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. San Marcos. B.

If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. Brooklyn. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. wound evenly about this core. By means of two or more layers of No. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. --Contributed by Joseph B. 14 or No. Bell. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. 16 magnet wire. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. long or more. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. 36 magnet wire. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and .

making two layers. which is an important factor of the coil. the entire core may be purchased readymade. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. A 7/8-in. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. with room also for a small condenser. one piece of the paper is laid down. wide. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. The condenser is next wrapped . each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. at a time. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. as the maker prefers. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. as shown in Fig. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. This makes a condenser which may be folded. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. When cut and laid in one continuous length. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. in length. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. and finally the fourth strip of paper. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. The primary is made of fine annealed No. then the strip of tin-foil. No. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. but if it is not convenient to do this work. 2 yd. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. long and 2-5/8 in.which would be better to buy ready-made. long and 5 in. In shaping the condenser. Beginning half an inch from one end. coil illustrates the general details of the work. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. a box like that shown in Fig. in diameter. 4. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. diameter. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. about 6 in. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. The following method of completing a 1-in. hole is bored in the center of one end. or 8 in. and the results are often unsatisfactory. 1. After the core wires are bundled. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. which is desirable.

and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. the letters indicate as follows: A. ready for assembling. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. round so that the inside . F. go. shelf for clock. copper lever with 1-in. 4 in. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. A. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. and one from battery. I. open switch C. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. to the door. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. E. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. The alarm key will turn and drop down. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. bell. one from bell. B. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. V-shaped copper strip. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. shows how the connections are made. switch. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article.. battery . and the other sheet. long to key. which is insulated from the first.) The wiring diagram. Fig. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. by 12 in. which allows wiring at the back. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. lines H. G. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. spark. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. 3. wide. long and 12 in. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. B. whole length. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. D. forms the other pole or terminal. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. C. flange turned on one side. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types.securely with bands of paper or tape.

induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. but add 5 or 6 oz. instead of close to it. says the Model Engineer. of blue stone. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. Short-circuit for three hours. That is what they are for. 2 in. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed.diameter is 7 in. If desired for use immediately. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. and then rivet the seam. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. from the bottom. but with the circuit. . This is for blowing. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in.. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. Line the furnace. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. London. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. The circuit should also have a high resistance. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. do not shortcircuit. Use a glass or metal shade. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. of zinc sulphate. and the battery is ready for use.

thus producing two different vibrations. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it.9 of a volt. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. g. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. This type of battery will give about 0. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. for others the opposite way. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches.. and therein is the trick. Outside of the scientific side involved. Try it and see. To operate the trick. Ohio. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. changes white phosphorus to yellow. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. Enlarge the hole slightly. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. If too low." which created much merriment. while for others it will not revolve at all. below the bottom of the zinc. If any or your audience presume to dispute. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. and then. At least it is amusing. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. square and about 9 in. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. imparting to them a violet tinge. or think they can do the same let them try it. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. 2. grip the stick firmly in one hand. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. but the thing would not move at all. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. porcelain and paper. long. as in the other movement. affects . oxygen to ozone. herein I describe a much better trick. for some it will turn one way. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. the second finger along the side. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. 1.

the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. but small flowers. chemicals. but this is less satisfactory. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. earth.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. an old tripod screw. but not essential. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. however. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. a means for holding it vertical. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. and one of them is photomicrography. insects. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. a short-focus lens. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. says the Photographic Times. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. if possible. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. and. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . To the front board is attached a box.

wide from which to cut a pattern. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. CD. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. in Cu. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. 268 17 lb. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper.--Contributed by George C. 11 ft. 12 ft. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. 1. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. 7 ft. If the balloon is 10 ft. 381 24 lb. in diameter. or 31 ft. Boston. AB. 113 7 lb. 8 ft. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. which is 15 ft. long and 3 ft. Madison. 5 ft. 6 ft. Fig. Ft Lifting Power. balloon. Divide one-quarter of the circle . Mass. 9 ft. 65 4 lb. while it is not so with the quill. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. Cap. or 3 ft. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. 7-1/2 in. 5 in. 10 ft 523 33 lb. 905 57 lb. 179 11 lb. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. 7-1/2 in. and a line. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. 697 44 lb. The following table will give the size. A line. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft.

Procure 1 gal. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. using a fine needle and No. of the very best heavy body. The cloth segments are sewed together. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. This test will show if the bag is airtight. on the curved line from B to C. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. The pattern is now cut. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. cutting all four quarters at the same time. The amounts necessary for a 10- . 4. making a double seam as shown in Fig. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. of beeswax and boil well together. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. 2. and so on. 3. Repeat this operation four times. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. 70 thread. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. keeping the marked part on the outside. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide.

and the teeth of the escapement wheel. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. with water 2 in. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. 150 gr. Vegetable oils should never be used. balloon are 125 lb. but if any grease remains on the hand. of sulphuric acid. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. or a fan. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. 1 lb. Fill the other barrel. C. of water will make 4 cu. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. a clean white rag. by fixing. In the barrel. or dusting with a dry brush.Green Iron ammonium citrate . should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. this should be repeated frequently. B. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. Water 1 oz. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. . All FIG. should not enter into the water over 8 in. 5. of iron borings and 125 lb. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. with 3/4in. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. oil the spindle holes carefully. of iron. capacity and connect them. ft. C. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly.. The 3/4-in. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. B. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. if it is good it will dry off. pipe. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. A. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. above the level of the water in barrel A. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. A. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. . When the clock has dried. as shown in Fig. of gas in one hour. until no more dirt is seen. it is not fit to use. 1 lb. which may sound rather absurd. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. to the bag. A. 5 . pipe extending down into the cooling tank. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. ]. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet.ft. with the iron borings. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. About 15 lb. leaving the hand quite clean. B. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. The outlet. using a fine brush. After washing a part.

Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use.000 ft. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. keeping the fingers out of the solution. A cold. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. . Port Melbourne. dry atmosphere will give best results. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. and a vigorous negative must be used. . at the time of employment. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. or battery. Dry in the dark. 20 to 30 minutes. or carbon. or zinc. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. Dry the plates in the dark. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1.. Printing is done in the sun. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. toning first if desired. fix in hypo. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. Sliver nitrate 50 gr.Water 1 oz. of any make. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. The miniature 16 cp. This aerial collector can be made in . Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. Exposure. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. A longer exposure will be necessary. The positive pole. to avoid blackened skin. The negative pole. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. says the Moving Picture World. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. and keep in the dark until used. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe.

when left exposed to the air. as described below. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. in diameter. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased.various ways. and as less current will flow the short way. forming a cup of the pipe. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. If the wave ceases. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. long. the resistance is less. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. 5 in. If the waves strike across the needle. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. both positive and negative. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. and have the other connected with another aerial line. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. a positive and a negative. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. holes . and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. will soon become dry and useless. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. lead pipe. The storage cell. making a ground with one wire. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. lay a needle. This will complete the receiving station. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. As the telephone offers a high resistance. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made.

be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. Two binding-posts should be attached. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. namely: a square hole. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . an oblong one and a triangular one. a round one. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. does not need to be watertight. says the Pathfinder. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. D. one to the positive. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. and the other to the negative. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C.as possible. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. This. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. by soldering the joint. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. except for about 1 in. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. This support or block. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. This box can be square. of course. or tube C. B. When mixing the acid and water. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. The other plate is connected to the zinc. on each end. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. or tube B.

is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. 3. . as it is not readily overturned. C. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. about 20 in. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. all around the edge. leaving about 1/16 in. wide. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. 1. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. 2. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. is built 15 ft. wide. Only galvanized nails should be used. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. The third piece of brass. as shown in Fig. and match them together. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. 1. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. deep and 4 ft. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. were fitted by this one plug. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. and has plenty of good seating capacity. A and B. in place on the wood. Chicago. C. This punt. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. thick cut two pieces alike. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. Ill. long. as shown in Fig. 2. back and under.

-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. thick and 3-1/2 in. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. In Fig. is cut 1 in. gas pipe.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. square (Fig 2). The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. Tacoma. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. Wash. B. A piece of 1/4-in. A.

to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. says the Model Engineer.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. which the writer has made. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. no special materials could be obtained. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. The winding of the armature. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor.--Contributed by Charles H. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor." has no connection with the outside circuit. without auxiliary phase. with the exception of insulated wire. lamp. no more current than a 16-cp. or "rotor. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. which can be developed in the usual manner. and to consume. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . In designing. Wagner. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. it had to be borne in mind that. may be of interest to some of our readers. if possible. H.

being used. The stator is wound full with No. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. 4. B. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. Holes 5-32 in. as shown in Fig. 5. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. and all sparking is avoided. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. or "stator. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. also varnished before they were put in. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. A. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal.the field-magnet. and filled with rivets. C." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. 3. Unfortunately. to be filed out after they are placed together. 2. no steel being obtainable. while the beginnings . which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. wrought iron. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. this little machine is not self-starting. 1. as shown in Fig. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. with the dotted line. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. thick. holes. in diameter were drilled in the corners. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. were then drilled and 1/4-in. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. about 2-1/2 lb. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. bolts put in and tightened up. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. After assembling a second time. They are not particularly accurate as it is. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available.

McKinney. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. E. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. film to film. No starting resistance is needed. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. If too late for alcohol to be of use. 1. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. and would not easily get out of order. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. One is by contact. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. and all wound in the same direction. a regulating resistance is not needed. and the other by reduction in the camera. if applied immediately. 2. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. The image should . it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. and especially of colored ones. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. 3-Contributed by C. Jr. as a means of illustrating songs. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. J. each limb being filled with about 200 turns.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. as before stated. Newark. having no commutator or brushes. The lantern slide is a glass plate. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. and as each layer of wire was wound. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. In making slides by contact. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. N. The rotor is wound with No. as shown in Fig. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. This type of motor has drawbacks. it would be very simple to build. and as the motor runs at constant speed.. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig.

and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. as shown in Fig. C. to use a plain fixing bath. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. If the exposure has been correct. 4. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. A. B. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. the formulas being found in each package of plates. if possible. 5. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. except that the binding is different. 2. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. and development should be over in three or four minutes. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. as shown in Fig. they are much used by travelers. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. about a minute. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. Fig. and then a plain glass. 3. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. over the mat. Select a room with one window. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. Draw lines with a pencil. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. D. 1. It is best.appear in. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. These can be purchased from any photo material store. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. a little extra work will be necessary. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. also. Being unbreakable. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film.

from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. in diameter and 20 in. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. as shown in Fig. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. long. 2. as shown at B. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. 1. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. in diameter and 40 in. long. holes bored in the end pieces. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. Hastings. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. wide and 50 in. 1. Fig. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. is to be used for the seat. Corinth. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. Vt. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. If the star is in front of the left eye. These longer pieces can be made square. A piece of canvas. Fig. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. 16 in. as shown at A. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. from the center of this dot draw a star. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. long. while the dot will be in front of the other. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. known as rods and cones. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. from the ends. or other stout cloth. from the end piece of the chair.

It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. as well as to operate other household machines. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. J. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. O'Gara.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. . which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. Auburn. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. 1. as shown in Fig. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. per square inch. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. 2. Cal. A belt.-Contributed by P. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. as shown in Fig. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. in thickness and 10 in. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. made from an ordinary sash cord. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. A disk 1 in.

long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. Bore a 1/4-in. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. thick and 2-1/2 in. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. . screwing it through the nut. 3/4 in. will be the thickness of the object. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. it serves a very useful purpose. wide. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. Put the bolt in the hole. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. with as fine a thread as possible. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. or inconvenient to measure.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. long. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. says the Scientific American. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. fairly accurate. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. then removing the object. Cut out a piece from the block combination. to the top of the bench. A simple. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. and the construction is complete. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. leaving it shaped like a bench. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. square for a support. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. direction. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. divided by the number of threads to the inch. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. The part of a rotation of the bolt.

piece of wood 12 ft. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. Oal. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. beyond the end of the wood. The wheel should be open . the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. bolt in each hole. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. which show up fine at night. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. long is used for the center pole. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. globe that has been thrown away as useless. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. Bore a 3/4-in. Santa Maria. Place a 3/4-in. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. material 12 ft. long. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole.

A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. B. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. made of the same material. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. A. thick. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. and the lower part 61/2 in. L. A cross bar. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing.-Contributed by A. The coil. is soldered.Side and Top View or have spokes. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. 1/2 in. long. from the ends. Fort Worth. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. wide and 1/8 in. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. P. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. long. thick. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. C. C. thick is used for the armature. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. from the top end. O. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. of the ends with boards. The spool . 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. long. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. in diameter. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. long. at the bottom. The boards may be nailed or bolted. H and J. Graham. wide and 1/8 in. at the top and 4 in. Tex. square and 3 or 4 in. and on its lower end a socket. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. A piece of brass 2 in. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. pieces used for the spokes. which should be 1/4 in. to be operated by the magnet coil.

making a hole just a little larger than the rod. one without either rubber or metal end. and directly centering the holes H and J. The armature.000. This is a very neat trick if performed right. Randolph. At the bottom end of the frame. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. by soldering. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. Bradlev.is about 2-1/2 in. C. B. or a water rheostat heretofore described. A soft piece of iron. then with a firm. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. A. S. for insulating the brass ferrule. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way.000 for irrigation work. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. D and E. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. 1. do it without any apparent effort. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil.E. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. R. F. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. Mass. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. that holds the lower carbon. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L.J. S. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. 2 the hat hanging on it. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. --Contributed by Arthur D. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. When you slide the pencil along the casing. which may be had by using German silver wire. and in numerous other like instances. is drilled. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. 2. and place it against a door or window casing.--A. This tie can be used on grain sacks. . a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. long.

about 1 in. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. B. S. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. The vibrator B. is constructed in the usual manner. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. long. in diameter. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. 2. for the primary. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. leaving the projections as shown. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. C. A. The vibrator. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. about 3/16 in. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. wide. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. for adjustment. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. about 1/8 in. Experiment with Heat [134] . The other primary wire is connected to a switch. D. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support.500 turns of No. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. 1. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. The core of the coil. The coil ends are made from cardboard. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. with a 3/16-in. hole in the center. for the secondary. is connected to a flash lamp battery. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. from the core and directly opposite. thick. long and 1 in. in diameter. The switch. S. Fig. and then 1. 1. may be made from a 3/8-in. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. Fig. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. F. mixed with water to form a paste. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. About 70 turns of No. in diameter and 2 in.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. in diameter and 1/16 in. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight.

The hasp. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. was to be secured by only three brass screws. which is cut with two holes. 2 to fit the two holes. Fig. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. lighted. and the same distance inside of the new board. The lock. as shown in the sketch. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. brass plate. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. thick on the inside. with which to operate the dial. 16 in. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. 1. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. between the boards. which seemed to be insufficient. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. it laps down about 8 in. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. The knob on the dial extends out too far.Place a small piece of paper. in an ordinary water glass. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. which is only 3/8-in. as shown. long and when placed over the board. The three screws were then put in the hasp. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. wide. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. . board. and then well clinched. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. 1. The tin is 4 in.

an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. clear glass as shown.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. one in each division. but when the front part is illuminated. the glass. When the rear part is illuminated. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. and the back left dark. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. not shiny. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. square and 10-1/2 in. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. black color. square and 8-1/2 in. When making of wood. which completely divides the box into two parts. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. high for use in window displays. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. or in the larger size mentioned. any article placed therein will be reflected in. If the box is made large enough.

Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. as shown in the sketch. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. and with the proper illumination one is changed. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. long and 1 ft. a tank 2 ft. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. into the other. When there is no electric current available. . as shown at A in the sketch. wide will be about the right size. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. When using as a window display. alternately. above the top of the tank.. as it appears. or a piece of this width put on the bottom.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. bit. 6 in. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. one for each side. O. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. radius. This hole must be continued . A small platform. The pieces can then be taken out. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. is built on the front. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. and 6 ft. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. square and 40 in. long. each. wide. is the green vitriol. 2 ft. however. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. as shown. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. long. from the ground. The 13-in. under sides together. This precipitate is then washed. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. Three windows are provided. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. hole. or ferrous sulphate. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. square. thick and 3 in. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. high. and a door in front. 5 ft. hole bored the full length through the center. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. using a 3/4-in. lines gauged on each side of each. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. but with a length of 12 in. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. wide. If a planing mill is near. then use a red-hot iron to finish. dried and mixed with linseed oil. from either end and in the crack between the pieces.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. Columbus. 1 in. bore from each end. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. Iron sulphate. gauge for depth. two pieces 1-1/8 in. with a length of 13 in. Shape the under sides first. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. and boring two holes with a 1-in. and a solution of iron sulphate added.

thick and 3 in. The sketch shows one method of attaching. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. Directions will be found on the filler cans. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. Electric globes--two. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws.through the pieces forming the base. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. For art-glass the metal panels are . The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. hole in each block. square and drawing a diagonal on each. A better way. If the parts are to be riveted. if shade is purchased. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. When this is dry. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. three or four may be attached as shown. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. Saw the two blocks apart. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. apply two coats of wax. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. When the filler has hardened.

such as copper. as brass. METAL SHADE . the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade.The Completed Lamp cut out. and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal.Construction of Shade .

The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. and Fig. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. as shown in the sketch. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. The arms holding the glass. as in ordinary devices. 2 the front view of this stand. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. one way and 1/2 in. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. Figure 1 shows the side. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. the object and the background. the other.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder.

or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. An ordinary pocket compass. as shown in the cut. thick 5/8-in. long. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. and an inside diameter of 9 in. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. pointing north and south. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. in diameter. as shown in the sketch. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. Before mounting the ring on the base. in diameter for a base. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. Cut another circular piece 11 in. channel in the circumference of the ring. about 1-1/4 in. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. outside diameter. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. and swinging freely. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. uncork and recork again. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. as it is very poisonous. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . If the light becomes dim. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. Put the ring in place on the base. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. wide and 11 in. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. thus forming a 1/4-in. wide and 6-5/16 in.

and mirrors. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes . EE.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in.088 . are mounted on a base. black oxide of copper.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. AA. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. in diameter and 8 in.182 . and north of the Ohio river. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. The results given should be multiplied by 1.500 . 1 oz. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. Corresponding mirrors.420 .375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. into these cylinders. of the top. above the half can. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. B. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in.600 .715 . CC. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings. from the second to the third. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. Place on top the so- . to which a wire has been soldered for connections.289 .865 1. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders.

62 gr. In Fig.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. the wheel will revolve in one direction. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. Colo. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. University Park. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. always remove the oil with a siphon. slender bottle. When renewing. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . 31 gr. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. Put the solution in a long. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. then they will not rust fast. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. alcohol. says Metal Worker. which otherwise remains clear. little crystals forming in the liquid. of pulverized campor.

--Contributed by C. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. If zinc and carbon are used. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. on the under side of the cork. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. floating on a solution. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. If zinc and copper are used. Attach to the wires. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. about 1-1/4 in. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. Solder in the side of the box . The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. will allow the magnet to point north and south. Lloyd Enos. This is used in place of the spoon.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. If two of them are floating on the same solution. A paper-fastener box. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other.

is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. D. is made from a piece of No. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. C. thick. long that has about 1/4-in. 14 wire will do.Contributed by J. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. The base. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. 1. 1/2. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. piece of 1/4-in. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. The standard. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. F. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. glass tubing . A circular piece of cardboard. C. The bottom of the box. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. wide and 2-1/2 in. D. Take a small piece of soft iron.in. as shown in Fig. 3 in. B. E. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. G--No. C. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. hole. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. A. wide and 6 in. D. Use a board 1/2.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. Bore holes for binding-posts. To this standard solder the supporting wire. B. 10 wire about 10 in. 1-1/4 in. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. to it. one on each side of the board. If the hose is not a tight fit. The spring should be about 1 in. Rhamstine. H. and on the other around the glass tube. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. A. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . long. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. .not shorter than 18 in. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. E. Wind evenly about 2 oz. or made with a little black paint. long. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. stained and varnished. can be made of oak. away. of wire on each end extending from the coil.in. Thos.1-in. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. brass tubing. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. of No. and then solder on the cover. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. Put ends.

long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. about 1 in. 3 in. Smith. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. 5. long.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. of 8-oz. two pieces 2 ft. . as shown in Fig. D. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. Wis. When the glass becomes soft. 3-in. Y. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. Teasdale. four hinges. Cuba. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. long. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. long are used for the legs. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. About 1-1/2 lb.--Contributed by R. Milwaukee. long. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. from the right hand. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work.--Contributed by Edward M. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. long. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. J. N. 2. is drawn nearer to the coil. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. long. The iron plunger. in diameter. of No. canvas. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd.of the coil. 1. making a support as shown in Fig. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. E. 3. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. of mercury will be sufficient. of platinum wire in one end of the tube.

leaving 8 in. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. Toronto. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube.. The tube now must be filled completely. Fig. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. small aperture in the long tube. Measure 8 in. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. Break off the piece of glass. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. Can. 5. thus leaving a. Keys. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. Take 1/2 in. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. --Contributed by David A. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. This tube as described will be 8 in. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. 2. long. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. holding in the left hand. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. 6. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. of vacuum at the top. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. 3.. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. expelling all the air. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. 4.

thick. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. thick. wide and 5 ft. wood screws. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms.6 -. A crosspiece 3/4-in. with each projection 3-in. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. 7. from the end of same.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. thick. These are bent and nailed. 3 in. Four blocks 1/4 in. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. 9 in. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. 1 in. thick. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. FIG. thick. This forms a slot. wide and 5 ft. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. cut in the shape shown in Fig. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. 1. 2. but yellow pine is the best. 3. material 2 in. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. Fig. joint be accurately put together. wide and 3 in.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. and the single projection 3/4 in. The large pulley is about 14 in. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . long. long. as shown in Fig. 6. long. 1 in. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. long. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. wide and 12 in. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. as in Fig. in diameter. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. 4. 3 in. as shown in Fig. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. 4 in. and 1/4 in. 5. wide and 5 ft.

iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. by 1-in. Kan. Water 1 oz. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. --Contributed by C. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. above the runner level.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. Manhattan. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. Welsh. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. R. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. attach runners and use it on the ice. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. . first removing the crank. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. says Photography.

--Contributed by Edward M. of water. Newton. also. Mass. . Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. 3. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. This is done with a camel's hair brush. Printing is carried rather far. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. 1 oz. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. as shown in Fig. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. Leominster. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. as shown in Fig. from an ordinary clamp skate. --Contributed by Wallace C. Treasdale. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. 2. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. 1. The print is washed. and very much cheaper.

so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. long. Fig. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. Then. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. which represents the back side of the door. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. 1-1/2 ft. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. square piece. hole. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. fasten a 2-in. 1 ft. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. causing the door to swing back and up. The thread is broken off at the .How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. high for rabbits. 1. about 10 in. 1. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. high. wide. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. Place a 10-in. Fig. 2. say. The swing door B. too. extending the width of the box. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. Alexandria. and bend them as shown in the sketch. from one end. and to the bottom. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. as shown in the sketch. A. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. and 3 ft. Church. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. wide and 4 in. with about 1/8-in. Va. F. --Contributed by H. Take two glass tubes.

Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. shorter at each end. Out two rectangular holes. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. 1 in. but cut it 1/4 in. trolley cars. and go in the holder in the same way. as shown in Fig. Cut an opening in the other piece. black surfaced if possible. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. . in size. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. wide. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. says Camera Craft. -Contributed by William M. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. horses and dogs. Fig. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. shorter. wide. Take two pieces of pasteboard. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. long. Chicago. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. automobiles. inside of the opening. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. A and B.by 7-in. 10 in. D. and exactly 5 by 7 in. 3. wide and 5 in. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. 1. plates.proper place to make a small hole.by 5-in. Paste a piece of strong black paper. 2. B. Fig. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. being 1/8 in. say 8 in.. to be used as a driving pulley. Crilly. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. in size. This opening. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. high and 12 in. camera and wish to use some 4. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. long. Jr. from the edge on each side of these openings. C.

if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. long and 6 in. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. making a . Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. A cell of this kind can easily be made.in." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about.. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. into which the dog is harnessed. The needle will then point north and south. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. in diameter. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. wide will be required. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. if it has previously been magnetized. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles.

1/4 lb. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. with narrow flanges. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. zinc oxide. one that will hold about 1 qt. under the spool in the paraffin. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. Pack the paste in. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. pull out the wire as needed. Place the pan on the stove. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. beeswax melted together. leaving about 1/2-in. B is a base of 1 in. when the paraffin is melted. short time. only the joints.watertight receptacle. A is a block of l-in. says Electrician and Mechanic. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. pine. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H.in. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. in which P is the pan. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. sal ammoniac. File the rods to remove the copper plate. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. of the top. of water. Form a 1/2-in. of rosin and 2 oz. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. 3/4 lb. . 1 lb. plaster of paris. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. This makes the wire smooth. fuel and packing purposes. of the plate at one end. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. F is a spool. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. for a connection. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. and a notch between the base and the pan. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. filter. in diameter and 6 in. long which are copper plated. Do not paint any surface. fodder.

so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. Try it and see. grip the stick firmly in one hand. Enlarge the hole slightly. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick.. long. from vexation.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. At least it is amusing. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. thus producing two different vibrations. by the Hindoos in India. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. and therein is the trick. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. while for others it will not revolve at all. or think they can do the same. 2. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. If any of your audience presume to dispute. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. square and about 9 in. g. and one friend tells me that they were . and then. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. Ohio. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. as in the other movement. for others the opposite way. for some it will turn one way. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. Toledo. but the thing would not move at all. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. and he finally. let them try it. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement." which created much merriment. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm.

The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. If the pressure was upon an edge. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. the rotation may be obtained. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. The experiments were as follows: 1. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. 4. 5. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. m. by means of a center punch. 7. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. rotation was obtained. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge.100 r. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. To operate. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. secondly. A square stick with notches on edge is best. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. and. 3. gave the best results. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. and I think the results may be of interest. p.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. no rotation resulted. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. 6. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. Thus a circular or . Speeds between 700 and 1. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. 2. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side.

is driven violently away. G. Washington.. --Contributed by G. Minn. a piece of wire and a candle. unwetted by the liquid. it will be clockwise. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. --Contributed by M. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. forming a handle for carrying. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. Lloyd. . D. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. and the height of the fall about 6 in. Ph.D. Sloan. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. or greasy. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid.. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. A wire is tied around the can. C. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. as shown. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. and the resultant "basket splash. A. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. the upper portion is. at first. so far as can be seen from the photographs. if the pressure is from the left. Duluth.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. in diameter." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. as shown. long. with a 1/16-in. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. thick and 1 in. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. 1. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. flange and a 1/4-in.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. about 2-5/8 in. hole drilled in the center. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. axle. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. Each wheel is 1/4 in. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. as shown in Fig.

holes 1 in. as shown in Fig. Fig. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. bottom side up. is made from brass. Fuller. A trolley. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. Texas. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles.50. is made from a piece of clock spring. lamp in series with the coil. San Antonio. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. long. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. The motor is now bolted. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. 6. These ends are fastened together. The current. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. 3. which must be 110 volt alternating current. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. 5. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. 3.brass. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. put together complete. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. 2. or main part of the frame. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . 16 cotton-covered copper wire. If the ends are to be soldered. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. The first piece. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. are shown in Fig. This will save buying a track. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. as shown in Fig. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. 4. bent as shown. Fig. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. wood. --Contributed by Maurice E. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. and the locomotive is ready for running. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. with cardboard 3 in. each in its proper place. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. 2. The parts. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. 1 from 1/4-in. of No. 3/4 in. wide and 16 in. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration.

2. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. The quarter will not go all the way down.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. 1. but do not heat the center. Fig. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. then continue to tighten much more. When cold treat the other end in the same way. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. Fig 1. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. and holes drilled in them. as shown in Fig. 3. O. the length of a paper clip. as shown in Fig. Cincinnati. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. and as this end . pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts.

The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. When the cutter A. In the sketch. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. 2 and 1 respectively. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. or apparent security of the knot. or should the lathe head be raised. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. has finished a cut for a tooth. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. and adjusted . When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. When the trick is to be performed. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. A pair of centers are fitted. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck.

if but two parts. Bunker. (2. 2. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. note book.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. trace the outline. coin purse. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. lady's card case. (4. and a nut pick. lady's belt bag. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. about 1-1/2 in. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. swing lathe. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. (1. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. An ordinary machine will do. dividing it into as many parts as desired. Brooklyn. gentleman's card case or bill book. blotter back. long.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. tea cosey. --Contributed by Howard S.to run true. Bott. Second row: -Two book marks. 1. twisted around itself and soldered. (3.) Place the paper design on the leather and. N. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. if four parts are to be alike. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. --Contributed by Samuel C. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. Y. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. Fold over along these center lines. or one-half of the design. (5. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick .) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. holding it in place with the left hand. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. When connecting to batteries. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. such as brass or marble. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. draw center lines across the required space. In this manner gears 3 in. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. book mark.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. watch fob ready for fastenings. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. (6. tea cosey.) Make on paper the design wanted. The frame holding the mandrel. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. at the same time striking light. Fig. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). above the surface.

How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. and an ordinary bottle. Secure . some heavy rubber hose.

C. from Key West.C. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. and bore a hole through the center. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. The electrodes are made . Thrust a pin. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. If the needle is not horizontal. into which fit a small piece of tube. Florida.. D. A. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. B. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. where it condenses. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. and push it through a cork. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. a distance of 900 miles. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle.

and also to keep it steady in its flight. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. long. 1-1/2 in. Four long beams 3/4 in. slacken speed and settle. use 10-ft. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. 1. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. or flying-machine. thick. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. Connect as shown in the illustration. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. take the glider to the top of a hill.in. wide and 4 ft. lumber cannot be procured. 2. wide and 3 ft. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. --Contributed by Edwin L. If 20-ft. 1. 12 uprights 1/2 in. All wiring is done with No. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. free from knots. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. The operator can then land safely and . which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. long. long. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. as shown in Fig. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. 1/2. long. long for the body of the operator. D. C. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. wide and 4 ft long. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. Washington. 1. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. thick. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. Powell. thick. apart and extend 1 ft. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. as shown in Fig. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. wide and 3 ft. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. To make a glide. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. wide and 4 ft. square and 8 ft long. which is tacked to the front edge. 16 piano wire. by 3/4 in. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. 2 in.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. 3/4 in. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. thick. 1-1/4 in. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. lengths and splice them. as shown in Fig. wide and 20 ft. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. several strips 1/2 in. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. 2 arm sticks 1 in. both laterally and longitudinally. long. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. using a high resistance receiver. 2. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. 3. thick.

gently on his feet. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. Great care should be . The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. but this must be found by experience. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. Of course. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. Glides are always made against the wind. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing.

One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. 2. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . which causes the dip in the line. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. half man and half horse. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover.exercised in making landings. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. When heated a little. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. Bellingham. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. a creature of Greek mythology. M. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. 1. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by L. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. Olson.

Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. will complete the material list. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. this will cost about 15 cents. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. long and about 3/8 in. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. about the size of door screen wire. at the other. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. of small rubber tubing. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. making it 2-1/2 in. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. a piece of brass or steel wire. about the size of stove pipe wire. long. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. in diameter. outside the box. 14 in. The light from the . in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. square. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. While at the drug store get 3 ft. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box.

This is very simple when you know how. as shown in the sketch. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. O. as shown in Fig. If done properly the card will flyaway. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. M. --Photo by M. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. Hunting. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. .Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. Dayton. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. 2. while others will fail time after time. 1. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. as shown in Fig.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon.

and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. When the desired shape has been obtained. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. This game is played by five persons. as before. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. place the other two. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen." or the Chinese students' favorite game. closing both hands quickly. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. then put it on the hatpin head. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. hold the lump over the flame. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. as shown. If a certain color is to be more prominent. Cool in water and dry. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. as described. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball.

Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. passing through neutralizing brushes. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. these sectors. distribute electric charges . using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. or more in width. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held.

The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. 1-1/2 in. The plates are trued up. in diameter. 1 in. The plates. The fork part is 6 in. and pins inserted and soldered. The collectors are made. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. These pins. are made from solid. from about 1/4-in. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. 3. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. as shown in Fig. to which insulating handles . long and the standards 3 in. are made from 7/8-in. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. in diameter and 15 in. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. the side pieces being 24 in. turned wood pieces. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. long and the shank 4 in.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. wide at one end. 4. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. The drive wheels. and this should be done before cutting the circle. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. as shown in Fig. material 7 in. 1. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. in diameter. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. 3. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. in diameter. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. The two pieces. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. in diameter. Two solid glass rods. in diameter. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. 2. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. Fig. GG. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. free from wrinkles. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. Fig. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. brass tubing and the discharging rods. and 4 in. D. RR. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. 3/4 in. long. at the other. Two pieces of 1-in. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. EE. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. long. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. in diameter. wide. and the outer end 11/2 in. after they are mounted. and of a uniform thickness. or teeth. C C.

are attached. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. Colo. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. and the work was done by themselves. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water.. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. 12 ft. in diameter. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. one having a 2-in. wide and 22 ft. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. Colorado City. which are bent as shown. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. --Contributed by C. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. D. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. long. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . ball and the other one 3/4 in. Lloyd Enos. KK.

string together. bit. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up.is a good one. pens . Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. as at A. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. and bore a hole 1/2 in. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. The key will drop from the string. deep. yet such a thing can be done. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. using a 1-in. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. They can be used to keep pins and needles. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand.

With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. slim screw. etc. they make attractive little pieces to have about. 5. or cigar ashes. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. This is to make a clean. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. file. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. above the metal. using a nail filed to chisel edge. inside the first on all. unless it would be the metal shears. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. Raise the ends. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. 3. about 3/4-in. Use . Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. then the other side. 9. 6. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. sharp division between background and design. 8. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. Draw one-half the design free hand. etc. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. very rapid progress can be made. flat and round-nosed pliers. Inside this oblong. two spikes. 2. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. They are easily made. extra metal on each of the four sides. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. above the work and striking it with the hammer. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. When the stamping is completed. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design.. 4. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. inside the second on all..and pencils. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. 23 gauge. also trace the decorative design. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. The second oblong was 3/4 in. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. 7. and the third one 1/4 in. Having determined the size of the tray. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. stamp the background promiscuously. Proceed as follows: 1. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil.

7. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. and fourth fingers. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. 10. 6. 9. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. 8. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . first fingers. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. second fingers. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. and the effect will be most pleasing. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. The eyes. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. In the first numbering. third fingers. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown.

Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. or the product of 8 times 9. 400. above 20 times 20. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. or 80. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. 25 times 25. etc. there are no fingers above. Still. which tens are added. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. or 60. At a glance you see four tens or 40.. first fingers. but being simple it saves time and trouble. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. which would be 16. Let us multiply 12 by 12. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. 2 times 2 equals 4. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. 12. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. . Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. which would be 70. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. and the six lower fingers as six tens. above 15 times 15 it is 200. 600. or numbers above 10. thumbs. the product of 12 times 12. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand.. or the product of 6 times 6. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. as high as you want to go. Put your thumbs together. renumber your fingers. if we wish. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. etc.. viz. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. etc. Two times one are two. 11. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. In the second numbering.

whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. 8. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. first finger 17. being 80).. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. beginning the thumbs with 16. first fingers 22. about a vertical axis. etc. It takes place also. and so on. whether the one described in second or third numbering. For figures ending in 6. not rotation.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. Proceed as in the second lumbering. the lump sum to add. 7. lastly. any two figures between 45 and 55. in the case of a nearsighted person. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. thirties. adding 400 instead of 100. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. . This system can be carried as high as you want to go. 75 and 85. at the will of the observer. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. thumbs. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. And the lump sum to add. 3. further. For example. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. twenties. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. which is the half-way point between the two fives. the value of the upper fingers being 20. the value which the upper fingers have. as one might suppose. when he removes his spectacles. the revolution seems to reverse. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. however. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. Take For example 18 times 18. The inversion and reversion did not take place. 21. forties. 2. and. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. the inversion takes place against his will. or from above or from below. or what.

one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. The ports were not easy to make. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. and putting a cork on the point. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. as . tee. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. A flat slide valve was used. the other appearance asserts itself. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. sometimes the point towards him. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. when he knows which direction is right. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. Looking at it in semidarkness. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin.

about 3 by 3 by 6 in. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. Kutscher. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. deep. across and 1/2 in. apart. . and make in one end a hollow. H. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. in diameter. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. bottom side up. Next take a block of wood. if continued too long without proper treatment. about 2 in. While this engine does not give much power. Springfield. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. across the head. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in.. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. Beating copper tends to harden it and. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. pipe. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. secure a piece of No. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. it is easily built. Fasten the block solidly. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. The eccentric is constructed of washers. The tools are simple and can be made easily. -Contributed by W.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. If nothing better is at hand. Ill. inexpensive. The steam chest is round. pipe 10 in. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. saw off a section of a broom handle. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. as in a vise. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. such as is shown in the illustration.

In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. especially when the object is near to the observer. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. This process is called annealing.will cause the metal to break. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. Vinegar. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. To overcome this hardness. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. O. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . the other to the left. and. --Contributed by W. as it softens the metal. Hay. S. C. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. To produce color effects on copper. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. Camden. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture.

and without any picture. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. the further from the card will the composite image appear. that for the right. however. would serve the same purpose. So with the stereograph. it. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. while both eyes together see a white background. from the stereograph. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. because of the rays coming from them. diameter. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. they must be a very trifle apart. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. It is just as though they were not there. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. with the stereograph. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. In order to make them appear before the card. orange. . the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. disappears fully. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. because. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. But they seem black. The further apart the pictures are. the one for the left eye being blue. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. The red portions of the picture are not seen. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. only the orange rays may pass through. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture.stereoscope. and lies to the right on the picture. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. in the proper choice of colors." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. the left eye sees through a blue screen. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. as for instance red and green. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. not two mounted side by side. although they pass through the screen. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine.

Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. A No.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. The weight of the air in round . The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. wide and 1 in. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. 1/4 in. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. or the middle of the bottle. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. This should only be bored about half way through the block. in the shape of a crank. long and a hole drilled in each end. Cal. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. San Francisco. in diameter. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. Place a NO. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. 12 gauge wire. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. Two types of make-and-break connection are used.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. etc. thick. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. wireless.

The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in.6) 1 in. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. 34 ft. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. pine 3 in. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. long. . The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. if accurately constructed. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. high. The 4 in. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. long. but before attempting to put in the mercury. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. In general. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. wide and 40 in. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. But if a standard barometer is not available. the instrument. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. high. wide and 4 in. Only redistilled mercury should be used. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. or. high. thick. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in.numbers is 15 lb. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. the contrary. square. internal diameter and about 34 in. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. a glass tube 1/8 in. 30 in. if you choose. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. square. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. will calibrate itself. long. a bottle 1 in. or a column of mercury (density 13. inside diameter and 2 in. Before fastening the scale. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed.. and a slow fall.

Procure a metal can cover. Mark out seven 1-in. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. a cover from a baking powder can will do. 5. and place them as shown in Fig. Number the pieces 1. long. 1. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. 2. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. 6 and 7. thick.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. wide and 10 in. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. which is slipped quickly over the end. 3. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. the size of the outside of the bottle. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and .

5. Move ll-Jump No. 6 into No. Move 4-Jump No. long and 2 ft. 2. 3. 3 into No. Move 15-Move No. Move 9-Jump No. using checkers for men. Move 5-Jump No. Woolson. 6 to No. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. each 10 ft. 7 over No. 6. l over No. Move 8-Jump No. 7 over No. 2 . This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. 6 in. L. This can be done on a checker board. Move 13-Move No. 5 over No. 3. Move 7-Jump No. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. shaped like Fig. Move 14-Jump No.Position of the Men move only one at a time. N. Move 12-Jump No. 3 to the center. 3 over No. 6 over No. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. procure unbleached tent duck. 3. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. in diameter. 1. 2. 5 over No. 7. 7's place. 2 over No. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. Move 6-Move No. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns.J. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. Cape May Point. Move 2-Jump No. 6. 1 to No. Move 3-Move No. Move 10-Move No. 5's place. 1. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. 2 over No. 2's place.-Contributed by W. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. 5's place. as shown in Fig. Make 22 sections. which is the very best material for the purpose. 1 into No. 2's place. To make such a tent.

2 in. As shown in the sketch. 6. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. 2. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. in diameter. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. Punch holes in the brass in . 6-in. diameter. to a smooth board of soft wood. wide by 12 in. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. high. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. 5) stuck in the ground. Have the tent pole 3 in. will do. leaving the rest for an opening. Nail a thin sheet of brass. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. 9 by 12 in. 5. Tress.J. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. long and 4 in. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. Fig. added. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. about 9 in. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in.in. Pa. Emsworth. as in Fig. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. These are ventilators. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. After transferring the design to the brass. from the top. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. Use blocks. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. 3 in. wide at the bottom. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in.. Fig. long. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. --Contributed by G. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. made in two sections. In raising the tent. wide at the bottom. fill with canvas edging. round galvanized iron.

A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better.the spaces around the outlined figures. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. apart. . Chicago. When all the holes are punched. When the edges are brought together by bending. bend into shape. but before punching the holes. Corr. The pattern is traced as before. It will not. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. cut out the brass on the outside lines. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. around the outside of the pattern. excepting the 1/4-in. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty.

The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. Badger. pipe. Stevens. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. If a wheel is selected. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. better still. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. Oregon. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. --Contributed by Geo. A 6-in. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. These pipes are . The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. --Contributed by H. between which is placed the fruit jar. Dunham. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. or. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. E. or less. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. or center on which the frame swings. partially filled with cream.however. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. Que. G. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. pipe is used for the hub. A cast-iron ring. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. allowing 2 ft.. Mayger.

Four braces made from 1/2-in. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. pipe. An extra wheel 18 in. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] .The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. pipe clamps. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. bent to the desired circle. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel.

then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. while doing this. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. and the guide withdrawn. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. The performer. 3. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. and dropped on the table. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . 1. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. as shown in Fig. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. which was placed in an upright position. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box.

2. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. first. Colo. in diameter on another piece of tin. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. and second. it requires no expensive condensing lens. Denver. Mo. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. F. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. Louis. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. Harkins. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. -Contributed by C. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. The box can be made of selected oak or . The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. White. St. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. 1.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. --Contributed by H. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. D. in a half circle.

An open space 4 in. wide by 5 in. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. wide and 5 in. represented by the dotted line in Fig. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. fit into the runners. wide. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. long. from each end. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. but not tight. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. from each end of the outside of the box. The door covering this hole in the back. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. 1. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. and. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. high and 11 in. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box.mahogany. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. and 2 in. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. 5-1/2 in. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. long and should be placed vertically. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. long. high and must . high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. focal length. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. This will be 3/4 in. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. as shown in Fig. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. 3-1/2 in. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. wide and 6-1/2 in. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. AA. If a camera lens is used. 2. Two or three holes about 1 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in.

Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. and so on. West Toledo. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. 1. provided it is airtight. C. April. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. the article may be propped up . The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. Bradley. calling that knuckle January. --Contributed by Chas. and extending the whole height of the lantern. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month." etc. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. calling this February. This process is rather a difficult one. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. Ohio. June and November. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. as it requires an airtight case. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. then the second knuckle will be March..

The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. fruit jars are required. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. giving it an occasional stir. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. In both Fig. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. 1 and 2. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. Crawford. one of lead and one of aluminum. or suspended by a string. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. and set aside for half a day. --Contributed by J. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. The top of a table will do. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. In each place two electrodes. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. and the lead 24 sq. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. Schenectady. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. in. the lid or cover closed. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. running small motors and lighting small lamps. 2. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. Pour in a little turpentine. Y. N. . The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. H. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. 1.with small sticks. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. taking care to have all the edges closed. but waxed. in.

Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. This trick is very simple. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . He. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. he throws the other. as well as others. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. O. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. which you warm with your hands.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. as you have held it all the time. you remove the glass. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick.. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. After a few seconds' time. Cleveland. You have an understanding with some one in the company.

How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. Victor. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. put it under the glass. in diameter in the center. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. on a table. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. near a partition or curtain. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. but in making one. Colo. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish.-Contributed by E. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. Pull the ends quickly. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. Crocker.take the handiest one. . Be sure that this is the right one. J. but by being careful at shores. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. if any snags are encountered. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward.

wide and 12 ft. selected pine. ducking. and is removed after the ribs are in place.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe.. by 8 in. are as follows: 1 keelson. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. as illustrated in the engraving. wide 12-oz. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. by 2 in. 2 and braced with an iron band. of 1-1/2-yd. 8 in. of 1-yd. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. wide. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. 1 in. by 15 ft. by 2 in. is 14 ft. by 16 ft. by 12 in. 7 ft. long. 3 in. screws and cleats. 1 piece. 1 in. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. wide and 12 ft. Both ends are mortised. 1/8 in. Paint. long. by 10 ft. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. the smaller is placed 3 ft. 3 in. 1/4 in. 2 in. 14 rib bands. long. for cockpit frame. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. and the other 12 in. clear pine. and fastened with screws. 4 outwales. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. The keelson. for center deck braces. 1 piece. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. from each end to 1 in. apart. drilled and fastened with screws. for the bow. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. Fig. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. 50 ft. 2 gunwales. of rope. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . 9 ft. square by 16 ft. for the stern piece. at the ends. and. thick and 3/4 in. from the stern. long. 1 in. 11 yd. 1.. by 16 ft. wide unbleached muslin. from the bow and the large one. 3 and 4. 1 in. 8 yd. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. one 6 in. 1 mast.

wide. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. long is well soaked in water. 1/4 in. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. wide and 3 ft. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. A piece of oak. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. thick. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. gunwales and keelson. A block of pine. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. thick. A 6-in. This block. These are put in 6 in. corner braces. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. A seam should be made along the center piece. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. long. 6 in. The 11-yd. long. Figs. They are 1 in. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. in diameter through the block. length of canvas is cut in the center. Fig. wide. 1 in. wide and 24 in. wide and 14 in. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. screws. thick and 1/2 in. long. Fig. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. 1 in. wood screws. 4 in. Braces. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. . The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. doubled. 6 and 7. is a cube having sides 6 in. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. Before making the deck. from the bow. 9. apart. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. and fastened to them with bolts. The trimming is wood. also. The block is fastened to the keelson. thick 1-1/2 in. 6. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. 7 and 8. a piece 1/4 in. 3-1/2 ft. The deck is not so hard to do. is cut to fit under the top boards. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. thick and 12 in. 5.

Several coats of good paint complete the boat. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. Tronnes. The mast has two side and one front stay. . Fig. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. E. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. at the other. wide. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. long. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. The keel. 10 with a movable handle. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. long. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. A strip 1 in. apart in the muslin. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. are used for the boom and gaff. in diameter and 10 ft. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. Wilmette. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. --Contributed by O. thick by 2 in. each 1 in. The house will accommodate 20 families. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. The sail is a triangle. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. 12. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. 11. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. Ill. is 6 in. wide at one end and 12 in.

one 11-1/2 in. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. flat on one side. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. as shown in Fig. 5. 4. Ill. Tronnes. E. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. Wilmette. with the ends and the other side rounding. long. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. 1 yd. five 1/2-in. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. flat-headed screws. 3. about 5/16 in. and the other 18 in. 2 in. 2. wide. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. 2-1/2 in. thick. Cut the maple. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. and 3 ft. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. thick. long. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. thick. long. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. square. wide and 30 in. Fig. long and five 1/2-in. Bevel both sides of the pieces. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. wide and 2 ft. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. wide. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. Take this and fold it over . 2-1/2 in. --Contributed by O. flat headed screws. 1.into two 14-in.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians.

but can be governed by circumstances. When the glue is set. 2 and 3. C. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. long. the mechanical parts can be put together. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. Mo. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. Wind three layers of about No. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. 5 from 1/16-in. 3 in. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. Figs. 3-1/4 in. is set. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. Glue a three cornered piece. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. and take care that the pieces are all square. --Contributed by W. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. D. long. the top and bottom. long. soaked with water and blown up. After the glue. wide and 6-3/4 in. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. F. Louis. St. Fig. thick. Cut another piece of board. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. long. The bag is then turned inside out. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. If carefully and neatly made. wide and 6-1/2 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. wide . Another piece. thick. wide and 2-3/4 in. square. this square box is well sandpapered. long. then centered. of each end unwound for connections. B. Bliss. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. as well as the edges around the opening. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. and make a turn in each end of the wires. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. long. wide and 4-1/2 in. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. long. A. forming an eye for a screw. E. long. are rounded. 1. about 3/8 in. square. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. The front. wide and 5 in. leaving a small opening at one corner. and the four outside edges. 1-1/4 in. wide and 3 ft. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. Make a double stitch all around the edge. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. The sides are 3-1/4 in. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. 3/8 in. C. About 1/2 in. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. 6-1/2 in.once. A. thick and 3 in. pieces 2-5/8 in.

How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. Fig. 5-1/2 in. hole is fastened to the pointer. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. and fasten in place. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle.R. A pointer 12 in. R. G. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. from the spindle. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. The stronger the current. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. Yorkshire. These wires should be about 1 in. Chapman. --Contributed by George Heimroth. Place the tin. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. wide and 9 in. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. and as the part Fig. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. W. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. 1/4 in. 4. When the current flows through the coil. Richmond Hill. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. Austwick Hall.and 2-5/8 in. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. so it will just clear the tin. the same size as the first. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. The base is a board 5 in. thick. wide and 2-1/2 in. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. in diameter. long. The resistance is now adjusted to show .S. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. 5. long. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. I. 4 is not movable. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis.A. F. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. The end of the polar axis B. 1/16 in. 4. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. from one end. long. that has the end turned with a shoulder. C. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. Fig. bored in the back. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. the part carrying the pointer moves away. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. L. Like poles repel each other. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. showing a greater defection of the pointer. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. Another strip of tin. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. and the farther apart they will be forced. board. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig.

mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. The following formula will show how this may be found. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. 1881. say Venus at the date of observation. thus: 9 hr. 10 min. 10 min. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. shows mean siderial. and vice . M. at 9 hr. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. A. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. 30 min. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye.

f. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. New Haven. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. Hall.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. Conn. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. --Contributed by Robert W. and then verify its correctness by measurement. if one of these cannot be had. owing to the low internal resistance. . get a glazed vessel of similar construction. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. or. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality.m. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e.

it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. inside diameter and about 5 in. arsenic to every 20 lb. long. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. Then. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. 1. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. Wet paper will answer. 3/8 in. leaves or bark. Fig. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. cover up with the same. The boring bar. thick. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. and heap the glowing coals on top. as shown in the accompanying picture. put the fish among the ashes. fresh grass. When the follower is screwed down. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. 1-3/4 in. especially for cooking fish. of alum and 4 oz.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in.

These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. pipe. when they were turned in. fastened with a pin. pipe. about 1/2 in. and threaded on both ends. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . Two pieces of 3/4 -in. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. thick. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel.

This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. was then finished on an emery wheel. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. Fig. It . the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. 2. Fig. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. This plate also supports the rocker arms. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. as the one illustrated herewith. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. a jump spark would be much better. then it should be ground to a fit. Clermont. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. long. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. square iron. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. Iowa. however. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. wide. and which gave such satisfactory results. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. Fig. but never one which required so little material. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. A 1-in. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. 3. 30 in. 5. If the valve keeps dripping. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. thick and 3 in. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. The rough frame. the float is too high. bent in the shape of a U. 4. labor and time. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place.valve stems. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running.

but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. 12 ft. Nieman. The crosspiece is 2 in. in the ground with 8 ft. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. 3/4 in.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. hole bored in the post. in diameter and 15 in. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. completes the merry-go-round. being held in position by spikes as shown. long is the pivot. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. --Contributed by C. Use a heavy washer at the head. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. from the center. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . This makes an easy adjustment. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. The seats are regular swing boards. strengthened by a piece 4 in. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. no matter what your age or size may be. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. so it must be strong enough. long. square. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. W. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. long." little and big. in fact. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. As there is no bracing. A 3/4 -in. and. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. long. butting against short stakes. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. for the "motive power" to grasp. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. It looks like a toy. with no trees or buildings in the way. strong clear material only should be employed. The illustration largely explains itself. square and 2 ft. square and 5 ft. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. If it is to be used for adults. extending above. timber. from all over the neighborhood. A malleable iron bolt. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. and a little junk. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. set 3 ft." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. rope is not too heavy. The upright is a 4 by 4-in.

Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. as shown in Fig. 1/4 by 3/32 in.2 emery. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. one for the backbone and one for the bow. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. away. The bow is now bent. Having placed the backbone in position. The backbone is flat. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated.the fingers. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. 2. a wreck. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. if nothing better is at hand. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. then it is securely fastened. and 18 in. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. Both have large reels full of . To wind the string upon the reel. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. long. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. square. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. A reel is next made. light and strong. 1. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. 4. and sent to earth. These ends are placed about 14 in. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching.

If the second kite is close enough. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. C. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. Bunker. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. Mass. --Contributed' by Harry S. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. N. the balance. The handle end is held down with a staple. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. common packing thread. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration.string. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. Moody. or glass-covered string. Y. often several hundred yards of it. Brooklyn.-Contributed by S. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. he pays out a large amount of string. First. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. Newburyport. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line.

--Contributed by Earl R. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. Corinth. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. cutting the circular piece into quarters. Vt. then draw the string up tight. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. If the table is round. then a dust protector. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. must be attached to a 3-ft. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. make the pad as shown in the illustration. each the size of half the table top. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. lengths (Fig. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. Hastings. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. length of 2-in. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. square (Fig. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. such as mill men use.

16-1/4 in. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. Wharton.9-1/4 in. hard pencil. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. Oakland. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. which spoils the leather effect. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. Calif. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. G to H. 2-1/4 in. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. Moisten the . If leaves are wanted in extending the table. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. E.-Contributed by H. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. . from C to D. from E to F... 6-1/4 in. 17-1/2 in. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. Use a smooth. trace the design carefully on the leather. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. and E to G..

I made this motor . A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. and E-G.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. also lines A-G. To complete the bag. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. about 1/8 in. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. Cut it the same size as the bag. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. wide. and lace through the holes. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. apart. Trace the openings for the handles. place both together and with a leather punch. G-J. Now cut narrow thongs. and corresponding lines on the other side. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. get something with which to make a lining. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. with the rounded sides of the tools. H-B. if not more than 1 in. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. is taken off at a time.

--Contributed by J. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. 24 gauge magnet wire. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. . The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. Shannon. The one shown is 3-1/2 in.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. 2. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. in length. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. 1. long. Calif. 2-1/4 in. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. iron. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. of No. D. as shown in Fig. Pasadena. 1. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E.M. B. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. each being a half circle. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained.

The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. balloon should be about 8 ft. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. near the center. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. pasted in alternately. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. are the best kind to make. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. high. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. 1. from the bottom end. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. and the gores cut from these. The gores for a 6-ft.

Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. The boat soon attains considerable speed. The steam. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. After washing. In starting the balloon on its flight. Staunton. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. using about 1/2-in. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. Fig. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. 5. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. somewhat larger in size. --Contributed by R. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . saturating it thoroughly. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. If the gores have been put together right. leaving a long wake behind. A. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. 1. so it will hang as shown in Fig. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. leaving the solution on over night. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. In removing grease from wood. 4. coming through the small pipe A. in diameter. These are to hold the wick ball. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. As the boat is driven forward by this force. E. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. after which the paint will adhere permanently. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. 3.widest point. 2. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. lap on the edges. B. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water.

The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . In using either of the two methods described. There are three ways of doing this: First. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. Third. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. apart on these lines. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. Second. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. long and each provided with a handle. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. wide by 6 in. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. long. if you have several copies of the photograph. as is shown in Fig. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. in bowling form. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. The blocks are about 6 in. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. high and 8 in. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. 1.

If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. Y. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. --Contributed by John A. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. Fig. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel.Fig. Rinse the plate in cold water. being careful not to dent the metal. not pointed down at the road at an angle. thick. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. Hellwig. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. 2. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. Albany. N.

A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. 2 the front view. which is 4 in.upon any particular object. wide and of any desired height. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. These corner irons are also screwed to. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. thick. with a set screw. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. through which passes the set screw S. and not produce the right sound. --Contributed by R. and. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. A circular piece of wood. 6 in. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. B. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. In Fig. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. wide and 8 in. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. A. Break off the frame. With this device. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. and Fig. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. in diameter. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. are screwed to the circular piece. CC. 1 Fig. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. long for the base. A. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . is fastened to a common camera tripod. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. Va. Richmond. Corner irons. Paine. S. 5 in. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations.

Lake Preston. as only the can is visible. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. La Salle. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. -1. This will make a very compact electric horn. S.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. pine boards. I made a wheel 26 in. R. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. thus producing sound waves. D.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. Kidder. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. . This horn. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. in diameter of some 1-in. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. Ill.

Kane. B. Purdy. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. the same thickness as the coins. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. --Contributed by C. The frame is made of a heavy card. Fig. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. O. A. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. If the collection consists of only a few coins. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. 1. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. 1. thick and 12 in. --Contributed by James R. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . Feet may be added to the base if desired. Ghent. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. Doylestown. If there is a large collection of coins. 2. square.

being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. into which to place the screws . A rivet punch is desirable. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. of developer. A lead pencil. It will hold 4 oz.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. they become uninteresting. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. cut and grooved. Milwaukee. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. The material required is a sheet of No. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. --Contributed by J. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. --Contributed by August T. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. several large nails. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. and then glued together as indicated. Wis. Toronto. melted and applied with a brush. plus a 3/8-in. thick.J. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. Canada. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. If desired. Smith. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. a hammer or mallet. Cal. border all around. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. though not absolutely necessary. One Cloud. Neyer. Noble. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. for after the slides have been shown a few times.E. --Contributed by R.

cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. never upon the metal directly. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. Take the nail. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . Remove the screws. using 1/2-in. There are several ways of working up the design. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. and file it to a chisel edge.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. both outline and decoration. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. draw one part. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. like the one shown. screws placed about 1 in.

of 11-in. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. using a 1/2in. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. for the lower rails. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. 2. for the top. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. square and 11 in. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. Do not bend it over or flatten it. About 1/2 yd. 1. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. . The pedal. long. long. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. square and 181/2 in. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. being ball bearing. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. each 1 in. l-1/8 in. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. in the other. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture.wall. and two lengths. 3. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. Provide four lengths for the legs. 3/4 in. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. square. up from the lower end. as shown in Fig. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. Rivet the band to the holder. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. two lengths. long. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in.

they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. Attalla.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. Quackenbush. Ala. --Contributed by John Shahan. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. having quite a length of threads. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. F. New York City. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . --Contributed by W.

from one end. Ironwood. long. in depth. and two holes in the other. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. The desired emblem. Two pieces of felt. D. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob.. and the other 2-3/4 in. using class. the end of the other piece is folded over. and 3/8 in. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. from the end. one about 1 in. long. --Contributed by C. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. something that is carbonated. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. Purchase a 1/2-in. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. college or lodge colors. wide and 4-1/4 in. initial. wide and 8-1/4 in. Assemble as shown in the sketch. Luther. Mich. long. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . making a lap of about 1 in. each 1-1/4 in. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. stitched on both edges for appearance.

1/4 in. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. A piece of lead. --Contributed by John H. or more in height. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. in diameter and 2 in. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. in the cover and the bottom. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. as shown in the sketch. Ind. or a pasteboard box. if desired by the operator. Punch two holes A. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. 1. Fig. Schatz. and the cork will be driven out. which can be procured from a plumber. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. This method allows a wide range of designs. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. from the center and opposite each other. Indianapolis. 2. which can be made at home with ordinary tools.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. as shown at B. about 2 in.

metal. O. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. it winds up the rubber band. or marble will serve. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. allowing the two ends to be free. and the ends of the bands looped over them. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. as shown in Fig. 3. The pieces of tin between the holes A. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. A piece of thick glass. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. Fig. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. When the can is rolled away from you. on both top and bottom. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. are turned up as in Fig. putting in the design. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. 4. Columbus. . 1. 5.Rolling Can Toy lead.

and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. A pencil may be used the first time over. deep in its face. wide and 20 in. thick. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. hole through it. mark over the design. I secured a board 3/4 in. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. and. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. Next place the leather on the glass. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. New York City. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. 3 in. 1 in. or more thick on each side. If it is desired to "line" the inside. The edges should be about 1/8 in. face up. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. long and bored a 1/2-in. thicker than the pinion. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. After this has been done. from each end.

1 piece for clamp. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. Now fit up the two clamps. 2 by 12 by 77 in. 1 piece. 2 by 2 by 18 in. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. Syracuse. 2 side rails. Y. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. 1 top board. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . N. and fit it in place for the side vise. Fig. 2. Rice. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. 1 top board. pieces for the vise slides. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. lag screws as shown. Make the lower frame first. Cut the 2-in. 1 back board. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. countersinking the heads of the vise end. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. thick top board. 3 by 3 by 36. 1 by 12 by 77 in. 1 screw block. 1. much of the hard labor will be saved. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. --Contributed by A. 4 guides. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. 1 by 9 by 80 in. 3 by 3 by 6 in. New York. in diameter. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. 1 piece for clamp. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. M. 2 end rails. 2 crosspieces. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in.in the board into the bench top. 3 by 3 by 20 in. Brooklyn.

The bench is now complete. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. . in diameter. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. rule. 1 rip saw. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. The amateur workman.. 1 jack plane or smoother. 1 set gimlets. 2 screwdrivers. 1 pair pliers. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. 1 pocket level. 1 monkey wrench. If each tool is kept in a certain place. 1 wood scraper. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. 1 2-ft. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. 1 set chisels. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. 1 marking gauge. 1 bench plane or jointer. 1 compass saw. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. it can be easily found when wanted. 1 claw hammer. as well as the pattern maker. 1 nail set. 24 in. 1 brace and set of bits. 3 and 6 in. They can be purchased at a hardware store. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. 1 countersink.. 1 cross cut saw.. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in.screws. 1 pair dividers. 24 in. Only the long run.

and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. 2. try square. Kane. becomes like A. after constant use. the projecting point A. No. but will not make . The calf skin. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. ---Contributed by James M. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. 3. Pa. Fig. being softer. Doylestown. 2 and 00 sandpaper. 1.1 6-in. Fig. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. Fig. Fig. will be easier to work.1. will sink into the handle as shown at D. 1 oilstone. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. 1. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful.

give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. After the outlines are traced. Turn the leather. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. lay the design on the face. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. will do just as well. The form can be made of a stick of wood. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. White. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. then prepare the leather. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. water or heat will not affect. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. Two pieces will be required of this size. and the length 6-5/8 in. Having prepared the two sides. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. cover it completely with water enamel and. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. which steam. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. If calf skin is to be used. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. secure a piece of modeling calf. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. when dry. First draw the design on paper. such as copper or brass. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. -Contributed by Julia A. . go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. New York City. but a V-shaped nut pick. If cow hide is preferred. the same method of treatment is used.as rigid a case as the cow skin.

New York City. and an adjustable friction-held loop. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. as shown in the sketch. C. A. --Contributed by Chas. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. Richmond. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. Cobb. Portland. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. Herrman. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. . it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. Maine. --Contributed by W. Cal. Jaquythe. --Contributed by Chester L.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel.

A thick piece of tin. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. for instance. an inverted stewpan. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. Conn. --Contributed by Wm. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. was marked out as shown. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. This was very difficult. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. Cambridge. --Contributed by Geo. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. . or anyone that can shape tin and solder.. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. Mass. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. Wright. B. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. Roberts. Middletown.

F. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. The next morning there was no trace of oil. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. Chicago. --Contributed by Paul Keller. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. which has been tried out several times with success. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. Indianapolis. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg.. Illinois. but only an odor which soon vanished. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. Herbert. apply powdered calcined magnesia. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. but not running over. so some bones were quickly calcined. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. Ind. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. pulverized and applied. . as shown. A beautifully bound book. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. face down. If the article is highly polished. and quite new. used as part of furniture. on a clear piece of glass. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. L. --Contributed by C. and the grease will disappear. When dry. If any traces of the grease are left. such as chair seats. well calcined and powdered. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. There was no quicklime to be had. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. of boiling water. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. Bone. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture.

6 in. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. Howe. high and are bolted to a block of wood. the pieces . soft steel with the opening 6 in. long. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. A. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. If properly adjusted. Tarrytown. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. wide and 12 in. deep and 5 in. This coaster is simple and easy to make. thick. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner.. says Scientific American. 2 in. The pieces marked S are single. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel.. --Contributed by Geo. New York. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. set and thumbscrews.

so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. A sharp knife. Their size depends on the plate used. says Camera Craft. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. they will look remarkably uniform. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . with a short bolt through each pair as shown. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. for sending to friends. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. albums and the like. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. no doubt. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. If the letters are all cut the same height. E. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. to the underside of which is a block. The seat is a board. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork.

photographing them down to the desired size. So arranged. In cutting out an 0. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. and. for example. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. pasting the prints on some thin card. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. after. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. So made. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. mount them on short pieces of corks. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. using care to get it in the right position. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. The puzzle is to get . stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table.

long that will just fit are set in. G. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. N. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . with the longest end outside. squeezes along past the center of the tube. snow or anything to hide it.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. of its top. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. Cape May Point. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. Old-Time Magic . A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals.-Contributed by I. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. hung on pivots. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. A hole 6 or 7 in. so they will lie horizontal. says the American Thresherman.J. He smells the bait. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. Bayley.

faced up. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. Pawtucket. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. Rhode Island. --Contributed by L. --Contributed by Charles Graham. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . then spread the string. then expose again. Pocatello. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. E. Szerlip. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. Press the hands together. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. --Contributed by L. or rub the hands a little before doing so. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. Brooklyn. Idaho. Y. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. N. Parker. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside.

The pieces. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. near the point end. full size. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. wide and 2 in. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. using a straightedge and a pencil.Genuine antique swords and armor. says the English Mechanic. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in.. dark red. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. or green oil paint. thick. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. Glue the other side of the blade. narrower. in width. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. if any. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig.. The blade should be about 27 in. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. 2 Fig. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. end of the blade. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. whether he requires a single sword only. The handle is next made. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. When the whole is quite dry. wipe the blade . or a complete suit of armor. 3 Fig. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. When the glue is thoroughly dry. 4 on the blade. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. long. they will look very much like the genuine article. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. 1. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. 1 Fig. in building up his work from the illustrations. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. and if carefully made. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig.

for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. 4. 1/8 in. take two pieces of wood. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. shows only two sides. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in.. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. in the widest part at the lower end. long. 1. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. The length of the handle. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. not for use only in cases of tableaux. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. follow the directions as for Fig. 1. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. the other two are identical. 1. thick and 5 in. and 3 in.with light strokes up and down several times. 2. 3.. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. Both edges of the blade are sharp. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. In making this scimitar. This sword is about 68 in. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. should be about 9 in. allowing for a good hold with both hands. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. In the finished piece. of course. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. Fig. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. 2. In making. 3. about 1-1/2 in. 1. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. preferably of contrasting colors. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. the illustration. the other is flat or halfround. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. in diameter. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. the length of the blade 28 in. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. the other is flat or half-round. as it is . The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. square and of any length desired. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig.

being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. Syracuse. Both can be made easily. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. and if so. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. square. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. --Contributed by John Blake. On each edge of the board. --Contributed by Katharine D. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. piping and jackets by hard water. A piece of mild steel. each about 1 ft. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. long. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. as can the pitch bed or block. Morse. or an insecure fastening. as there was some at hand. Y. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. Franklin. as shown in the sketch. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. however. The thinness of the plank. It is made of a plank. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. Doctors probed for the button without success. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. 2 in. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. N. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. Mass.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. A cold . can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. in an attempt to remove it. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. about 3/8 in. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. and. at the lower end.

With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. When this has been done.. To remedy this. Trim up the edges and file them . For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal.. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. tallow. a file to reduce the ends to shape. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. To put it in another way. on the pitch. 18 gauge. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. 5 lb. When the desired form has been obtained. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. secure a piece of brass of about No. plaster of Paris.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. using a small metal saw. 5 lb. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. design down.

Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. 2). Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. lb. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. Before giving the description. 30 ft. A. --Contributed by Harold H. The smaller is placed within the larger. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. but not to stop it. Fig. Clean the metal thoroughly. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. lb. 1 ft. to keep it from floating.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. and hang a bird swing. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. in the center. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. 3.000 ft. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. Cutter. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. Fill the 3-in.smooth. space between the vessels with water.000 lb. in one second. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. in diameter (Fig. 1 ft. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. make an unusual show window attraction. per second. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. That is lifting 33. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. . Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. living together in what seems like one receptacle. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. in one minute or 550 lb.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. one 18 in. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. or fraction of a horsepower. over the smaller vessel. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. or 550 ft. This in turn divided by 33. 1) and the other 12 in. per minute. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. it may be well to know what horsepower means. using powdered pumice with lye. in diameter (Fig. and still revolve. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing.

Somerville. F.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. --Contributed. 1 Fig.18 in. 2 Fig. N. Campbell. --Contributed by J. The effect is surprising. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. Brooklyn. or on a pedestal. Mass. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. Y. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . by L.3 Fig. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. Diameter 12 in. Szerlip. Diameter Fig.

with the pliers. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. In riveting. keeping the center high. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. Polish both of these pieces. is. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. which may be of wood or tin. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. using any of the common metal polishes. to keep the metal from tarnishing. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in.copper of No. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. Do not be content merely to bend them over. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. as a rule. and the clay . unsatisfactory. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. Rivet the cup to the base. This compound is impervious to water. away from the edge. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. often render it useless after a few months service. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. and then. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. and cut out the shape with the shears. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. with other defects. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. then by drawing a straightedge over it. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. after which it is ready for use. which. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. the same as removing writing from a slate. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer.

.can be pressed back and leveled. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. Northville. as shown in Fig. Dunlop. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. It is made of a glass tube. -Contributed by Thos. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. 1. the device will work for an indefinite time. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. long. Mich. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by A. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. --Contributed by John T. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. Grand Rapids. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. Mich. 2. Scotland. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. Houghton. Shettleston. in diameter and 5 in. 3/4 in. DeLoof. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. The siphon is made of glass tubes. A. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly.

As the handle is to . stilettos and battle-axes. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. long. put up as ornaments. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil.1 FIG. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. This sword is 4 ft. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. long with the crossguard and blade of steel. 1.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. in width and 2 in. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle.FIG. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. London.

6. The sword shown in Fig. When the glue is thoroughly dry. studded with brass or steel nails. This stiletto has a wood handle. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. In Fig. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. The crossbar and blade are steel. 9. A German poniard is shown in Fig. wood with a keyhole saw. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. The lower half of the handle is of wood. in length. This weapon is also about 1 ft. 11 were used. 7. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. narrower. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. one about 1/2 in. the axe is of steel. very broad. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. The ball is made as described in Fig. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. 20 spike. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. sometimes called cuirass breakers. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. with wire or string' bound handle. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. with both edges sharp. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. When the whole is quite dry. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. in length. firmly glued on. The handle is of wood. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. the upper part iron or steel. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. 5. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. is shown in Fig. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. 8. This sword is about 4 ft. This weapon is about 1 ft. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. These must be cut from pieces of wood. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. Three large. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end.represent copper. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. 3 is shown a claymore. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. then glued on the blade as shown. the same as used on the end of the handle. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. small rope and round-headed nails. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. with both edges of the blade sharp. long. string. 4. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. in width. paint it a dark brown or black. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. A German stiletto. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. long with a dark handle of wood. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. Both handle and axe are of steel. In Fig. In Fig. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. When dry. sharp edges on both sides. glue and put it in place. which is about 2-1/2 ft. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. This axe is made similar to the one . Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. Cut two strips of tinfoil.

so the contents cannot be seen. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. Davis. 10. When wrapped all the way around.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. will pull where other belts slip. --Contributed by E.described in Fig. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. such as braided fishline. 2. W. This will make a very good flexible belt. high. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. the ends are tied and cut off. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. Old-Time Magic . together as shown in Fig. . When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. Chicago. and as the tension members are all protected from wear.

Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. These wires are put in the jar. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. The dotted lines in Fig. four glass tumblers. some of the liquid. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. an acid. 1 and put together as in Fig. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. Macdonald. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. Oakland. --Contributed by A. causing the flowers to grow. with the circle centrally located. Before the performance. held in the right hand. or using small wedges of wood. Bridgeton. To make the flowers grow in an instant. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. apparently. filled with water. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers.J. N. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. There will be no change in color. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. As zinc is much lighter than iron. in a few seconds' time. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. about one-third the way down from the top. S. Calif. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. 2. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies.

Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. Jaquythe. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. not only because of the fact just mentioned. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. When many slides are to be masked. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. Richmond. and kept ready for use at any time. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. 2 for height. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . unless some special device is used. Cal. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. and equally worthy of individual treatment. says a correspondent of Photo Era. 4 for width and No. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. This outlines the desired opening. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. practical and costs nothing. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. --Contributed by W. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. which are numbered for convenience in working. If the size wanted is No.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. A. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record.

may be changed. or a pair of old tongs. Draw a design. too. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. but they can be easily revived. which is dangerous. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. using the carbon paper. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. the margin and the entire back of the metal. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. a little less acid than water. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. is about right for the No. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. The one shown is merely suggestive.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. possibly. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. about half and half. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. Secure a sheet of No. or. and do not inhale the fumes. the paper is folded along the center line. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. and the extreme length 7 in. With a stick. This done. not the water into the acid. 16 gauge. When etched to the desired depth. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. paint the design. The decoration.

Fig. 3/8 in. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. 2.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. 2. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. as in Fig. high. repeat as many times as is necessary. about 8 in. 0 indicates the batteries. thick. . as shown in the illustration. Fig. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. to the table. 3. 24 parts water. 2. long and 1 ft. Then get two posts. wide. in diameter and 1/4 in. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. Fig. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. The connections are simple: I. as shown in Fig. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. so that when it is pressed down. J is another wire attached in the same way. with the wires underneath. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. 5. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. or more wide. C and D. 5. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. 1. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. about 1 in. through it. it will touch post F. A. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. the bell will ring. It may be either nailed or screwed down. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. Paint the table any color desired. and bore two holes. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. Nail a board. and about 2-1/2 ft. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. attached to a post at each end. long. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. 4. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. as at H. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. about 3 ft. Fig. When the button S is pressed. wide and of the same length as the table. about 2-1/2 in. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. Fig. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. Cut out a piece of tin. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell.

The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. 2. After the glue is dry. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. but they are somewhat difficult to make. This weapon is about 22 in. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. The circle is marked out with a compass. thick. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. long. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. The entire weapon. long serves as the dowel. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. says the English Mechanic. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. handle and all. A wood peg about 2 in. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. is to appear as steel. 1. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool.Imitation Arms and Armor . such as . the wood peg inserted in one of them. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary.. The imitation articles are made of wood. These rings can be carved out.

is shown in Fig.ornamental scrolls. The lower half of the handle is wood. the hammer and spike. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. 6. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. or the amateur cannot use it well. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. This weapon is about 22 in. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. 5. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. 2. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. studded with large brass or steel nails. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The axe is shown in steel. The spikes are cut out of wood. All of these axes are about the same length. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. Its length is about 3 ft. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. with a sharp carving tool. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. flowers. The handle is of steel imitation. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. The upper half of the handle is steel. long. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. 3. leaves. used at the end of the fifteenth century. also. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. etc. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. 8. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. as described in Fig. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. as shown. If such a tool is not at hand. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. The handle is of wood. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. covered with red velvet. The entire handle should be made of one piece. as before mentioned. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. . with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it.

a three-base hit. 2. then the other plays. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. 6. the knife resting on its back. Each person plays until three outs have been made. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. as in Fig. 1. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. 7) calls for one out. Fig. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. 3. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. calls for a home run. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. 4). as shown in Fig. The knife falling on its side (Fig. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. 5. . Chicago. and so on for nine innings. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position.

sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. with the rope laced in the cloth.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. one of them burning . the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. while the committee is tying him up. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. 1. as shown in Fig. 3. 2. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. as shown in Fig. Old-Time Magic . the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. This he does. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. Campbell. F. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. If it is spotted at all. Somerville. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in.-Contributed by J. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. of water for an hour or two. Mass. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. of the rope and holds it. hypo to 1 pt. It may be found that the negative is not colored. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right.

Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. 3/4 in.. showing that there is nothing between them. of plumbago. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. and. He then walks over to the other candle. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. Drill Gauge screw. etc.brightly. B. Thome.Contributed by Andrew G. Ky. Brown. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. shades the light for a few seconds. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. New York City. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. Evans. 4 oz. invisible to them (the audience). --Contributed by L. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. bolt. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. 4 oz. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. of turpentine. of sugar. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. Ky. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. with which he is going to light the other candle. The magician walks over to the burning candle. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. thick. Lebanon. the other without a light. --Contributed by C. of water and 1 oz. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. thus causing it to light. Louisville. .

It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. To make the porous cell. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. diameter. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. which will give a strong. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. thick. but is not so good. for the material. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. 5 in. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. into a tube of several thicknesses. Its current strength is about one volt. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. In making up the solution. Pulteney.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. Denniston. --Contributed by C. H. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. N. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . steady current. Do not add water to the acid. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. Y. or blotting paper. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. about 5 in. long.

All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. carrying the hour circle at one end. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. steel.station. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. while the other end is attached by two screws. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. After much experimentation with bearings. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. Finally. but somewhat lighter. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. To insure this. steel. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next.) may be obtained. As to thickness. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. steel. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. long with a bearing at each end. a positive adjustment was provided. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. One hole was bored as well as possible. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. one drawing them together. The . Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. the other holding them apart.

The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. Cassiopiae. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. The aperture should be 1/4 in. when the pointer should again cut at the same place.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. turn the pointer to the star. save the one in the pipe. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. need not be changed." Only a rough setting is necessary. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. When properly set it will describe a great circle.. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. Point it approximately to the north star. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. If the result is more than 24 hours. in each direction from two points 180 deg. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. Instead. and 15 min. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . once carefully made. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. 45 min. are tightened.. is provided with this adjustment. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. Set the declination circle to its reading. The pointer is directed to Alpha. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. Each shaft. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. apart. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. subtract 24. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. The pole is 1 deg. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. and if it is not again directed to the same point. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum." When this is done. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. To find a star in the heavens. To locate a known star on the map. excepting those on the declination axis. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. All these adjustments. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. It is. Declination is read directly. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. All set screws. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate.

Plain City. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. La. add a little more benzole. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover.. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. In reality the first ball. The dance will begin. is the real cannon ball. benzole. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. then add 1 2-3 dr. is folded several times. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. taking care not to add too much. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. the others . OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. a great effect will be produced. which is the one examined. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. -Contributed by Ray E. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. Ohio.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. Strosnider. long. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. New Orleans. as shown in the sketch. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. 3 or 4 in. The ball is found to be the genuine article. If this will be too transparent. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. of ether. cannon balls.

. etc. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. Fig. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. Mass. --Contributed by J. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. without taking up any great amount of space. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. F. Cal. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. Somerville. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. Campbell. 1). Wis. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. San Francisco. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. In boxes having a sliding cover. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. small brooches. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. Milwaukee. as shown in the illustration. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. Return the card to the pack. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. 2. taps. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara.

prints. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. as shown in the illustration. This box has done good service. Beller. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. round pieces 2-1/4 in. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. slides and extra brushes.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. Hartford. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. from the bottom of the box. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. Connecticut. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. . thus giving ample store room for colors.

then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. West Lynn. 1). FIG. Mass.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. When the ends are turned under. . and especially are the end pieces objectionable. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. costing 5 cents. 2). about threefourths full. -Contributed by C. will answer the purpose. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. Fill the upper tub. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. with well packed horse manure. or placed against a wall. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. tacking the gauze well at the corners. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. Darke. O. holes in the bottom of one. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center.

they should be knocked out. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. oil or other fluid. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. Chicago. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. M. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. cutting the cane between the holes. and each bundle contains . The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. If the following directions are carried out. If plugs are found in any of the holes. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. --Contributed by L. when they are raised from the pan. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. if this is not available. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. Eifel. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire.

down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. then across and down. as shown in Fig. it should be held by a plug. In addition to the cane. after having been pulled tight. No plugs . and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. put about 3 or 4 in. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. a square pointed wedge. 1. and. as it must be removed again. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. held there by inserting another plug.

and the one we shall describe in this article. or the style. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. The style or gnomon. D. There are several different designs of sundials.= 4. 40°. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. the height of which is taken from table No. Michigan. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. When cool.15+.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. in this case) times the .42 in. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. as it always equals the latitude of the place. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. W. 5. 42° is 4. Detroit. as for example. 3. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case.2 in. is the horizontal dial. -Contributed by E.5 in. It consists of a flat circular table. and for 1° it would be . but the most common. stretch the third one. During the weaving. 1. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. the height of the line BC.075 in. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. called the gnomon. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. 1 lat. Patrick. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. using the same holes as for the first layer. it is 4. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. as shown in Fig. as the height of the line BC for lat. 1. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. No weaving has been done up to this time. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . for 2°. as shown in Fig. we have 4. --Contributed by M. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. and for lat. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. Fig. Even with this lubrication. 5 in. 41°-30'. All added to the lesser or 40°. 1. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. 3.3 in. If handled with a little care. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. lat. 4. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. 41 °-30'. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. the next smallest.15 in. trim off the surplus rosin. is the base (5 in. This will make three layers. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. Their difference is . The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC.2+. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place.075 in. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. R. After completing the second layer. From table No. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. If you have a table of natural functions. Fig.

and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No. circle Sundial.49 30 .30 1.64 4 8 3.59 2.46 3. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown. Fig.07 4.94 1. according to the size of the dial.46 . The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No.16 1. which will represent the base in length and thickness.42 1.93 6.93 2.39 . draw two parallel lines AB and CD. with a radius of 5 in. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial.11 3.68 5-30 6-30 5. and for this size dial (10 in. Height of stile in inches for a 5in.55 4. an inch or two. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 . Its thickness. if of metal.44 44° 4. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight.03 3. Draw two semi-circles.97 5 7 4.66 1.50 26° 2. using the points A and C as centers.56 .57 1.87 4.99 2.tangent of the degree of latitude. 2. and intersecting the semicircles.82 5.16 40 .81 4.37 54° 6.40 1.42 45 .89 50° 5.88 36° 3.82 3.10 6.87 1.82 2. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks.38 .29 4-30 7-30 3.63 56° 7. . and perpendicular to the base or style. or more. gives the 6 o'clock points. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points.55 5.96 32° 3.76 1. or if of stone. long.33 .85 35 . A line EF drawn through the points A and C.28 .33 42° 4. For latitudes not given. base.32 6.14 5.41 38° 3. Table NO. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed.66 latitude.57 3. 2.66 48° 5.20 60° 8. Draw the line AD.55 46° 5.30 2.00 40° 4.37 5. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in.49 3.55 30° 2.12 52° 6. To layout the hour circle.06 2.91 58° 8. Chords in inches for a 10 in.18 28° 2.02 1.23 6.77 2. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style. 1.19 1. 2 for given latitudes.26 4.42 .27 2.40 34° 3.85 1.79 4.83 27° 2.

and for the difference between standard and local time. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.46 4.57 1. Sun time to local mean time.53 1.98 4. it will be faster..72 5. June 15. if west. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No.68 3. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year.21 2. Iowa. An ordinary compass. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen.63 1. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face.12 5. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3.82 3. --Contributed by J.79 6.from Sundial lime.34 5. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached.10 4. This correction can be added to the values in table No.add those marked + subtract those Marked . Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15. after allowing for the declination. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the .93 6. April 16.06 2. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds.08 1. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole. and on these dates the dial needs no correction. Sioux City. 2 and Dec.89 3.46 5.24 5. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon. London. adding to each piece interest and value. 900 Chicago.50 55 .50 . each article can be labelled with the name.54 60 . 3. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York. 25.71 2. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco.19 2. 3.means that the dial is faster than the sun. Mitchell.52 Table No. Each weapon is cut from wood.77 3. will enable one to set the dial. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. then the watch is slower. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid. As they are the genuine reproductions.01 1.37 2. says the English Mechanic. 3 Corrections in minutes to change.30 2.49 3. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker. Sept.60 4. E.14 1.87 6. The + means that the clock is faster. and the .49 5.

Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. When putting on the tinfoil. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. 1.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. 3.. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. the length of which is about 5 ft. Partisan. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. . The spear head is of steel about 15 in. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color.

the holes being about 1/4 in. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. The edges are sharp. 6 ft. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. 7. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in.which is square. long. 5. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp.. It is about 6 ft. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. The spear is steel. press it well into the carved depressions. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. long. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. This weapon is about 6 ft. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. about 4 in. is shown in Fig. The extreme length is 9 ft. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. The length of this bar is about 5 in. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. used about the seventeenth century. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. in diameter. 8. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. which are a part of the axe. long with a round staff or handle. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. long with a round wooden handle. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. . Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. A gisarm or glaive. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. sharp on the outer edges.

The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. In Figs. They can be made of various materials. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. The twisted cross cords should . 4. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. are less durable and will quickly show wear. Ohio. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove.-Contributed by R. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. Substances such as straw. This is important to secure neatness. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. the most durable being bamboo. 5. 2 and 3. Cut all the cords the same length. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. as shown in Fig. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. or in holes punched in a leather strap. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. B. H. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. 1. apart. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. are put in place. used for spacing and binding the whole together. Workman. the cross cords. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. Loudonville. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired.

The first design shown is for using bamboo. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. for a length extending from a point 2 in. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. -Contributed by Geo. Lockport. 3 in. in which was placed a piece of glass. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. Harrer. M. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. New York. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . Four V-shaped notches were cut.be of such material. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. shaped as shown at C. bamboo or rolled paper. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. as shown at B. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. This was turned over the top of the other can. wide. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. New Orleans. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. To remedy this. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. of the bottom. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. A slit was cut in the bottom. below the top to within 1/4 in. La. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned.

The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. is shown in the accompanying sketch. Newburgh. N. Pasadena. turned over but not fastened. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. about 1/16 in. This should be done gradually. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. giving the appearance of hammered brass. Maywood. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. and two along the side for attaching the staff. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy.tape from sticking to the carpet. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. H. Shay. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. wide. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. Sanford. After this is finished. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. Y. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. --Contributed by Joseph H. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. Cal. Ill. do not throw away the gloves. --Contributed by Chas. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . It would be well to polish the brass at first. This plank. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. the brass is loosened from the block. --Contributed by W. Schaffner.

Jaquythe. K. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. --E. the pendulum swings .by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. bent as shown. Marshall. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. -Contributed by W. A. Richmond. in diameter. Cal. Oak Park. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. Ill. Unlike most clocks.

The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. Two uprights. such as this one. away. Now place the board to be joined. only have the opposite side up. B. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. 3/4 in. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. bar. high. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. high and 1/4 in. Secure a board. is an electromagnet. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. high. says the Scientific American. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. C. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. Fasten another board. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. and the other two 2-5/8 in. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. --Contributed by V.. on the board B. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. 5/16 in. wide that is perfectly flat. about 12 in. . in diameter. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. are secured in the base bar. the center one being 2-3/4 in. thick. Chicago. A. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. high. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. Metzech. by 1-5/16 in. long and at each side of this. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. The construction is very simple. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. about 6 in. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. bearing on the latter. In using this method. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. wide. to the first one with screws or glue. 7-1/2 in. 6 in.

plates should be made 8 in. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. 2. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. 1. Fig. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. Pa. --Contributed by Elmer A. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. square inside. wide and 1 in. Vanderslice. by driving a pin through the wood. long. The trigger. 1. 1. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. or more. as shown at A. whose dimensions are given in Fig. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. 3. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. from one end. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. is fastened in the hole A. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. Fig. 4. wide and 5 in. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. Phoenixville. square. . It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger.

Ohio. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. -Contributed by J. 5 parts of black filler. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. one-half the length of the side pieces. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. 2 parts of whiting. which allows 1/4 in. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. as shown in the illustration. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. if only two bands are put in the . This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. 3 parts of stiff keg lead.A. Fostoria. rubbing varnish and turpentine. Simonis. square. by weight.

and it may be made as a model or full sized. --Contributed by Thos.lower strings. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. -Contributed by Abner B. G. is set at an angle of 45 deg. Michigan. A mirror. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. If a plain glass is used. is necessary. A piece of metal. place tracing paper on its surface. No. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. and the picture can be drawn as described. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. wide and about 1 ft. says the English Mechanic. A double convex lens. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. as shown in Fig. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. It must be kept moist and well . In constructing helmets. DeLoof. 1. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. keeps the strong light out when sketching. In use. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. deep. Dartmouth. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. long. Shaw. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. Grand Rapids. London. preferably copper. Mass. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. which may be either of ground or plain glass. in the opposite end of the box. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. 8 in. II. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K.

3. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. will be necessary. and the deft use of the fingers. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig.kneaded. on which to place the clay. shown in Fig. Scraps of thin. All being ready. as shown in Fig. joined closely together. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. 2. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. The clay. a few clay-modeling tools. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. 1. and left over night to soak. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. the clay model oiled. and over the crest on top. After the clay model is finished. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. 1. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. and continue until the clay is completely covered. This being done. as in bas-relief. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. with a keyhole saw. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. or some thin glue. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. brown. take. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig.

make holes with a small awl at equal distances. with the exception of the vizor. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. Indianapolis. In Fig. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. then another coating of glue. The whole helmet. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. which should be no difficult matter. the skullcap. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . When perfectly dry. The band is decorated with brass studs. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. The center of the ear guards are perforated.as possible. 5. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. owing to the clay being oiled. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. or. should be modeled and made in one piece. When the helmet is off the model. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. This contrivance should be made of wood. and the ear guards in two pieces. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. 7. as seen in the other part of the sketch. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. square in shape. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. will make it look neat. Before taking it off the model. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. the piecing could not be detected. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. as shown: in the design. and so on. a few lines running down. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. When dry. They are all covered with tinfoil. --Contributed by Paul Keller. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. Indiana. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. In Fig. a crest on top. 9. 1. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. one for each side. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel.

The wires run through the glass tubes GG. as shown in Fig. AA. Fig. each 4-1/2 in. about 1/4 in. long. thick. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. Fig. Fig. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. 22 gauge resistance wire.same size. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. 1. and two large 3in. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. The holes B and C are about 3 in. The mineral wool. the holes leading to the switch. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. if this cannot be obtained. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. 1. E and F. as shown in Fig. and. in diameter and 9 in. high. The two holes. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. of fire clay. should extend about 1/4 in. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. Fig. The reverse side of the base. Fig. as shown in Fig. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. 1. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . 4 lb. FF. two ordinary binding posts. 4. Fig. This will allow the plate. JJ. Fig. 4. is then packed down inside the collar. 1 in. above the collar. one small switch. 4. screws. The plate. A round collar of galvanized iron. If a neat appearance is desired. of No. of mineral wool. one oblong piece of wood. as it stands a higher temperature. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. Fig. Fig. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. with slits cut for the wires. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. AA. if the measurements are correct. and C. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. 2. is shown in Fig. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. one glass tube. 12 in. 1. the fuse block. also the switch B and the fuse block C. until it is within 1 in. If asbestos is used. or. about 80 ft. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. German-silver wire is better. 2. for connections. 2. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. about 1 lb. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. one fuse block. 3. 4. wide and 15 in. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. when they are placed in opposite positions. long. This will make an open space between the plates. are allowed to project about 1 in. 1. AA. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. Fig. 4. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. 3 in. Fig. 4. to receive screws for holding it to the base. Fig. Fig. thick sheet asbestos. 1. 4. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. GG. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. long. which can be bought from a local druggist. of the top. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it.

2. will slip and come in contact with each other. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. A. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. Cut a 1/2-in. and pressed into it. If this is the case. When this is done. steam will form when the current is applied. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . When the tile is in place. If it is not thoroughly dry. Can. allowing a space between each turn. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. KK. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. so that the circuit will not become broken. It should not be set on end. using care not to get it too wet. A file can be used to remove any rough places. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. deep. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. It should not be left heated in this condition. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. Catherines. when heated. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. This point marks the proper length to cut it. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. Cnonyn. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. While the clay is damp. then. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. more wire should be added. Fig. as the turns of the wires. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. Next. apart. Cover over about 1 in. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. when cool. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. II. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. --Contributed by W. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. Richmond. causing a short circuit. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. --Contributed by R. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. it leaves a gate for the metal. This completes the stove. St. Fig. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. Cal. Jaquythe. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. 4. The clay. above the rim. As these connections cannot be soldered. H. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color.

If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. and the prints will dry rapidly. Then clip a little off the . Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. says the Photographic Times. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. but 12 by 24 in. square material in any size. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. the pie will be damaged. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. Thorne. Louisville. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. as shown.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. the air can enter from both top and bottom. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. and the frame set near a window. is large enough. --Contributed by Andrew G. Ky. constructed of 3/4-in. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter.

The board can be raised to place . 1. in diameter and about 4 in. long. Fig. 2-1/2 in. Herron. high. 14 in. Two supports. Fig. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. The connecting rod E. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. Figs. The upright B. high. -Contributed by S. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. The connections are made as shown in Fig. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. as shown. 1. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. wide. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. each 1 in. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. 1 and 3. An offset is bent in the center. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. thick and 3 in. W.Paper Funnel point. each 1/2 in. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. thick. 1/2 in. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. open out. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. long. The driving arm D. allowing each end to project for connections. which gives the shaft a half turn. 4 in. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. long. for the crank. causing a break in the current. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. 22 gauge magnet wire. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. long. 1. A 1/8-in. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. 2. wide and 7 in. in diameter. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. slip on two cardboard washers. Le Mars. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. thereby saving time and washing. wide and 3 in. 1/2 in. high. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. 1. which are fastened to the base. As the shaft revolves. Fig. Iowa. at GG. thick and 3 in. 3.

and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. Place the pot. Stecher. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. bottom side up. in height. --Contributed by William F. In designing the roost. on a board. Dorchester. Mass.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. . One or more pots may be used. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. 3 in. as shown in the sketch. making a framework suitable for a roost.

adopt the method described. without any corresponding benefit. if it is other than straight lines.. Fig. grills and gratings for doors. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. 1. 1. F. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. as shown in Fig. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. preferably. windows. in diameter. odd corners. The materials required are rope or. ordinary glue. and give it time to dry. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. shelves. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg.. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. The bottom part of the sketch. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. etc. F. Wind the . that it is heated. when combined. paraffin and paint or varnish. will produce the pattern desired. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity.

Fig. M. Y. 2. Harrer. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. N. six designs are shown. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. cut and glue them together. Fig. Lockport. -Contributed by Geo. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] .

. etc. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. chips of iron rust. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it.. will be retained by the cotton. but no farther. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. which was used in front of a horse's head. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. 1. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. when it will be observed that any organic matter.. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. and the sides do not cover the jaws. London. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. This piece of horse armor. As the . Pour the water in until the filter is filled. etc. says the English Mechanic. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure.

after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. the rougher the better. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. 2. then another coat of glue. 4. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. and therefore it is not described. and will require less clay. 2. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. The armor is now removed from the model. This triangularshaped support. 6 and 7. In Fig. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. except the thumb and fingers. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. This will make the model light and easy to move around. with the exception of the thumb shield. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. the same as in Fig. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. An arrangement is shown in Fig. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. as shown in the sketch. This can be made in one piece. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. All being ready. but the back is not necessary. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. and the clay model oiled. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. but for . If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. which can be made in any size. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. 8. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. which is separate. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. This being done. as the surface will hold the clay.

fastened to the rod. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. N. . the foils will not move. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. two in each jaw. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. the two pieces of foil will draw together. 1/2 in. are glued to it. and the instrument is ready for use. 2. --Contributed by Ralph L. will be about right. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. Goshen. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. are better shown in Fig. each about 1/4 in. La Rue. The two pieces of foil. the top of the rod. A piece of board. If it does not hold a charge. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. in depth. Buxton. When locating the place for the screw eyes. two for the jaws and one a wedge. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. Y. Redondo Beach. --Contributed by John G. but 3-1/2 in. Calif. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. cut into the shape shown in Fig. Fasten a polished brass ball to. running down the plate. long. wide and 1/2 in. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. 9.

hole bored through it. The can may be bronzed. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. A. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. Texas. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. enameled or otherwise decorated. as this will cut under the water without splashing. as indicated in the . Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. M. Bryan. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. as shown in the illustration. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. At a point 6 in. about 15 in.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. When a fish is hooked. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. long. 2-1/2 in. is made of a 1/4-in. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. silvered. Corsicana. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. --Contributed by Mrs. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. from the smaller end. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. pine board.

or even pine.Match Holder accompanying sketch. such as basswood or pine was used. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. When it has dried over night. thick. put a coat or two of wax and polish . as shown. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. long over all. Having completed the drawing. wide by 6 in." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. Polish the metal. will do as well as the more expensive woods. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. 22 is plenty heavy enough. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. using a piece of carbon paper. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. take a piece of thin wood. Any kind of wood will do. If soft wood. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. Next prepare the metal holder. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. Basswood or butternut. then with a nail. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. 3/8 or 1/4 in. using powdered pumice and lye. and trace upon it the design and outline. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. A good size is 5 in. punch the holes. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use.

thick. is used for the base of this instrument. Cal. Two wire nails. Jaquythe. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. 2 in. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. It is useful for photographers. wide and 5 in. If one has some insight in carving. are used for the cores of the magnets. .over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. each 1 in. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. Instead of the usual two short ropes. A. can be made on the same standards. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. the whole being finished in linseed oil. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. If carving is contemplated. long. of pure olive oil. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. Richmond. long. --Contributed by W. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. 1/2 in.

This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. 1. About 1 in. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. All of the parts for the armor have been described. . in the shape shown in the sketch. 3. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. the paper covering put on. A rubber band. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. Lynas. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. when the key is pushed down. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. except that for the legs. cloth or baize to represent the legs. H. as shown in Fig. about No. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. 25 gauge. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. cut in the shape of the letter T. similar to that used in electric bells. --Contributed by W. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. acts as a spring to keep the key open. as shown by the dotted lines. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. leaving about 1/4 in. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. A piece of tin. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. at A. London. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. then covered with red. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. says the English Mechanic.

one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. says Camera Craft. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. can be made in a few minutes' time. make the same series of eight small holes and. apart. 1 and drill a 1/4in. Secure two strips of wood. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate.. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. apart. flat headed carriage bolt. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. or ordinary plaster laths will do. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. Take the piece shown in Fig. completes the equipment. and eight small holes. These can be purchased at a stationery store. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. The two pieces are bolted together. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. In one end of the piece. hole in the center. Fig. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. 2. So set up. one to another . Cut them to a length or 40 in. By moving the position of the bolt from. long. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. at each end. A 1/4-in. in the other end. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. 1 in. drill six 1/4-in. about 1 in. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. 3 in. not too tight. Silver paper will do very well. Instead of using brass headed nails. holes. for the sake of lightness. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel.

1. In this sketch. Then take B and lay it over A. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. A is the first string and B is the second. for instance. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. C over D and B. 4. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. as shown in Fig. Start with one end.of the larger holes in the strip. long. Then draw all four ends up snugly. doubled and run through the web of A. then B over C and the end stuck under A. as in portraiture and the like. lay Cover B and the one under D. of the ends remain unwoven. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. 2. 2. D over A and C. and the one beneath C. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. in Fig. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. and lay it over the one to the right. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. A round fob is made in a similar way. Fig. but instead of reversing . the one marked A. 2. taking the same start as for the square fob. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger.

over the one to its right. Ohio. Rupp. long. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. 1-1/2 in. is left out at the center before starting on one side. as at A in Fig. --Contributed by John P. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. as B. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. as in making the square fob. 3.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. Other designs can be made in the same manner. is to be made of leather. the design of which is shown herewith. 5. always lap one string. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. especially if silk strings are used. A loop. Monroeville. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. The round fob is shown in Fig.

beeswax or paraffin. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. pressing it against the wood. Any smooth piece of steel. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. A. Houghton. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. it can be easily renewed.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. Mich. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. . such as a nut pick. using the reverse side. -Contributed by A. Northville. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. door facing or door panel. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. When the supply of wax is exhausted. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. filling them with wax.

J. New York. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. . but any kind that will not stick may be used. says Photographic Times. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. D. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. and about 12 in. E and F. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. if blueprints are used. apart and driven in only part way. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. it is best to leave a plain white margin. Select the print you wish to mount. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. Y. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. Fold together on lines C. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. leaving about 1/4 in. remaining above the surface of the board. although tin ones can be used with good success. Thompson. and after wetting. --Contributed by O. place it face down in the dish. Petersburg. Enough plaster should. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. those on matte paper will work best. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. long. Ill. thick. N. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. The tacks should be about 1 in. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges.

. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. Lower into the test tube a wire. as shown in the right of the sketch. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. violets. One of the . and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. roses. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. bell flowers. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. will be rendered perfectly white. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. as shown at the left in the sketch. filling the same about onehalf full.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. without mixing the solutions. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. etc.

The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. A rod that will fit the brass tube. L. but which will not wobble loose. long and made of wood. made of heavy tin. as shown. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. 1. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. thick. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. is about 2-1/2 in. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. Shabino. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. and at the larger end. should be soldered to the box. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . or delicate tints of the egg. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. When soldering these parts together. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. not too tightly. Fig. in diameter and 1 in. The first point should be ground blunt. --Contributed by L. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. 2. The tin horn can be easily made. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. to keep the core from coming off in turning. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. about 1/8s in. long. 3. Millstown. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. The sound box. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. turned a little tapering. shading. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. South Dakota. as shown in the sketch. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. 1-7/8 in. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. The diaphragm. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking..

is to take a knife with two blades at one end. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. Jr. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. Ill. and. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. put a board on top. Gold. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . Chicago. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. says the Iowa Homestead. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. wondering what it was. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. Colo. E. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. Victor. and weighted it with a heavy stone. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. mice in the bottom. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy.Contributed by E.

The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. . -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. Pereira. Y.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. Can. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. Ottawa. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. N. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. --Contributed by Lyndwode. Buffalo.

--Contributed by Thos. Jaquythe. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. This cart has no axle.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. by means of a flatheaded tack. --Contributed by W. through which several holes have been punched. cut round. Put a small nail 2 in. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . as shown. above the end of the dasher. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. Mich. De Loof. and at one end of the stick fasten. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. Cal. A. longer than the length of the can. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. Grand Rapids. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. a piece of tin. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. as it can be made quickly in any size. Richmond.

La. 2. The baseboard and top are separable. The candles. I reversed a door gong. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. New Orleans. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. as shown. cut in the center of the rounding edge. 1-1/2 in. Pa. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. screwed it on the inside of a store box. 2 in. were below the level of the bullseye. wide. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. Fig. --Contributed by James M. apart. long. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. 2. 1/4 in.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. 1. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. of course. wide and as long as the box. 1 ft. Doylestown. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. A wedge-shaped piece of . although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. board. Kane. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. wide and 1/8 in. Notches 1/8 in. wide and 3 ft. 2.1. deep and 3 in. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. thick. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch.

After completing the handle. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. to prevent its scratching the desk top. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. For the handle. Worcester. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. West Union. by cutting away the ends. Wood. scissors. will. 1. A. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. --Contributed by G. Ia. etc. wide into each side of the casing. After the glue has dried. 3. the shelf could not be put on the window. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. take two pieces of hard wood. Mass. as shown in Fig. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. When not in use. This device is very convenient for invalids.Book Back Holders metal. wide rubber bands or felt. the blade is put back into the groove . The block can also be used as a paperweight.. Needles. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. dressing one surface of each piece. when placed as in Fig. it can be removed without marring the casing. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. Cover the block with rubber. can be picked up without any trouble. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. the reason being that if both were solid. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. stone or wood.

as shown in Fig. Malden. . Jacobs. thus carrying the car up the incline. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. --Contributed by H. A notch is cut in one side. Erie. as shown in Fig. Ohio. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. If desired. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. Hutchins. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. long. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. Cleveland. S. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. 1. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. -Contributed by W. A. Pa. 2. Mass. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches.and sharpened to a cutting edge. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. Each one is made of a hardwood block. square and 4 in. is shown in the accompanying sketch. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. 1 in. --Contributed by Maud McKee.

A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. N. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. . 6 by 9-1/2 in. The letters can be put on afterward.. will be needed. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. If one such as is shown is to be used.J.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. a board on which to work it. This will insure having all parts alike. and an awl and hammer. Prepare a design for the front. Cape May Point. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. One sheet of metal.

Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. Remove the metal. behind or through the center of a table leg. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. flat brush. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. if desired. On the back. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. One coat will do. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. 1/4 part. says Master Painter. 2 parts white vitriol. mandolin or guitar. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. If any polishing is required. that can be worked in your own parlor. or. paste the paper design right on the metal." In all appearance. turpentine. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. 1 part. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. The music will not sound natural. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. . 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. So impressive are the results. 3/4 part. a violin. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. placed on a table.Fasten the metal to the board. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. only the marginal line is to be pierced. The stick may be placed by the side of. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. but weird and distant. as shown. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. in the waste metal. to right angles. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. varnish. which is desirable. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. applied by means of a brush.

it might be difficult. . wide. and is easy to construct. London. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. square bar iron. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. across the top. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. 2. apart. round-head machine screws.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. thick by 1/2 in. 3. Two pairs of feet. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. long and spread about 8 in. without them. With proper tools this is easy. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. is bent square so as to form two uprights. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. The longest piece. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. each 6 in. each 28 in. says Work. are shaped as shown in Fig. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. long and measuring 26 in. long. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole.

A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. Place the corner piece of glass. 6. C. on it as shown. 5. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. cut a long piece of lead. After the glass is cut. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. While the piece of lead D. the latter being tapped to . or. 7. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. A. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. The design is formed in the lead. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. as shown in Fig. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. using rosin as a flux. better still. B. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. Fig. in the grooves of the borders. The brads are then removed. D. lead.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. and the base border. 4. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. is held by the brads. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. special flux purchased for this purpose. The glass. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. After the joints are soldered. 5. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. Fig.

not less than 4 in. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. Camden. then drill a 3/4-in. long. and two wood blocks. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. Fasten the plates to the block B. 8. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. square and of the length given in the drawing. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. long. one on each side and central with the hole. Bore a 3/4-in. J. in diameter and 1/4 in. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. bolt. rounded at the top as shown. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. Jr. The center pin is 3/4-in. H. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. wood screws in each washer. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. bolt.. in diameter and about 9 in. --Contributed by W. as shown in Fig. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. holes through their centers. Make three washers 3-in. plank about 12 ft. This . Bore a 5/8-in. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. Dreier. This ring can be made of 1-in. and round the corners of one end for a ring. then flatten its end on the under side.the base of the clip. rocker bolt. plates. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. Secure a post. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. thick and drill 3/4-in. N. long. Two styles of hand holds are shown. A and B.

La. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. 9 in. and some one can swing an axe. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . the money outlay will be almost nothing. maple. bolts and rope. long and 1 piece. If trees are convenient. long. square by 5 ft. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. 2-1/2 in. bit. by 6-1/2 ft. long. 16 screws. 1. boards along the side of each from end to end. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. The four 7-in. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. 1-1/4in. long. 4 pieces. in diameter and 7 in. of 1/4-in. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. screws. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. Draw a line on the four 7-in. New Orleans. long. 4 filler pieces. 4 in. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. square by 9-1/2 ft. 1/2 in. 4 pieces. long. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. apart for a distance of 3 ft. 2 by 4 in.will make an excellent cover for a pot. 50 ft. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. chestnut or ash. horse and rings. by 3 ft. because it will not stand the weather. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. long. shanks. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. straight-grained hickory. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. 4 in. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. 1 by 7 in. hickory. 3/4 by 3 in. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. by 2 ft. 3 in. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. can make a first class gymnasium. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. 7 in. To substitute small. from one edge.

bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. Bore a 9/16-in. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. apart. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. 2. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. at each end.bored. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. 8 in. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. from the end. apart. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones.. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. piece of wood. deep and remove all loose dirt. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. so the 1/2-in. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. boards coincide. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. each 3 ft. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in..

platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. about 100 ft. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. If the tumbler is rotated. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous." which skimmed along the distant horizon. which at once gathered. not much to look at in daytime. not even the tumbler. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. And all he used was a black thread. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed.. but most deceptive at dusk. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. When the interest of the crowd. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. and then passes in a curve across the base. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. just visible against the dark evening sky. the effect is very striking. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. in an endless belt. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. and ascends the stem. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. it follows the edge for about 1 in. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. W. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. was at its height. it is taken to the edge of the foot. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. passing through a screweye at either end. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. and materially heightened the illusion. He stretched the thread between two buildings. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. apart. . Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. disappearing only to reappear again. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud.

6 in. 4 in. 1. The cork will come out easily. Fig. by 2 ft. 2 by 4 in. 2 by 4 in. To make the apparatus. 2 in. 2 by 3 in. long. 4 wood screws. La. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. from either side of the center. by 3 ft.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. long. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. Chisel out two notches 4 in. A wire about No. long. so the point will be on top. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. by 10 ft. long. long and 1 doz. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. large spikes. 4 in. square and 6 ft. 2 cross braces. long. 4 knee braces. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. long. 2 side braces. deep. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. beginning at a point 9 in. Bevel the ends of . The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. 8 bolts. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. 8 in. wide and 1 in. 2 base pieces. long. preferably cedar. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 8 in. long. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. by 7 ft. 8 in. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. and turned in a spiral D. 7 in. square and 51/2 ft. 4 bolts. 2 by 4 in. New Orleans.

Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. Richmond. equipped with a strainer. Jaquythe. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. ( To be Continued. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. so the bolts in both will not meet. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. leave it undressed. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. A large sized ladle. save the bars. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. but even unpainted they are very durable. Two endpieces must be made. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. jellies. as shown in the diagram. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. These will allow the ladle to be turned. . before burying the lower part of the end pieces. additional long. --Contributed by W. A. leaving the strainer always in position. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. except the bars. After the trenches are dug. using four of the 7-in bolts. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. If using mill-cut lumber.the knee braces. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. of 7 ft. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. which face each other.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. screws. The wood so treated will last for years. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in.. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. etc. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. Cal. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. and countersinking the heads. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration.

is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. thus holding the pail as shown. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. milling machine. A. Oil. drill press or planer. .Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. of sufficient 1ength. it is necessary to place a stick. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. In order to accomplish this experiment. partly a barrier for jumps. which seems impossible. or various cutting compounds of oil.

wood yard or from the woods. projections and splinters.. apart. square by 5 ft. 2 by 4 in. long. but 5 ft. square by 5-1/2 ft. long. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. long.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. 4-1/2 in. stud cut rounding on one edge. in diameter--the larger the better. and free from knots. bolts. two 1/2-in. Hand holds must be provided next. bolts. 4 in. by 3 ft. long.. 2 by 4 in. To construct. 7 in. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. bolt. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. to fasten the knee braces at the top. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. piece of 2 by 4-in. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. apart in a central position on the horse. 2 by 4 in. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. 4 in. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. from each end. by 3 ft. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. These are well nailed in place. 4 knee braces. bolts. in the ground. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. 2 adjusting pieces. 1 cross brace. beginning 1-1/2 in. ten 1/2-in. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. long. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. long. 2 bases. These are placed 18 in. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. is a good length. 3 in. long. 4 in. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. long. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. The round part of this log must be planed. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. by 3 ft. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. Procure from a saw mill. The material required is as follows: Two posts. 1 in.

A. snow. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. water. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. Richmond. no one is responsible but himself. but nevertheless. etc. it is caused by an overloaded shell. Cal. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating.--Contributed by W. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. Also. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. pipe and fittings. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. Jaquythe. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. then bending to the shape desired. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder.horse top. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. such as a dent. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. it is caused by some obstruction. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. Such a hand sled can be made in a . but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. over and around. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard.

Ontario. Noble. at E and F. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. Boston. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. then run a string over each part. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. when straightened out. thick. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. which. --Contributed by James E.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. W. . shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. France. Mass. Toronto. --Contributed by Arthur E. are all the tools necessary. The end elevation. 1. 2. Joerin. will give the length. in width and 1/32 in. Paris. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. --Contributed by J. when complete. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. Vener. These. is much better than a wood sled. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. 1/4 or 3/16 in. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany.

Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. are nailed. 3. and the latter will take on a bright luster. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. It is best to use soft water. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. 4. nor that which is partly oxidized. The method shown in Figs. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. . After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. AA and BB.

. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. as shown in Fig. or unequal widths as in Fig. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. as shown in Fig. Broad lines can be made. 1). 8 and 9. 2. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. or various rulings may be made. 2. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. Percy Ashley in Rudder. class ice-yacht. 4. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. 3. The materials used are: backbone. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

a larger size of pipe should be used. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. about 30 in. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. It can be made longer or shorter. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. The headstock is made of two tees. 1-Details of Lathe sort. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. a tee and a forging. A good and substantial homemade lathe. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. long. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. pins to keep them from turning. pipe. bent and drilled as shown. 1.Fig. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. Both the lower . The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. The point should extend about 11/2 in. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. but if it is made much longer. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. out from the collar.

Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. W. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. 2. Boissevain. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. as shown in Fig. UpDeGraff. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. 3/4 or 1 in. 2. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. M. but also their insulating properties. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. Musgrove. 1. Held. as shown in Fig. Indiana. or a key can be used as well. a corresponding line made on this. It is about 1 in. 2. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. To do this. a straight line should be scratched Fig. Fruitvale. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. thick as desired. --Contributed by M. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. . else taper turning will result. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. Laporte. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. Cal. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. --Contributed by W. and will answer for a great variety of work. --Contributed by W. Man.

Smith. Ark. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. Cline. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. In use. To obviate this. Ft. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. J.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. as shown. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . and the two loops are made of heavy wire. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. The handle is of pine about 18 in. --Contributed by E. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. long.

centering is just one operation too many. if this method is followed: First. White. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. and when once in true up to its size. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. take . the drill does not need the tool. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. After being entered. Colo. --Contributed by Walter W. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. New Orleans. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. Denver. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. face off the end of the piece. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. This prevents the drill from wobbling. La. which should be backed out of contact. on starting the lathe. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece.

says the Sphinx. the cap is placed over the paper tube. and this given to someone to hold. and can be varied to suit the performer. by applying caustic soda or . the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. The glass tube B. as shown in D. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. After the wand is removed. It can be used in a great number of tricks. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. is put into the paper tube A. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. The handkerchief rod. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. all the better. vanishing wand. In doing this. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. shown at C. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. a bout 1/2 in. shorter t h a n the wand. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. unknown to the spectators. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. after being shown empty. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. a long piece of glass tubing.

ends and bottom are made of hard wood. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. thick. End. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. by 14 by 17 in. can be made by the home mechanic. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. 1/4 in. long. Glue the neck to the box. cut to any shape desired. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. square and 1-7/8 in. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. The sides. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. 3/16. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. and glue it to the neck at F. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. The brace at D is 1 in. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. as shown by K. With care and patience. As the cement softens. 1 End. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. with the back side rounding. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. 1 Neck. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. Cut a piece of hard wood. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. 1. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. 1 Bottom. across the front and back to strengthen them. Glue strips of soft wood. This dimension and those for the frets . and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt.potash around the edges of the letters. and if care is taken in selecting the material. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. 2 Sides. preferably hard maple.

1) on which to stretch the paper. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. -Contributed by J. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. Carbondale. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. Stoddard. E. but it is not. O. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. in diameter. long is used for a keel. toward each end. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store.Pa. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. When it is completed you will have a canoe. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place.should be made accurately. Norwalk. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. Six holes. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. wide and 11-1/2 ft. or backbone. A board 1 in. H. and beveled . thick and about 1 ft. Frary. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. 3/16 in. --Contributed by Chas. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins.

in thickness and should be cut. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. 1. Shape these as shown by A. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. These are better. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. which are easily made of long. twigs 5 or 6 ft. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. as shown in Fig. and. Any tough. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. The ribs. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. long. with long stout screws. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. slender switches of osier willow. Osiers probably make the best ribs. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. procure at a carriage factory. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. In drying. such as hazel or birch. 13 in. wide by 26 in. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. Fig. thick. Fig. are next put in.. 2). winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. C. 2). some tight strips of ash. 3). in such cases. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. b. Fig. Fig. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. and notched at the end to receive them (B. Green wood is preferable. will answer nearly as well. The cross-boards (B. probably. and so. . 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. when made of green elm. but twigs of some other trees. or other place. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. 2. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. such as is used for making chairbottoms. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. 3/8 in. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. 3). wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. the loose strips of ash (b. as shown in Fig. b.) in notches. or similar material. 3. long are required. apart. two twigs may be used to make one rib. For the gunwales (a. Fig. Fig. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. B.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. a. thick. but before doing this. Fig. C. b. Fig. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. as they are apt to do. and are not fastened. by means of a string or wire. Fig. 4). two strips of wood (b. 4. as before described. 1 and 2. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. buy some split cane or rattan. 3.

5). The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. If not. after wetting it. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. preferably iron. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. but neither stiff nor very thick. and held in place by means of small clamps. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. and steady in the water. however. and as soon as that has soaked in. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. Fig. tacking it to the bottom-board. It should be drawn tight along the edges. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. Then take some of the split rattan and. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. if it has been properly constructed of good material. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. It should be smooth on the surface. Being made in long rolls. You may put in . of very strong wrapping-paper. B. The paper is then trimmed. apply a second coat of the same varnish. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. and very tough. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. and light oars. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. If the paper be 1 yd. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. but with less turpentine. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. wide. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. When the paper is dry. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. When thoroughly dry. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B.

Fig. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. Fig. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. to fit it easily. fore and aft. 1 and the end in . A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. Drive the lower nail first. 5. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. and make a movable seat (A. Fig. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. 2. they will support very heavy weights. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. and if driven as shown in the cut. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. We procured a box and made a frame. 1. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. 5).

as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. and the result is. This way has its drawbacks. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. Pa. This is an easy . The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. and the glass. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. A good way to handle this work. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes.Fig. this makes the tube airtight. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. Close the other end with the same operation. 4. Pittsburg. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. 3. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. being softer where the flame has been applied. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. 5. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat.

above the work and striking it with the hammer. Oswald. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. with a piece of carbon paper. second. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. or six arms. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. third. -Contributed by A. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. fourth. Seventh. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. thin screw. very rapid progress can be made. then reverse. flat and round-nosed pliers.way to make a thermometer tube. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. fifth. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. four. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. Give the metal a circular motion. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. above the metal. The candle holders may have two. rivet punch. also trace the decorative design. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. Sixth. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. three. metal shears. extra metal all around. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. file. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. After the bulb is formed. 23 gauge.

The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. and holder. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. drip cup. Small copper rivets are used. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. Having pierced the bracket. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. Metal polish of any kind will do.

and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. F. the stick at the bottom of the sail. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. on a water bath. of glycerine to about 200 deg. Fifty. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. deep. if it has not absorbed too much ink. alcohol 2 parts. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. and other things as they were needed. they were like an ice boat with a sail. all the rest I found. using a steel pen. and it will be ready for future use. The gaff. Heat 6-1/2 oz. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. and water 24 parts. is a broomstick. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. The boom. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. I steer with the front wheel. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. glycerine 4 parts. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. N. sugar 1 part. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. thus it was utilized. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. except they had wheels instead of runners. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. winding the ends where they came together with wire. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. Shiloh. smooth it down and then remove as before. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. Twenty cents was all I spent. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. Soak 1 oz. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. A saw. hammer. and brace and bit were the tools used. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. Mother let me have a sheet. and add the gelatine. J. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. when it will be ready for use. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. and in a week . or more copies can be obtained from a single original.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water.

Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up. a projecting lens . A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly.

provided the material is of metal. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. 1/2 to 3/4 in. and 14 in. but if such a box is not found. focus enlarging a 3-in. at a distance of 24 ft. 1. Fig. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. long. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. describe a 9-in. wide. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. at a point 1 in. The board is centered both ways. 8 in. 3. about 2 ft. high. The slide support. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. or a lens of 12-in. E. H. wire brads. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. well seasoned pine. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. thick.. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. and a projecting lens 2 in. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. If a small saw is used. slide to about 6 ft. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. or glue. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. and the work carefully done. DD. A table. as desired. and the lens slide. above the center. This ring is made up from two rings. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. G. wide and 15 in. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. A and B. are . and.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other.

How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. Paul. the water at once extinguishes the flame. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. placed on the water. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E.-Contributed by G. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. P. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. A sheet . The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. To reach the water. The arrangement is quite safe as. St. should the glass happen to upset. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. apply two coats of shellac varnish. JJ. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. but not long enough. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. and when the right position is found for each. Minn. of safe. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. E. Small strips of tin. the strips II serving as guides. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. light burning oil. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil.constructed to slip easily on the table. B.

keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. by 12 ft.. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. 3. Fig.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. Crawford. I ordered a canvas bag. 3. to cover the mattresses. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. Y.H. Fig. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. N. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. form a piece of wire in the same shape. --Contributed by J. 9 in. from a tent company. 1. 12 ft. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. then the corners on one end are doubled over. If one of these clips is not at hand. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. 3 in. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. 2. 4. Schenectady.

Attach a piece of steel rod.each edge. Fig. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. 2. --Contributed by Walter W. A rubber band. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. insulating them from the case with cardboard. to the coil of small wire for volts. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. apart. 3 to swing freely on the tack. 1. in the center coil. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. through which the indicator works. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. as shown in Fig. Colo. Do not use too strong a rubber. 1. Pa. 2. to keep it from unwinding. 1/2 in. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. for amperes and the other post. Teasdale. thick. C. Denver. A Film Washing Trough [331] . so as to form two oblong boxes. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. 1/2 in. 3/4 in. --Contributed by Edward M. An arc is cut in the paper. wide. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. 3/4 in. D. Fasten the wire with gummed label. Fold two strips of light cardboard. Warren. open on the edges. V. long. White. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. 2. long and 3/16 in. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. To calibrate the instrument. and insert two binding-posts. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. first mark the binding-post A. holes in the edge. Fig. drill two 3/16 in.

A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. with the large hole up. Hunting.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. Wood Burning [331] . A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. Cut a 1/4-in. O. --Contributed by M. Dayton. Place this can on one end of the trough. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. as shown. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. M. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width.

When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . mouth downward. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. then into this bottle place. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water.Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids.

--Contributed by John Shahan. --Contributed by Fred W. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. but not very thick. If the small bottle used is opaque. If the cork is adjusted properly. thick.Y. provided the bottle is wide. Whitehouse. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . Place the small bottle in as before. wide and 4 in. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. This will make a very pretty ornament.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. 2. long. N. Ala. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. Upper Troy. 1. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. as shown in the sketch. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. 3/4 in. many puzzling effects may be obtained. Auburn. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers.

1. The 21/2-in. sugar pine on account of its softness. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. 1 in.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. The bearing blocks were 3 in. Fig. which was 6 in. high without the upper half. --Contributed by D. W. Fig. G. or ordinary telephone transmitters. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. was keyed to shaft C. On a 1000-ft. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. to the shaft. was 1/4in. iron rod. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. pulley F. which was nailed to the face plate. Fig. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. Both bearings were made in this manner. such as blades and pulleys. The shaft C. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. I. thick. If a transmitter is used. 2. B. pulley. K. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. in diameter and 1 in. 3. Fig. The wire L was put . which gave considerable power for its size. long. 1. thick and 3 in. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. A staple. 1. 1. as shown in Fig. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. thick. 4. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. even in a light breeze. wide. line. Its smaller parts. Fig. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. which extended to the ground. Milter. by the method shown in Fig. 2 ft. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. 1. were constructed of 1-in. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver.

so that the 1/4-in. Fig. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. long and bend it as shown at A. This completes the receiver or sounder. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. G. with brass headed furniture tacks. apart in the tower. wide and 1 in. cut out another piece of tin (X. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. 0. 6. 1. This board was 12 in. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. There a 1/4-in. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. with all parts in place. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. was 2 ft. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. for instance. when the windmill needed oiling. The power was put to various uses. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. The bed plate D. hole for the shaft G was in the center. was tacked. H. a 1/2-in. 25 ft. If you have no bell. Fig. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. through the latter. and was cut the shape shown. hole was bored for it. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. The smaller one. square to the board P at the top of the tower. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. providing one has a few old materials on hand. Fig. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. 2. Fig. To make the key. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. The other lid. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. Fig. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. 6. in diameter. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. 3 in. top down also. long and 3 in. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. washers were placed under pulley F. To lessen the friction here. 5. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. 1) 4 in. as. in the center of the board P. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. pine 18 by 12 in. long and 1/2 in. This fan was made of 1/4-in. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. 1. Two washers were placed on shaft C. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. Fig. long and bend it as . 1. R. strips. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. 1. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. long. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. across the thin edge of a board. Fig. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. long.

and. 1. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. McConnell. leaving the other wire as it is. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. although it can be made with but two. Before tacking it to the board. 2. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. causing a buzzing sound. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. as indicated. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. as shown at Water. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. using cleats to hold the board frame. When tired of this instrument. By adjusting the coils. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. fitted with paddles as at M. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. after the manner of bicycle wheels. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. Thus a center drive is made. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. like many another device boys make. Now. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . -Contributed by John R. Going back to Fig. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. The rear barrels are. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft.shown. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. at the front. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost.

The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. or even a little houseboat. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. can be built. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. If the journals thus made are well oiled.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. The speed is slow at first. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. copper piping and brass tubing for base. To propel it. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. there will not be much friction. feet on the pedals. 1. as shown in Fig. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. which will give any amount of pleasure. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. There is no danger. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. 3.

but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. 2. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. 1. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. or it may be put to other uses if desired. then the glass disc and then the other ring. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. 2. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. Fig. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. Then melt out the rosin or lead. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. If magnifying glass cannot be had. A. B. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. Shape small blocks of boxwood. Turn a small circle of wood. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. 1. D. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. Fig. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. If it is desired to make the light very complete.of pleasure for a little work. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. 1. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. Place one brass ring in cylinder. Fig. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. and so creating a false circuit. C. Fig. 2.

set alarm key as shown in diagram. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . after setting alarm. Chatland. When alarm goes off. wide and 1/16 in. 5-1/4 by 10 in. In placing clock on shelf. --Contributed by C. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. wire from bell to switch. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. near the bed. E. --Contributed by Geo. D. thick. shelf. G. The parts indicated are as follows: A. 4-1/2 in. or 1/4in. 4 in. Swissvale. such as is used for cycle valves. bell. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . bracket. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. 3/8 in. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. To operate this. dry batteries. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. Utah. C. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. which stops bell ringing. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. long. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. long. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. copper tubing. wire from light to switch. if too small. while lying in bed. B. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. Throw lever off from the right to center. contact post. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. key of alarm clock. brass rod. brass strip. F. J.. To throw on light throw levers to the left. I. Ogden. after two turns have been made on the key.india rubber tubing. Brinkerhoff. and pulled tight. some glue will secure them. switch. H. Pa. X. S. wire from batteries to switch. C. T. by having the switch on the baseboard. To get the cylinder into its carriage.

being careful not to get the sand in it. wide.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. in diameter. will do the heating. Lanesboro. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. as at A. about 6 in. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. Minn. making it as true and smooth as possible. as . Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. 1. Pull out the nail and stick. Fig. beyond the end of the spindle. 1. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. 1/4 in. All that is required is a tin covering. A small lamp of about 5 cp. Having finished this. as in Fig. as at B. as at A. Fig. S. letting it extend 3/4 in. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. which can be made of an old can. long. A flannel bag. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. 4 in. 2. gives the heater a more finished appearance. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. 2. from one end. about 3-1/2 in. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. for instance. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. in diameter. a bed warmer. --Contributed by Chas. Fig. Chapman. Make a shoulder. Make the spindle as in Fig. place stick and all in a pail of sand. 3. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. This is to form the fuse hole.

The bow is made from straight-grained oak. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. 6 in. good straight-grained pine will do. long. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. wide and 6 ft. The material must be 1-1/2 in. spring and arrows. thick. --Contributed by Arthur E. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. or hickory. thick. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. but if this wood cannot be procured. long. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. long. The illustration shows how this is done. A piece of tin. this is to keep the edges from splitting. 1. ash. 3/8 in. 1 in. 5/8 in. 11/2 in. deep. Joerin. will be sufficient to make the trigger. A piece of oak. wide and 3 ft. wide and 3/8 in. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. thick.

which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. Wilmette. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. Ill. as shown in Fig. 7. Fig. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. 6. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. it lifts the spring up. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. which is 1/4 in. as shown in Fig. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. and one for the trigger 12 in. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. A spring. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. from the end of the stock. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. wide at each end. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. --Contributed by O. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. The stick for the bow. The trigger. or through the necessity of. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. Such a temporary safe light may be . Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. having the latter swing quite freely. in diameter. Fig. from the opposite end. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. 8. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. better still. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. The bow is not fastened in the stock. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. Trownes. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. 4. 9. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. place the arrow in the groove. E. 3. 2. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. To throw the arrow. thick. When the trigger is pulled. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. Fig. To shoot the crossbow. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in.

and replace as shown at B. is used as a door. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. Moreover. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. Remove one end. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. C. or only as a camp on a short excursion. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. The hinged cover E. it is the easiest camp to make. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. The cut should be about 5 ft. Remove the bottom of the box. from the ground. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. apart. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. making lighting and trimming convenient. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. the bark lean-to is a . There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. make the frame of the wigwam. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. By chopping the trunk almost through. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. and nail it in position as shown at A. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. This lamp is safe. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. says Photo Era. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. since the flame of the candle is above A. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. respectively. from the ground.

make the best kind of a camp bed. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. . Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. will dry flat. Sheets of bark. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. and split the tops with an ax. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. A piece of elm or hickory. a 2-in. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. piled 2 or 3 ft. and when the camp is pitched. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. 3 ft. In the early summer. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. long. selecting a site for a camp. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. long and 2 or 3 ft. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. deep and covered with blankets. are a convenient size for camp construction. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. long and 1-1/2 in. thick. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. wide. nails are necessary to hold it in place. spruce. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. 6 ft. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. makes a good pair of tongs. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. For a foot in the middle of the stick. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. wide and 6 ft. Tongs are very useful in camp. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. For a permanent camp. Where bark is used. and cedar.

and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. or even a rough lock for the camp larder.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. hinges. . and affording accommodation for several persons.

I drove a small cork. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. and provide a cover or door. the interior can. wide. to another . Fig. Pa. B. --Contributed by James M. be kept at 90 or 100 deg.. Doylestown. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. about 4 in. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. A. 1. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. B. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. deep and 4 in.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. changing the water both morning and night. Kane.

4 and 5). until. 2. to pass through an increasing resistance. Fig. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. for instance. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. 3. which project inside and outside of the tube. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together.glass tube. for instance. The diagram. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. The current is thus compelled. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. E. if necessary. such as ether. C. 2. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. This makes . The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. a liquid. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. limit. fused into one side. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5.

clamp the template. when several pieces are placed together. brass. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. Michigan. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. screws. 3-3/8 in. on a lathe. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. Alpena. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. two holes. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. or even 1/16 in. tap. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. to allow for finishing. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. between centers. thicker. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. thick. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. as shown in the left-hand sketch. After cleaning them with the solution. 1. 4-1/2 in. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. which will make it uniform in size. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. is composed of wrought sheet iron. set at 1/8 in. Fig. and for the outside of the frame. A 5/8in. 3-3/8 in.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. When the frame is finished so far. as shown in Fig. they will make a frame 3/4 in. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. making it 1/16 in. A. 2. in diameter. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. 3. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. cannot be used so often. thick. therefore. drill the four rivet holes. Then the field can be finished to these marks. brass or iron. which may be of any thickness so that. If the thickness is sufficient. but merely discolored. Fig. hole is . is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. These holes are for the bearing studs. in diameter. assemble and rivet them solidly. larger than the dimensions given. The bearing studs are now made. or pattern. Before removing the field from the lathe. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. mark off a space. bent at right angles as shown. by turning the lathe with the hand. After the template is marked out. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in.

4. When the bearings are located. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. and build up the solder well. into which a piece of 5/8-in. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. and drilled to receive the armature shaft.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. file them out to make the proper adjustment. soldered into place. is turned up from machine steel. or otherwise finished. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. The shaft of the armature. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. solder them to the supports. brass rod is inserted. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . Fig.

inside diameter. 8. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. or segments. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. as shown in Fig. thick. After the pieces are cut out. Rivet them together. wide. Find the centers of each segment at one end. thick. as shown in Fig. wide. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. and then they are soaked in warm water. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. thick and 1/4 in. The sides are also faced off and finished. hole and tap it for a pin.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. Make the core 3/4 in. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. threaded. When annealed. 3. by 1-1/2 in. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. and held with a setscrew. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass.. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. After they . 9. When this is accomplished. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. Procure 12 strips of mica. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. thick are cut like the pattern. 5. 6. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. to allow for finishing to size. 1/8 in. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. holes through them for rivets. brass rod. thick. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. then drill a 1/8-in. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. as shown m Fig. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. 6. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. sheet fiber. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. The pins are made of brass. Armature-Ring Core. 3/4 in. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. being formed for the ends. 7. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. washers. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. 1-1/8 in. deep and 7/16 in. 3/4 in. 3. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft.

Fig. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. or side. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. by bending the end around one of the projections. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. and bring the end of the wire out at B. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. 8 in. shown at A. the two ends of the wire. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on.have dried. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. which will take 50 ft. To connect the wires. and wind on four layers. of the end to protrude. after the motor is on the stand. of No. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. are soldered together. 1. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. When the glue is set. The source of current is connected to the terminals. sheet fiber. 5. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. This winding is for a series motor. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. In starting to wind. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. thick. being required. until the 12 slots are filled. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. The field is wound with No. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. yet it shows a series of . All connections should be securely soldered. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. they are glued to the core insulation. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. sheet fiber. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. long. shown at B. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. of the wire. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. wide and 1 in. The two ends are joined at B. Fig. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. Run one end of the field wire. about 100 ft. 6 in. The winding is started at A. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. After one coil. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. 1.

or. and one. still more simply.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. Nine wires run from the timer. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. which serves as the ground wire. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. A 1/2-in. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. as in the case of a spiral. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. is fastened to the metallic body. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. one from each of the eight contacts. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described.

two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. 6 in. long. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. board. Covering these is a thin. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. thus giving 16 different directions. It should be . wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. of the dial. Without this attachment.The Wind Vane. 45 deg. circle.

How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. To make it. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. according to who is going to use it. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. will answer the purpose just as well. though a special knife. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. Buffalo. will be enough for the two sides. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. Blackmer. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in.about 6 ft. high. will be sufficient. To work these outlines. N. long to give the best results. and about 6 in. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. making it heavy or light. however. or. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. . Fill the box with any handy ballast. -Contributed by James L. 14 by 18 in. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. is most satisfactory. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. also a piece of new carpet. thus making a universal joint. and securely nail on the top of the box. if not too high. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. called a chip carving knife. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. Before tacking the fourth side. Y. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. Cut 3-in. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. Place the leather on some level. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders.

Paste the silk plush to the inner side. An ordinary sewing-machine . Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. A good leather paste will be required.

a needle and some feathers. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. and fasten the feathers inside of it. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. N. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. If a fire breaks out. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. can be thrown away when no longer needed. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. square and tying a piece of .will do if a good stout needle is used. or a hip that has been wrenched. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. --Contributed by Katharine D. Syracuse. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. as in cases of a sprained ankle. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. B. of common salt and 10 lb. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. temporary lameness. rather than the smooth side. Y. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. away from it. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. Morse. of water. and tie them together securely at the bottom. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show.

and a coil of wire. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. etc. The coil is 1 in. One end is removed entirely. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes.. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. letting it go at arm's length. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. long. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. Gordon Dempsey. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. Hellwig. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. The end is filed to an edge. . G. A. B. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. wound on the head end. wide and 1/16 in. cut to the length of the spool. E. Ashland.J.string to each corner. --Contributed by J. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. --Contributed by John A. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. is cut on the wood. The diaphragm C. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. as shown. setting traps. 1/8 in. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. the corners being wired. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. The body of the receiver. commonly called tintype tin. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. A small wooden or fiber end. which is the essential part of the instrument. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. Y. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. but not sharp. and the receiver is ready for use. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. Wis. F. board all around the bottom on the inside. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. Albany. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. high. Paterson. There is a 1-in. deep. N. N. made up of four layers of No. laying poisoned meat and meal. This not only keeps the rats out. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. thus helping the rats to enter. long. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. The strings should be about 15 in. and tacked it to the boards. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint.

a piece of small wire. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. begin with the smallest scrolls. better still. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. A single line will be sufficient. To clean small articles. Take a piece of string or. The vase is to have three supports. and bend each strip in shape. to .How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. wide. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. gold. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh.

Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. 3-1/4 in. from E to F. 3-1/2 in. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. thus raising it. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. Work down the outside line of the design.which the supports are fastened with rivets. Fold the leather on the line EF. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. and does not require coloring. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. using a duller point of the tool. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. through which to slip the fly AGH. sharp pencil. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. from the lines EF on the piece. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. Press or model down the leather all around the design. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. wide when stitching up the purse. from C to D. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. . Trace also the line around the purse. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. as shown in the sketch. After taking off the pattern.. 6-3/8 in. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. 4-1/4 in. About 1 in. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1..

as well as useful. with the largest side down. as shown in Fig. Now take another piece of wood. square. then nail it. Cut off six pieces 12 in. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. and which will be very interesting. leaving the lug a.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. Fit this to the two . Then nail the wheel down firmly. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. and cut out a wheel. with the open side down. 1. and. following the dotted lines. b. 1 was cut. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. with a compass saw. This also should be slightly beveled. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. 3. 2. It is neat and efficient. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. then place the square piece out of which Fig. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. It can be made without the use of a lathe. being cast in wooden molds. and tack the other piece slightly.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. and a model for speed and power. long. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. by 12 ft. thick. deep. First. and cut it out as shown in Fig. Make the lug 1/4 in. around the wheel. deep. the "open" side. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. with pins or small nails. 1/2 in. When it is finished. and the projections B. all the way around. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. cut out one piece as shown in Fig.

and bore six 1/4-in. and cut it out as shown in Fig. 4. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. square pieces of wood. place it between two of the 12-in. one of which should have a 3/8-in. holes through it. hole bored through its center. as shown by the . then bolt it together. and boring a 3/8-in. in the center of it. Now take another of the 12-in.pieces just finished. deep. hole 1/4 in. square pieces of wood. slightly beveled. and lay it away to dry. and clean all the shavings out of it. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. Take the mold apart. as shown by the black dots in Fig. hole entirely through at the same place. Now put mold No. 1. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. After it is finished.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. bolts.

and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. long.2.1. and pouring metal in to fill it up. until it is full. as shown in illustration. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. as shown by the black dots in Fig. and run in babbitt metal again. 5. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. Using the Brace . Now cut out one of the 12-in. Put this together in mold No. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. holes at d. This is mold No.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. and pour babbitt metal into it. see that the bolts are all tight. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. d. Let it stand for half an hour. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. wide and 16 in. and bore three 1/4-in. Fig. Then bolt the castings together. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. b. in diameter must now be obtained. drill in it. one in the projections. This is for a shaft. where the casting did not fill out. fasten a 3/8-in.black dots in Fig. Now take mold No. and the other in the base. A piece of mild steel 5 in. 6. Commencing 1-1/2 in. and connect to the boiler. take an ordinary brace. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. only the one is left-handed. put the top of the brace through this hole. and the exhaust hole in projection b. After it is fitted in. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. 6. so that it will turn easily. and lay it away to dry. This is the same as Fig. This will cast a paddle-wheel. lay it on a level place.1. screw down.2. instead of the right-handed piece. 1. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. and drill them in the same manner. and 3/8-in. B. from the one end. 4. Pour metal into mold No. long. over the defective part. holes. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. and drill it entirely through. the other right-handed. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. place the entire machine in a vise. and two 1/4-in. one in the lug. place it under the drill. true it up with a square. If there should happen to be any holes or spots.

Your turbine engine is now ready for work. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. and if instructions have been carefully followed. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. will do good service. Plan of Ice Boat . Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. and the other 8 ft. one 6 ft. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. and with three small screw holes around the edge. Then take a knife or a chisel.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal.. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. piece and at right angles to it. with a boss and a set screw. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. long. while it is running at full speed. turn the wheel to the shape desired. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. At each end of the 6ft. and.

plank nail 8-in. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. boards to make the platform. where they often did considerable damage. long. plank. and about 8 in. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. 1. Run the seam on a machine. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. should be of hardwood. in front of the rudder block.These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used. Over the middle of the 6-ft. at the top. in diameter in the center. This fits in the square hole. To the under side of the 8-ft. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. in diameter at the base. at the butt and 1 in. so much the better will be your boat. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. long and 2-1/2 in. in the top before the skate is put on. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. 1. On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in. Make your runners as long as possible. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. distant. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. Fig. projecting as in Fig. 3. in diameter. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. long. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. The tiller. at the end. The spar should be 9 ft. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. Fig. 2 by 3 in. piece and at right angles to it. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. 8 a reef point knot. tapering to 1-1/2 in. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. which may come in handy in heavy winds. bolt the 8-ft. leaving 1 ft. as the runners were fastened.

and when we pushed the button up in the shop the rat would be thrown 2 or 3 ft. Adams. R. Mechanicsburg. The arrangement proved quite too effective. so that they come in contact at C.another from the zinc plate through the intervening yard and into the shop. P. --Contributed by J. Its parts are as follows: A. To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359] This is a very simple device. The . It is quite evident that when a rat put its two fore feet on the edge of the pan in order to eat the mush which it contained. and the alarm bell will ring. Comstock. Simple Fire Alarm When the stove becomes too hot the wax will melt at the ends. binding-posts fastening the springs S S. to block B. S S. When these parts have been put together in the manner described. block of wood nailed to A. Electric Rat Trap How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359] A fire alarm which is both inexpensive and simple in construction is shown in the illustration. Ariz. W is a piece of wax crayon just long enough to break the contact at C when inserted as shown in the illustration. for after a week the rats all departed and the boys all regretted that their fun was at an end. that an electrical connection would be made through the body of the rat. Pa. B. connect the device in circuit with an electric bell. A good sized induction coil was through connected with these wires and about six dry batteries were used to run the induction coil whenever a push button was manipulated. but one that will afford any amount of amusement. in the air and let out a terrific squeak. bent into a hook at each end. Phoenix. allowing the springs to contact at C. small piece of wood. two pieces of sheet brass about 1/4 in. wide. and place it behind a stove. P. --Contributed by John D.

6 in. 1. An old wheel is mounted at the top of the pole. The center pole should be 10 ft. including the . 2. high. Put the works back in the metal shell and solder it to the frying pan by the pieces turned out as in Fig. Then get a 10-cent frying pan. The wheel is anchored out by several guy Home-Made Merry-Go-Round wires. dial and works out of the shell and cut some pieces out of the metal so that when the pieces left are turned back it will have the appearance as in Fig. The seat arms may be any length desired. A passenger rides in each seat and the motorman takes his station at the middle. in diameter. The stump makes the best support. Arbor Wheels [359] Emery wheel arbors should be fitted with flanges or washers having a slight concave to their face. Gild the pan all over.center post rests in an auger hole bored in an old stump or in a post set in the gro