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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial


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  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother


Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)







A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

2. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. --Contributed by J. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. Noble. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. as shown in Fig. away. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. Fig. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. apart. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. The pieces are then dressed round. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. To throw a boomerang. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. Ontario. long will make six boomerangs. with the hollow side away from you. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. wide and 2 ft. 1. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . distant. 2 -. as shown in Fig. 1. E. grasp it and hold the same as a club. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. 2. Toronto. 1. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. It is held in this curve until dry. A piece of plank 12 in. until it is bound as shown in Fig.Fig.

blocks . The top will then have a uniform inward slant. however. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. If the snow is of the right consistency. thick. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. and with a movable bottom. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. forcing it down closely. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. A very light. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. 6 in. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. long. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. one inside of the circle and the other outside. dry snow will not pack easily. A wall.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. high and 4 or 5 in. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. but about 12 in. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. First. it is not essential to the support of the walls. minus the top. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. and it may be necessary to use a little water. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. the block will drop out. or rather no bottom at all. which makes the building simpler and easier. made of 6-in.

throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. which can be made of wood. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. or an old safe dial will do. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. above the ground. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. is 6 or 8 in. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. which is about 1 ft. 2. --Contributed by Geo. Fig. C. and the young architect can imitate them. 3. The piece of wood. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . 2. There is no outward thrust. 3 -. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. Fig. Goodbrod. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. Union. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. 1. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. It also keeps them out. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. A nail. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. a. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. Fig. wide. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. 1. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. D. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. Ore. long and 1 in. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner.

and the other back of the stove and out of the way. Merrill. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. one pair of special hinges. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. the box locked . To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person.When taking hot dishes from the stove. as the weight always draws them back to place. If ordinary butts are used. --Contributed by R. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. New York. Syracuse. S. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. says the Sphinx. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook.

the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. With the metal shears. Place the piece in a vise. To make a design similar to the one shown. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. Alberta Norrell. Augusta. draw one-half of it. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. allowing each coat time to dry. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. If the measuring has been done properly. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. -Contributed by L. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. as shown in Fig. Ga. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. 3. proceed as follows: First. It remains to bend the flaps.and the performer steps out in view. as shown. When the sieve is shaken. 2. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. Fig. as shown in Fig. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. 1. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. smooth surface. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. one for each corner. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. on drawing paper. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. All . If they do not. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. about 1-32 of an inch.

from the back end. In boring through rubber corks. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. A resistance. long. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. Galbreath. and in the positions shown in the sketch. B. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. H. should be in the line. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. 25 gauge German-silver wire. Colo. causing it to expand. The common cork. A piece of porcelain tube. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. R. as shown at AA. in passing through the lamp. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. C. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . After this has dried. if rolled under the shoe sole.the edges should be left smooth. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. If a touch of color is desired. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. --Contributed by R. of No. To keep the metal from tarnishing. 25 German-silver wire. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. When the current is turned off. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. Denver. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. in diameter. heats the strip of German-silver wire. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. The current. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. which is about 6 in. about 6 in. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. is fitted tightly in the third hole. used for insulation.

A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. Purchase two long book straps. 2. . Fig. 3. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. Kansas City. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. Mo. --Contributed by David Brown. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. as shown in Fig.bottom ring. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. leaving a space of 4 in. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. between them as shown in Fig. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. with thin strips of wood. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. 1.

Pa. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. Syracuse. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. 4. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. Morse. to form a handle. The string is then tied. long. Fig. and one weighing 25 lb. Two strips of brass. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. Fig. 1. 1. which is the right weight for family use. and tack smoothly. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. Y. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. The folds are made over the string. just the right weight for a woman to use. are mounted on the outside of the box. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. and a pocket battery. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. These are shown in Fig. 2. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. in diameter. 3. 1. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. Doylestown. as . allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. --Contributed by James M. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. having a gong 2-1/2 in. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. --Contributed by Katharine D. Fig. 36 in. one weighing 15 lb.. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. Kane.An ordinary electric bell. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. When the aeroplane tips. A.. N. C. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box.

1. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. 2. 2. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. The rod should be 36 or 38 in.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. AA. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. Y. 3/32 or 1/4 in. and many fancy knick-knacks. in diameter. The saw. Day. bent as shown in Fig. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. machine screws. if once used. such as brackets. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. four washers and four square nuts. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. two 1/8 -in. --Contributed by Louis J. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. Floral Park. Frame Made of a Rod . N. long. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it.

--Contributed by W. be covered the same as the back. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. use them in place of the outside nuts. allowing each time to dry. copper. For etching. Drying will cause this to change to purple. therefore. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. Watch Fob For coloring silver. A. it has the correct strength. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. of water. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. Scranton. or silver. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and.may be made of either brass. 1 part sulphuric acid. Michigan. File these edges. In the design shown.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. of water in which dissolve. Detroit. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. Silver is the most desirable but. of course.. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. Apply two coats. if copper or brass. Of the leathers. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. 1 part nitric acid. The buckle is to be purchased. the most expensive. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. If it colors the metal red. though almost any color may be obtained. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. as well as the depth of etching desired. treat it with color. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. Rub off the highlights. An Austrian Top [12] . the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. green and browns are the most popular. using a swab and an old stiff brush. as well as brass and copper. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. after breaking up.

hole in this end for the top. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. Michigan. in diameter. --Contributed by J. . hole. starting at the bottom and winding upward. Parts of the Top To spin the top. wide and 3/4 in. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. A 1/16-in. Bore a 3/4-in. When the shank is covered.F. pass one end through the 1/16-in. long. long. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. Tholl. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. Ypsilanti. 1-1/4 in. 5-1/4 in. A handle. 3/4 in. set the top in the 3/4 -in. thick. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. is formed on one end. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. The handle is a piece of pine. allowing only 1-1/4 in.

. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. Ga. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. tarts or similar pastry. Northville. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. --A. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. Mich. The baking surface. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. A. Augusta. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. having no sides. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. For black leathers. --Contributed by Miss L. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. Houghton. Alberta Norrell.

glass fruit jar. Mo. two turns will remove the jar. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. Centralia. When you desire to work by white light. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. then solder cover and socket together. Stringing Wires [13] A. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. says Studio Light. the same as shown in the illustration.

it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. 16 Horizontal bars. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. They are fastened. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. as shown in the cross-section sketch. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. square by 62 in. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. 4 Vertical pieces. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. so it can be folded up. 4 Braces. 1-1/4 in. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. and not tip over. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot.for loading and development. square by 12 in. 1-1/4 in. Wis. . Janesville.

The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. from scrap material. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. C. after filling the pail with water. -Contributed by Charles Stem. New York. Phillipsburg. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. and a loop made in the end. Rosenthal. Cincinnati. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. After rounding the ends of the studs. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. If the loop is tied at the proper place. --Contributed by Dr. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. H.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. The whole. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. O. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. The front can be covered .

the color will be an undesirable.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. Baltimore. if you try to tone them afterward. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. thoroughly fix. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. The . Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. Wehr. By using the following method. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. FIG. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. you are. and. the mouth of which rests against a. by all rules of the game. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. 1 FIG. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. --Contributed by Gilbert A. either for contact printing or enlargements. principally mayonnaise dressing. The results will be poor. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. Develop them into strong prints. sickly one. Md. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. If the gate is raised slightly. In my own practice. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints.

long to admit the angle support...bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison.. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects. When the desired reduction has taken place. 16 oz. when it starts to bleach.. Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper... stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax.. --Contributed by T...... this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain.. The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished. to make it 5 by 5 in. San Francisco. preferably the colored kind... The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone.... without previous wetting. Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete... Water ..... 1 and again as in Fig. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig.. It will bleach slowly and evenly....... The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes... three times... but.... 2 oz.. A good final washing completes the process... An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table. etc. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder. Gray.. wide and 4 in." Cyanide of potassium ..... L.. as it will appear clean much longer than the white. where it will continue to bleach. transfer it to a tray of water. Place the dry print..... 2... The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper.. 5 by 15 in. in this solution.... This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print... thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses. With a little practice. Put one on each corner of the blotting paper. Iodide of potassium . The blotting paper can . 20 gr... in size... Cal.

Corners complete are shown in Fig. Monahan. --Contributed by L. Oshkosh.J. having a width of 2-1/4 in. Wisconsin. and a length of 5 in.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. Make a design similar to that shown. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. the shaft 1 in. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. 20 gauge. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. wide. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. wide below the . --Contributed by J. Wilson Aldred Toronto. the head of which is 2 in. Canada. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. 3. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled.

freehand. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. then trace the other half in the usual way. being held perpendicular to the work. Trace the design on the metal. 2. then coloring. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. 1 part nitric acid. . smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. then put on a second coat. as shown in Fig. Do not put the hands in the solution. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. 1 Fig. With the metal shears. For coloring olive green. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. Pierce a hole with a small drill. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. but use a swab on a stick. With files. using turpentine. Allow this to dry. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. Fig. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. After the sawing. 4. After this has dried. Make one-half of the design. Apply with a small brush. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. using a small metal saw. after folding along the center line. 1 part sulphuric acid. 3. using carbon paper. deep. 1. which gives the outline of the design Fig. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. and the saw allowed time to make its cut.FIG. The metal must be held firmly. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing.

Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. then stain it a mahogany color. thick. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. attach brass handles. --Contributed by Katharine D. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. Conn. Syracuse. --Contributed by H. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. on a chopping board. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. After the stain has dried. --Contributed by M. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. Burnett. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. Cal. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. Richmond. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. M. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. When this is cold. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. as shown. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. New York. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. East Hartford. Carl Cramer. Ii is an ordinary staple. . it does the work rapidly. Morse. the block is split and the pasteboard removed.

When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. thick. Jaquythe. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. square. Florida. holes. --Contributed by W. 1. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. Fig. brass. 4. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. machine screws. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. saucers or pans. also locate the drill holes. not over 1/4 in. 53 steel pens. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered.. . --Contributed by Mrs. and several 1/8-in. L. in width at the shank. WARNECKE Procure some brass. 1/4 in. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. thick and 4 in. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. Atwell. two enameled. indicating the depth of the slots. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. two stopcocks with 1/8 in.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. or tin. A. Cal. Richmond. as shown in Fig. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. Kissimmee. one shaft. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. about 3/16 in. as shown at A. some pieces of brass. H. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in.

in diameter and 1/32 in. as shown. The shaft hole may also be filed square. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. brass and bolted to the casing. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. into the hole. Fig.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. 2. with a 3/8-in. 3. long and 5/16 in. wide and bend as shown in Fig. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. If metal dishes. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. and the ends filed round for the bearings. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . wide. hole in the center. hole. 6. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. a square shaft used. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. with the face of the disk. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. using two nuts on each screw. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. about 1/32 in. each about 1 in. 2. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. hole is drilled to run off the water. long by 3/4 in. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. with 1/8-in. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. thick. These are connected to a 3/8-in. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. Bend as shown in Fig. If the shaft is square. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. machine screws and nuts. and pins inserted. machine screws. There should be a space of 1/16 in.. 1. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. can be procured. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. 7. Fig. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. A 3/4-in. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. thick. 3. lead should be run into the segments. supply pipe. as in Fig. as shown in Fig. 5. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. Fig. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw.

Canada. deep and 1-1/4 in. Be sure to have the cover. 8-1/2 in. Stain the wood before putting in the . Fasten with 3/4-in. long. we will call the basket. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. square and 30-1/2 in. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. deep over all. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. When assembling. --Contributed by S. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. --Contributed by F. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. from the bottom end of the legs. The four legs are each 3/4-in. or more in diameter. Hamilton. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. With a string or tape measure. The lower part. La Salle. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. make these seams come between the two back legs. three of which are in the basket. Now you will have the box in two pieces. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. using four to each leg. Cooke. screws. V. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. from the top of the box. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. high and 15 in. to make the bottom. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. Smith. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. Ill.

The side. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. 2. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. wide and four strips 10 in. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. Baltimore. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. When making the display. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. Fig. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. If all the parts are well sandpapered. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. wide. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. Mass. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. 1. -Contributed by Stanley H. Boston. you can. Cover them with the cretonne. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. as shown in the sketch.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. Md.lining. The folded part in the center is pasted together. --also the lower edge when necessary.2 Fig. Packard. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. and gather it at that point. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. Sew on to the covered cardboards. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. sewing on the back side. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig.

It is cleanly. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. Mo. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. Crockett. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. --Contributed by H. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. Gloversville. --Contributed by B. Y. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. Cross Timbers.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. It is not difficult to . with slight modifications. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. Orlando Taylor. saving all the solid part. and. 3. When through using the pad. N. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. Fig. L.

and secure it in place with glue or paste. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. Texas. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. Mass. -Contributed by C. S. across the face. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. Lowell. are shown in the diagram. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. Lane. Mount the shell on a small card with glue.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. El Paso. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. Both of these methods are wasteful. or if desired. Bourne. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. After this is done. --Contributed by Edith E. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. After stirring. If a file is used. remove the contents. it should be new and sharp. and scrape out the rough parts.

As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. Oak Park. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. The process works well and needs no watching. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. Wheeler. Des Moines. Turl. circled over the funnel and disappeared. After several hours' drying. Canton. Ill. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. As these were single-faced disk records. Oregon. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. --Contributed by Marion P. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. The insects came to the light. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. He captured several pounds in a few hours. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. Greenleaf.cooking utensil. A Postcard Rack [25]. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. --Contributed by Geo. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. Iowa. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. --Contributed by Loren Ward. Those having houses . the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. Ill. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. F.

boards are preferable. and both exactly alike. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. and as they are simple in design. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in.. not even with the boards themselves. 6 in. Both sides can be put together in this way. one on each side of what will be the . and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. The single boards can then be fixed. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. Glenbrook. Worcester. Dobbins. by 2 ft. --Contributed by Wm. Only three pieces are required. --Contributed by Thomas E. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. Mass. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. the best material to use being matched boards. and the second one for the developing bench. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. thick. Conn. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. plane and pocket knife.. the bottom being 3/8 in. Rosenberg. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. 6 in. will do as well. Lay the floor next. material. but for cheapness 3/4 in.

so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. Fig. 2 in section. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. of the top of the door for the same reason. below which is fixed the sink. and the top as at C in the same drawing. hinged to it. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. At the top of the doorway. 6 and 9. which is fixed on as shown . and to the outside board of the sides. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. The roof boards may next be put on. 3 and 4. In hinging the door. 6. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. 11. is cut. and should be zinc lined. The developing bench is 18 in. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door.doorway. and in the middle an opening. 7.. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. It is shown in detail in Fig. by screwing to the floor. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. 8. wide. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. 10). brown wrapping paper. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. etc. 9). That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. nailing them to each other at the ridge. 9 by 11 in. so that the water will drain off into the sink. 5. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. as shown in Figs. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. so that it will fit inside the sink. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. and act as a trap for the light... 6. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. the closing side as at B.

Details of the Dark Rook .

16.in Fig. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . and filed or dressed to a point on the other. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. as shown in Fig. 13. Fig. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. Karl Hilbrich. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. screwing them each way into the boards. as in Fig. if desired. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. it is better than anything on the market. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. though this is hardly advisable. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. 17. which makes it possible to have white light. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. 19. after lining with brown paper. For beating up an egg in a glass. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. and a tank stand on it. The handle should be at least 12 in. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. 20. or red light as at K. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. Fig. and a 3/8-in. 18. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. 6. hole bored in the center for a handle. but not the red glass and frame. as at M. In use. 16. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. are fastened in the corners inside. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. 13. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. 14. as shown in the sections. Erie. --Contributed by W. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. Fig. Fig. these being shown in Fig. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. 1. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. or the room may be made with a flat roof. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. mixing flour and water. four coats at first is not too many. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. The house will be much strengthened if strips. preferably maple or ash. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. 15. 2. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. as at I. Pennsylvania. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. A circular piece about 2 in.

the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. --Contributed by Wm. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. when put together properly is a puzzle. D. about 3/8 in. To operate. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. -Contributed by E. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. Ark. Mo. L. Yonkers. which. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. Smith. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . Schweiger. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. G. for a handle. Kansas City. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. as shown in the sketch. long.copper should be. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. Mitchell. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. Eureka Springs. New York. --Contributed by L.

3. as well as improve its appearance. as shown in Fig. the box will require a greater height in front. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. Each cork is cut as in Fig. need them. . These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. If the sill is inclined. as shown in Fig. holes should be drilled in the bottom. which binds them together. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. Having completed the bare box. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. for the moment. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. The corks in use are shown in Fig. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. 3. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. 1. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. the rustic work should be varnished. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. A number of 1/2-in. 2. in order to thoroughly preserve it. especially for filling-in purposes. as is usually the case. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. to make it set level. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. The design shown in Fig. After the box is trimmed.

The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. When the corn is gone cucumbers. etc. being partly eaten into. 1. as shown in Fig. can't use poison. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. 2. . At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. But I have solved the difficulty. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. 4. life in the summer time is a vexation. Traps do no good. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. too dangerous. drilled at right angles. 3. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. F. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J.. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. and observe results. share the same fate. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. Each long projection represents a leg. cabbages. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. it's easy. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. to hold the coil on the bottom plate.

Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. strips. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. of No. by trial. -. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. long. cut some of it off and try again. the coil does not heat sufficiently.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. The solution can be used over and over again. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. About 9-1/2 ft. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. . cut in 1/2-in. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. Iowa. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. and made up and kept in large bottles. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. If. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained.

The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. Do not wash them.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. C. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. it falls to stop G. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. as shown in the sketch. to cause the door to swing shut. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. forks. of whiting and 1/2 oz. coffee pot. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. --Contributed by Katharine D. Stir and mix thoroughly. In cleaning silver. 1) removed. D. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. . Y. Kane. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. Knives. Doylestown. hot-water pot. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. Texas. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. Pa. Dallas. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. --Contributed by James M. but with unsatisfactory results. is a good size--in this compound. of gasoline. of oleic acid with 1 gal. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. and a strip. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. Morse. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. N. Syracuse. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. Fig 2.

Harrisburg. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. Ill. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. Waverly. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . La.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. which is. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. but unfixed. . --Contributed by Theodore L. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. Sprout. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. New Orleans. negatives. later fixed and washed as usual. --Contributed by Oliver S. of course. Pa. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. using the paper dry. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. Fisher.

Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. metal. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. In this uncertainty lies the charm. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. then . If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. Fig. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. 1. To obviate this difficulty. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. a harmonograph is a good prescription. The harmonograph. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success.

should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. 1-3/4 by 2 in. etc. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. what is most important. provides a means of support for the stylus. that is. which can be regulated. as shown in Fig. and unless the shorter pendulum is. exactly one-third. such as a shoe buttoner. Holes up to 3 in. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths.. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. Chicago. one-fourth. A pedestal. K. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. makes respectively 3. Ingham. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . of about 30 or 40 lb. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. as long as the other. 1. A length of 7 ft. Rosemont. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. R. Another weight of about 10 lb. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. Gaffney. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. is about right for a 10-ft. --Contributed by Wm. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. as shown in the lower part of Fig. A weight. Arizona. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. G. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. in diameter. with a nail set or punch. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. A small table or platform. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. J. for instance. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. one-fifth. Punch a hole. --Contributed by James T.. 1. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. or the lines will overlap and blur. is attached as shown at H. ceiling. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. A small weight.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. to prevent any side motion. The length of the short pendulum H. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. in the center of the circle to be cut.

The two key cards are made alike. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. 1. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. N. 3. Morey. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig.J. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. 2. The capacity of the vise. distributing them over the whole card. Chicago. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. of course. a correspondent of . The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. Cruger. --Contributed by J. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. -Contributed by W. dividing them into quarters. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. 4. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. Fig.H. Fig. 5. one for the sender and one for the receiver. and 4 as in Fig. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. and proceed as before. then put 2 at the top. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. 6. Cape May City. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever.J. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. then 3 as in Fig.

The two cut surfaces can be placed together. of ferricyanide of potash. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. respectively. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. 22 gauge German-silver wire. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. If constructed of the former. from the top and bottom. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. of the uprights. of water. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. wood-screws. citrate of iron and ammonia. To assemble. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. Cut through the center. deep. --Contributed by L. Augusta. Alberta Norrell. the portion of the base under the coil. Ga. remove the prints. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. Wind the successive turns of . 30 gr. long. of 18-per-cent No. acetic acid and 4 oz. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. 1/4 in. drill 15 holes. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. 1/2 oz. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. 6 gauge wires shown. sheet of well made asbestos paper. After preparing the base and uprights. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. After securing the tint desired. says Popular Electricity. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. Asbestos board is to be preferred.

if one is not a smoker. square. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. etc. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. rivets. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. screws.. N. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. Labels of some kind are needed. cut and dressed 1/2 in. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. Ward. but these are not necessary. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. Ampere.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. then fasten the upright in place. 16 gauge copper wire. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. --Contributed by Frederick E. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . Y. The case may be made of 1/2-in. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. 14 gauge. as they are usually thrown away when empty. which. Small knobs may be added if desired. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit.

The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright.. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. the pure muriatic acid should be used. brass. and rub the point of the copper on it. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. D. as shown in the sketch. or has become corroded. being careful about the heat. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. S. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. then to the joint to be soldered. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. Jaquythe. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. . After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. Larson. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. galvanized iron. California. and one made of poplar finished black. a piece of solder. it must be ground or filed to a point. Copper. lead. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. G. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. E and F. This is considerable annoyance. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. In soldering galvanized iron.14 oz. --C. C. --Contributed by W. especially if a large tub is used. particularly so when the iron has once been used. sandpaper or steel wool. Richmond. and labeled "Poison. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. of glycerine to 16 oz. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. zinc. tin. Heat it until hot (not red hot). The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. Wis. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. Ark. The material can be of any wood. A. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. Eureka Springs. B. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. Kenosha. --Contributed by A. tinner's acid. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. If the soldering copper is an old one. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. of water. The parts are put together with dowel pins.

in diameter. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. round iron. Y. Troy. Place the band. and drill out the threads. This completes the die. nut. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. however. 2. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. which gives two bound volumes each year. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. I bind my magazines at home evenings. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. Fig. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . The dimensions shown in Fig. W. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. in diameter. with good results. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. The covers of the magazines are removed. brass and silver. -Contributed by H. Six issues make a well proportioned book. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. D. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. B. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. Fig. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. This will leave a clear hole. The disk will come out pan shaped. thick and 1-1/4 in. 1. 7/8 in. N. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. Hankin. a ring may be made from any metal. C. The punch A. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. Take a 3/4-in.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. Apart from this. wide. such as copper. Brass rings can be plated when finished.

Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section.4. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. threaded double. After drawing the thread tightly. through the notch on the left side of the string No. 1. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. Place the cardboard covers on the book. Start with the front of the book. of the ends extending on each side. using . Five cuts. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. and place them against the strings in the frame. 1. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. The string No. allowing about 2 in. size 16 or larger. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. 1.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. 2. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. as shown in Fig. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. C. If started with the January or the July issue. deep. is nailed across the top. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. and then to string No. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. Coarse white thread. . The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. 2. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. and a third piece. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. on all edges except the back. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. then back through the notch on the right side. 1 in Fig. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. which is fastened the same as the first. 5. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. The sections are then prepared for sewing. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. The covering should be cut out 1 in. 1/8 in. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. is used for the sewing material. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. The covering can be of cloth. After the sewing is completed cut the strings.

at opposite sides to each other. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. on which to hook the blade. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. Encanto. round iron. Cal. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. For the blade an old talking-machine . College View. and. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. Tinplate. --Contributed by Clyde E. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. and mark around each one. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. Nebr. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. Place the cover on the book in the right position. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. Divine.

--Contributed by Carson Birkhead. and 1/4 in. at the same end. A. as shown. C. with a steel sleeve. thick.. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. or double extra heavy. bore. F. -Contributed by Willard J. Hays. Moorhead. Miss. Ohio. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. Summitville. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. long.. by 1 in. thick. E. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. as it is sometimes called. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. Then on the board put . Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. with 10 teeth to the inch. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. and another piece (B) 6 in. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). B. and file in the teeth. fuse hole at D. On the upper side. Make the blade 12 in. and 1/4 in. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. and a long thread plug. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. hydraulic pipe. in order to drill the holes in the ends. by 4-1/2 in. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose.

of rubber-covered wire. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. 4 jars. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. H. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. of wire to each coil.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. A lid may be added if desired. high around this apparatus. If you are going to use a current of low tension. --Contributed by Chas. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. the jars need not be very large. as from batteries. Philadelphia. some sheet copper or brass for plates. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. Boyd. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. using about 8 in. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. about 5 ft. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . and some No. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. Connect up as shown. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil.

2. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. 34 in. by 5 in. The stock required for them is oak. and for the rear runners: A. as they are not substantial enough. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. steel rod makes a good steering rod. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. is used to reduce friction. The top disk in jar No. wide and 2 in. An iron washer. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. 2. . Construct the auto front (Fig. wide by 3/4 in. two pieces 34 in. oak boards. To wire the apparatus. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. by 2 in. C. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. See Fig. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. At the front 24 or 26 in. and plane it on all edges. The connection between point No. wide and 3/4 in. and bolt through. 2 and 3. beginning at the rear. square by 14 ft. The current then will flow through the motor. In proportioning them the points A. 15-1/2 in. 4 in. by 1-1/4 in. by 2 in. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. Use no screws on the running surface. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. long. 5 on switch. long by 22 in. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. 11 in. by 1-1/4 in. are important. gives full current and full speed. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. 3 and No. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. 27 B. 4. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. on No. by 1 in.. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. wide. C. On the door of the auto front put the . 30 in. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. Put arm of switch on point No. or source of current. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. thick. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch.the way. making them clear those in the front runner. long.. by 6 in. two pieces 30 in. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar.. sheet brass 1 in. two pieces 14 in. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. Equip block X with screw eyes. A variation of 1/16 in. First sandpaper all the wood. 2 in. long. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. 2. by 5 in. 1. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp.. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. Z. 1 on switch. bevel block K to give a rocker motion.. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. above the ground. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. two for each jar. thick. B. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. however. Fig. B and C. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. then apply a coat of thin enamel. B. A 3/4-in. 3 in. Their size also depends on the voltage. as they "snatch" the ice. 1 and so on for No. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. The sled completed should be 15 ft. & S.. For the front runners these measurements are: A.. long. The illustration shows how to shape it. 4) of 3/4-in. and four pieces 14 in. 3. direct to wire across jars. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. Use no nails. 7 in. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. 2 is lower down than in No. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. 16-1/2 in. 1 is connected to point No. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. No. For the brass trimmings use No. with the cushion about 15 in. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. apart.

On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. parcels. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. to improve the appearance. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. etc. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. If the expense is greater than one can afford. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. by 1/2 in. such as used on automobiles. or with these for $25. If desired. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. overshoes. lunch. which is somewhat moist. cutting it out of sheet brass. cheap material. long. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. brass plated. The best way is to get some strong. Then get some upholstery buttons. a brake may be added to the sled. to the wheel.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. such as burlap. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. If desired. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. by 30 in. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. Fasten a horn. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. fasten a cord through the loop. a number of boys may share in the ownership. may be stowed within. Then put a leather covering over the burlap.

and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. . The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. --Contributed by Stewart H.tree and bring. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. Ill. Lexington. Leland.

FC. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. from F to G. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. say 1 in. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. The Model Engineer. sheet metal. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. The first tooth may now be cut. Fig. by drawing diameters. CD. 1. With no other tools than a hacksaw. a compass. E. which. 3. outside diameter and 1/16 in. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. thick. the cut will be central on the line. so that the center of the blade. Draw a circle on paper. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. The straight-edge. when flat against it. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. made from 1/16-in. Fig.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. London. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. will be over the line FG. with twenty-four teeth. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. This guide should have a beveled edge. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. some files. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. A small clearance space. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. though more difficult. 2. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. mild steel or iron. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. 4). and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. First take the case of a small gearwheel. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. the same diameter as the wheel. Fig. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue.

ground it with a large piece of zinc. as shown in Fig. 2.Four Photos on One Plate of them. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. B. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. either the pencils for arc lamps. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. B. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. or several pieces bound tightly together. hold in one hand. 1. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. transmitter. as shown in Fig. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. electric lamp. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. and the other outlet wire. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. . To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. some wire and some carbons. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. A bright. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. R. If there is no faucet in the house. Focus the camera in the usual manner. 1. as shown in Fig. No shock will be perceptible. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. Then take one outlet wire. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. each in the center. Make a hole in the other. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do.

They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. Then set the whole core away to dry. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. They have screw ends. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. by 12 in. Emsworth. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. or more of the latter has been used. But in this experiment. and will then burn the string C. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. a transmitter which induces no current is used. serves admirably. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. Wrenn. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. B. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. A is a wooden block. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. D D are binding posts for electric wires. and about that size. Pa. 36 wire around it. at each end for terminals. as indicated by E E. Dry batteries are most convenient. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. one at the receiver can hear what is said. One like a loaf of bread. of course. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. leaving about 10 in. J. If desired. Ashland. under the gable. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. Slattery. For a base use a pine board 10 in. by 1 in. and again wind the wire around it. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. Several battery cells. as shown. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. --Contributed by Geo. Ohio. are also needed. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A.

Fig. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. as shown. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. and one single post switch. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. B B. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. First make a support. while C is open. 2. run a No. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. in parallel. Connect these three to switch. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. F. The oven is now ready to be connected. D. D. The apparatus is now ready for operation.. B B. These should have hollow ends. Place 16-cp. From the other set of binding-posts. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. C. The coil will commence to become warm. C. for the . by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. connecting lamp receptacles. Turn on switch. 1. 12 or No. Fig. E. and the lamps. the terminal of the coil.wire. 14 wire. Ohio. as shown. At one side secure two receptacles. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. Jr. and switch. until the hand points to zero on the scale. Newark. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. in series with bindingpost.

1. 4 in. Mine is wound with two layers of No. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. 5. 1. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. This is slipped on the pivot. 2. A wooden box. If for 3-way. --Contributed by J. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. but if for a 4way. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. Fig. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. Fig. 36 magnet wire instead of No. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. high. After drilling. long. drill a hole as shown at H. 4 amperes. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. where A is the homemade ammeter. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. Fig. 3 amperes. until the scale is full. wide and 1/8 in. To make one. 1/2 in. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. etc.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . remove the valve. Fig.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. deep. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. and D. a battery. a variable resistance. although copper or steel will do. The box is 5-1/2 in. 14 wire. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. from the lower end. inside measurements. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. The core. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. as shown in the cut. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. D. is made of iron. 6. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. 14. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. drill through the entire case and valve.E. 7. a standard ammeter. The pointer or hand. thick. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. is then made and provided with a glass front. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. B. 5. 4. long. drill in only to the opening already through. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. E. wide and 1-3/4 in. At a point a little above the center. wind with plenty of No. It is 1 in. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. This may be made of wood. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. although brass is better.. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. Montreal.or 4-way valve or cock. 10 turns to each layer. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. to prevent it turning on the axle. 1/4 in. long and make a loop. Dussault. is made of wire. D. C. 3. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through.

The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. This stopper should be pierced. and the other connects with the water rheostat.performing electrical experiments. and a metal rod. provided with a rubber stopper. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. A. in diameter. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. D. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. in thickness . which is used for reducing the current. F. B. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. E. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. By connecting the motor. One wire runs to the switch. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. To start the light. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. making two holes about 1/4 in. as shown. high. and the arc light. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase.

connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. where he is placed in an upright open . B. as shown in B. Turn on the current and press the button. Fig. If the interrupter does not work at first. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. A piece of wood. Y. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. N. Fig. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. --Contributed by Harold L. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. As there shown.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. If all adjustments are correct. 2. Jones. Fig. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. as shown in C. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. Having fixed the lead plate in position. 1. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. Carthage. A. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. Fig. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. 1. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. 2. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. 1. long. To insert the lead plate. Having finished the interrupter. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working.

figures and lights. If everything is not black. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. A. A white shroud is thrown over his body. The model. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. especially the joints and background near A. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. The lights. inside dimensions. the illusion will be spoiled. dressed in brilliant. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. from which the gong has been removed. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. should be miniature electric lamps. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. If it is desired to place the box lower down. Its edges should nowhere be visible. and can be bought at Japanese stores.coffin. as the entire interior. The glass should be the clearest possible. within the limits of an ordinary room. could expect from a skeleton. light-colored garments. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. and must be thoroughly cleansed. especially L. and wave his arms up and down. to aid the illusion. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. by 7-1/2 in. should be colored a dull black. L and M. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. giving a limp. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. by 7 in. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. until it is dark there. loosejointed effect. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. which can be run by three dry cells. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. is constructed as shown in the drawings. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away.. The skeleton is made of papier maché. high. They need to give a fairly strong light. with the exception of the glass. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. All .

square block. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. fat spark. W. as shown in the sketch. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. after which it assumes its normal color. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. Fry. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils.that is necessary is a two-point switch. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. San Jose. Cal. If a gradual transformation is desired. placed about a foot apart. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. --Contributed by Geo. Two finishing nails were driven in. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for .

by a piece of hard rubber at each end. the remaining space will be filled with air. The plates are separated 6 in. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. hydrogen gas is generated. B and C. or a solution of sal soda. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. In Fig. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. to make it airtight. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. with two tubes. as shown. A (see sketch). into the receiver G. This is a wide-mouth bottle. New York.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. In Fig. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. 1. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. Cohen. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. -Contributed by Dudley H. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. by small pieces of wood. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. soldered in the top. and should be separated about 1/8 in. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. One of these plates is connected to metal top. If a lighted match . about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. F. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water.

one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. The distance between the nipple. from the bottom. as is shown in the illustration. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. in diameter and 6 in. Fig. or by direct contact with another magnet. long. says the Model Engineer. 1. is made by drilling a 1/8in. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. 2 shows the end view. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. 36 insulated wire. should be only 5/16 of an inch. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. London. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. which is plugged up at both ends. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. is then coiled around the brass tube. A. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . One row is drilled to come directly on top. either by passing a current of electricity around it. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. A. which forms the vaporizing coil. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. N. by means of the clips. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. A piece of 1/8-in. of No. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. 1-5/16 in. copper pipe. then a suitable burner is necessary. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. P. A nipple. A 1/64-in. long. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. Fig. If desired. A. copper pipe. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. A. N. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. B. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. C C. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. and the ends of the tube. 1/2 in. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil.

How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. taking care not to bend the iron. leaving the folded edge uncut. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. but if the paper knife cannot be used. should be cut to the diameter of the can. Fig. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. Fig. larger all around than the book. A disk of thin sheet-iron. smoothly. this makes a much nicer book. Fig. about 8 or 10 in. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. Cut four pieces of cardboard. trim both ends and the front edge. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. 1/4 in.lamp cord. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. boards and all. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. 1. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . 2). cut to the size of the pages. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. with a fine saw. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. Take two strips of stout cloth. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. at the front and back for fly leaves. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. Turn the book over and paste the other side. 3. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. duck or linen. fold and cut it 1 in. longer and 1/4 in. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use.

Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. is turned on it. A. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. which will just slip inside the little can. C. the joint will be gas tight. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. deep. --Contributed by James E. Va. E. as shown. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. without a head. Another tank. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. Noble. in diameter and 30 in. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. H. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. Parker. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. is made the same depth as B. Bedford City. This will cause some air to be enclosed. A gas cock. and a little can. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. D. Another can. 18 in. or rather the top now. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. but its diameter is a little smaller. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. 4). of tank A is cut a hole. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. B. --Contributed by Joseph N. pasting them down (Fig. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. . In the bottom. as shown in the sketch. Toronto. is soldered onto tank A. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. is perforated with a number of holes. Ont. is fitted in it and soldered.

as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. and the four diagonal struts. and sewed double to give extra strength. B. which may be either spruce. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. C. B. If the back armature. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. D. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. The bridle knots.. thus adjusting the . A A. Beverly. The longitudinal corner spines. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. are shown in detail at H and J. tacks. Fig. when finished.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. should be 1/4 in. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. H is a square knot. should be cut a little too long. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. The diagonal struts. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. E. with an electric-bell magnet. The wiring diagram. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. fastened in the bottom. A. shows how the connections are to be made. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. long. 2. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. N. exactly 12 in. and about 26 in. long. 1. by 1/2 in. making the width. Fig. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. to prevent splitting. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. D. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. square by 42 in. basswood or white pine. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. should be 3/8 in. B. -Contributed by H. If the pushbutton A is closed. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. The armature. J. Bott. as shown at C. The small guards. S. which moves to either right or left. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box.

however. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. as shown. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. Chicago. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. can be made of a wooden . and if a strong wind is blowing. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. Harbert. If the kite is used in a light wind. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. E. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. and. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. A bowline knot should be tied at J. shift toward F. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. for producing electricity direct from heat. thus shortening G and lengthening F. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. that refuse to slide easily. D. the batteries do not run down for a long time. --Contributed by A. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. Kan. with gratifying results. --Contributed by Edw.lengths of F and G. Closing either key will operate both sounders. to prevent slipping. Stoddard. Clay Center.

by means of machine screws or. A.frame. spark. --Contributed by A. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. Then.. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. Chicago. E. E. A. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. B. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. The wood screw. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. with a pocket compass. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. which conducts the current into the cannon. When the cannon is loaded. D. 14 or No. to the cannon. 16 single-covered wire. with a number of nails. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. F. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. in position. A and B. placed on top. C. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. C. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. C. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. Fasten a piece of wood. A. and the current may then be detected by means. and also holds the pieces of wood. or parallel with the compass needle.

the current is shut off. Keil. In Fig. to receive the screw in the center. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. A and S. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. A. Chicago. Ohio. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. 1. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. To reverse. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. --Contributed by Joseph B. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. where there is a staple. To lock the door. Fig. 1. within the reach of the magnet. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. B. Bend the strips BB (Fig. screw is bored in the block. when in position at A'. Marion. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. now at A' and S'. H. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. with the long arm at L'. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. L. . requiring a strong magnet. Fig. press the button. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. A hole for a 1/2 in. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. but no weights or strings. Connect as shown in the illustration. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. in this position the door is locked. To unlock the door. --Contributed by Henry Peck. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. 1. A and S. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. square and 3/8 in. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. Big Rapids. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. Mich. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig.

screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. When ready for use. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. When the holes are finished and your lines set. pipe with 1-2-in. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. and may be made at very slight expense. --Contributed by C. West Somerville. put in the handle. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. Rand. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. The standard and base. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. hole. about 18 in. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. if enameled white on the concave side. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. Mass. J. or for microscopic work. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. gas-pipe. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. and C is a dumbbell. and if desired the handles may . Thread the other end of the pipe. are enameled a jet black. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. long.

D. B. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. Fig. Mass. 1. 1. across. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. as shown at A in the sketch. Warren. which shall project at least 2 in. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. 8 in. long and 8 in. across. --Contributed by C. Make a cylindrical core of wood. North Easton. high by 1 ft. inside the pail. E. M. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. while a new one will cost about 80 cents.be covered with leather.. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. with a cover. A. This peculiar property is also found in ice. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . Fig.

should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. diameter. as dictated by fancy and expense. After removing all the paper. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. which is the hottest part. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. Fit all the parts together snugly. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in.mixture of clay. layer of the clay mixture. Line the pail. The 2 in. hotel china. if you have the materials. 60%. and 3/4 in. If the cover of the pail has no rim. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. long. 3) with false top and bottom. to hold the clay mixture. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. bottom and sides. passing wire nails through and clinching them. E. wider than the kiln. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. and graphite. but will be cheaper in operation. full length of iron core. thick. C. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. Whatever burner is used. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. in diameter. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. and varnish. make two wood ends. and 3/8 in. the firing should be gradual. pipe. if there is to be any glazing done. Fig. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. C. let this dry thoroughly. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. cutting the hole a little smaller. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. strip of sheet iron. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. sand. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. 25%. 1). projecting from each end (Fig. 15%. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner.. Cover with paper and shellac as before. such . 1390°-1410°. say 1/4 in. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. and cut it 3-1/2 in. of fine wire. W.. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. This done.. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. the point of the blue flame. pack this space-top. and with especial caution the first time. After finishing the core. 2. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. Set aside for a few days until well dried. 1). In like manner make the cover of the kiln. carefully centering it. L. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. but it will burn a great deal of gas. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. pipe 2-ft. long over the lid hole as a chimney. It is placed inside the kiln. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. and on it set the paper wrapped core. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. or make one yourself. hard porcelain. as is shown in the sketch. 1330°. Wind about 1/8 in.-G. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. 2 in. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. about 1 in. thick. C. and your kiln is ready for business. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. When lighted. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. in diameter.

on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. --Contributed by J. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. leaving long terminals. C. D. 2.. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. diameter. C. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. Next restore all the cards to one pack. 1. Take the red cards. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. as in Fig.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. You can display either color called for. 8 in. all cards facing the same way. . and discharges into the tube. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. and so on. B. Then take the black cards. Then. red and black. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. taking care to have the first card red. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. as in Fig. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. A. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. square them up and place in a vise. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. and divide it into two piles. square them up. T. 2. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. C. about 1/16 in. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. The funnel. Of course. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. procure a new deck. every alternate card being the same color. with a plane. bind tightly with black silk. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. length of . the next black. around the coil.53 in. and plane off about 1/16 in. 2). Washington. overlaps and rests on the body. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. Chicago. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. R. as shown in the sketch herewith.

the same ends will come together again. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. The bottom glass should be a good fit. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. so that when they are assembled. 1. 1 gill of fine white sand. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. All the horizontal pieces. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. the first thing to decide on is the size. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. The cement. N. B. through the holes already drilled. 1 gill of litharge. about 20 in. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. of the frame. F. Drill all the horizontal pieces. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. A. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. Long Branch. Let .C. To find the fall of snow. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in.. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. D. Fig. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. E.J. It should be placed in an exposed location. angle iron for the frame. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. B. stove bolts. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. and then the frame is ready to assemble. When the glass is put in the frame a space. C. The upright pieces. and this is inexpensive to build. E. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. thus making all the holes coincide. A. to form a dovetail joint as shown. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. as the difficulties increase with the size. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. stove bolts. B.

to the door knob. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. B. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. A. Fasten the lever. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. having a swinging connection at C. Aquarium Finished If desired. and. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. if desired.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. Fig. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . D. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. on the door by means of a metal plate. a centerpiece (A.

To make the frame. showing the paddle-wheel in position. for the top. long. several lengths of scantling 3 in. 3 shows one of the paddles. another. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. White. which is 15 in. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. Do not fasten these boards now. will open the door about 1/2 in. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. Buffalo. 2 ft. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. hoping it may solve the same question for them. C. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. thus doing away with the spring. wide by 1 in. long. Fig. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. 2 at GG. Fig. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. Fig. approximately 1 ft. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. F. to form the slanting part. Cut two of them 4 ft. as at E.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. and another. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. 1 . Two short boards 1 in.. 2 is an end view. Fig. 1. 1 is the motor with one side removed. with a water pressure of 70 lb. from the outside top of the frame. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. soldered to the end of the cylinder. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. 1. long. to form the main supports of the frame. They are shown in Fig. wide . long. Fig. and Fig. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. Fig. to keep the frame from spreading. 6 in. Cut two pieces 30 in. B. D. Y. according to the slant given C. 26 in. screwed to the door frame. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. AA. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. but mark their position on the frame. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. another. --Contributed by Orton E. A small piece of spring brass. I referred this question to my husband. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. E. PAUL S. N.

pipe. Fig. and drill a 1-in. hole to form the bearings. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. iron. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. that is. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. Make this hole conical. 2) and another 1 in. with the wheel and shaft in place. 1. GG. Fig. by 1-1/2 in. Drill 1/8-in. thick (HH. and a 1/4 -in. in diameter. 2) form a substantial base. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig.burlap will do -. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. hole through the exact center of the wheel. hole through its center. 4.along the edges under the zinc to form . from one end by means of a key. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. (I. Take the side pieces. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. These are the paddles. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. Tack one side on. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. thick. and drill a 1/8-in. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. long and filling it with babbitt metal. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. holes. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. Fasten them in their proper position. 2) with a 5/8-in. Fig. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. hole from the tops to the 1-in. after which drill a 5/8 in. 24 in. hole through them. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. Now block the wheel. then drill a 3/16-in. tapering from 3/16 in. remove the cardboard. iron 3 by 4 in. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. take down the crosspieces. to a full 1/2 in. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. as shown in Fig. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. When it has cooled. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. long to the wheel about 8 in. hole through their sides centrally. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). Next secure a 5/8-in.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. steel shaft 12 in.

shutting out all light from above and the sides. and the subject may move. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. Darken the rest of the window. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. Correct exposure depends. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. remove any white curtains there may be. ice-cream freezer. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. If sheet-iron is used. place the outlet over a drain. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. light and the plate. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. but as it would have cost several times as much. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. sewing machine. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it.a water-tight joint. Focus the camera carefully. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. of course. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. as shown in the sketch at B. and as near to it as possible. or what is called a process plate. says the Photographic Times. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. as this makes long exposure necessary. start the motor.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. but now I put them in the machine. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. If the bearings are now oiled. Drill a hole through the zinc. it would be more durable. . Raise the window shade half way. Do not stop down the lens. on the lens. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. The best plate to use is a very slow one. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. It is obvious that. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. drill press. any window will do. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. and leave them for an hour or so. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean.

The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. by twisting. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. a glass tube. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. with binding posts as shown. The core C. a core. C.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. With a piece of black paper. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. full of water. The glass tube may be a test tube. until the core slowly rises. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. as a slight current will answer. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. an empty pill bottle may be used. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. which is made of iron and cork. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. without detail in the face. and without fog. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. the core is drawn down out of sight. or wood. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. hard rubber. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. A. 2. D. as shown in Fig. or an empty developer tube. 2. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. or can be taken from an old magnet. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. and a base. On completing . B. The current required is very small.

1 pt. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. according to his control of the current. 1 lb. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. and make a pinhole in the center. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. white lead. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. whale oil. water and 3 oz. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. This is a mysterious looking instrument. and one not easy to explain. is Benham's color top. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. 1. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . and are changed by reversing the rotation. The colors appear different to different people. finest graphite.

hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch.L. In prize games. before cutting. In making hydrogen. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. deuce. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. when the action ceases. or three spot. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. nearly every time. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. Chicago. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. -Contributed by D. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. C. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. B.. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. As this device is easily upset. especially if the deck is a new one. A. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. fan-like. thus partly filling bottles A and C.B. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words.

(Fig. 3). . The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal.. in length and 3 in. Detroit. W. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. Dak. Form a cone of heavy paper.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. Bently. Jr. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. 1. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. Fig. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. Fig. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. long. Huron. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. as shown in Fig. S. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. in diameter. that will fit loosely in the tube A. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. J. S. 2. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. 10 in. Make a 10-sided stick. 9 in.. 4. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. --Contributed by C. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. long and 3 in. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. Detail of Phonograph Horn . wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. --Contributed by F. 12 in.

with a pin driven in each end. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. E. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. 6. bend it at right angles throughout its length. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. Denver. it is equally easy to block that trick. A second piece of silk thread. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. Fortunately. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. push back the bolt. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. will cause an increased movement of C. making it three-ply thick. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. Cut out paper sections (Fig. and walk in. allowing 1 in. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. long. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. but bends toward D. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. A. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. Fig. --Contributed by Reader. about the size of a leadpencil.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . C. Remove the form. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. A piece of tin. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. on one side and the top. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer.

By this arrangement one. S S. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. W. S. or left to right. as shown. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. Minn. posts. long. while the lower switch. The 2 by 4-in.. R. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. long. 4 ft. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. Jr. West St. S. are made 2 by 4 in. --Contributed by J. B. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. and rest on a brick placed under each end. B. The upper switch. will last for several years. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. Paul. The feet.. are 7 ft. put together as shown in the sketch. Two wood-base switches. The reverse switch. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. is connected each point to a battery. A. Fremont Hilscher. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch.strip.

Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. pulley wheel. 1. E.every house. Fig. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. and valve crank S. is an old bicycle pump. which will be described later. 2. with two washers. and the crank bearing C. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. 3/8 in. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. and has two wood blocks. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. The piston is made of a stove bolt. the size of the hole in the bearing B. The valve motion is shown in Figs. The base is made of wood. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. thick. either an old sewing-machine wheel. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. 2 and 3. In Fig. The hose E connects to the boiler. which is made of tin. H and K. Fig. and in Fig. or anything available. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. FF. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. and a cylindrical . The steam chest D. cut in half. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. the other parts being used for the bearing B.

Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. 4. using the positive wire as a pen. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke.piece of hard wood. and a very amusing trick. and the desired result is obtained. as it is merely a trick of photography. This engine was built by W. Cal. can be an old oil can. to receive the connecting rod H. San Jose. The valve crank S. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. or galvanized iron. 1. The boiler. W. Wis. of Cuba. as shown in Fig. G. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. J. Fig. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. . C. powder can. Eustice. Schuh and A. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. and saturated with thick oil. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. 3. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. Fry. at that. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. First. Fig. --Contributed by Geo. G. This is wound with soft string. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. is cut out of tin.

If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. Fig. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. B. as shown. C. The smaller wheel. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. They may be of any size. and Fig. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. to cross in the center. and pass ropes around . B. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. Cut half circles out of each stave. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. Fig. 1 by covering up Figs. When turning. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. 1 will be seen to rotate. diameter. as shown at AA. and place a bell on the four ends.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. Fig. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement.

produces a higher magnifying power).M.G. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. which accounts for the sound. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. but not on all. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. from the transmitter. This in turn will act on the transmitter. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. long. as shown in the illustration. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. Louis. To make this lensless microscope.. such as clothes lines. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. --Contributed by H. From a piece of thin . W. procure a wooden spool. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. Mo. A (a short spool. St. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. which allows the use of small sized ropes.

2. To use this microscope. held at arm's length. is made of iron. the object should be of a transparent nature. place a small object on the transparent disk. A. in which hay has been soaking for several days. otherwise the image will be blurred. the diameter will appear twice as large. H. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. An innocent-looking drop of water. D. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. fastened to a wooden base. C. and look through the hole D. is fastened at each end by pins. which costs little or nothing to make. as in all microscopes of any power. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. . The pivot. Fig. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. cut out a small disk. e. The spring. or 64 times. darting across the field in every direction. if the distance is reduced to one-half. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica.) But an object 3/4-in. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. bent as shown. the diameter will appear three times as large. 3. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. and so on. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. and at the center. i. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. C. if the distance is reduced to one-third. E. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. 1. (The area would appear 64 times as large. which are pieces of hard wood. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. can be made of brass and the armature. which may be moistened to make the object adhere.. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. D. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. B.. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. B. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. Viewed through this microscope. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. The lever. by means of brads.

nail soldered on A. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. 16 in. DD. is cut from a board about 36 in. brass: E. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. AA. 16 in. The binding posts. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. coils wound with No. A switch. K. brass or iron soldered to nail. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. C. soft iron. wood: F. FF.SOUNDER-A. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. which are made to receive a pivot. thick. E. Fig. Cut the top. A. brass. B. The base of the key. brass: B. 1. wide. HH. F. similar to the one used in the sounder. 2. wide. wide and about 20 in. wide and set in between sides AA. The back. KEY-A. B. wide. The door. D. D. or taken from a small one-point switch. wide. C. long and 14-1/2 in. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. K. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. in length and 16 in. and are connected to the contacts. . long by 16 in. Fig. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. or a single piece. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. between the armature and the magnet. binding posts: H spring The stop. Each side. D. connection of D to nail. should be about 22 in. can be made panel as shown. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. long. wood: C. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. wood. fastened near the end. 26 wire: E.

Make 12 cleats. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. cut in them. with 3/4-in. In operation. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . 13-1/2 in. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. Garfield.. as shown. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. Ill. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. 2 and made from 1/4-in. as shown in the sketch. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. brads. AA. When the electrical waves strike the needle. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. material. E. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. long.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch.

Ridgewood. in order to increase the surface. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. --Contributed by John Koehler. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. will give a greater speed. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. When the pipe is used. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . Y. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. and. B. the magnet. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. A fairly stiff spring. Pushing the wire. A. A (see sketch). How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. A. Fairport. Brown. C. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. when used with a motor. --Contributed by R. The cord is also fastened to a lever. filled with water. pulls down the armature. F. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. J. through which a piece of wire is passed. N. down into the water increases the surface in contact. and thus decreases the resistance. N. E.

for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. even those who read this description. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force.for the secret contact. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. if desired. B. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . --Contributed by Perry A. Of course. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. N. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. Gachville. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. Borden. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door.

The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. and on both sides of the middle shelf. as shown in Fig. C. Washington. wide. for 10in. from the bottom. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. A. D. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. records. records and 5-5/8 in. . and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. where the other end of wire is fastened. apart. Dobson. for 6-in.whenever the bell rings. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. N. Connect switch to post B. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. Compton. thick and 12-in. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. deep and 3/4 in. wide. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. as shown in Fig. The top board is made 28-in. --Contributed by Dr. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. Cal. 2. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. Jr. Mangold. The three shelves are cut 25-in. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. wide. East Orange. long and full 12-in. Two drawers are fitted in this space. E. C. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. wide. Nails for stops are placed at DD. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. J. H. With about 9 ft. wide. long and 5 in. 1. From a piece of brass a switch.. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. in a semicircle 2 in. --Contributed by H.

A. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . When the cord is passed over pulley C. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. Roanoke. 1. as shown by the dotted lines. closed. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. which in operation is bent. B. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. to which is fastened a cord. Va. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. E. as shown in Fig.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D.

Figs. Put the rubber tube. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. wide. they will let the air through. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. they will bind. CC. square and 7/8 in. 1. B. D.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. 1 in. Notice the break (S) in the track. in diameter. Fig. Figs. If the wheels fit too tightly. Fig. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. in diameter. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. Cut two grooves. 5) when they are placed. but a larger one could be built in proportion. 3). The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. 1 in. in diameter. E. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. thick. excepting the crank and tubing. against which the rubber tubing. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. to turn on pins of stout wire. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. is compressed by wheels. Bore two 1/4 in. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. thick (A. In these grooves place wheels. apart. E. 4 shows the wheel-holder. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. deep and 1/2 in. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. as shown in the illustration. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. In the sides (Fig. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. holes (HH. Now put all these parts together. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. These wheels should be 3/4 in. Fig. 3. through one of these holes. Do not fasten the sides too . deep. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. long. it too loose. one in each end. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. which should be about 1/2 in. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. wide. The crankpin should fit tightly. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. in diameter.

mark for hole and 3 in. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. and are 30 in. AA. costing 10 cents. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. from each end. 1. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. Idana. The screen which is shown in Fig. 15 in. 1. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. Kan. as it gives steadiness to the motion. of material. The animal does not fear to enter the box. --Contributed by Dan H. 2. For ease in handling the pump. Cut six pieces. Fig. Hubbard.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. beyond each of these two. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. Two feet of 1/4-in. The top and bottom pieces marked AA.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. Fig. a platform should be added. the other wheel has reached the bottom. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. from that mark the next hole. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. is all the expense necessary. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. 1. though a small iron wheel is better. Fig. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. because he can . says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. 1. from the bottom and 2 in. 17-1/2 in. and mark for a hole. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. and 3-1/2 in. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. tubing. the pump will give a steady stream. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. mark again. If the motion of the wheels is regular. 1. from each end. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. The three legs marked BBB. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. Then turn the crank from left to right. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. Fig. A in Fig. stands 20 in. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. long. B. AA. iron. from each end. To use the pump. as shown in Fig. Take the center of the bar. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. In the two cross bars 1 in. 2.

sulphuric acid. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. C. of the top. long having two thumb screws. If it is wet. or. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. . To cause a flow of electricity. until it is within 3 in. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. dropping. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. Philadelphia. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. or small electric motors. however. of water dissolve 4 oz. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. The mercury will adhere. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. The truncated. and the solution (Fig. If the battery has been used before. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. 4 oz. 1) must be prepared. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. add slowly. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. When through using the battery. The battery is now ready for use. 14 copper wire. stirring constantly. and touches the bait the lid is released and. When the bichromate has all dissolved. The battery is now complete. Place the carbon in the jar. there is too much liquid in the jar. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. potassium bichromate. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. some of it should be poured out. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. giving it a bright. It is useful for running induction coils. shuts him in. but if one casts his own zinc. silvery appearance. --Contributed by H. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. Meyer. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure.see through it: when he enters. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. 2). This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. acid 1 part). rub the zinc well. If the solution touches the zinc.

A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. however.. i. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. After putting in the coal. the jump-spark coil . RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. e. which opens the door. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. Wis. the battery circuit. with slight changes. pressing the pedal closes the door.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. Madison. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. The price of the coil depends upon its size. If.Fig. while the coal door is being opened.

5. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. in a straight line from top to bottom. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. Change the coil described. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. the full length of the coil. made of No. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. and closer for longer distances. . Now for the receiving apparatus. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. W W. as shown in Fig. 7. Fig. as shown in Fig. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B".described elsewhere in this book. W W. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. while a 12-in. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. 7. 6. 7). coil. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. being a 1-in. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. apart. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. which is made of light copper wire. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. diameter. This will make an excellent receiver. 6. in a partial vacuum.7. After winding. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. This coil. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil.

How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. being vertical. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. Run a wire from the other binding post. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. I run my lathe by power. only. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. 1 to 4. using an electric motor and countershaft. and hence the aerial line. may be easily made at very little expense.6 stranded. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. being at right angles. but simply illustrates the above to show that.The aerial line. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. 90°. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. A large cone pulley would then be required. in the air. to the direction of the current. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. as it matches the color well. These circles. which will be described later. The writer does not claim to be the originator. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. 90°. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). but it could be run by foot power if desired. are analogous to the flow of induction. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. 1). B the bed and C the tailstock. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. above the ground. where A is the headstock. after all. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. No. at any point to any metal which is grounded. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. . For an illustration. A. Figs. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft.

is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. 4. which are let into holes FIG. 6. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. too. thick. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. B. If the bearing has been properly made. The bolts B (Fig. and Fig. The bearing is then ready to be poured. tapered wooden pin. The headstock. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. one of which is shown in Fig. 5. 4. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. but not hot enough to burn it. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. 6 Headstock Details D. Fig. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. and it is well to have the shaft hot. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. To make these bearings. Fig. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. Heat the babbitt well. on the under side of the bed. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. deep. After pouring. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. Fig. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. steel tubing about 1/8 in. pitch and 1/8 in. 5. and runs in babbitt bearings. which pass through a piece of wood. Fig. 2 and 3. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. just touching the shaft. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. A. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces.

but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. the alarm is easy to fix up. Ill. The tail stock (Fig. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. they may be turned up after assembling. Oak Park. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. Newark. and a 1/2-in. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. If not perfectly true. A. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach.J. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. This prevents corrosion. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. Take up about 5 ft. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. embedded in the wood. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. lock nut.other machines. of the walk . If one has a wooden walk. B. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. so I had to buy one. FIG. N. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts.

add potassium cyanide again. leaving a clear solution.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. to roughen the surface slightly. Jackson. save when a weight is on the trap. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. and the alarm is complete. Minn. Then make the solution . hang the articles on the wires. of water. water. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. to remove all traces of grease. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. silver or other metal. (A. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. Connect up an electric bell. S. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. 2). by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. Finally. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. Do not touch the work with the hands again. Minneapolis. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. To avoid touching it. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. Fig. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. before dipping them in the potash solution. clean the articles thoroughly. so that they will not touch. --Contributed by R. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder.

with the pivot 2 in. A (Fig. To provide the keyhole. saw a piece of wood. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. Having finished washing the precipitate. 3) directly over the hole. when the point of the key touches the tin. use 2 volts for large articles. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. 1). and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. nickel and such metals. Fig. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. Repeat six times. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. --Model Engineer. Take quick. shaking. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. pewter. as shown in Fig. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. if one does not possess a buffing machine. which is held by catch B. will serve for the key. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. B should be of the same wood. of water. A 1/4 in. Then. Where Bunsen cells are used. 3) strikes the bent wire L. 1. With an electric pressure of 3. but opens the door.5 to 4 volts. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. zinc. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. If more solution is required. Fig. long. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. Can be made of a 2-in. about 25 ft. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. long. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. 18 wire. from the lower end. Fig. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. When all this is set up. light strokes. Before silver plating. Fig. 3. Make a somewhat larger block (E. of clothesline rope and some No. lead. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. In rigging it to a sliding door. silver can be plated direct. a hand scratch brush is good. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. The wooden block C. 1). with water. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. 10 in. piece of broomstick. hole in its center. 1 not only unlocks. The wooden catch. such metals as iron. and the larger part (F. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. with water. also. square. thick by 3 in. If accumulators are used. and then treated as copper. I. Screw the two blocks together. German silver. make a key and keyhole. a circuit is completed. which . and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. and 4 volts for very small ones. On brass. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. copper. must be about 1 in. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. 1 in. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. an old electric bell or buzzer. This solution. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt.up to 2 qt. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. as at F. which is advised. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath.

the illumination in front must be arranged. One end is removed. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. shows catch B. 116 Prospect St.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. Fig. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. The magician stands in front of this. H. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. surrounding a perfectly black space. he tosses it into the cave. The box must be altered first. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house.. One thing changes to another and back again. Fig. East Orange. should be cut a hole. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. cut in one side. To prepare such a magic cave. and black art reigns supreme. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. Receiving the bowl again. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. in his shirt sleeves. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. Next. H. 2. so much the better. some black cloth. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. 1. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. although a little more trouble. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. floor. the box should be painted black both inside and out. is the cut through which the rope runs. He removes the bowl from the black box. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. or cave. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. spoons and jackknives. 3. no painting inside is required. Fig. such as forks. On either side of the box. sides and end. B. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. and plenty of candles. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. 0. to throw the light toward the audience. Fig. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. Next. heighten the illusion. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. Objects appear and disappear. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. half way from open end to closed end. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. with the lights turned low. he points with one finger to the box. New Jersey. 1. enlarged. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. top. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. one-third of the length from the remaining end. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. H. between the parlor and the room back of it. . The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). a few simple tools. and finally lined inside with black cloth. the requisites are a large soap box. The interior must be a dead black. Klipstein. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. 2. and a slit. and hands its contents round to the audience. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. with a switch as in Fig. which unlocks the door. In front of you. --Contributed by E. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. some black paint. Heavy metal objects. Thus.

which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear.Finally. one on each side of the box. The audience room should have only low lights. But illusions suggest themselves. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. into the eyes of him who looks. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. and if portieres are impossible. you must have an assistant. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. of course. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. which can be made to dance either by strings. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. is on a table) so much the better. of course. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. and pours them from the bag into a dish. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. had a big stage. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. which are let down through the slit in the top. a screen must be used. only he. in which are oranges and apples. the room where the cave is should be dark. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. Consequently. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. if. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. The illusion. was identical with this. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. his confederate behind inserts his hand. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. and several black drop curtains. The exhibitor should be . or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. as presented by Hermann.

d. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. A. or b2. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. at L.. is shown in the diagram. with three brass strips. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. respectively. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. when handle K is turned to one side. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. 1. 2. vice versa. f2. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. held down on disk F by two other terminals. e1 and e2. respectively. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. b2. Finally. by 4 in. terminal c3 will show +. making contact with them as shown at y. 2). It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. Then. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. and c1 – electricity. so arranged that. square. About the center piece H moves a disk. their one end just slips under the strips b1. c4. as shown in Fig. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. On the disk G are two brass strips. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. terminal c3 will show . and a common screw. Fig. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. b3. 1. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). by means of two wood screws. FIG.a boy who can talk.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. held down by another disk F (Fig. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. if you turn handle K to the right. b2. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. A represents a pine board 4 in. making contact with them. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . held down on it by two terminals. b3. respectively. c1. 2. and c4 + electricity. or binding posts. c3. b1. and c2 to the zinc. c2.

By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. from five batteries. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. --Contributed by Eugene F. Tuttle. Joerin. B is a onepoint switch. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. and then hold the receiver to your ear. 5. Newark. 1. when A is on No. you have the current of one battery. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. and when on No. jump spark coil. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. When switch B is closed and A is on No. and C and C1 are binding posts. from four batteries. E. 3. -Contributed by A. when on No.. from three batteries. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade).in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. thus making the message audible in the receiver. when on No. Ohio. 4. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . . I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. Jr.

Handy Electric Alarm . Thus. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. and placed on the windowsill of the car. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. A. Redmond. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. A. P. is the device of H. per second. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. and supporting the small weight. La. which may be a button or other small object. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. E. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. as shown in the sketch. New Orleans. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. of Burlington. When you do not have a graduate at hand. Wis. mark. so one can see the time. The device thus arranged. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. per second for each second. rule. The alarm clock rests on a shelf.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. A. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. over the bent portion of the rule. B. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid.. traveled by the thread. mark. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft.

When the alarm goes off. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. soldered to the alarm winder. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. Then if a mishap comes. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. S. and with the same result. --Contributed by Gordon T. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. wrapping the wire around the can several times. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. but may be closed at F any time desired. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. C. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. for a wetting is the inevitable result. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. . fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. Lane. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. Pa. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. B. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. which illuminates the face of the clock.which has a piece of metal. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. Crafton. Instead. --C. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. will complete the circuit and ring the bell.

whence it is soon tracked into the house. L. New York City. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. With the easily made devices about to be described. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. but it is a mistake to try to do this. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. small machinery parts. when it is being prepared. 1 . binding posts. AA. and duplicates of all these. BE. ornaments of various kinds. cannons. A. Two cleats. --Contributed by A. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. and many other interesting and useful articles. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. as shown. 1. If there is no foundry Fig. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. as the sand is sure to get on the floor.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. bearings. engines. as shown in Fig. Macey. The first thing to make is a molding bench. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. It is possible to make molds without a bench. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. battery zincs.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . C. which may. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. models and miniature objects.

by 8 in. 2 . which can be made of a knitted stocking. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. and saw it in half longitudinally. D. The cloth bag. makes a very good sieve. but this operation will be described more fully later on. is filled with coal dust. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. Fig. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. A wedge-shaped piece. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K.How to Make a Mold [96] . In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. II . nailed to replace the bottom of a box." or upper half." or lower part. The rammer. try using sand from other sources. will be required. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. A slight shake of the bag Fig. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. white metal. as shown. and the lower pieces. CC. high. J. 2. and this.near at hand. is about the right mesh. E. and a sieve. say 12 in. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. 1. G. by 6 in. 1. If desired the sieve may be homemade. which should be nailed in. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. A A. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. It is made of wood and is in two halves. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. DD. The flask. the "cope. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. previous to sawing. is nailed to each end of the cope. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. Fig. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. F. An old teaspoon. as shown. and the "drag. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. If the box is not very strong. a little larger than the outside of the flask. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. CC. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. is shown more clearly in Fig. The dowels. which can be either aluminum. H. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. is made of wood. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds.

as shown at C. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. The sand is then ready for molding. as it is much easier to learn by observation. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope." in position. and scatter about 1/16 in. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. as shown. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. as shown at D. where they can watch the molders at work. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. It is then rammed again as before. Place another cover board on top. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. and then more sand is added until Fig. After ramming. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. and by grasping with both hands. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. in order to remove the lumps. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. In finishing the ramming. as shown at E. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. the surface of the sand at . but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. and thus judge for himself. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. or "cope. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. or "drag. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. and if water is added. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. turn the drag other side up. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. as described. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. it has a sufficient amount of moisture.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand.

the next operation is that of melting and pouring. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. as shown at F. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. as shown at J. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. . but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. place the cope back on the drag. as shown at H. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. This is done with a spoon. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. The "sprue. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. deep. to give the air a chance to escape. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. wide and about 1/4 in. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. After drawing the pattern. III. thus holding the crucible securely.E should be covered with coal-dust. after being poured. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. is next cut. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. made out of steel rod. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. The next operation is that of cutting the gate.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. in order to prevent overheating. as shown in the sketch. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. as shown at H. and then pour. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. it shows that the sand is too wet. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. in diameter. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle." or pouring-hole. thus making a dirty casting. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. Place a brick or other flat. Fig. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. as shown at G. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing.

babbitt. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. white metal and other scrap available. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. Although the effect in the illustration . The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. is very desirable. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. but any reasonable number may be used. may be used in either direction. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. battery zincs. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. Minneapolis. or from any adjacent pair of cells. In my own case I used four batteries. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. and the casting is then ready for finishing. and. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. the following device will be found most convenient. --Contributed by Harold S. If a good furnace is available. although somewhat expensive. 15% lead. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. Morton. Referring to the figure. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. used only for zinc.

it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. A. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. backward.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. B. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. B. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. connected by cords to the rudder. If desired. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. which will be sufficient to hold it. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. To make it take a sheet-iron band. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. Then walk down among the audience. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. Then replace the table. --Contributed by Draughtsman. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. may be made of hardwood. shaft made. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. By replacing the oars with paddles. as shown in the illustration. Fig. Chicago. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. 3/4 in. The bearings. Make one of these pieces for each arm. Put a sharp needle point. The brass rings also appear distorted. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. 2. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. as shown at A. outward. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table.

E. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. The hubs. A. Fig. W. 1. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. 1. but when in motion. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. The covers. In the same way. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. and a weight. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. as shown in Fig. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. D. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. as shown in Fig. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. It may seem strange that ice . or under pressure. A block of ice. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles.melted babbitt. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. If galvanized iron is used. spoiling its appearance. 1. Snow. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. when it will again return to its original state. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. 2. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. being simply finely divided ice. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. or the paint will come off. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. If babbitt is used. should be made of wood. 2 and 3. C. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. 3.

makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it.should flow like water. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. B. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. as per sketch. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. brass. no matter how slow the motion may be. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. square. Pa. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. by 2 in. Crafton. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. whenever there is any connection made at all. in. Lane. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. by 1/2 in.. which resembles ice in this respect. but. as shown on page 65. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. P. but by placing it between books. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. The rate of flow is often very slow. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. it will gradually change from the original shape A. by 5 in. and assume the shape shown at B. thus giving a high resistance contact. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. Pressing either push button. or supporting it in some similar way. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. sometimes only one or two feet a day. by 1/4. --Contributed by Gordon T.

the induction coil. E. B. C. K . as shown. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. vertical lever. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. draft. draft chain. A is the circuit breaker. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. I. Wilkinsburg. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. as shown.000 ft. weight. Pa. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. Indianapolis. The parts are: A. and C. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. F. the battery. D. cord. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. The success depends upon a slow current. J. G. Ward. and five dry batteries. horizontal lever. H. G. wooden supports. alarm clock. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. furnace. In the wiring diagram. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. about the size used for automobiles. B. pulleys. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat.thumb screws. --Contributed by A.

How to Make an Electroscope [103] . which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. Mich. which will provide a fine place for the plants. where house plants are kept in the home. 3. such as used for a storm window. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. Kalamazoo. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. The frame (Fig. as well as the bottom. will fit nicely in them. 2 are dressed to the right angle. Artistic Window Boxes The top. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. material framed together as shown in Fig. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters.

N. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. W. a cork and a needle. Thus. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. this must be done with very great caution. for some time very satisfactorily. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. 1 cp. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. However. in this connection.. by connecting them in series. 1. and the instrument will then be complete. as if drawn upon for its total output. where they are glad to have them taken away.. The 1/2-cp. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. Halifax.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. but maintain the voltage constant. It must be remembered. is something that will interest the average American boy. can be connected up in series. Push the needle into the cork. However. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp.. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. and will give the . 1 each complete with base. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. after a rest. which sells for 25 cents. so as to increase the current. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. and a suitable source of power. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. one can regulate the batteries as required. Canada. in diameter. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. i. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. multiples of series of three. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. as indicated by Fig. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. Grant. in any system of lamps. This is more economical than dry cells. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. S. A certain number of these. since a battery is the most popular source of power. --Contributed by Wm. and cost 27 cents FIG. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. e.

for display of show cases. If wound for 10 volts. 18 B & S. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. where the water pressure is the greatest. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. Thus. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. and then lead No. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. generates the power for the lights. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. as in Fig. and for Christmas trees. which is the same as that of one battery. especially those of low internal resistance. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. making. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. However. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. 3. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. Thus. In conclusion. FIG. to secure light by this method. each. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. lamps. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. although the first cost is greater. lamps. double insulated wire wherever needed. These will give 3 cp. if wound for 6 volts. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. 11 series. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. 1-cp. Fig. according to the water pressure obtainable. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. and running the series in parallel. we simply turn on the water. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. by the proper combination of these. Chicago. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. So. . 2 shows the scheme. lamp.proper voltage. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp.. or 22 lights. and diffused light in a room.

outside points of switch. Plymouth. Ind. Emig. and the sides. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. center points of switch. Santa Clara. Parker. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. . Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. B. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. AA. bars of pole-changing switch. a bait of meat. are cut just alike. To reverse the motor. brushes of motor. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. or a tempting bone. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. B.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. DD. thus reversing the machine. and C. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. as shown in the sketch. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. A indicates the ground. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. the letters indicate as follows: FF. After I connected up my induction coil. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. we were not bothered with them. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. --Contributed by Leonard E. switch. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. or from one pattern. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. simply change the switch. CC. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. A. BB. --Contributed by F. field of motor. Cal.

Fry. or would remain locked. To unlock the door. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. If it is not.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. San Jose. 903 Vine St. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. The button can be hidden. a piece of string. one cell being sufficient. which is in the door. W. Cal. When the circuit is broken a weight. and a table or bench. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. Minn. a hammer. Hutchinson. -Contributed by Claude B. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. attached to the end of the armature B. A.. thus locking the door. Melchior. The experiment works best . as it is the key to the lock. merely push the button E.

Crawford Curry. P. which pulls the draft open. releasing the weight. 18 Gorham St. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. attached at the other end. C. as shown in Fig. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. forming a loop. the stick falls away. W. -.. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. Madison. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. 3. Tie the ends of the string together.Contributed by F. 3. the key turns. the current flows with the small arrows. Wis. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. in the ceiling and has a window weight. . On another block of wood fasten two wires. I. Schmidt.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. A. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. 2. 1). run through a pulley. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. D. Canada. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. 4). When the alarm rings in the early morning. Culebra. where it will remain suspended as shown. Porto Rico. --Contributed by Geo. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. Brockville. Ontario.

but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. R. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. square and 1 in. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. Camden. which fasten to the horn. and break the corners off to make them round. and then to the receiver. made with his own hands. thick. 6 in. thence to a switch. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. S. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. Connect two wires to the transmitter. --Contributed by Wm.. and the other to the battery. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. including the mouthpiece. J. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. J. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. First. or tree. D. N. The cut shows the arrangement.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. Farley. running one direct to the receiver. get two pieces of plate glass. Use a barrel to work on. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. and . The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. or from a bed of flowers. Jr.

spaces. in length. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. Fasten. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. and the under glass or tool convex. When done the glass should be semitransparent. with 1/4-in.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. and spread on the glass. When polishing the speculum. or it will not polish evenly. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. also rotate the glass. Fig. and label. wetting it to the consistency of cream. by the side of the lamp. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. and a large lamp.. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. of water. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. while walking around the barrel. A. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. set the speculum against the wall. In a dark room. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. wet till soft like paint. the coarse grinding must be continued. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. with pitch. so the light . work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. as in Fig.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. 2. using straight strokes 2 in.. When dry. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. then 8 minutes. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. Have ready six large dishes. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. a round 4-in. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. then take 2 lb. or less. Fig. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. 1. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. wide around the convex glass or tool. Use a binger to spread it on with. and is ready for polishing. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. unless a longer focal length is wanted. melt 1 lb. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. 2. Then warm and press again with the speculum. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. L. twice the focal length away.

and pour the rest into the empty dish. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. the speculum is ready to be silvered. Silver nitrate ……………………………. With pitch. When the focus is found. Solution D: Sugar loaf .. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. Fig. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). Place the speculum S. 100 gr. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. then ammonia until bath is clear.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. from the lamp. deep. The knife should not be more than 6 in. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia... Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. Fig.. or hills. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. 840 gr. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. 2. Two glass or earthenware dishes. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. longer strokes. touched with rouge. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. Place the speculum. in the bath and leave until the silver rises. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. the speculum will show some dark rings. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. Now add enough of the solution A. 39 gr. The polishing and testing done.. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade.……………………………. 4 oz.. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. Nitric acid . fill the dish with distilled water. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. Then add solution B. must be procured.………………………………... long to the back of the speculum. Then add 1 oz.. if a hill in the center. with distilled water. cement a strip of board 8 in. face down. Fig.100 gr. as in K. If not. add the ammonia solution drop by drop. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. 4 oz. that was set aside. 2..……………. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. also how the rays R from a star . Alcohol (Pure) ……………. When dry. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. 25 gr. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in.

The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. The flatter they are the less they will distort. using strawboard and black paper. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. deg. slightly wider than the lens mount. which proves to be easy of execution. is a satisfactory angle. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. and proceed as for any picture. Place over lens. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. Mellish. long and cost me just $15. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. . then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold.John E.. stop down well after focusing. Make the tube I of sheet iron. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. with an outlay of only a few dollars. two glass prisms. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. Then I made the one described. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. Thus an excellent 6-in. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. About 20. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. My telescope is 64 in. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. cover with paper and cloth. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. telescope can be made at home.

1. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. To unlock. unobstructed light strike the mirror. and reflect through the negative. The paper is exposed. Do not stir it. as shown in Fig. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. Ill. A. complete the arrangement. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. D. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. The rays of the clear. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. -Contributed by A. add the plaster gradually to the water. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. says the Master Painter. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. but will not preserve its hardening. B. push the button D. then add a little sulphate of potash. through the lens of the camera and on the board. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. .Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. Boody. or powdered alum. Fig. instead of the contrary. 2. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. Zimmerman.

3. as in Fig. Fig. but will remain suspended without any visible support. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. 2. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. 2. use a string. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. so that it can rotate about these points. as shown in the sketch. as at A and B. To reverse. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. Then blow through the spool. 1). This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. also provide them with a handle.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. Fasten on the switch lever. throw .

L. carbons.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. wash in running water. . Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. A is the electricbell magnet. Go McVicker. Push one end of the tire into the hole. rinse in alcohol. and E E. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. Thomas. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. although this is not necessary. In the sketch. --Contributed by Geo. Take out. carbon sockets. San Antonio. as shown in the sketch. and rub dry with linen cloth. the armature. Neb. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. San Marcos. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. Tex. Tex. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. C C. Levy. D. binding posts. North Bend. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. -Contributed by Morris L. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. --Contributed by R. B.

long or more. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. By means of two or more layers of No. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. 14 or No. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. wound evenly about this core. Brooklyn.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. 16 magnet wire. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. 36 magnet wire. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. --Contributed by Joseph B. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . Bell. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory.

as shown in Fig. as the maker prefers. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. wide. and the results are often unsatisfactory. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. This makes a condenser which may be folded. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. hole is bored in the center of one end. but if it is not convenient to do this work. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. in diameter. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. long and 2-5/8 in. which is desirable. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in.which would be better to buy ready-made. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. No. the entire core may be purchased readymade. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. When cut and laid in one continuous length. long and 5 in. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. coil illustrates the general details of the work. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. or 8 in. 1. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. 2 yd. A 7/8-in. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. about 6 in. The condenser is next wrapped . Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. one piece of the paper is laid down. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. 4. which is an important factor of the coil. making two layers. Beginning half an inch from one end. After the core wires are bundled. in length. a box like that shown in Fig. and finally the fourth strip of paper. at a time. diameter. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. The following method of completing a 1-in. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. with room also for a small condenser. In shaping the condenser. then the strip of tin-foil. The primary is made of fine annealed No.

One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. battery . forms the other pole or terminal. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. open switch C.. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. the letters indicate as follows: A. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. and the other sheet. shelf for clock. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. go. and one from battery. C. bell. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. B. spark. D. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. V-shaped copper strip. ready for assembling. lines H. whole length. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. which is insulated from the first. F. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. A. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. The alarm key will turn and drop down. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. long to key. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard.) The wiring diagram. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. one from bell. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. switch. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. B. E. shows how the connections are made. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. flange turned on one side. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. wide. which allows wiring at the back. round so that the inside . long and 12 in. 3. copper lever with 1-in. to the door. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. G. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation.securely with bands of paper or tape. by 12 in. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. I. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. Fig. 4 in.

To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. of blue stone. This is for blowing. The circuit should also have a high resistance. 2 in. says the Model Engineer. Line the furnace. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. instead of close to it.. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. That is what they are for. and the battery is ready for use. but with the circuit. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. London. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. of zinc sulphate. . The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. from the bottom. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. do not shortcircuit. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. but add 5 or 6 oz. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus.diameter is 7 in. Short-circuit for three hours. If desired for use immediately. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. Use a glass or metal shade. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. and then rivet the seam. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom.

and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. and therein is the trick. Enlarge the hole slightly. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. imparting to them a violet tinge. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. Outside of the scientific side involved. the second finger along the side. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. This type of battery will give about 0. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. If too low. 1. 2. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. Try it and see. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body." which created much merriment. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. but the thing would not move at all. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. g. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. At least it is amusing. below the bottom of the zinc. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. Ohio. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. If any or your audience presume to dispute. for some it will turn one way. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. for others the opposite way. To operate the trick. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. changes white phosphorus to yellow. while for others it will not revolve at all. and then. thus producing two different vibrations.9 of a volt. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. porcelain and paper. square and about 9 in. grip the stick firmly in one hand. as in the other movement. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. or think they can do the same let them try it. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. affects . By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. long. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. oxygen to ozone.. herein I describe a much better trick. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water.

that also can be obtained from hardware stores. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. a means for holding it vertical. chemicals. if possible. and one of them is photomicrography. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. but small flowers. but this is less satisfactory. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. says the Photographic Times. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. a short-focus lens.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. and. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. To the front board is attached a box. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. an old tripod screw. but not essential. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. however. earth. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . insects.

and a line. A line. 7 ft. while it is not so with the quill. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. Cap. Boston. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. Madison. 65 4 lb. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. If the balloon is 10 ft. 5 in. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. 7-1/2 in. 11 ft. 905 57 lb. 7-1/2 in. The following table will give the size. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. 5 ft.--Contributed by George C. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. in diameter. Mass. in Cu. 268 17 lb. AB. 6 ft. 179 11 lb. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. 1. long and 3 ft. or 31 ft. 8 ft. 381 24 lb. balloon. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. 9 ft. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. CD. 113 7 lb. Ft Lifting Power. 10 ft 523 33 lb. 697 44 lb. or 3 ft. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. Fig. Divide one-quarter of the circle . The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. which is 15 ft. 12 ft. wide from which to cut a pattern.

and after marked is cut the same shape and size. of the very best heavy body. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. making a double seam as shown in Fig. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. This test will show if the bag is airtight.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. The pattern is now cut. 2. Procure 1 gal. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. 4. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. keeping the marked part on the outside. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. using a fine needle and No. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. The cloth segments are sewed together. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. of beeswax and boil well together. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. cutting all four quarters at the same time. 3. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. 70 thread. on the curved line from B to C. Repeat this operation four times. and so on. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. The amounts necessary for a 10- .

About 15 lb. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. Water 1 oz. ]. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. with 3/4in. 150 gr. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. with water 2 in. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. B.Green Iron ammonium citrate . as shown in Fig. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. The 3/4-in. above the level of the water in barrel A. 5. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. Vegetable oils should never be used.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. a clean white rag. 1 lb. or a fan. of water will make 4 cu. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. if it is good it will dry off. balloon are 125 lb. C. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. using a fine brush. A. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel.ft. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. oil the spindle holes carefully. A. by fixing. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows.. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. ft. which may sound rather absurd. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. it is not fit to use. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. leaving the hand quite clean. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. of iron borings and 125 lb. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. Fill the other barrel. 1 lb. B. should not enter into the water over 8 in. of iron. The outlet. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. this should be repeated frequently. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. to the bag. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. of gas in one hour. C. When the clock has dried. In the barrel. but if any grease remains on the hand. with the iron borings. B. After washing a part. or dusting with a dry brush. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. capacity and connect them. pipe. 5 . until no more dirt is seen. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. All FIG. A. of sulphuric acid. . . The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel.

This aerial collector can be made in . fix in hypo. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. or battery. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. toning first if desired. The miniature 16 cp. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. keeping the fingers out of the solution. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. The positive pole. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. and a vigorous negative must be used. says the Moving Picture World. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. Port Melbourne.000 ft. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. A longer exposure will be necessary. . Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. The negative pole. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. A cold. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. . but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. Exposure. and keep in the dark until used. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. Dry in the dark. dry atmosphere will give best results. to avoid blackened skin. or zinc. Dry the plates in the dark.. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. Printing is done in the sun. or carbon.Water 1 oz. of any make. at the time of employment. 20 to 30 minutes.

Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. long. holes . a positive and a negative. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. and have the other connected with another aerial line. as described below. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. in diameter. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made.various ways. If the waves strike across the needle. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. The storage cell. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. forming a cup of the pipe. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. making a ground with one wire. and as less current will flow the short way. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. will soon become dry and useless. lay a needle. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. lead pipe. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. If the wave ceases. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. both positive and negative. As the telephone offers a high resistance. the resistance is less. when left exposed to the air. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. 5 in. This will complete the receiving station.

be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. by soldering the joint. or tube B. B. of course. on each end. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. except for about 1 in. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled.as possible. This. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . does not need to be watertight. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. This box can be square. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. namely: a square hole. or tube C. one to the positive. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. This support or block. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. The other plate is connected to the zinc. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. a round one. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. D. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. Two binding-posts should be attached. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. says the Pathfinder. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. and the other to the negative. When mixing the acid and water. an oblong one and a triangular one. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes.

Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. Only galvanized nails should be used. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. long. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. 2. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. 1. as shown in Fig. wide. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. and match them together. A and B. . 3. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. and has plenty of good seating capacity. deep and 4 ft. about 20 in. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. Chicago. 2. Ill. back and under. This punt. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. wide. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. C. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. C. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. all around the edge. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. 1. thick cut two pieces alike. leaving about 1/16 in. were fitted by this one plug. as it is not readily overturned. as shown in Fig. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. is built 15 ft.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. The third piece of brass. in place on the wood.

In Fig. A piece of 1/4-in. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. gas pipe. thick and 3-1/2 in. Wash. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. Tacoma. square (Fig 2). Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . is cut 1 in. B. A. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point.

with the exception of insulated wire. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. without auxiliary phase. and to consume. In designing. The winding of the armature. or "rotor. no more current than a 16-cp. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. which the writer has made.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. lamp. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. it had to be borne in mind that. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . says the Model Engineer. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. Wagner. no special materials could be obtained. if possible." has no connection with the outside circuit. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum.--Contributed by Charles H. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. which can be developed in the usual manner. may be of interest to some of our readers.

The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. with the dotted line. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. about 2-1/2 lb. 2. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. Holes 5-32 in. bolts put in and tightened up. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. Unfortunately. After assembling a second time. this little machine is not self-starting. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. The stator is wound full with No. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. being used. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. 5. thick. in diameter were drilled in the corners. were then drilled and 1/4-in. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. and all sparking is avoided. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. and filled with rivets. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. 3. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. or "stator. They are not particularly accurate as it is.the field-magnet. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. B. 1. 4. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. wrought iron. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. holes. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. as shown in Fig. also varnished before they were put in. A. C. as shown in Fig. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. while the beginnings . to be filed out after they are placed together. no steel being obtainable." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire.

3-Contributed by C. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. E. No starting resistance is needed. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid.. if applied immediately. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. and as each layer of wire was wound. a regulating resistance is not needed. and as the motor runs at constant speed. N. as a means of illustrating songs.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. The image should . Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. 1. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. In making slides by contact. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. If too late for alcohol to be of use. and the other by reduction in the camera. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. Newark. Jr. it would be very simple to build. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. and especially of colored ones. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. The lantern slide is a glass plate. film to film. having no commutator or brushes. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. 2. McKinney. and would not easily get out of order. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. as before stated. One is by contact. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. The rotor is wound with No. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. and all wound in the same direction. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. This type of motor has drawbacks. J. as shown in Fig.

Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. It is best. A. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. a little extra work will be necessary. Draw lines with a pencil. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. they are much used by travelers. and then a plain glass. except that the binding is different. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. B. 5. Being unbreakable. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. over the mat. if possible. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. 4. the formulas being found in each package of plates. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. C. These can be purchased from any photo material store. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. 3. D. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. and development should be over in three or four minutes. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. Select a room with one window.appear in. also. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. to use a plain fixing bath. as shown in Fig. Fig. about a minute. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. 2. If the exposure has been correct. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. as shown in Fig. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. 1. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg.

as shown in Fig. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. 16 in. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. or other stout cloth. as shown at A. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. from the ends. If the star is in front of the left eye. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. 1. Hastings. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. from the end piece of the chair. 2. in diameter and 20 in. long. holes bored in the end pieces. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. Fig. from the center of this dot draw a star. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. while the dot will be in front of the other. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. is to be used for the seat. Vt. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. as shown at B. A piece of canvas. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. long. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. Fig. These longer pieces can be made square. 1. known as rods and cones. wide and 50 in. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. in diameter and 40 in. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. long. Corinth.

made from an ordinary sash cord. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. 2. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. allowing the shaft to project through the holes.-Contributed by P. Auburn. J. 1. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. as shown in Fig. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. in thickness and 10 in. Cal. per square inch. O'Gara. as well as to operate other household machines. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. A disk 1 in. . Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. as shown in Fig. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. A belt.

and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. says the Scientific American. fairly accurate. square for a support. it serves a very useful purpose.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. 3/4 in. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. or inconvenient to measure. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. Cut out a piece from the block combination. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. divided by the number of threads to the inch. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. . and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. long. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. Bore a 1/4-in. will be the thickness of the object. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. Put the bolt in the hole. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. thick and 2-1/2 in. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. with as fine a thread as possible. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. to the top of the bench. then removing the object. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. leaving it shaped like a bench. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. direction. The part of a rotation of the bolt. and the construction is complete. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. screwing it through the nut. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. A simple. wide.

Santa Maria. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. The wheel should be open . piece of wood 12 ft. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. long. Place a 3/4-in. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. beyond the end of the wood. which show up fine at night. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. material 12 ft. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. long is used for the center pole. Oal. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. bolt in each hole. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. Bore a 3/4-in. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. globe that has been thrown away as useless.

from the top end. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. wide and 1/8 in. thick is used for the armature. wide and 1/8 in. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. H and J. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. A cross bar. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. in diameter. from the ends.Side and Top View or have spokes. Graham. C. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. and on its lower end a socket. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. P. made of the same material. thick. The boards may be nailed or bolted. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. square and 3 or 4 in. A. to be operated by the magnet coil. and the lower part 61/2 in. long. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. L. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. long.-Contributed by A. is soldered. Tex. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. at the top and 4 in. The coil. long. O. C. of the ends with boards. The spool . A piece of brass 2 in. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. Fort Worth. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. 1/2 in. long. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. B. which should be 1/4 in. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. thick. pieces used for the spokes. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. at the bottom. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole.

You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. A. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. When you slide the pencil along the casing.J. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. Mass. do it without any apparent effort. A soft piece of iron. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. S. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. is drilled.--A. At the bottom end of the frame. This tie can be used on grain sacks. Bradlev. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig.E. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it.000 for irrigation work. This is a very neat trick if performed right. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. and in numerous other like instances. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. by soldering. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. long. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. one without either rubber or metal end. and directly centering the holes H and J. that holds the lower carbon. for insulating the brass ferrule. B. The armature. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. which may be had by using German silver wire. 1. then with a firm. . or a water rheostat heretofore described. Randolph. 2. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. 2 the hat hanging on it.is about 2-1/2 in. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. D and E. R. --Contributed by Arthur D. and place it against a door or window casing. S. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. F.000. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. C.

in diameter. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. about 3/16 in. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. B. for adjustment. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. C. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. thick. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. in diameter and 2 in. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. with a 3/16-in. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. may be made from a 3/8-in. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. Experiment with Heat [134] . hole in the center. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. The core of the coil. Fig. 2. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. in diameter and 1/16 in. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. wide. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. and then 1. long and 1 in. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. A. Fig. The vibrator. is constructed in the usual manner. 1. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. long. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. leaving the projections as shown. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. about 1/8 in. for the primary.500 turns of No. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. The switch. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. is connected to a flash lamp battery. About 70 turns of No. D. from the core and directly opposite. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. about 1 in. 1. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. for the secondary. The coil ends are made from cardboard. F. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. S. The vibrator B. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. S. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. in diameter. mixed with water to form a paste. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support.

as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. as shown in the sketch. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. The hasp. 1. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. brass plate. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. which seemed to be insufficient. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. and then well clinched. lighted. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. long and when placed over the board. which is cut with two holes. and the same distance inside of the new board. 16 in. was to be secured by only three brass screws. between the boards. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. The lock. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. it laps down about 8 in. in an ordinary water glass. The tin is 4 in. 1. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. which is only 3/8-in. with which to operate the dial. 2 to fit the two holes. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. The three screws were then put in the hasp. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. as shown. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk.Place a small piece of paper. . Fig. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. wide. board. thick on the inside. The knob on the dial extends out too far.

By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. When making of wood. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. any article placed therein will be reflected in. which completely divides the box into two parts. one in each division. If the box is made large enough. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. square and 10-1/2 in. black color. not shiny. square and 8-1/2 in. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . high for use in window displays.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. but when the front part is illuminated. clear glass as shown. and the back left dark. the glass. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. or in the larger size mentioned. When the rear part is illuminated.

or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center.. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. a tank 2 ft. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. When there is no electric current available. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. wide will be about the right size. alternately. above the top of the tank. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. as shown in the sketch. as shown at A in the sketch. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. and with the proper illumination one is changed. long and 1 ft. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. as it appears.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. . place the goods in one part and the price in the other. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. into the other. When using as a window display.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. hole. radius. using a 3/4-in. from the ground. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. The 13-in. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. hole bored the full length through the center. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. and boring two holes with a 1-in. long. O. under sides together. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. square. 5 ft. Iron sulphate. The pieces can then be taken out. is the green vitriol. is built on the front. each. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. Shape the under sides first. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. 2 ft. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. but with a length of 12 in. then use a red-hot iron to finish. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. 1 in. one for each side. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. two pieces 1-1/8 in. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. bore from each end. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. and 6 ft. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. as shown. wide. square and 40 in. however. wide. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. bit. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. This precipitate is then washed. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. and a solution of iron sulphate added. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. and a door in front. If a planing mill is near. high. long. A small platform. dried and mixed with linseed oil. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. with a length of 13 in. This hole must be continued . Columbus. Three windows are provided. gauge for depth. or ferrous sulphate. 6 in. thick and 3 in. lines gauged on each side of each.

through the pieces forming the base. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. When this is dry. Electric globes--two. thick and 3 in. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. If the parts are to be riveted. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. hole in each block." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. if shade is purchased. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. The sketch shows one method of attaching. apply two coats of wax. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. square and drawing a diagonal on each. Directions will be found on the filler cans. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. For art-glass the metal panels are . sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. three or four may be attached as shown. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. Saw the two blocks apart. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. A better way. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. When the filler has hardened. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges.

The Completed Lamp cut out. Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. METAL SHADE . and reinforcing and riveting with another metal.Construction of Shade . as brass. such as copper.

The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. one way and 1/2 in. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. and Fig.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. as in ordinary devices. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. Figure 1 shows the side. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. 2 the front view of this stand. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. as shown in the sketch. The arms holding the glass. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. the object and the background. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. the other. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery.

about 1-1/4 in. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. uncork and recork again. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. outside diameter. channel in the circumference of the ring. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. Cut another circular piece 11 in.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. as it is very poisonous. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. wide and 11 in. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. and swinging freely. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. If the light becomes dim. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. as shown in the sketch. An ordinary pocket compass. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. Put the ring in place on the base. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. long. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. and an inside diameter of 9 in. as shown in the cut. in diameter. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. pointing north and south. thus forming a 1/4-in. in diameter for a base. wide and 6-5/16 in. Before mounting the ring on the base. thick 5/8-in.

above the half can. The results given should be multiplied by 1.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. black oxide of copper. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. of the top.182 . B. AA. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in.600 . For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes . Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. to which a wire has been soldered for connections. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. 1 oz. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. CC. from the second to the third. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings. in diameter and 8 in. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. Place on top the so- . into these cylinders.420 . The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. and north of the Ohio river. Corresponding mirrors. EE. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. are mounted on a base.088 . An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second.289 . Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through.715 . and mirrors. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can.865 1. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago.500 . The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg.

while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. Put the solution in a long. When renewing. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. In Fig. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. which otherwise remains clear. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. the wheel will revolve in one direction. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. 62 gr. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. of pulverized campor. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. then they will not rust fast. slender bottle.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. University Park. says Metal Worker. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. little crystals forming in the liquid. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. alcohol. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. 31 gr. Colo. always remove the oil with a siphon.

If zinc and carbon are used. Lloyd Enos. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. --Contributed by C. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. This is used in place of the spoon. If zinc and copper are used. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. A paper-fastener box. Attach to the wires. about 1-1/4 in. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. on the under side of the cork. If two of them are floating on the same solution. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. will allow the magnet to point north and south. floating on a solution. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. Solder in the side of the box .

A. stained and varnished. 10 wire about 10 in. glass tubing . The spring should be about 1 in. 1/2. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. 1. If the hose is not a tight fit. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. away. or made with a little black paint. D. 14 wire will do. H. hole. wide and 6 in. E. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. B. D.not shorter than 18 in. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. The base. wide and 2-1/2 in. The standard. as shown in Fig. long. of wire on each end extending from the coil. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. Bore holes for binding-posts. To this standard solder the supporting wire. The bottom of the box. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. A circular piece of cardboard. thick. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid.1-in.in. and on the other around the glass tube. brass tubing. Wind evenly about 2 oz. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. Take a small piece of soft iron. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. C. one on each side of the board. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. Rhamstine. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. A. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends.Contributed by J. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . Use a board 1/2. B. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. Thos. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. 1-1/4 in. D. F. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. of No. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. long that has about 1/4-in.in. to it. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. can be made of oak. C. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. long. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. and then solder on the cover. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. C. G--No. Put ends. 3 in. . The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. E. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. piece of 1/4-in. is made from a piece of No.

Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. of 8-oz. canvas. long. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. is drawn nearer to the coil. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. 2. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. about 1 in. 1. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. Smith. Milwaukee. 3. of No. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. Y. 5. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig.--Contributed by R. two pieces 2 ft. 3-in. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. in diameter. of mercury will be sufficient. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. D. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. long. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. N. When the glass becomes soft. long are used for the legs. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. long. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. About 1-1/2 lb. from the right hand. making a support as shown in Fig. Cuba. four hinges. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts.--Contributed by Edward M. The iron plunger.of the coil. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. J. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. Wis. . long. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. long. E. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. as shown in Fig. Teasdale. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. 3 in.

Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. Keys. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. Can. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. Toronto.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. thus leaving a. holding in the left hand. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. 4. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. long. Fig. 6. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. The tube now must be filled completely. small aperture in the long tube. expelling all the air. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. leaving 8 in. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury.. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. Take 1/2 in. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. --Contributed by David A. This tube as described will be 8 in. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. 3. 5. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. of vacuum at the top. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. Measure 8 in. Break off the piece of glass. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . 2..

These are bent and nailed. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. material 2 in. 7. long.6 -. long. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. with each projection 3-in. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. thick. but yellow pine is the best. 1 in. 2. 3. from the end of same. wood screws. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. wide and 5 ft. and 1/4 in. thick. wide and 5 ft. The large pulley is about 14 in. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. 6. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. 3 in. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. A crosspiece 3/4-in. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. 3 in. 1 in. as in Fig. 9 in. 4 in. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. 5. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. as shown in Fig. joint be accurately put together. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. wide and 5 ft. FIG. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. as shown in Fig. Fig.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. Four blocks 1/4 in. 4. thick. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . in diameter. long. thick. thick. wide and 3 in. long. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. cut in the shape shown in Fig. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. 1. This forms a slot. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. wide and 12 in. and the single projection 3/4 in.

Welsh. first removing the crank. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. --Contributed by C. by 1-in. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. Kan. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. . Water 1 oz. Manhattan. attach runners and use it on the ice. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. above the runner level. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. R. says Photography. leaving the greater part of the screw extending.

Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. Newton. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. The print is washed. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. . The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. 3. Treasdale. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. Printing is carried rather far. Leominster. 2. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. 1. --Contributed by Wallace C. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. Mass. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. also. and very much cheaper. --Contributed by Edward M. as shown in Fig. This is done with a camel's hair brush. as shown in Fig. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. of water. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. 1 oz. from an ordinary clamp skate. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark.

and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. wide. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. from one end. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. 1 ft. Fig. with about 1/8-in. Place a 10-in. hole. wide and 4 in. The thread is broken off at the . square piece. 1-1/2 ft. 2. as shown in the sketch. which represents the back side of the door. too. and to the bottom. and 3 ft. about 10 in. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. Then. high. long. 1. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. --Contributed by H. Church. Va. and bend them as shown in the sketch. Alexandria. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. A. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. high for rabbits. F. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. extending the width of the box. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. 1. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. causing the door to swing back and up. Fig. Take two glass tubes. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. The swing door B. fasten a 2-in. say.

This opening. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. inside of the opening. A and B. Jr. black surfaced if possible. Take two pieces of pasteboard. in size. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. but cut it 1/4 in. Fig. D.by 5-in. high and 12 in. Out two rectangular holes. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. wide and 5 in. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. to be used as a driving pulley. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. and go in the holder in the same way. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. say 8 in. -Contributed by William M. . as shown in Fig. wide. long. shorter at each end. in size. 3. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. Paste a piece of strong black paper. automobiles. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains.by 7-in. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. Chicago. Fig. shorter. 10 in. long. trolley cars. 1. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. wide. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. horses and dogs.proper place to make a small hole. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. and exactly 5 by 7 in. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. B. camera and wish to use some 4. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. Crilly.. being 1/8 in. from the edge on each side of these openings. plates. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. 1 in. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. says Camera Craft. Cut an opening in the other piece. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. 2. C.

long and 6 in. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. The needle will then point north and south.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. A cell of this kind can easily be made. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it.. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. into which the dog is harnessed. if it has previously been magnetized.in. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. wide will be required. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. in diameter. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. making a . A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam.

3/4 lb. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. says Electrician and Mechanic. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. long which are copper plated. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. filter. 1/4 lb. This makes the wire smooth. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. under the spool in the paraffin. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. pull out the wire as needed. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. one that will hold about 1 qt. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. of water. for a connection. of the plate at one end. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. leaving about 1/2-in. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. short time. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. fuel and packing purposes. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. pine. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. plaster of paris.in. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole.watertight receptacle. zinc oxide. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. in diameter and 6 in. with narrow flanges. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. Place the pan on the stove. beeswax melted together. when the paraffin is melted. Form a 1/2-in. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. B is a base of 1 in. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. only the joints. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. in which P is the pan. Do not paint any surface. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. . pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. of rosin and 2 oz. and a notch between the base and the pan. of the top. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. fodder. F is a spool. A is a block of l-in. Pack the paste in. 1 lb. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. File the rods to remove the copper plate. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. sal ammoniac. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated.

long. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. At least it is amusing. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. grip the stick firmly in one hand. If any of your audience presume to dispute. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. but the thing would not move at all. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. Enlarge the hole slightly. square and about 9 in. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. 2. and he finally. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. and then. for some it will turn one way.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. as in the other movement. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. for others the opposite way. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. Try it and see. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. Toledo. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. and therein is the trick. or think they can do the same. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. while for others it will not revolve at all. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. from vexation. Ohio. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. g. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. and one friend tells me that they were . let them try it. thus producing two different vibrations. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath." which created much merriment. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body.. by the Hindoos in India.

Thus a circular or . and this was confirmed by the following experiments. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. 4. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. 6. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. p. by means of a center punch. gave the best results. rotation was obtained. The experiments were as follows: 1.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. Speeds between 700 and 1. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. and I think the results may be of interest. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. If the pressure was upon an edge. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. the rotation may be obtained. m. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. no rotation resulted. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. 3. 5. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion.100 r. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. To operate. 7. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. A square stick with notches on edge is best. 2. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. secondly. and. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained.

D. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. Ph. if the pressure is from the left. and the resultant "basket splash. . the upper portion is. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. Minn. Duluth. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. Sloan. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. is driven violently away. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. it will be clockwise. or greasy. A. --Contributed by M. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid... C. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. --Contributed by G. as shown. Lloyd. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. A wire is tied around the can. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). a piece of wire and a candle. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. Washington. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. and the height of the fall about 6 in. unwetted by the liquid.D. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. so far as can be seen from the photographs. forming a handle for carrying. at first. G.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. thick and 1 in. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. flange and a 1/4-in.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. axle. as shown. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. with a 1/16-in. hole drilled in the center. about 2-5/8 in. as shown in Fig. in diameter. 1. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. Each wheel is 1/4 in. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. long." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1.

from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. wide and 16 in. is made from a piece of clock spring. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. 2. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. This will save buying a track. 5.50. long. 6. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. is made from brass. The motor is now bolted. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. bent as shown. Fuller. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . and the locomotive is ready for running. San Antonio. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. The current. wood. The first piece. as shown in Fig. or main part of the frame. A trolley. 3. 3/4 in. --Contributed by Maurice E. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. Texas. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. as shown in Fig.brass. The parts. which must be 110 volt alternating current. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. each in its proper place. Fig. lamp in series with the coil. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. holes 1 in. If the ends are to be soldered. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. 3. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. bottom side up. Fig. 4. with cardboard 3 in. 1 from 1/4-in. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. 2. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. put together complete. are shown in Fig. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. These ends are fastened together. of No. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together.

but do not heat the center. 1. as shown in Fig. When cold treat the other end in the same way. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. Fig 1. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. 2. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. and holes drilled in them. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. O. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. The quarter will not go all the way down. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. Fig. as shown in Fig. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. the length of a paper clip. then continue to tighten much more. Cincinnati. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. and as this end . How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. 3. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top.

one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. 2 and 1 respectively. When the cutter A. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. When the trick is to be performed. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. In the sketch.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. A pair of centers are fitted. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. or should the lathe head be raised. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. has finished a cut for a tooth. and adjusted . or apparent security of the knot.

1. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . (1.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. dividing it into as many parts as desired. tea cosey. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. trace the outline. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. gentleman's card case or bill book. (4. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. When connecting to batteries.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. at the same time striking light. swing lathe. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. and a nut pick. N. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. such as brass or marble. Second row: -Two book marks.) Make on paper the design wanted. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. note book. lady's card case. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown.) Place the paper design on the leather and. draw center lines across the required space. lady's belt bag. Bunker.to run true. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. watch fob ready for fastenings. Bott. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. if four parts are to be alike. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). twisted around itself and soldered.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. tea cosey. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. 2. Fold over along these center lines. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). Y. blotter back. holding it in place with the left hand. (6. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. above the surface. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. coin purse. book mark. (2. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. --Contributed by Samuel C. Fig. about 1-1/2 in. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. In this manner gears 3 in. The frame holding the mandrel. if but two parts. (3. (5. --Contributed by Howard S.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. An ordinary machine will do. or one-half of the design. long. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. Brooklyn.

Secure . and an ordinary bottle.How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. some heavy rubber hose.

The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. into which fit a small piece of tube. The electrodes are made . When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. a distance of 900 miles. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. D. Florida. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. and push it through a cork. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. from Key West. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp.C. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. C. B. A. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. where it condenses.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. and bore a hole through the center.. Thrust a pin. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. If the needle is not horizontal.

long. long. 12 uprights 1/2 in. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. All wiring is done with No. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. long. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. 3/4 in. wide and 20 ft. D. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. 1. wide and 4 ft. use 10-ft. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. thick. To make a glide. Washington. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. 2 arm sticks 1 in. free from knots. slacken speed and settle. long. long for the body of the operator. Four long beams 3/4 in. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. apart and extend 1 ft. 1-1/4 in. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. which is tacked to the front edge. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame.in. 16 piano wire. by 3/4 in. wide and 3 ft. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. 1. wide and 4 ft. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. 2. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. lumber cannot be procured. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. thick. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. thick. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. both laterally and longitudinally. If 20-ft. 2. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. The operator can then land safely and . several strips 1/2 in. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. Connect as shown in the illustration. 1-1/2 in. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. wide and 3 ft. thick. as shown in Fig. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. 2 in. lengths and splice them. and also to keep it steady in its flight. 1. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. as shown in Fig. 1/2. Powell. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. --Contributed by Edwin L. square and 8 ft long. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. using a high resistance receiver. or flying-machine. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. C. long. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. take the glider to the top of a hill. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. thick. 3. wide and 4 ft long.

Great care should be . the beginner should learn by taking short jumps.gently on his feet. but this must be found by experience. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. Glides are always made against the wind. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. Of course. and the balancing is done by moving the legs.

--Contributed by L. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. When heated a little. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. as shown in Fig. a creature of Greek mythology. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. M. half man and half horse. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . 2. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. which causes the dip in the line.exercised in making landings. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. Bellingham. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. Olson. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. 1.

about the size of door screen wire. this will cost about 15 cents. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. long. of small rubber tubing. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. in diameter. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. making it 2-1/2 in. will complete the material list. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. 14 in. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. square. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. about the size of stove pipe wire. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. long and about 3/8 in. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. a piece of brass or steel wire. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. outside the box. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. at the other. The light from the . While at the drug store get 3 ft. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon.

O. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. This is very simple when you know how. --Photo by M.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. Hunting. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. as shown in Fig. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. M. 2. If done properly the card will flyaway. 1. . It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. as shown in the sketch.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. Dayton. as shown in Fig. while others will fail time after time. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end.

Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. as shown. hold the lump over the flame. then put it on the hatpin head. Cool in water and dry. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball." or the Chinese students' favorite game. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. as before. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. When the desired shape has been obtained. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. closing both hands quickly. place the other two. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. If a certain color is to be more prominent. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. as described. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. This game is played by five persons. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly.

Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. or more in width. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. these sectors. distribute electric charges . Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. passing through neutralizing brushes.

3. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. long. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. The drive wheels. are made from solid. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. in diameter. 2. 3/4 in. These pins. long and the shank 4 in. brass tubing and the discharging rods. 4. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. wide at one end. Fig. D. 1. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. The plates are trued up. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. RR. the side pieces being 24 in. as shown in Fig. Two pieces of 1-in. and the outer end 11/2 in. The two pieces. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. and this should be done before cutting the circle. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. 3. and of a uniform thickness. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. to which insulating handles . Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. 1-1/2 in. long. at the other. EE. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. are made from 7/8-in. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. GG. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. in diameter. wide. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. The collectors are made. turned wood pieces. Fig. Two solid glass rods. in diameter. after they are mounted. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. 1 in. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. in diameter. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. and pins inserted and soldered. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. material 7 in. C C. in diameter. The plates. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. long and the standards 3 in. from about 1/4-in. or teeth. in diameter and 15 in. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. free from wrinkles. and 4 in. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. The fork part is 6 in.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. in diameter.

Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. in diameter. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . KK. wide and 22 ft. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. which are bent as shown. D. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. Colo. one having a 2-in. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft.. ball and the other one 3/4 in. long. Lloyd Enos. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. 12 ft. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. Colorado City.are attached. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. and the work was done by themselves. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. --Contributed by C.

making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. as at A. bit. The key will drop from the string. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. string together. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. and bore a hole 1/2 in. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. yet such a thing can be done. deep. pens . Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread.is a good one. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. using a 1-in. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. They can be used to keep pins and needles. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up.

6. Inside this oblong. they make attractive little pieces to have about. about 3/4-in. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. Use . Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. flat and round-nosed pliers. Proceed as follows: 1. above the work and striking it with the hammer. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. 2. using a nail filed to chisel edge. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. 7. The second oblong was 3/4 in. slim screw. stamp the background promiscuously. file. two spikes. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. above the metal. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. or cigar ashes. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. 8. 23 gauge. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. Having determined the size of the tray. 9.. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one.and pencils. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. also trace the decorative design. then the other side. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. Raise the ends. unless it would be the metal shears.. sharp division between background and design. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. etc. 3. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. inside the second on all. and the third one 1/4 in. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. very rapid progress can be made. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. extra metal on each of the four sides. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. 5. 4. When the stamping is completed. inside the first on all. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. This is to make a clean. etc. Draw one-half the design free hand. They are easily made. draw on paper an oblong to represent it.

In the first numbering. and fourth fingers. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. 7.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. 9. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. The eyes. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. and the effect will be most pleasing. first fingers. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. second fingers. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. third fingers. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. 10. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. 8. 6. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown.

viz. or numbers above 10. . Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. as high as you want to go. the product of 12 times 12. and the six lower fingers as six tens. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. above 15 times 15 it is 200. Put your thumbs together. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. which would be 16. if we wish. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. renumber your fingers. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. or the product of 6 times 6. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. Still. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. or 60. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. In the second numbering. etc. 2 times 2 equals 4.. or the product of 8 times 9. Two times one are two. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. first fingers. 12. or 80. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. 25 times 25. but being simple it saves time and trouble. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. At a glance you see four tens or 40. 600. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. which tens are added. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. etc. above 20 times 20. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. 11.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. 400. Let us multiply 12 by 12. etc.. which would be 70. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. there are no fingers above. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method.. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. thumbs.

when he removes his spectacles. twenties. being 80). It takes place also. the value of the upper fingers being 20. not rotation. at the will of the observer. beginning the thumbs with 16. which is the half-way point between the two fives. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. the value which the upper fingers have. For example. . Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. whether the one described in second or third numbering. the upper fingers representing a value of 20.. Take For example 18 times 18. etc. and. any two figures between 45 and 55. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. 2. 7. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. 21. The inversion and reversion did not take place. or what. And the lump sum to add. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. or from above or from below. the lump sum to add. the value of the upper fingers would be 50.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. thumbs. and so on. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. Proceed as in the second lumbering. first fingers 22. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. For figures ending in 6. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. however. the inversion takes place against his will. lastly. about a vertical axis. forties. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. 3. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. as one might suppose. in the case of a nearsighted person. first finger 17. further. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. the revolution seems to reverse. thirties. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. adding 400 instead of 100. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. 8. 75 and 85.

and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. Looking at it in semidarkness. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. A flat slide valve was used. sometimes the point towards him. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. The ports were not easy to make. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. when he knows which direction is right. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. the other appearance asserts itself. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. as . tee. and putting a cork on the point.

Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. inexpensive. such as is shown in the illustration.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. saw off a section of a broom handle. if continued too long without proper treatment. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. H. The steam chest is round. and make in one end a hollow. . and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. The tools are simple and can be made easily. -Contributed by W. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. While this engine does not give much power. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. bottom side up. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. across and 1/2 in. If nothing better is at hand. secure a piece of No. as in a vise. Springfield. Ill.. across the head. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. Beating copper tends to harden it and. pipe. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. Kutscher. pipe 10 in. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. apart. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. it is easily built. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. deep. The eccentric is constructed of washers. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. Fasten the block solidly. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. about 2 in. in diameter. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. Next take a block of wood. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in.

Camden. To overcome this hardness. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good.will cause the metal to break. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. Hay. as it softens the metal. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. Vinegar. --Contributed by W. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. To produce color effects on copper. O. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. This process is called annealing. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. especially when the object is near to the observer. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. the other to the left. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . C. S. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. and. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper.

In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. The red portions of the picture are not seen. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. however. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. diameter. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. because. would serve the same purpose. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. The further apart the pictures are. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. . and lies to the right on the picture." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. they must be a very trifle apart. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. not two mounted side by side. and without any picture. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. with the stereograph. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. although they pass through the screen. In order to make them appear before the card. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. But they seem black. only the orange rays may pass through. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. because of the rays coming from them. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. from the stereograph. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. that for the right. So with the stereograph. while both eyes together see a white background. the one for the left eye being blue. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. orange. in the proper choice of colors. as for instance red and green. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. disappears fully. It is just as though they were not there. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. the further from the card will the composite image appear. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. the left eye sees through a blue screen. it. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background.stereoscope.

Cal. etc.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. A No. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. Place a NO. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. This should only be bored about half way through the block. in diameter. 1/4 in. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. 12 gauge wire. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. San Francisco. wide and 1 in. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. long and a hole drilled in each end. wireless. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. or the middle of the bottle. in the shape of a crank. thick. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. The weight of the air in round .

The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost.6) 1 in. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. and a slow fall. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. high. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. 30 in.. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. But if a standard barometer is not available. square. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. wide and 4 in. Before fastening the scale. will calibrate itself. thick. internal diameter and about 34 in. or a column of mercury (density 13. . are marked off and divided into sixteenths. if accurately constructed. long. pine 3 in. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. In general. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. 34 ft. square. long. high. a glass tube 1/8 in. inside diameter and 2 in. The 4 in. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. a bottle 1 in. or. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. long. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. Only redistilled mercury should be used. the instrument. wide and 40 in. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. the contrary. if you choose. high. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. but before attempting to put in the mercury. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury.numbers is 15 lb. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. The tube is now to be filled with mercury.

2. and place them as shown in Fig. 1. 5. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . 6 and 7. a cover from a baking powder can will do. long. Mark out seven 1-in. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. 3.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. thick. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. the size of the outside of the bottle. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. wide and 10 in. which is slipped quickly over the end. Procure a metal can cover. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. Number the pieces 1.

Move 2-Jump No. l over No. Move 3-Move No. 5's place. 5's place. 2's place. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. 3 over No. Move 6-Move No. Cape May Point. 6 into No. Move 12-Jump No. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. 3. 2 . while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. 1 into No. shaped like Fig. 6. 5. 6 over No. 3 into No. 7 over No. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. Move 14-Jump No. Move 8-Jump No. which is the very best material for the purpose. in diameter. each 10 ft.Position of the Men move only one at a time. Move 13-Move No. 2 over No. Move 7-Jump No. To make such a tent. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. 2. Move 5-Jump No. long and 2 ft. L. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. 2. procure unbleached tent duck. 7. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. 1. N. 6 to No. Move 4-Jump No. 3. Move 15-Move No. Move 9-Jump No. 5 over No. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. as shown in Fig. 1. 6. 7's place. 7 over No. 6 in. 3.J. 5 over No. Make 22 sections. Move 10-Move No.-Contributed by W. Move ll-Jump No. 2's place. Woolson. 1 to No. This can be done on a checker board. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. 3 to the center. using checkers for men. 2 over No.

tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. Tress. Have the tent pole 3 in. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. long and 4 in. Fig. 5. made in two sections. As shown in the sketch.J. in diameter. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. round galvanized iron. will do. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. wide at the bottom. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. Pa. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. as in Fig. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. In raising the tent. 2. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. diameter. Emsworth. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. 5) stuck in the ground. wide by 12 in. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design.in. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. 9 by 12 in. added. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. to a smooth board of soft wood. long. 6-in. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. Nail a thin sheet of brass. Fig. high. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. 3 in. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. wide at the bottom. Use blocks.. 6. leaving the rest for an opening. These are ventilators. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. After transferring the design to the brass. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. --Contributed by G. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. 2 in. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. fill with canvas edging. from the top. Punch holes in the brass in . The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. about 9 in. back of the rice paper and before a bright light.

fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. apart. Corr. It will not. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. When all the holes are punched. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. The pattern is traced as before. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. When the edges are brought together by bending. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. but before punching the holes. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. Chicago. bend into shape. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. . excepting the 1/4-in. around the outside of the pattern. cut out the brass on the outside lines.the spaces around the outlined figures.

the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. Mayger. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. pipe. allowing 2 ft. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. Stevens. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. A 6-in. or. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. A cast-iron ring. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. E. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream.. These pipes are . the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer.however. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. better still. or center on which the frame swings. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. Oregon. G. partially filled with cream. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. If a wheel is selected. Dunham. pipe is used for the hub. or less. between which is placed the fruit jar. --Contributed by Geo. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. Badger. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. --Contributed by H. Que.

in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. An extra wheel 18 in. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. pipe. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. Four braces made from 1/2-in. bent to the desired circle. pipe clamps. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets.

The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. and the guide withdrawn. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. as shown in Fig. 3. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. which was placed in an upright position. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. and dropped on the table. while doing this. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. The performer. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. 1. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated.

thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. --Contributed by H. Colo. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. it requires no expensive condensing lens. and second. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. D. in a half circle. Mo. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. Louis. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. St. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. F. Denver. first. Harkins. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. 2. The box can be made of selected oak or . These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. White. in diameter on another piece of tin. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. -Contributed by C. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. 1.

The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. wide and 6-1/2 in. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. high and must . long. and 2 in. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. and. wide by 5 in. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. If a camera lens is used.mahogany. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. 2. Two or three holes about 1 in. high and 11 in. represented by the dotted line in Fig. An open space 4 in. 5-1/2 in. long. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. as shown in Fig. 1. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. wide and 6-1/2 in. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. The door covering this hole in the back. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. wide. focal length. but not tight. wide and 5 in. This will be 3/4 in. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. from each end of the outside of the box. fit into the runners. long and should be placed vertically. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. from each end. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. 3-1/2 in. AA. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards.

but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. and so on. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. This process is rather a difficult one. --Contributed by Chas. as it requires an airtight case.. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. the article may be propped up . then the second knuckle will be March. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. West Toledo. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. C. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. Bradley. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia." etc. June and November. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. April. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. Ohio. calling that knuckle January. calling this February. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. and extending the whole height of the lantern. 1. provided it is airtight. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection.

1. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. Schenectady. H. in. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. Y. the lid or cover closed. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. fruit jars are required. giving it an occasional stir. 1 and 2. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. The top of a table will do. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. N. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. Crawford. and the lead 24 sq. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. . and set aside for half a day. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. taking care to have all the edges closed. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. 2. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. but waxed. In each place two electrodes. Pour in a little turpentine. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. --Contributed by J. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. one of lead and one of aluminum. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. or suspended by a string. in. running small motors and lighting small lamps. In both Fig.with small sticks. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration.

Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. as you have held it all the time. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . he throws the other. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. O. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. you remove the glass. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. as well as others. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner.. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. This trick is very simple. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. Cleveland. which you warm with your hands. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. After a few seconds' time. You have an understanding with some one in the company. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. He.

J.take the handiest one. if any snags are encountered. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. but by being careful at shores. near a partition or curtain. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. but in making one. Pull the ends quickly. on a table.-Contributed by E. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. Victor. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. . Colo. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. put it under the glass. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. in diameter in the center. Crocker. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. Be sure that this is the right one. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. so it will appear to be a part of the table top.

long. of 1-yd. from the bow and the large one. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. 2 in. 1 piece. Paint.. 1 in. screws and cleats. by 2 in. and is removed after the ribs are in place. Both ends are mortised. of rope. drilled and fastened with screws. 2 gunwales. long. one 6 in. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. 2 and braced with an iron band. by 16 ft. 1 mast. wide. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. 1 in. by 15 ft. 4 outwales. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. 8 yd. wide and 12 ft. from each end to 1 in. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. ducking. and fastened with screws. for cockpit frame. apart. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. by 10 ft. selected pine. long. by 12 in. for center deck braces. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. The keelson. and the other 12 in. 50 ft. is 14 ft. 8 in. 1 piece. 14 rib bands. Fig. wide 12-oz. wide unbleached muslin. as illustrated in the engraving. square by 16 ft. 3 and 4. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. 7 ft. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. 1. 1 in. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. of 1-1/2-yd. by 2 in. long. at the ends. for the stern piece. 1/4 in. and. 11 yd. thick and 3/4 in. 3 in. 1/8 in. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. from the stern. for the bow.. 9 ft. 3 in. by 16 ft. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. the smaller is placed 3 ft. clear pine. 1 in. are as follows: 1 keelson. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . wide and 12 ft. by 8 in.

long. and fastened to them with bolts. 4 in. 7 and 8. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. doubled. wide. long. thick 1-1/2 in. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. gunwales and keelson. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. The 11-yd. This block. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. thick and 1/2 in. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. They are 1 in. a piece 1/4 in. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. thick and 12 in. length of canvas is cut in the center. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. These are put in 6 in. Figs. is cut to fit under the top boards. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. A piece of oak. apart. also. Fig. 3-1/2 ft. A 6-in.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. thick. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. 6. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. screws. 1 in. Before making the deck. wood screws. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. Fig. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. 6 and 7. Braces. 5. A seam should be made along the center piece. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. wide and 24 in. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. 1/4 in. long. wide and 3 ft. thick. long is well soaked in water. 9. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. in diameter through the block. wide. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. 1 in. from the bow. . A block of pine. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. corner braces. is a cube having sides 6 in. The deck is not so hard to do. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. The trimming is wood. wide and 14 in. 6 in. The block is fastened to the keelson.

wide at one end and 12 in. long. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. 11. each 1 in. in diameter and 10 ft. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. apart in the muslin. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. long. Wilmette. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. is 6 in. Fig. E. . The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. The house will accommodate 20 families. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. The mast has two side and one front stay. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. Ill. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. Tronnes. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. at the other. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. thick by 2 in. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. The sail is a triangle. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. The keel. --Contributed by O. wide. 10 with a movable handle. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. 12. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. are used for the boom and gaff.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. A strip 1 in. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast.

1 yd. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. about 5/16 in.into two 14-in. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. long. with the ends and the other side rounding. wide. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. wide and 30 in. 3. E. five 1/2-in. --Contributed by O. Bevel both sides of the pieces. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. 2-1/2 in. Cut the maple. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. Fig. and 3 ft.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. Ill. thick. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. flat headed screws. one 11-1/2 in. 5. and the other 18 in. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. thick. 4. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. long. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. flat on one side. as shown in Fig. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. long and five 1/2-in. wide and 2 ft. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. flat-headed screws. 2-1/2 in. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. Take this and fold it over . If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. 2. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. Tronnes. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. Wilmette. long. 1. thick. square. wide. 2 in. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin.

C. of each end unwound for connections. 1. wide and 5 in. F. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. long. this square box is well sandpapered. as well as the edges around the opening. 1-1/4 in. leaving a small opening at one corner. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. --Contributed by W. The bag is then turned inside out. wide and 6-1/2 in. Another piece. and the four outside edges. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. C. A. Wind three layers of about No. Glue a three cornered piece. About 1/2 in. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. long. about 3/8 in. the mechanical parts can be put together. The sides are 3-1/4 in. then centered. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. Fig. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. wide and 3 ft. 3-1/4 in. long. long. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. pieces 2-5/8 in. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. soaked with water and blown up. long. D. thick. but can be governed by circumstances. wide and 4-1/2 in. After the glue. When the glue is set. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. long. Mo. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. long. 6-1/2 in. long. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. wide and 6-3/4 in. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. wide and 2-1/2 in. square. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. The front. If carefully and neatly made. wide . St. B. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. 3/8 in. 3 in. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. is set. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. A. Make a double stitch all around the edge. and take care that the pieces are all square. are rounded. and make a turn in each end of the wires. 2 and 3. square.once. Cut another piece of board. thick and 3 in. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. Louis. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. thick. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. the top and bottom. E. forming an eye for a screw. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. 5 from 1/16-in. wide and 2-3/4 in. Bliss. Figs.

the part carrying the pointer moves away. When the current flows through the coil. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. The stronger the current. 1/16 in. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. Yorkshire. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. showing a greater defection of the pointer. 4. Another strip of tin. wide and 2-1/2 in. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. Place the tin. long. W.R. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. thick. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. 1/4 in. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. These wires should be about 1 in. A pointer 12 in. in diameter. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in.and 2-5/8 in. The resistance is now adjusted to show . The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. 4 is not movable. wide and 9 in. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. hole is fastened to the pointer. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. long. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. The base is a board 5 in. Like poles repel each other. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. board. Austwick Hall. so it will just clear the tin. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. from the spindle. bored in the back. 5-1/2 in. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place.S. --Contributed by George Heimroth. and as the part Fig.A. 4. Fig. long. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. 5. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. and the farther apart they will be forced. F. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. that has the end turned with a shoulder. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. the same size as the first. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. I. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. G. Richmond Hill. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. L. and fasten in place. R. The end of the polar axis B. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. Fig. C. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. from one end. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. Chapman. A brass tube having a 1/4-in.

at 9 hr. 10 min. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. M. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. say Venus at the date of observation. The following formula will show how this may be found. 30 min. 1881. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. thus: 9 hr. 10 min. A. shows mean siderial. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. and vice .

Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. Hall. . New Haven. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. or. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. --Contributed by Robert W.m. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. Conn.f. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. and then verify its correctness by measurement. if one of these cannot be had. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. owing to the low internal resistance.

especially for cooking fish. fresh grass. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. 1. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. of alum and 4 oz. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. inside diameter and about 5 in. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. 1-3/4 in. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. Then. Fig. cover up with the same.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. The boring bar. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . as shown in the accompanying picture. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. put the fish among the ashes. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. 3/8 in. and heap the glowing coals on top. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. Wet paper will answer. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. When the follower is screwed down. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. leaves or bark. thick. arsenic to every 20 lb. long. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb.

the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . fastened with a pin. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. thick. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. and threaded on both ends. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. about 1/2 in.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. when they were turned in. pipe. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. pipe. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head.

the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. was then finished on an emery wheel. but never one which required so little material. wide. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. however. 2. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. the float is too high. It . square iron. 30 in. The rough frame. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. and which gave such satisfactory results. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. Fig. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. bent in the shape of a U. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. then it should be ground to a fit. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. as the one illustrated herewith. long. 3. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. If the valve keeps dripping. This plate also supports the rocker arms. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. 5. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. A 1-in. labor and time. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. Fig.valve stems. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. Iowa. Fig. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. thick and 3 in. a jump spark would be much better. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. 4. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. Clermont.

from the center. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. square and 2 ft. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. in the ground with 8 ft. square and 5 ft. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. A malleable iron bolt. strengthened by a piece 4 in. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. and a little junk.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. and. long. Use a heavy washer at the head. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. It looks like a toy. long." little and big. completes the merry-go-round. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. strong clear material only should be employed." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. If it is to be used for adults. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. being held in position by spikes as shown. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. timber. long. in fact. The seats are regular swing boards. for the "motive power" to grasp. The illustration largely explains itself. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. hole bored in the post. W. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . --Contributed by C. square. extending above. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. 12 ft. no matter what your age or size may be. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. in diameter and 15 in. rope is not too heavy. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. so it must be strong enough. set 3 ft. from all over the neighborhood. with no trees or buildings in the way. The crosspiece is 2 in. This makes an easy adjustment. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. long is the pivot. butting against short stakes. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. A 3/4 -in. As there is no bracing. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. Nieman. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. 3/4 in. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around.

This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. The bow is now bent. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. A reel is next made. These ends are placed about 14 in. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. and 18 in. as shown in Fig. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. away. 1. light and strong. Having placed the backbone in position.the fingers. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. 1/4 by 3/32 in. The backbone is flat. 4. 2. then it is securely fastened. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. long. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. a wreck. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. square. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string.2 emery. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. if nothing better is at hand. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. Both have large reels full of . and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. and sent to earth. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. one for the backbone and one for the bow. To wind the string upon the reel.

Y. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. Moody. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. C. the balance. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. Bunker. First. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. Brooklyn. The handle end is held down with a staple. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench.-Contributed by S. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. common packing thread. N. he pays out a large amount of string. or glass-covered string. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench.string. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. If the second kite is close enough. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. Newburyport. often several hundred yards of it. Mass. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . --Contributed' by Harry S. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it.

Vt.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. cutting the circular piece into quarters. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. then draw the string up tight. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. then a dust protector. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. --Contributed by Earl R. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. each the size of half the table top. If the table is round. lengths (Fig. make the pad as shown in the illustration. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. must be attached to a 3-ft. square (Fig. length of 2-in. Hastings. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. such as mill men use. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. Corinth.

trace the design carefully on the leather... Oakland. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. Calif. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. 16-1/4 in. E. which spoils the leather effect. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. from C to D. hard pencil. from E to F. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working..Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. Use a smooth. G to H. 6-1/4 in. . Wharton. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. Moisten the . How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. and E to G. 2-1/4 in.9-1/4 in.-Contributed by H. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. 17-1/2 in. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. If leaves are wanted in extending the table.

if not more than 1 in. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. G-J. H-B. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. Trace the openings for the handles. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. apart. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. place both together and with a leather punch. is taken off at a time. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. also lines A-G. get something with which to make a lining. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. I made this motor . To complete the bag. Now cut narrow thongs. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. wide. and lace through the holes. Cut it the same size as the bag. about 1/8 in. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. and corresponding lines on the other side. and E-G.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. with the rounded sides of the tools.

Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. Calif. 2. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. each being a half circle. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. of No. Pasadena. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. iron. 1. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. Shannon.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. --Contributed by J. 24 gauge magnet wire. B. 2-1/4 in. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. D. . towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts.M. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. as shown in Fig. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. long. in length. 1.

Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. pasted in alternately. balloon should be about 8 ft. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. high. The gores for a 6-ft. and the gores cut from these.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. 1. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. from the bottom end. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. are the best kind to make. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. near the center.

1. These are to hold the wick ball. In starting the balloon on its flight. 2. as shown in Fig. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. after which the paint will adhere permanently. The steam. somewhat larger in size. If the gores have been put together right. in diameter. leaving a long wake behind. The boat soon attains considerable speed. using about 1/2-in. Staunton. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. saturating it thoroughly. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. 5. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. As the boat is driven forward by this force. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. B. E. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. --Contributed by R. In removing grease from wood.widest point. A. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. 3. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. coming through the small pipe A. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. 4. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. so it will hang as shown in Fig. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. Fig. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. leaving the solution on over night. as shown in Fig. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. lap on the edges. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. After washing.

The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. if you have several copies of the photograph.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. in bowling form. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. long. as is shown in Fig. 1. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. The blocks are about 6 in. There are three ways of doing this: First. apart on these lines. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. Third. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. long and each provided with a handle. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. Second. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. In using either of the two methods described. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. wide by 6 in. high and 8 in.

Fig. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. not pointed down at the road at an angle. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. being careful not to dent the metal. N. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. Albany. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. Rinse the plate in cold water. 2. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. Y. thick. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. Hellwig. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . --Contributed by John A.Fig.

either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. S. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. A. A circular piece of wood. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. In Fig. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. through which passes the set screw S. Corner irons. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. 2 the front view. Paine. and not produce the right sound.upon any particular object. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. 1 Fig. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. with a set screw. With this device. Va. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. in diameter. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. 6 in. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. CC. 5 in. long for the base. --Contributed by R. which is 4 in. B. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. These corner irons are also screwed to. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. A. Richmond. are screwed to the circular piece. wide and of any desired height. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. wide and 8 in. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . thick. and Fig. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. Break off the frame. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. is fastened to a common camera tripod. and.

. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. This horn. I made a wheel 26 in. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. -1. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. Lake Preston. D. in diameter of some 1-in. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. thus producing sound waves. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. La Salle. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. Kidder. R. S. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. This will make a very compact electric horn. Ill. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. pine boards. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. as only the can is visible.

Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. If there is a large collection of coins. thick and 12 in. O. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. 1. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. square. Kane. the same thickness as the coins. Purdy. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. 2. Doylestown. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. --Contributed by James R. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. Feet may be added to the base if desired. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. Ghent. Fig. A. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. The frame is made of a heavy card. If the collection consists of only a few coins. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. B. --Contributed by C. 1. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in.

The more coats applied the darker the color will be. --Contributed by R. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. If desired. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. of developer. A lead pencil. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. The material required is a sheet of No. --Contributed by August T. Smith. Noble. plus a 3/8-in. melted and applied with a brush. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives.E. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. It will hold 4 oz. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. thick. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. Toronto. for after the slides have been shown a few times. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. cut and grooved. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. --Contributed by J. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. several large nails. border all around. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment.J. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. though not absolutely necessary. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. Milwaukee. Wis. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. One Cloud. and then glued together as indicated. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. A rivet punch is desirable. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. Cal. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. Canada. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. a hammer or mallet. they become uninteresting. Neyer. into which to place the screws . Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used.

To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. never upon the metal directly. screws placed about 1 in.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. both outline and decoration. draw one part. Take the nail. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. using 1/2-in. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. Remove the screws. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. like the one shown. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. and file it to a chisel edge. There are several ways of working up the design. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface.

The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. each 1 in. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. for the lower rails.wall. being ball bearing. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. Do not bend it over or flatten it. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. long. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. 2. in the other. Provide four lengths for the legs. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. 3/4 in. long. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. two lengths. as shown in Fig. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. Rivet the band to the holder. About 1/2 yd. square and 11 in. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. up from the lower end. l-1/8 in. . long. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. square. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. using a 1/2in. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. The pedal. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. for the top. and two lengths. 1. of 11-in. square and 181/2 in. 3. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion.

The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. Quackenbush. F. having quite a length of threads. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. --Contributed by W. Attalla. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. New York City. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. Ala. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. --Contributed by John Shahan.

initial. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. each 1-1/4 in. and the other 2-3/4 in.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. long. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. Purchase a 1/2-in. in depth. The desired emblem. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. using class. the end of the other piece is folded over. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. from the end. and two holes in the other. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . from one end. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. and 3/8 in. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. Two pieces of felt. Mich. Ironwood. wide and 4-1/4 in. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. wide and 8-1/4 in. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. something that is carbonated. long. college or lodge colors. one about 1 in. making a lap of about 1 in. Assemble as shown in the sketch. Luther. --Contributed by C. D. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in.. long. stitched on both edges for appearance.

Fig. if desired by the operator. in the cover and the bottom. Punch two holes A. 1/4 in. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. or a pasteboard box. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. Ind. from the center and opposite each other. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. This method allows a wide range of designs. Indianapolis. in diameter and 2 in. as shown at B. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. 2. as shown in the sketch. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. which can be procured from a plumber. and the cork will be driven out. or more in height. 1. Schatz. --Contributed by John H. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. A piece of lead. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. about 2 in.

When the can is rolled away from you. putting in the design. . These tools can be bought for this special purpose. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. or marble will serve. are turned up as in Fig. allowing the two ends to be free. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. and the ends of the bands looped over them. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. Columbus. O. 5. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. The pieces of tin between the holes A. 3. 4. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. A piece of thick glass. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. 1. as shown in Fig. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return.Rolling Can Toy lead. on both top and bottom. Fig. it winds up the rubber band. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. metal. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in.

hole through it. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. long and bored a 1/2-in. Next place the leather on the glass. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. and. or more thick on each side. mark over the design. deep in its face.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. The edges should be about 1/8 in. wide and 20 in. I secured a board 3/4 in. 1 in. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. If it is desired to "line" the inside. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. After this has been done. 3 in. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. A pencil may be used the first time over. thicker than the pinion. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. from each end. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . face up. thick. New York City.

pieces for the vise slides. 1 by 9 by 80 in. --Contributed by A. 3 by 3 by 36. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. Y. 1 by 12 by 77 in. 1. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. Rice. in diameter. New York. 2 by 2 by 18 in. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in.in the board into the bench top. Fig. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. 1 top board. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. 2 end rails. 1 screw block. N. thick top board. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. 2 by 12 by 77 in. much of the hard labor will be saved. 1 back board. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. 1 piece for clamp. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. Make the lower frame first. 2 crosspieces. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. 1 piece for clamp. 3 by 3 by 20 in. M. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. 3 by 3 by 6 in. 2 side rails. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. Syracuse. Cut the 2-in. 1 piece. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. 2. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. 1 top board. lag screws as shown. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. 4 guides. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. Brooklyn. countersinking the heads of the vise end. Now fit up the two clamps. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. and fit it in place for the side vise.

1 monkey wrench. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. 1 pocket level. 1 nail set. 1 countersink. 24 in. as well as the pattern maker. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. The bench is now complete. 1 brace and set of bits. 1 claw hammer. They can be purchased at a hardware store.. 1 pair pliers. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. . 1 pair dividers. 1 compass saw. 1 rip saw. 1 bench plane or jointer. in diameter. The amateur workman. 1 wood scraper.screws. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted.. 1 2-ft. 2 screwdrivers.. 1 cross cut saw. 3 and 6 in. If each tool is kept in a certain place. 1 set chisels. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. 1 marking gauge. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. it can be easily found when wanted. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. Only the long run. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. 24 in. 1 jack plane or smoother. 1 set gimlets. rule.

1. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. Doylestown. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. Kane. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. Fig. the projecting point A. but will not make . try square. Fig. becomes like A. Fig. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. 3. after constant use. will be easier to work. Fig. 2.1. ---Contributed by James M. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. Pa. No. will sink into the handle as shown at D. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. 2 and 00 sandpaper. 1 oilstone. being softer. The calf skin. 1.1 6-in.

secure a piece of modeling calf. the same method of treatment is used. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. but a V-shaped nut pick. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. If calf skin is to be used. Two pieces will be required of this size. . a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. Having prepared the two sides. lay the design on the face. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. and the length 6-5/8 in. such as copper or brass. If cow hide is preferred. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. White. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. After the outlines are traced. which steam. water or heat will not affect. First draw the design on paper. -Contributed by Julia A. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. will do just as well. New York City. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. when dry. then prepare the leather. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. Turn the leather. The form can be made of a stick of wood.as rigid a case as the cow skin. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. cover it completely with water enamel and.

C. --Contributed by Chester L. --Contributed by W. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. as shown in the sketch. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. Portland. . Jaquythe. --Contributed by Chas. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. Cal. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. Cobb. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. and an adjustable friction-held loop. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. A. Herrman. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. Richmond. New York City. Maine.

as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. This was very difficult. an inverted stewpan. . Conn. --Contributed by Wm. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. Roberts. Mass. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. A thick piece of tin. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. B. --Contributed by Geo. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. Middletown. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. for instance. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. was marked out as shown. Wright..Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. Cambridge.

But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. Herbert. so some bones were quickly calcined. If any traces of the grease are left. L. and quite new. Chicago. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. and the grease will disappear. When dry. The next morning there was no trace of oil. --Contributed by C. A beautifully bound book. face down. F. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. apply powdered calcined magnesia. of boiling water. . but not running over. pulverized and applied. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. used as part of furniture. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. such as chair seats. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. If the article is highly polished. Illinois. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. but only an odor which soon vanished. as shown. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. Indianapolis. Ind. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. There was no quicklime to be had.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease.. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. Bone. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. on a clear piece of glass. well calcined and powdered. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. which has been tried out several times with success. --Contributed by Paul Keller.

If properly adjusted. set and thumbscrews. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. 2 in. A. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. thick. long. deep and 5 in. --Contributed by Geo. high and are bolted to a block of wood. This coaster is simple and easy to make. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. wide and 12 in.. the pieces . New York. soft steel with the opening 6 in. Howe. 6 in. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in.. The pieces marked S are single. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. Tarrytown. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. says Scientific American.

The seat is a board. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. If the letters are all cut the same height. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. no doubt. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. for sending to friends. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. Their size depends on the plate used. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. to the underside of which is a block. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. they will look remarkably uniform. albums and the like. A sharp knife. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . with a short bolt through each pair as shown. says Camera Craft. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. E.

the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. In cutting out an 0. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. The puzzle is to get . and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. So arranged. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. for example. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. So made. photographing them down to the desired size. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. mount them on short pieces of corks. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. after. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. pasting the prints on some thin card. using care to get it in the right position. and. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole.

By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. squeezes along past the center of the tube. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. says the American Thresherman. long that will just fit are set in.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. snow or anything to hide it.J. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. Bayley. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. Cape May Point. of its top. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. hung on pivots. He smells the bait. so they will lie horizontal. G. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. N. Old-Time Magic . The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . with the longest end outside.-Contributed by I.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. A hole 6 or 7 in. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand.

pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. then expose again. Idaho. E. N. --Contributed by L. then spread the string. Press the hands together. Y. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. --Contributed by L. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string.faced up. Pocatello. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. or rub the hands a little before doing so. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. Szerlip. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. Pawtucket. Rhode Island. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. Brooklyn. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. Parker. --Contributed by Charles Graham. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve.

or a complete suit of armor. using a straightedge and a pencil. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. in width. 1. Glue the other side of the blade. The pieces. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. whether he requires a single sword only. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. 2 Fig. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade.. thick. When the whole is quite dry. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. 1 Fig. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in.Genuine antique swords and armor. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. dark red. in building up his work from the illustrations. and if carefully made. 3 Fig.. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. The handle is next made. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. full size. says the English Mechanic. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. When the glue is thoroughly dry. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. near the point end. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. or green oil paint. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. narrower. wipe the blade . if any. long. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. 4 on the blade. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. they will look very much like the genuine article. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. wide and 2 in. end of the blade. The blade should be about 27 in. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set.

and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. the other is flat or halfround. 4. thick and 5 in. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. 1/8 in. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. 1. In making this scimitar. in diameter. about 1-1/2 in. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. of course. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. should be about 9 in. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. not for use only in cases of tableaux. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. square and of any length desired. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. 1. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. as it is . The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. the length of the blade 28 in. long. 3. wind it around in a continuous line closely together.. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. the other two are identical. allowing for a good hold with both hands. This sword is about 68 in. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. 2. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. In making. the illustration. shows only two sides. follow the directions as for Fig. 1. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. 2. and 3 in. the other is flat or half-round. take two pieces of wood. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. The length of the handle. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side.. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. in the widest part at the lower end. preferably of contrasting colors. Fig. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. 1. 3. Both edges of the blade are sharp. In the finished piece.with light strokes up and down several times.

Morse. Both can be made easily. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. --Contributed by Katharine D. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. at the lower end. as there was some at hand. --Contributed by John Blake. Syracuse. as shown in the sketch. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. N. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. long. in an attempt to remove it. or an insecure fastening. about 3/8 in. It is made of a plank. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. piping and jackets by hard water. as can the pitch bed or block. and. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. square. Mass. Doctors probed for the button without success. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. A cold . The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. however. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. A piece of mild steel. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. Franklin. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. each about 1 ft. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. 2 in. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. Y. On each edge of the board. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. The thinness of the plank. and if so. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased.

Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. To remedy this. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. 5 lb. a file to reduce the ends to shape.. on the pitch. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. To put it in another way.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. 5 lb. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. When the desired form has been obtained. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. design down. Trim up the edges and file them . using a small metal saw. When this has been done. secure a piece of brass of about No. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. 18 gauge. tallow.. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. plaster of Paris. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. The illustration shows an iron receptacle.

Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. lb. or 550 ft. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. space between the vessels with water. 1 ft. in the center. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. 1) and the other 12 in. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. Before giving the description. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. A. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. Cutter.smooth. Clean the metal thoroughly. in one second. That is lifting 33.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. living together in what seems like one receptacle. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. in diameter (Fig. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. one 18 in. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33.000 lb. per minute. . These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. it may be well to know what horsepower means. to keep it from floating. 3. per second. in diameter (Fig. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. Fig. This in turn divided by 33. make an unusual show window attraction. over the smaller vessel. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower.000 ft. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. --Contributed by Harold H. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. but not to stop it. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. and still revolve. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. lb. and hang a bird swing. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. using powdered pumice with lye. in one minute or 550 lb. 1 ft. Fill the 3-in. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. or fraction of a horsepower. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. 30 ft. The smaller is placed within the larger. 2).

Diameter 12 in. --Contributed. Y. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . Diameter Fig. by L. --Contributed by J. Mass. Campbell.18 in. N. Szerlip. Somerville. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. 2 Fig. F. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. Brooklyn. 1 Fig.3 Fig. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. The effect is surprising. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. or on a pedestal.

In riveting. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. which. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. This compound is impervious to water. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. with the pliers. Rivet the cup to the base. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. unsatisfactory. is. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. the same as removing writing from a slate. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. and then. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. as a rule. away from the edge. keeping the center high. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. and the clay . A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. Polish both of these pieces. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. then by drawing a straightedge over it. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces.copper of No. after which it is ready for use. with other defects. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. often render it useless after a few months service. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. to keep the metal from tarnishing. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. and cut out the shape with the shears. Do not be content merely to bend them over. using any of the common metal polishes. which may be of wood or tin. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in.

can be pressed back and leveled. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. the device will work for an indefinite time. Mich. Dunlop. Mich. -Contributed by Thos. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. Grand Rapids. A. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. long. DeLoof. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. . Houghton. as shown in Fig. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. Shettleston. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. The siphon is made of glass tubes. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. 2. Northville. 3/4 in. Scotland. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. --Contributed by A. It is made of a glass tube. --Contributed by John T. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. in diameter and 5 in. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. 1. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch.

stilettos and battle-axes. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. long with the crossguard and blade of steel. long.1 FIG. This sword is 4 ft. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. 1. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords.FIG. put up as ornaments. in width and 2 in. As the handle is to . says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. London. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig.

long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. the axe is of steel. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. with both edges sharp. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. 8. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. In Fig. The handle is of wood. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. in length. narrower. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. This sword is about 4 ft. sometimes called cuirass breakers. one about 1/2 in. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. wood with a keyhole saw. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. long. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. 6. This axe is made similar to the one . round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. paint it a dark brown or black. Cut two strips of tinfoil. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. In Fig. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. The lower half of the handle is of wood. 11 were used. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. 5. is shown in Fig. string. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. in length. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. which is about 2-1/2 ft. with wire or string' bound handle. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. with both edges of the blade sharp. 7. This weapon is also about 1 ft. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. glue and put it in place. then glued on the blade as shown. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. When dry. firmly glued on. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. 9. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape.represent copper. These must be cut from pieces of wood. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. Both handle and axe are of steel. 4. This stiletto has a wood handle. This weapon is about 1 ft. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. In Fig. small rope and round-headed nails. the same as used on the end of the handle. in width. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. When the glue is thoroughly dry. The sword shown in Fig. A German stiletto. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. 3 is shown a claymore. 20 spike. When the whole is quite dry. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. very broad. the upper part iron or steel. A German poniard is shown in Fig. sharp edges on both sides. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. Three large. long with a dark handle of wood. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. studded with brass or steel nails. The crossbar and blade are steel. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. The ball is made as described in Fig.

use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. so the contents cannot be seen. such as braided fishline. together as shown in Fig.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. . If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. 2. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. W. 10. Old-Time Magic . 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig.described in Fig. high. Chicago. When wrapped all the way around. --Contributed by E. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. will pull where other belts slip. the ends are tied and cut off. Davis. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. This will make a very good flexible belt.

To make the flowers grow in an instant. some of the liquid. held in the right hand.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. Before the performance. The dotted lines in Fig. filled with water. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. N. Macdonald. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. causing the flowers to grow. These wires are put in the jar. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. There will be no change in color. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. Calif. S. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. an acid. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. Oakland. 1 and put together as in Fig. 2. --Contributed by A. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. As zinc is much lighter than iron. apparently. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. with the circle centrally located. about one-third the way down from the top. or using small wedges of wood.J. Bridgeton. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . four glass tumblers. in a few seconds' time. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist.

4 for width and No. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. When many slides are to be masked. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. 2 for height. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. --Contributed by W. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. practical and costs nothing. unless some special device is used. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. This outlines the desired opening. If the size wanted is No. which are numbered for convenience in working. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. Richmond. Jaquythe. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. Cal. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. A. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. says a correspondent of Photo Era. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. and equally worthy of individual treatment. not only because of the fact just mentioned. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. and kept ready for use at any time. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple.

With a stick. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. not the water into the acid. When etched to the desired depth. or. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. The decoration. the paper is folded along the center line. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. This done. is about right for the No. which is dangerous. possibly. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. using the carbon paper. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . Draw a design. or a pair of old tongs. about half and half. 16 gauge. may be changed. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. but they can be easily revived. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. Secure a sheet of No. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. a little less acid than water. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. and do not inhale the fumes. the margin and the entire back of the metal. paint the design. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. and the extreme length 7 in. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. The one shown is merely suggestive. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. too.

thick. long. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. 2. 5. 1. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. high. long and 1 ft. 5. 2. about 3 ft. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. . Nail a board. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. 3/8 in. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. wide and of the same length as the table. about 8 in. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. 4. attached to a post at each end. 2. A. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. about 2-1/2 in. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. as shown in the illustration. wide. about 1 in. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. so that when it is pressed down. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. J is another wire attached in the same way. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. Fig. Then get two posts. Cut out a piece of tin. 0 indicates the batteries. and bore two holes. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. Fig. the bell will ring. with the wires underneath. in diameter and 1/4 in. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. It may be either nailed or screwed down. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. Fig. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. The connections are simple: I. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. Fig. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. repeat as many times as is necessary. Fig. Paint the table any color desired. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. or more wide. to the table. and about 2-1/2 ft. as in Fig. 3. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. through it. it will touch post F. C and D. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. as at H. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. When the button S is pressed. 24 parts water. as shown in Fig.

the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. handle and all. but they are somewhat difficult to make. is to appear as steel. such as . The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. long serves as the dowel. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. The entire weapon. A wood peg about 2 in. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. These rings can be carved out. This weapon is about 22 in. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. The imitation articles are made of wood.. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. 2. thick.Imitation Arms and Armor . mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. the wood peg inserted in one of them. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. The circle is marked out with a compass. 1. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. says the English Mechanic. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. long. After the glue is dry. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel.

the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. as before mentioned. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. If such a tool is not at hand. as shown. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. covered with red velvet. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. studded with large brass or steel nails. as described in Fig. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. 2. leaves. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. the hammer and spike.ornamental scrolls. flowers. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. Its length is about 3 ft. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. long. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. 8. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. also. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. . then the hammer put on the base of the spike. The lower half of the handle is wood. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. The axe is shown in steel. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. All of these axes are about the same length. The handle is of wood. used at the end of the fifteenth century. This weapon is about 22 in. The upper half of the handle is steel. The handle is of steel imitation. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. with a sharp carving tool. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. etc. The spikes are cut out of wood. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. or the amateur cannot use it well. is shown in Fig. 5. 6. 3. The entire handle should be made of one piece. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb.

Each person plays until three outs have been made. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. 3. a three-base hit. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. The knife falling on its side (Fig. 1. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. 2. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. 6. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. 7) calls for one out. as shown in Fig. Fig. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. 5. Chicago. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. . and so on for nine innings. as in Fig. the knife resting on its back.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. then the other plays. 4). calls for a home run.

Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. Somerville. This he does. F. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. of water for an hour or two. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. If it is spotted at all. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. 3. It may be found that the negative is not colored. 2. with the rope laced in the cloth. Old-Time Magic . He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. while the committee is tying him up. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. as shown in Fig. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. one of them burning . The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo.-Contributed by J. 1. hypo to 1 pt. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. Mass. Campbell. as shown in Fig. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. of the rope and holds it.

The magician walks over to the burning candle. He then walks over to the other candle. bolt. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. shades the light for a few seconds. . A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole.. Drill Gauge screw. showing that there is nothing between them. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. thick. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. with which he is going to light the other candle. Louisville. thus causing it to light. of plumbago. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. of water and 1 oz. of turpentine. and. invisible to them (the audience). The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. Thome. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. etc. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. Evans. Lebanon. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. New York City. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. the other without a light. --Contributed by C. 4 oz. Brown. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. Ky. of sugar. 3/4 in. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. --Contributed by L. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. B.brightly. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. Ky. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. 4 oz.Contributed by Andrew G.

The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. Its current strength is about one volt. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. which will give a strong. about 5 in. Do not add water to the acid. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. Pulteney.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. steady current. In making up the solution. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. diameter. 5 in. but is not so good. --Contributed by C. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. or blotting paper. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. thick. long. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. N. for the material. H. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. To make the porous cell. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. into a tube of several thicknesses. Denniston. Y. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use.

Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. steel. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. carrying the hour circle at one end. the other holding them apart. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. a positive adjustment was provided. Finally. steel. To insure this.station. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. one drawing them together. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. steel. while the other end is attached by two screws. long with a bearing at each end. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. After much experimentation with bearings. but somewhat lighter. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. As to thickness. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. The . any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other.) may be obtained. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. One hole was bored as well as possible. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described.

when the pointer should again cut at the same place." Only a rough setting is necessary. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction.. need not be changed. and if it is not again directed to the same point. once carefully made. To find a star in the heavens. Set the declination circle to its reading. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. 45 min. apart. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer.. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. Declination is read directly. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture." When this is done. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. Point it approximately to the north star. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. excepting those on the declination axis." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. in each direction from two points 180 deg. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. turn the pointer to the star. is provided with this adjustment. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. To locate a known star on the map. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. Cassiopiae. Each shaft. All set screws. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. subtract 24. The pole is 1 deg. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. All these adjustments. The aperture should be 1/4 in. Instead.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. save the one in the pipe. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. If the result is more than 24 hours. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. The pointer is directed to Alpha. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . are tightened. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. When properly set it will describe a great circle. and 15 min. It is. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps.

and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. benzole. If this will be too transparent. Plain City. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. New Orleans. is folded several times. The dance will begin. then add 1 2-3 dr.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. La. In reality the first ball. the others . of gum sandarac and 4 gr. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. add a little more benzole. which is the one examined. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. is the real cannon ball. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. 3 or 4 in.. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. long. Ohio. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. -Contributed by Ray E. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. Strosnider. of ether. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. cannon balls. a great effect will be produced. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. as shown in the sketch. The ball is found to be the genuine article. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. taking care not to add too much.

Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. taps. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. Somerville. as shown in the illustration. 1). A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. without taking up any great amount of space. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. San Francisco. Cal. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration.. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. Fig. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. etc. --Contributed by J. Return the card to the pack. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. Mass. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. Wis. F. Milwaukee. 2.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. small brooches. Campbell. In boxes having a sliding cover. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized .

This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. from the bottom of the box. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. Hartford. . and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. Beller. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. This box has done good service. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. prints. slides and extra brushes. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. round pieces 2-1/4 in. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. thus giving ample store room for colors. as shown in the illustration. Connecticut. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in.

tacking the gauze well at the corners. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. O. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. Fill the upper tub. will answer the purpose. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. FIG. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. costing 5 cents. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. 2). or placed against a wall. . about threefourths full. holes in the bottom of one. West Lynn. with well packed horse manure. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. 1). Mass. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. When the ends are turned under. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. Darke. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. -Contributed by C.

A pair of these shields will always come in handy. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. and each bundle contains . --Contributed by L. Eifel. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. cutting the cane between the holes. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. M. If plugs are found in any of the holes. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. when they are raised from the pan. oil or other fluid. if this is not available. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. If the following directions are carried out. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. Chicago. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. they should be knocked out.

The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. then across and down. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. and. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. as it must be removed again. held there by inserting another plug. put about 3 or 4 in. as shown in Fig. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. Whenever the end of one strand is reached.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. 1. after having been pulled tight. it should be held by a plug. In addition to the cane. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. a square pointed wedge. No plugs .

put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. is the horizontal dial. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. This will make three layers. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or .should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. -Contributed by E. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. is the base (5 in. as it always equals the latitude of the place. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. There are several different designs of sundials. called the gnomon.075 in. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. 1 lat. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third.15+. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. --Contributed by M. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. The style or gnomon.3 in. During the weaving. R. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. W. the height of the line BC. 3. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations.075 in. Michigan. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. we have 4. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. and the one we shall describe in this article. All added to the lesser or 40°. From table No. If you have a table of natural functions. stretch the third one. lat. Detroit. as the height of the line BC for lat. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. trim off the surplus rosin. 1. After completing the second layer.42 in. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. 5. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. When cool. as for example. in this case) times the . 4. 3. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. using the same holes as for the first layer. 42° is 4. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. the next smallest. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. and for 1° it would be . 40°. as shown in Fig. D.2+. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. for 2°.= 4. the height of which is taken from table No. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. 1. No weaving has been done up to this time. and for lat. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. If handled with a little care. 1.15 in. 41 °-30'. it is 4. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place.5 in. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. Even with this lubrication.2 in. but the most common. Fig. or the style. 5 in. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. as shown in Fig. Their difference is . placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. It consists of a flat circular table. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. 41°-30'. Fig. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. Patrick.

07 4.79 4.30 1.55 4.46 3.28 .32 6. .39 .76 1.59 2.96 32° 3.38 .82 5.66 latitude. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No.03 3. For latitudes not given.33 42° 4.50 26° 2. base. 2 for given latitudes.81 4. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial.44 44° 4. or more.49 3. according to the size of the dial.85 35 .42 . draw two parallel lines AB and CD. long.68 5-30 6-30 5. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks.40 1. Draw two semi-circles.37 54° 6. gives the 6 o'clock points.00 40° 4.82 2. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in.12 52° 6.87 1. circle Sundial.16 1.57 1. 2.55 46° 5.18 28° 2.tangent of the degree of latitude.42 1.57 3.94 1.11 3.93 6. Chords in inches for a 10 in. which will represent the base in length and thickness.99 2.02 1. or if of stone.49 30 .87 4.16 40 .63 56° 7.66 1.55 5. Height of stile in inches for a 5in.83 27° 2. Fig. 1. with a radius of 5 in.06 2.19 1.23 6.29 4-30 7-30 3. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No. Table NO. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 .27 2. and for this size dial (10 in.30 2. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed.42 45 .82 3. if of metal.37 5. and perpendicular to the base or style.91 58° 8.33 .93 2.40 34° 3.20 60° 8. Its thickness.55 30° 2. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points.85 1.41 38° 3. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2.77 2. an inch or two. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown.46 . 2. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight. Draw the line AD. A line EF drawn through the points A and C. using the points A and C as centers. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in.14 5.56 . interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style.89 50° 5.88 36° 3. and intersecting the semicircles.66 48° 5.64 4 8 3.10 6.97 5 7 4. To layout the hour circle.26 4.

if west.82 3. --Contributed by J. says the English Mechanic. 25. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year.60 4.50 55 . If the dial is east of the meridian chosen. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the . will enable one to set the dial.53 1. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position.72 5. 2 and Dec. each article can be labelled with the name. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds. April 16. Mitchell. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached.add those marked + subtract those Marked .63 1.49 5. An ordinary compass. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time..46 4. 3 Corrections in minutes to change. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole.77 3. As they are the genuine reproductions.98 4.24 5.46 5. and on these dates the dial needs no correction.54 60 . Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality. 3.30 2. Iowa. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time.21 2.08 1. The + means that the clock is faster. and for the difference between standard and local time. then the watch is slower.19 2. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No. it will be faster.06 2. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15.79 6.01 1.52 Table No. E. 900 Chicago. June 15. and the .from Sundial lime. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.12 5. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York.57 1.10 4. Each weapon is cut from wood.14 1.87 6. This correction can be added to the values in table No. Sun time to local mean time. Sioux City. 3.means that the dial is faster than the sun. Sept. adding to each piece interest and value.71 2.68 3.49 3. London. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face.89 3.37 2.50 . 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco.34 5. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west.93 6. after allowing for the declination.

Glaive and Voulge brass nails. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon.. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. 3. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. Partisan. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. 1. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. When putting on the tinfoil. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. the length of which is about 5 ft. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. .swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft.

A gisarm or glaive. This weapon is about 6 ft. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. long with a round wooden handle. The edges are sharp. 7. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. in diameter. It is about 6 ft. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. . The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. long. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. long. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. long with a round staff or handle. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. 8. which are a part of the axe. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The spear is steel.. 5. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. about 4 in. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. press it well into the carved depressions. The extreme length is 9 ft. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. the holes being about 1/4 in. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. 6 ft. is shown in Fig. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. used about the seventeenth century. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. The length of this bar is about 5 in. sharp on the outer edges. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods.which is square. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails.

although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. They can be made of various materials. used for spacing and binding the whole together. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. the cross cords. or in holes punched in a leather strap. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. 2 and 3. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. This is important to secure neatness. Loudonville. the most durable being bamboo. B. In Figs. apart. H. 4. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. Workman. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. 5. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. 1. are less durable and will quickly show wear. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. are put in place. The twisted cross cords should . How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. as shown in Fig. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. Cut all the cords the same length. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper.-Contributed by R. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. Substances such as straw. Ohio.

be of such material. New Orleans. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. 3 in. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. Lockport. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. Four V-shaped notches were cut. La. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. -Contributed by Geo. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. M. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. for a length extending from a point 2 in. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. as shown at B. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. below the top to within 1/4 in. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. in which was placed a piece of glass. wide. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. To remedy this. A slit was cut in the bottom. This was turned over the top of the other can. shaped as shown at C. bamboo or rolled paper. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. of the bottom. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. New York. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. The first design shown is for using bamboo. Harrer.

--Contributed by Chas. --Contributed by W. Sanford. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. Maywood. turned over but not fastened. Newburgh. N. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. Cal. Pasadena. the brass is loosened from the block. It would be well to polish the brass at first. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper.tape from sticking to the carpet. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. Y. is shown in the accompanying sketch. After this is finished. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. This should be done gradually. H. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. Shay. wide. Schaffner. Ill. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. This plank. do not throw away the gloves. giving the appearance of hammered brass. about 1/16 in. and two along the side for attaching the staff. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. --Contributed by Joseph H. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves.

Unlike most clocks. --E. bent as shown. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. -Contributed by W. the pendulum swings . Marshall. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. Oak Park. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. Ill. A. Jaquythe. K. Cal. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. in diameter. Richmond.

high and 1/4 in. 3/4 in. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. 6 in. 5/16 in. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. and the other two 2-5/8 in. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. long and at each side of this. on the board B. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. Two uprights. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. only have the opposite side up. the center one being 2-3/4 in. says the Scientific American. Chicago. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. 7-1/2 in. about 12 in. high. by 1-5/16 in. high. The construction is very simple. to the first one with screws or glue. bar. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. wide that is perfectly flat. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this.. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. A. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. about 6 in. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. Now place the board to be joined. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. C. B.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. bearing on the latter. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. in diameter. such as this one. high. away. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. Secure a board. thick. are secured in the base bar. is an electromagnet. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. Metzech. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. --Contributed by V. In using this method. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. . Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. Fasten another board. wide.

The assembled parts are shown in Fig. 4. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. Fig. . Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. as shown at A.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. whose dimensions are given in Fig. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. from one end. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. wide and 1 in. Phoenixville. The trigger. 1. Vanderslice. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. 1. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. by driving a pin through the wood. Pa. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. square inside. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. 3. long. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. --Contributed by Elmer A. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. Fig. plates should be made 8 in. 2. or more. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. 1. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. is fastened in the hole A. wide and 5 in. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. square.

and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. which allows 1/4 in. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down.A. Simonis. 2 parts of whiting. rubbing varnish and turpentine. as shown in the illustration. 5 parts of black filler. one-half the length of the side pieces. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. by weight. Ohio. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. -Contributed by J. Fostoria.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. if only two bands are put in the . square. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces.

is necessary. 8 in. In use. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. --Contributed by Thos. keeps the strong light out when sketching. No. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. is set at an angle of 45 deg. II. -Contributed by Abner B. A mirror. DeLoof. Shaw. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. which may be either of ground or plain glass. London. It must be kept moist and well . and it may be made as a model or full sized. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. wide and about 1 ft. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. A piece of metal. and the picture can be drawn as described. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. says the English Mechanic. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. Michigan. deep. Mass. If a plain glass is used. Dartmouth. Grand Rapids. long.lower strings. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. place tracing paper on its surface. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. as shown in Fig. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. G. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. A double convex lens. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. in the opposite end of the box. In constructing helmets. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. preferably copper. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. 1. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection.

The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. Scraps of thin. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. 1. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. and the deft use of the fingers. the clay model oiled. as shown in Fig. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. on which to place the clay. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. The clay. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. All being ready. or some thin glue. 3. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. brown. shown in Fig.kneaded. will be necessary. 2. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. as in bas-relief. This being done. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. and over the crest on top. After the clay model is finished. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. with a keyhole saw. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. joined closely together. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. a few clay-modeling tools. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . take. 1. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. and continue until the clay is completely covered. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. and left over night to soak. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns.

This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. In Fig. Indianapolis. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. 1. one for each side. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig.as possible. the piecing could not be detected. The whole helmet. 9. Indiana. will make it look neat. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. then another coating of glue. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. The center of the ear guards are perforated. a crest on top. owing to the clay being oiled. the skullcap. --Contributed by Paul Keller. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. When the helmet is off the model. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. The band is decorated with brass studs. 7. Before taking it off the model. which should be no difficult matter. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. 5. as shown: in the design. They are all covered with tinfoil. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. or. and so on. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. should be modeled and made in one piece. square in shape. In Fig. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. When dry. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. with the exception of the vizor. When perfectly dry. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. and the ear guards in two pieces. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. a few lines running down. This contrivance should be made of wood. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. as seen in the other part of the sketch.

The two holes. with slits cut for the wires. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. of the top. as shown in Fig. Fig. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. long. thick sheet asbestos. Fig. 1. screws. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. 4. if this cannot be obtained. 12 in. Fig. and. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . is then packed down inside the collar. 4 lb. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. as shown in Fig. E and F. 3. Fig. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. as it stands a higher temperature. 1. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. 1. 1. If a neat appearance is desired. 2. FF. German-silver wire is better. also the switch B and the fuse block C. one glass tube. 4. 4. the holes leading to the switch. Fig. of No. long. Fig. each 4-1/2 in. in diameter and 9 in. Fig. should extend about 1/4 in. If asbestos is used. are allowed to project about 1 in. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. about 1 lb. about 80 ft. above the collar. 1. 4. until it is within 1 in. The holes B and C are about 3 in. 1. one oblong piece of wood. and C. The plate. 4. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. 1 in. The reverse side of the base. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. Fig. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. two ordinary binding posts. wide and 15 in. A round collar of galvanized iron. thick. This will allow the plate. Fig. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. which can be bought from a local druggist. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. Fig. if the measurements are correct. of fire clay. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. Fig. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. high. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. is shown in Fig. one fuse block. for connections. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. of mineral wool. Fig. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. 2. to receive screws for holding it to the base. AA. long. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. 3 in. Fig. AA. The mineral wool. JJ.same size. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. GG. AA. or. 4. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. 2. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. when they are placed in opposite positions. and two large 3in. as shown in Fig. 22 gauge resistance wire. 4. This will make an open space between the plates. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. one small switch. about 1/4 in. the fuse block.

then. it leaves a gate for the metal. Cover over about 1 in. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. when cool. If this is the case. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. when heated. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. allowing a space between each turn. will slip and come in contact with each other. deep. --Contributed by R. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. This completes the stove. 4. It should not be left heated in this condition. Richmond. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. apart. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . A. above the rim. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. II. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. Jaquythe. Fig. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. using care not to get it too wet. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. As these connections cannot be soldered. If it is not thoroughly dry. KK. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. Next. H.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. Cal. more wire should be added. so that the circuit will not become broken. steam will form when the current is applied. The clay. Fig. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. Cnonyn. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. A file can be used to remove any rough places. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. 2. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. Cut a 1/2-in. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. Can. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. Catherines. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. as the turns of the wires. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. When the tile is in place. St. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. It should not be set on end. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. causing a short circuit. When this is done. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. While the clay is damp. This point marks the proper length to cut it. and pressed into it. --Contributed by W.

The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. Ky. but 12 by 24 in. Thorne. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. the pie will be damaged. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. square material in any size. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. is large enough. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. Louisville. the air can enter from both top and bottom. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. as shown. --Contributed by Andrew G. Then clip a little off the . The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. says the Photographic Times. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. and the frame set near a window. constructed of 3/4-in." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. and the prints will dry rapidly. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher.

Two supports. wide and 3 in. Le Mars. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. as shown. A 1/8-in. An offset is bent in the center. for the crank. thick. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. 1. The upright B. 1 and 3. Fig. wide. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. Iowa. thick and 3 in. -Contributed by S. each 1/2 in. high. slip on two cardboard washers. 1. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. 1/2 in. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. The board can be raised to place . 2. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. at GG. 22 gauge magnet wire. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. The driving arm D. Figs. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. thereby saving time and washing. long. 1/2 in. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. allowing each end to project for connections. W. which gives the shaft a half turn. 1. which are fastened to the base. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. high. causing a break in the current. long. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. in diameter. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. thick and 3 in. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. 4 in. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. wide and 7 in. Herron. high.Paper Funnel point. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. Fig. 3. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. open out. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. 14 in. each 1 in. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. The connecting rod E. 2-1/2 in. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. The connections are made as shown in Fig. long. 1. long. Fig. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. in diameter and about 4 in. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. As the shaft revolves.

One or more pots may be used. Mass. . bottom side up.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. as shown in the sketch. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. Place the pot. Stecher. 3 in. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. --Contributed by William F. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. in height. making a framework suitable for a roost. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. In designing the roost. Dorchester. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. on a board.

adopt the method described. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. F. shelves. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. Fig. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. preferably. if it is other than straight lines. ordinary glue. paraffin and paint or varnish. The bottom part of the sketch. and give it time to dry. The materials required are rope or. in diameter. 1. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. will produce the pattern desired. odd corners.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. grills and gratings for doors.. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. when combined. as shown in Fig. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. etc. without any corresponding benefit. windows. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. 1.. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. that it is heated. F. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. Wind the .

These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . Fig. cut and glue them together. N. Lockport. Harrer. 2. six designs are shown. Y. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. M. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. -Contributed by Geo.Fig.

etc. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made.. when it will be observed that any organic matter. says the English Mechanic. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. This piece of horse armor. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. which was used in front of a horse's head.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. and the sides do not cover the jaws. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. will be retained by the cotton. 1. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. etc. but no farther. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. As the . Pour the water in until the filter is filled. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in.. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support.. London. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. chips of iron rust.

8. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. 4. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. and therefore it is not described. This can be made in one piece. but for . 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. as the surface will hold the clay. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. The armor is now removed from the model. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. 6 and 7. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. and will require less clay. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. In Fig. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. All being ready. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. as shown in the sketch. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. 2. This being done. This triangularshaped support. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. with the exception of the thumb shield. and the clay model oiled. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. the rougher the better. This will make the model light and easy to move around. which is separate. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. but the back is not necessary. An arrangement is shown in Fig. except the thumb and fingers. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. then another coat of glue. 2. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. which can be made in any size. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. the same as in Fig. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay.

convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. La Rue. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. Calif. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. in depth. 1/2 in. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. --Contributed by Ralph L. the two pieces of foil will draw together. are better shown in Fig. are glued to it. and the instrument is ready for use. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. Goshen. but 3-1/2 in. will be about right. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. long. The two pieces of foil. each about 1/4 in. fastened to the rod. the foils will not move. Buxton. the top of the rod. When locating the place for the screw eyes. 9. Fasten a polished brass ball to. --Contributed by John G. N. Y. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. A piece of board. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. two in each jaw. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. If it does not hold a charge. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. 2. cut into the shape shown in Fig. . wide and 1/2 in. Redondo Beach. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. two for the jaws and one a wedge. running down the plate. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge.

as this will cut under the water without splashing. silvered. Bryan. --Contributed by Mrs. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. Corsicana. long. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. about 15 in. At a point 6 in. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. pine board.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. Texas. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. M. 2-1/2 in. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. hole bored through it. as shown in the illustration. is made of a 1/4-in. from the smaller end. as indicated in the . When a fish is hooked. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. enameled or otherwise decorated. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. A. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. The can may be bronzed. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made.

using a piece of carbon paper. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. If soft wood. such as basswood or pine was used. using powdered pumice and lye. or even pine. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. 3/8 or 1/4 in. Having completed the drawing. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. When it has dried over night. and trace upon it the design and outline. wide by 6 in. Any kind of wood will do. long over all. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. thick. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. then with a nail. Polish the metal. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. as shown." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. punch the holes. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. 22 is plenty heavy enough. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. A good size is 5 in. Next prepare the metal holder. put a coat or two of wax and polish . it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. take a piece of thin wood.Match Holder accompanying sketch. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. will do as well as the more expensive woods. Basswood or butternut. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back.

The metal holder may next be fastened in place. Cal. . Jaquythe. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. each 1 in. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. thick. It is useful for photographers. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. A. can be made on the same standards. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. Richmond. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. If carving is contemplated. is used for the base of this instrument. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. long. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. are used for the cores of the magnets. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. long. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. If one has some insight in carving. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. Instead of the usual two short ropes. the whole being finished in linseed oil. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. 1/2 in. wide and 5 in. --Contributed by W. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. of pure olive oil. 2 in. Two wire nails.

cut in the shape of the letter T. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. London.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. All of the parts for the armor have been described. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. A piece of tin. H. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. similar to that used in electric bells. when the key is pushed down. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. at A. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. about No. acts as a spring to keep the key open. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. the paper covering put on. --Contributed by W. says the English Mechanic. 25 gauge. as shown by the dotted lines. 1. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. except that for the legs. then covered with red. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. A rubber band. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. Lynas. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. . Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. 3. as shown in Fig. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. in the shape shown in the sketch. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. leaving about 1/4 in. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. About 1 in. cloth or baize to represent the legs. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets.

and round off the ends to improve their appearance. drill six 1/4-in. apart. in the other end. for the sake of lightness. These can be purchased at a stationery store. Secure two strips of wood. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. Instead of using brass headed nails. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush.. can be made in a few minutes' time. make the same series of eight small holes and. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. not too tight. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. In one end of the piece. Cut them to a length or 40 in. Take the piece shown in Fig. at each end. Silver paper will do very well. says Camera Craft. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. 2. 1 and drill a 1/4in. 1 in. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. So set up. about 1 in. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. holes. 3 in. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. or ordinary plaster laths will do. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. long. A 1/4-in.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. flat headed carriage bolt. hole in the center. and eight small holes. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. By moving the position of the bolt from. one to another . apart. Fig. completes the equipment. The two pieces are bolted together.

for instance. 4. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. 1. as shown in Fig. and lay it over the one to the right. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. In this sketch. taking the same start as for the square fob. D over A and C. A is the first string and B is the second. but instead of reversing . Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A.of the larger holes in the strip. as in portraiture and the like. Then draw all four ends up snugly. then B over C and the end stuck under A. 2. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. 2. 2. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. A round fob is made in a similar way. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. of the ends remain unwoven. in Fig. the one marked A. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. lay Cover B and the one under D. Fig. long. and the one beneath C. C over D and B. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. Start with one end. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. Then take B and lay it over A. doubled and run through the web of A. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about.

then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. 5. Other designs can be made in the same manner. Monroeville. as in making the square fob. over the one to its right. --Contributed by John P. especially if silk strings are used. as B. the design of which is shown herewith. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. is left out at the center before starting on one side. Rupp. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . long. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. as at A in Fig. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. 1-1/2 in. Ohio. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. The round fob is shown in Fig. 3. always lap one string. is to be made of leather. A loop.

When the supply of wax is exhausted. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. A. using the reverse side. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. . tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. beeswax or paraffin. -Contributed by A. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. filling them with wax. door facing or door panel. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. pressing it against the wood. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. Any smooth piece of steel. Northville. it can be easily renewed. Houghton. Mich. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. such as a nut pick. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose.

Platinum or blueprint papers work well. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. D. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. Ill. --Contributed by O. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. Y. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. thick. New York. and after wetting. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. it is best to leave a plain white margin. if blueprints are used. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. remaining above the surface of the board. long. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. Enough plaster should. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. Fold together on lines C. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. . Thompson. apart and driven in only part way. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. place it face down in the dish. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. but any kind that will not stick may be used. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. leaving about 1/4 in. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. Select the print you wish to mount.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. Petersburg. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. those on matte paper will work best. says Photographic Times. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. although tin ones can be used with good success. E and F. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. The tacks should be about 1 in. N. and about 12 in. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. J.

violets. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. bell flowers.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. Lower into the test tube a wire.. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. as shown in the right of the sketch. roses. as shown at the left in the sketch. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. without mixing the solutions. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. filling the same about onehalf full. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. etc. One of the . When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. will be rendered perfectly white. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution.

or delicate tints of the egg. 1-7/8 in. as shown in the sketch. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. made of heavy tin. Shabino. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. and at the larger end. is about 2-1/2 in. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. The sound box. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. Millstown. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. When soldering these parts together. about 1/8s in. A rod that will fit the brass tube. 1. Fig. thick. --Contributed by L. long and made of wood. 2.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. The tin horn can be easily made. but which will not wobble loose. to keep the core from coming off in turning. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. South Dakota. The first point should be ground blunt. as shown. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. 3. should be soldered to the box. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. The diaphragm. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. long.. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. shading. L. not too tightly. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. in diameter and 1 in. turned a little tapering. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm.

wondering what it was. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. Chicago. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. Victor. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. E. says the Iowa Homestead. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand.Contributed by E. put a board on top. Jr. Ill. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. Gold. and. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. mice in the bottom. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . Colo.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. and weighted it with a heavy stone.

To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. Ottawa. Buffalo. N. Y. --Contributed by Lyndwode. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. Pereira. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. Can. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. .

Grand Rapids. This cart has no axle. longer than the length of the can. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. Richmond. by means of a flatheaded tack. as shown. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. as it can be made quickly in any size. a piece of tin. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . Put a small nail 2 in. Jaquythe. --Contributed by W. Mich. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. Cal. and at one end of the stick fasten. A. De Loof. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. cut round. through which several holes have been punched. --Contributed by Thos. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. above the end of the dasher.

well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. 1 ft. cut in the center of the rounding edge. Pa. thick. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. The baseboard and top are separable. wide and as long as the box. wide and 3 ft. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. 1. 2. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. I reversed a door gong. La. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. 2. board. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. apart. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. A wedge-shaped piece of . The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. New Orleans. Doylestown. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. wide and 1/8 in. Kane. of course. The candles. deep and 3 in. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. were below the level of the bullseye. as shown. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. wide.1. screwed it on the inside of a store box. --Contributed by James M. Fig. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. 1/4 in. 2 in. Notches 1/8 in. 1-1/2 in. 2. long.

Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. Cover the block with rubber. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. This device is very convenient for invalids. After the glue has dried. A. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. the shelf could not be put on the window. the blade is put back into the groove . Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. scissors.. as shown in Fig. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. When not in use. --Contributed by G. After completing the handle. take two pieces of hard wood. The block can also be used as a paperweight. wide into each side of the casing. Ia. stone or wood. to prevent its scratching the desk top. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. dressing one surface of each piece. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. Wood.Book Back Holders metal. it can be removed without marring the casing. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. West Union. can be picked up without any trouble. Needles. when placed as in Fig. etc. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. wide rubber bands or felt. For the handle. Worcester. the reason being that if both were solid. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. by cutting away the ends. 3. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. Mass. will. 1.

a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. --Contributed by H. as shown in Fig. . S. 1. --Contributed by Maud McKee. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. Pa. -Contributed by W. Erie. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. square and 4 in. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. thus carrying the car up the incline. Ohio. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. If desired. Mass. 2. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. long. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. Each one is made of a hardwood block. A notch is cut in one side. A. is shown in the accompanying sketch. Hutchins. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. Cleveland. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. Malden. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. 1 in. Jacobs.and sharpened to a cutting edge. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. as shown in Fig.

6 by 9-1/2 in.. Cape May Point. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. One sheet of metal.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. This will insure having all parts alike. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. Prepare a design for the front. The letters can be put on afterward. a board on which to work it.J. If one such as is shown is to be used. and an awl and hammer. N. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. . will be needed. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy.

to right angles. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. mandolin or guitar. behind or through the center of a table leg. The music will not sound natural. 1/4 part. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. 3/4 part. . in the waste metal. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. paste the paper design right on the metal. varnish. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. flat brush. that can be worked in your own parlor. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. The stick may be placed by the side of. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. only the marginal line is to be pierced. says Master Painter. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. turpentine. Remove the metal. which is desirable. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. or. but weird and distant. if desired. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. On the back. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin.Fasten the metal to the board. as shown. So impressive are the results. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. applied by means of a brush. placed on a table. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. 2 parts white vitriol. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. 1 part. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. a violin." In all appearance. If any polishing is required. One coat will do. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced.

3. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. 2. . and is easy to construct. long. are shaped as shown in Fig. says Work. London. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. The longest piece. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. apart. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. Two pairs of feet. thick by 1/2 in. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. each 28 in. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. across the top. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. long and spread about 8 in. each 6 in. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. is bent square so as to form two uprights. With proper tools this is easy. without them. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. wide. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. long and measuring 26 in. square bar iron. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. round-head machine screws. it might be difficult.

or. After the joints are soldered. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. using rosin as a flux. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. The glass. After the glass is cut. and the base border. the latter being tapped to . the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. 6. 5. C. Fig. 7. D. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. in the grooves of the borders. 5. The brads are then removed. cut a long piece of lead. While the piece of lead D. better still. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. lead. is held by the brads. The design is formed in the lead. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. This method is pursued until the glass is complete.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. special flux purchased for this purpose. B. A. 4. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. on it as shown. Fig. Place the corner piece of glass.

--Contributed by W. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. 8. This ring can be made of 1-in. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. Bore a 5/8-in. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. and two wood blocks. wood screws in each washer. holes through their centers. rocker bolt. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. Bore a 3/4-in. not less than 4 in. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. Make three washers 3-in. The center pin is 3/4-in. plank about 12 ft. Jr. in diameter and 1/4 in. rounded at the top as shown. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. bolt. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. A and B. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. plates. N. and round the corners of one end for a ring. Fasten the plates to the block B. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. then drill a 3/4-in.the base of the clip. bolt. Camden. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. square and of the length given in the drawing. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. long. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. one on each side and central with the hole. This . Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. Dreier. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. in diameter and about 9 in. thick and drill 3/4-in. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. long. as shown in Fig. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. J. then flatten its end on the under side.. H. Secure a post. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. Two styles of hand holds are shown. long. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in.

Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. The four 7-in. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. long. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. 4 filler pieces. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. long. can make a first class gymnasium. square by 5 ft. horse and rings. Draw a line on the four 7-in. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. If trees are convenient. 50 ft. 7 in.will make an excellent cover for a pot. the money outlay will be almost nothing. To substitute small. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. 9 in. from one edge. 1. 1-1/4in. 16 screws. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. 1 by 7 in. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. chestnut or ash. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. 4 pieces. 3/4 by 3 in. 1/2 in. long. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. in diameter and 7 in. straight-grained hickory. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. long and 1 piece. square by 9-1/2 ft. hickory. bit. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. 4 in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 4 in. and some one can swing an axe. maple. screws. by 2 ft. 2-1/2 in. apart for a distance of 3 ft. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . long. by 6-1/2 ft. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. La. because it will not stand the weather. long. 4 pieces. of 1/4-in. boards along the side of each from end to end. 3 in. long. bolts and rope. shanks. by 3 ft. 2 by 4 in. New Orleans.

and once tightened the bar will be rigid. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. piece of wood. apart. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. so the 1/2-in. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. 8 in. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft..bored. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. boards coincide. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. each 3 ft. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. at each end. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . deep and remove all loose dirt.. Bore a 9/16-in. apart. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. 2. from the end. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft.

platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. and then passes in a curve across the base. and materially heightened the illusion. was at its height. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. it is taken to the edge of the foot. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. it follows the edge for about 1 in. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. If the tumbler is rotated. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. the effect is very striking. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. not much to look at in daytime. When the interest of the crowd. just visible against the dark evening sky. disappearing only to reappear again.. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. passing through a screweye at either end. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. and ascends the stem. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. in an endless belt. W. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. . He stretched the thread between two buildings. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. which at once gathered. not even the tumbler. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. apart. And all he used was a black thread. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. about 100 ft." which skimmed along the distant horizon. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. but most deceptive at dusk.

long. 4 wood screws. wide and 1 in. square and 51/2 ft. 2 by 4 in. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. 2 cross braces. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. 6 in. La. 4 in. 2 base pieces. 2 by 4 in. The cork will come out easily. long. Bevel the ends of . preferably cedar. 2 in. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. by 2 ft. 8 in. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. 8 in. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. New Orleans. long. 2 by 3 in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Fig. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. long. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. long. from either side of the center. 7 in. To make the apparatus. so the point will be on top. beginning at a point 9 in. long. square and 6 ft. and turned in a spiral D. by 3 ft. 8 in. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. 2 by 4 in. deep. 4 knee braces. long. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. long and 1 doz. large spikes. 4 bolts. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. by 7 ft. 4 in. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. 1. 8 bolts. A wire about No. 2 side braces. long.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. by 10 ft. Chisel out two notches 4 in.

) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. equipped with a strainer. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. Two endpieces must be made. A. A large sized ladle. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. Cal. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. using four of the 7-in bolts. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. and countersinking the heads. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. additional long. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. ( To be Continued. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. --Contributed by W. These will allow the ladle to be turned. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. which face each other. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. so the bolts in both will not meet. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. Jaquythe. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. After the trenches are dug. leave it undressed.the knee braces. screws. .. as shown in the diagram. but even unpainted they are very durable. jellies. If using mill-cut lumber. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. of 7 ft. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. Richmond. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. save the bars. except the bars. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. The wood so treated will last for years. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. leaving the strainer always in position. etc.

and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. drill press or planer. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. or various cutting compounds of oil. partly a barrier for jumps. of sufficient 1ength. milling machine. A. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. . In order to accomplish this experiment. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. which seems impossible. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. it is necessary to place a stick.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. Oil. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. thus holding the pail as shown.

Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. wood yard or from the woods. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. Hand holds must be provided next. 2 by 4 in. 3 in. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. long. to fasten the knee braces at the top. 7 in. To construct. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. in diameter--the larger the better. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. from each end. apart. square by 5 ft. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. 1 in. long. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. stud cut rounding on one edge. 2 by 4 in. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. long. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. square by 5-1/2 ft. ten 1/2-in. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. is a good length. These are placed 18 in. bolt. and free from knots. The round part of this log must be planed. long. The material required is as follows: Two posts. by 3 ft. by 3 ft. bolts. 4 in. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . These are well nailed in place. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. 4 knee braces. 2 bases. beginning 1-1/2 in. two 1/2-in. bolts. 4 in. long. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. 2 adjusting pieces. but 5 ft. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. 1 cross brace. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. 2 by 4 in. apart in a central position on the horse.. long.. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. by 3 ft. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. long. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. projections and splinters. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. long. in the ground. Procure from a saw mill. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. bolts. 4-1/2 in. 4 in. piece of 2 by 4-in.

Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. Cal. but nevertheless. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. it is caused by some obstruction. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. then bending to the shape desired. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. Also. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. Jaquythe. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. A. no one is responsible but himself.horse top. over and around. etc. such as a dent. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. it is caused by an overloaded shell. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. Such a hand sled can be made in a . When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard.--Contributed by W. snow. water. pipe and fittings. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. Richmond. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle.

2. These. is much better than a wood sled. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. W. --Contributed by James E. The end elevation. which. --Contributed by J. Ontario. Boston. then run a string over each part. are all the tools necessary. at E and F. Mass. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. will give the length. Joerin. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. Vener. thick. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. when complete. when straightened out. Paris. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. 1/4 or 3/16 in. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. 1. Toronto. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. . --Contributed by Arthur E. Noble. France. in width and 1/32 in. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper.

3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. 4. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. It is best to use soft water. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. The method shown in Figs. nor that which is partly oxidized. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. AA and BB. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. and the latter will take on a bright luster. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. .Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. are nailed. 3. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe.

. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. class ice-yacht. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. 2. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. Broad lines can be made. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. The materials used are: backbone. 2.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. as shown in Fig. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. Percy Ashley in Rudder. 1). The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. 4. or unequal widths as in Fig. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. as shown in Fig. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. or various rulings may be made. 8 and 9. 3. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. 1. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. The headstock is made of two tees.Fig. bent and drilled as shown. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. pins to keep them from turning. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. about 30 in. out from the collar. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. It can be made longer or shorter. Both the lower . A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. A good and substantial homemade lathe. a larger size of pipe should be used. pipe. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. 1-Details of Lathe sort. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. a tee and a forging. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. The point should extend about 11/2 in. long. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. but if it is made much longer. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow.

. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. W. 2. as shown in Fig. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. Boissevain. Laporte. Cal. --Contributed by W. --Contributed by W. --Contributed by M. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. Indiana. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. or a key can be used as well. Held. 1. but also their insulating properties. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. UpDeGraff. thick as desired. Man. To do this. It is about 1 in. as shown in Fig. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. else taper turning will result. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. Fruitvale. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. a straight line should be scratched Fig. 3/4 or 1 in. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. M. a corresponding line made on this. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. and will answer for a great variety of work. 2. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. Musgrove. 2. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. 3 and 4 are very easy to make.

the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. --Contributed by E. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. Smith. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. To obviate this. Cline. J. long.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. as shown. Ft. In use. The handle is of pine about 18 in. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. Ark. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle.

--Contributed by Maurice Baudier. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. New Orleans. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. Denver. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. which should be backed out of contact. the drill does not need the tool. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. centering is just one operation too many.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. After being entered. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. and when once in true up to its size. if this method is followed: First. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. --Contributed by Walter W. face off the end of the piece. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. Colo. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. La. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. on starting the lathe. take . To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. White. This prevents the drill from wobbling.

is put into the paper tube A. The glass tube B. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. and this given to someone to hold. It can be used in a great number of tricks. shorter t h a n the wand. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. by applying caustic soda or . and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. and can be varied to suit the performer. as shown in D. a long piece of glass tubing. After the wand is removed. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. In doing this. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. a bout 1/2 in. unknown to the spectators. the cap is placed over the paper tube. The handkerchief rod. after being shown empty. vanishing wand. all the better. says the Sphinx. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. shown at C. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover.

As the cement softens. 3/16. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. End. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. across the front and back to strengthen them. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. square and 1-7/8 in. 1 End. 2 Sides. and if care is taken in selecting the material. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. 1 Bottom. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. cut to any shape desired. The brace at D is 1 in. Cut a piece of hard wood. long.potash around the edges of the letters. by 14 by 17 in. thick. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. Glue strips of soft wood. can be made by the home mechanic. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. and glue it to the neck at F. The sides. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. preferably hard maple. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. with the back side rounding. 1/4 in. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. This dimension and those for the frets . as shown by K. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. Glue the neck to the box. 1 Neck. With care and patience. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. 1. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage.

and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. wide and 11-1/2 ft. 1) on which to stretch the paper. Frary. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars.should be made accurately. Six holes. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. long is used for a keel. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. A board 1 in. --Contributed by Chas. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. thick and about 1 ft.Pa. 3/16 in. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. When it is completed you will have a canoe. and beveled . Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. -Contributed by J. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. in diameter. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. Carbondale. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. H. toward each end. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. or backbone. but it is not. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. E. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. O. Stoddard. Norwalk. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins.

) in notches. 2). thick. long. and notched at the end to receive them (B. . some tight strips of ash. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. 1 and 2. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. and so. In drying. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. as they are apt to do. in such cases. thick. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. long are required. wide by 26 in. but twigs of some other trees. two twigs may be used to make one rib. Fig. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. 2). but before doing this. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. Fig. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. 3/8 in. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. the loose strips of ash (b. b. Any tough. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. 13 in. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. For the gunwales (a. slender switches of osier willow. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. will answer nearly as well. C. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. are next put in. 4. with long stout screws. Fig. Shape these as shown by A. b. as before described. and are not fastened. when made of green elm. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. as shown in Fig. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. The ribs. Green wood is preferable. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. 4). Fig. b. 3.. Fig. The cross-boards (B. Fig. by means of a string or wire. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. procure at a carriage factory. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. a. B. These are better. and. two strips of wood (b. which are easily made of long. 2. in thickness and should be cut. Fig. C. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. twigs 5 or 6 ft. as shown in Fig. apart. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. Osiers probably make the best ribs. 3). or similar material. 3). 1. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. Fig. 3. buy some split cane or rattan. such as is used for making chairbottoms. Fig. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. probably. such as hazel or birch. or other place.

Being made in long rolls.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. When thoroughly dry. but neither stiff nor very thick. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. You may put in . but with less turpentine. and very tough. It should be smooth on the surface. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. When the paper is dry. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. and steady in the water. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. Fig. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. and light oars. and as soon as that has soaked in. and held in place by means of small clamps. It should be drawn tight along the edges. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. The paper is then trimmed. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. B. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. If not. if it has been properly constructed of good material. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. 5). Then take some of the split rattan and. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. however. after wetting it. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. apply a second coat of the same varnish. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. wide. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. tacking it to the bottom-board. If the paper be 1 yd. preferably iron. of very strong wrapping-paper.

and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. Fig. 2. and make a movable seat (A. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. fore and aft.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. 1. 5). Fig. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. 1 and the end in . Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. and if driven as shown in the cut. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. Fig. they will support very heavy weights. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. Drive the lower nail first. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. We procured a box and made a frame. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. 5. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. to fit it easily. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries.

as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. 5. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. 4. A good way to handle this work. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. 3. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. and the result is. being softer where the flame has been applied. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. this makes the tube airtight. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. This way has its drawbacks. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. Pittsburg. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. Pa.Fig. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. This is an easy . Close the other end with the same operation. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. and the glass. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity.

To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. or six arms. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch.way to make a thermometer tube. -Contributed by A. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. fifth. After the bulb is formed. flat and round-nosed pliers. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. rivet punch. four. metal shears. Give the metal a circular motion. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. 23 gauge. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. then reverse. file. The candle holders may have two. Oswald. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. second. very rapid progress can be made. above the metal. with a piece of carbon paper. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. three. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. thin screw. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. extra metal all around. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. third. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. also trace the decorative design. Seventh. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. Sixth. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. fourth. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. above the work and striking it with the hammer. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design.

The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. drip cup. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. and holder. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. Metal polish of any kind will do. Small copper rivets are used. Having pierced the bracket. How To Make a Hectograph [326] .

and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. Heat 6-1/2 oz. and in a week . and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. when it will be ready for use. hammer. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. is a broomstick. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. and other things as they were needed. the stick at the bottom of the sail. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. Soak 1 oz. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. and water 24 parts. The boom. of glycerine to about 200 deg. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. Shiloh. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. F. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. if it has not absorbed too much ink. J. A saw. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. sugar 1 part. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. except they had wheels instead of runners. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. I steer with the front wheel. thus it was utilized. deep. N. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. Mother let me have a sheet. winding the ends where they came together with wire. Fifty. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. The gaff. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. and add the gelatine. on a water bath. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. all the rest I found. using a steel pen. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. alcohol 2 parts. smooth it down and then remove as before. Twenty cents was all I spent. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. glycerine 4 parts. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. and brace and bit were the tools used. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. they were like an ice boat with a sail. and it will be ready for future use.

a projecting lens .Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly. Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up.

The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. or a lens of 12-in. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. describe a 9-in. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard.. and 14 in. well seasoned pine. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. 8 in. as desired. wide and 15 in. 1/2 to 3/4 in. A table. If a small saw is used. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. A and B. wire brads. at a point 1 in. above the center. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. long. and the lens slide. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. are . H. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. Fig. This ring is made up from two rings. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. wide. but if such a box is not found. focus enlarging a 3-in. 1. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. and the work carefully done. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. or glue. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. high. at a distance of 24 ft. provided the material is of metal. about 2 ft. slide to about 6 ft. 3. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. DD. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. and a projecting lens 2 in. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. and. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. thick. The board is centered both ways. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. The slide support. E. G.

A sheet . B. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. Minn. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. E. To reach the water. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. and when the right position is found for each. P. light burning oil. St. should the glass happen to upset. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick.constructed to slip easily on the table. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. apply two coats of shellac varnish. The arrangement is quite safe as. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations.-Contributed by G. of safe. the strips II serving as guides. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. Paul. placed on the water. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. JJ. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. Small strips of tin. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. the water at once extinguishes the flame. but not long enough.

form a piece of wire in the same shape. I ordered a canvas bag. N. Crawford. from a tent company.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. 1. 3. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. Fig. If one of these clips is not at hand. 3 in. Schenectady. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. then the corners on one end are doubled over. 12 ft. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along .H. --Contributed by J. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. to cover the mattresses. 4. 3. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. 2. by 12 ft. 9 in. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. Y. Fig..

to the coil of small wire for volts. 1/2 in. wide. Colo. holes in the edge. To calibrate the instrument. thick. and insert two binding-posts. 3 to swing freely on the tack. White. V. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. insulating them from the case with cardboard. Fasten the wire with gummed label. Attach a piece of steel rod. A rubber band. to keep it from unwinding. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. through which the indicator works. drill two 3/16 in. open on the edges. 2. Fig. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero.each edge. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. Warren. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. D. first mark the binding-post A. so as to form two oblong boxes. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. 2. in the center coil. Denver. long and 3/16 in. apart. --Contributed by Edward M. 3/4 in. 1. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. C. 1/2 in. Fold two strips of light cardboard. as shown in Fig. Teasdale. A Film Washing Trough [331] . Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. Do not use too strong a rubber. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. Fig. for amperes and the other post. long. 2. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. 1. Pa. --Contributed by Walter W. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. An arc is cut in the paper. 3/4 in.

board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. Wood Burning [331] . as shown. --Contributed by M. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. Hunting. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. O. Cut a 1/4-in. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. Dayton. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. with the large hole up. Place this can on one end of the trough. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. M. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides.

The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle.Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. then into this bottle place. a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. mouth downward. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the .

Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. --Contributed by John Shahan. provided the bottle is wide. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water.Y. Upper Troy. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. Ala. If the cork is adjusted properly. Auburn. 2. wide and 4 in. but not very thick. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. If the small bottle used is opaque. N. long. many puzzling effects may be obtained. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. thick. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. as shown in the sketch. 3/4 in. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. --Contributed by Fred W. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. This will make a very pretty ornament. Whitehouse. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . Place the small bottle in as before. 1.

which extended to the ground. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. A staple. 4. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. such as blades and pulleys. Both bearings were made in this manner. were constructed of 1-in. pulley F. If a transmitter is used. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. line. The bearing blocks were 3 in. The 21/2-in. Fig. 1. 1. pulley. thick. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. K. as shown in Fig. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. or ordinary telephone transmitters. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. wide. 1 in. 1. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. sugar pine on account of its softness. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. Milter. Its smaller parts. which was 6 in. The wire L was put . long. thick. iron rod. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. Fig. B. which gave considerable power for its size. 2. thick and 3 in. W. was 1/4in. 1. Fig. which was nailed to the face plate. in diameter and 1 in. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. On a 1000-ft. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. G. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. high without the upper half. I. Fig. 1. to the shaft. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. by the method shown in Fig. 2 ft. Fig. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. 3. --Contributed by D. was keyed to shaft C. even in a light breeze. The shaft C.

1) 4 in. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. hole was bored for it. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. as. The smaller one. This board was 12 in. 6. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. Two washers were placed on shaft C. long and bend it as shown at A. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. To lessen the friction here. through the latter. 6. was tacked. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. The other lid. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. This fan was made of 1/4-in. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. The bed plate D. 1. 1. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. There a 1/4-in. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. so that the 1/4-in. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. Fig. cut out another piece of tin (X. in the center of the board P. long and bend it as . They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. strips. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. 2. G. when the windmill needed oiling. wide and 1 in. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. This completes the receiver or sounder. long and 1/2 in. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. 1. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. Fig. 1. a 1/2-in. long. long. for instance. long and 3 in. The power was put to various uses. square to the board P at the top of the tower. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. 0. 25 ft. To make the key. apart in the tower. with all parts in place. providing one has a few old materials on hand. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. Fig. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. and was cut the shape shown. Fig. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. pine 18 by 12 in. Fig. H. Fig. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. in diameter. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. was 2 ft. with brass headed furniture tacks. washers were placed under pulley F. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. top down also. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. R. hole for the shaft G was in the center. Fig. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. 3 in.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. 5. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. across the thin edge of a board. If you have no bell.

The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. although it can be made with but two. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. and. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. Now. The rear barrels are. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. Thus a center drive is made. like many another device boys make. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. nor can they be made perfectly airtight.shown. 1. fitted with paddles as at M. at the front. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. as indicated. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. using cleats to hold the board frame. leaving the other wire as it is. By adjusting the coils. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. after the manner of bicycle wheels. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. Before tacking it to the board. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. When tired of this instrument. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. -Contributed by John R. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. Going back to Fig. 2. McConnell. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. causing a buzzing sound. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. as shown at Water. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon.

but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. feet on the pedals. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. as shown in Fig. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . The speed is slow at first. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. To propel it. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. which will give any amount of pleasure. or even a little houseboat. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. copper piping and brass tubing for base. There is no danger. 3. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. 1. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. can be built. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. If the journals thus made are well oiled. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. there will not be much friction.

or it may be put to other uses if desired. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. 1. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. Fig. Shape small blocks of boxwood. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. C. B. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. Then melt out the rosin or lead. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. Turn a small circle of wood. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . Fig. 2. Fig.of pleasure for a little work. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. and so creating a false circuit. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. If magnifying glass cannot be had. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. D. Place one brass ring in cylinder. 1. then the glass disc and then the other ring. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. If it is desired to make the light very complete. 2. 1. 2. A. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. Fig. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder.

The contact post may be of 1/4-in. E. wide and 1/16 in. To operate this. by having the switch on the baseboard. near the bed. wire from bell to switch. C. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. The parts indicated are as follows: A. T. such as is used for cycle valves. Ogden.india rubber tubing. When alarm goes off. Brinkerhoff. B. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. switch. --Contributed by C. Swissvale. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. Pa. which stops bell ringing. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. bracket. C. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. --Contributed by Geo. some glue will secure them. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. Utah. To throw on light throw levers to the left. brass strip. F. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . copper tubing. dry batteries. contact post. 4 in. J. long. G. D. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. wire from batteries to switch. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. 5-1/4 by 10 in. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. To get the cylinder into its carriage. thick. after two turns have been made on the key. wire from light to switch. H. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. key of alarm clock. while lying in bed. Throw lever off from the right to center. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. bell. In placing clock on shelf. long. after setting alarm. or 1/4in. and pulled tight. 3/8 in. I. set alarm key as shown in diagram. S. brass rod.. if too small. X. Chatland. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. shelf. 4-1/2 in.

from one end.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. 4 in. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. Make a shoulder. This is to form the fuse hole. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. S. wide. as . but the bed warmer is probably the best example. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. making it as true and smooth as possible. Having finished this. as at A. about 3-1/2 in. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. A small lamp of about 5 cp. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. as at B. A flannel bag. Fig. 2. Fig. --Contributed by Chas. in diameter. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. Fig. about 6 in. Minn. as at A. long. beyond the end of the spindle. Pull out the nail and stick. 1/4 in. which can be made of an old can. Chapman. Make the spindle as in Fig. in diameter. All that is required is a tin covering. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. 3. place stick and all in a pail of sand. 1. letting it extend 3/4 in. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. as in Fig. 2. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. 1. being careful not to get the sand in it. Lanesboro. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. for instance. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. a bed warmer. will do the heating. gives the heater a more finished appearance.

thick. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. wide and 6 ft. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. A piece of oak. deep. wide and 3/8 in. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. or hickory. 1. this is to keep the edges from splitting. thick. 5/8 in. Joerin.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. good straight-grained pine will do. long. --Contributed by Arthur E. 11/2 in. The material must be 1-1/2 in. long. ash. but if this wood cannot be procured. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . spring and arrows. The illustration shows how this is done. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. 1 in. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. will be sufficient to make the trigger. 3/8 in. thick. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. A piece of tin. 6 in. long. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. wide and 3 ft.

throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. The trigger. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. 9. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. Trownes. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. from the opposite end. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. 2. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. which is 1/4 in. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. Such a temporary safe light may be . on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. When the trigger is pulled. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. 7. The bow is not fastened in the stock. and one for the trigger 12 in. from the end of the stock. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. To throw the arrow. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. 6. 3. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. thick. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. as shown in Fig. The stick for the bow. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. Fig. A spring. Wilmette. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. as shown in Fig. Fig. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. To shoot the crossbow. --Contributed by O. better still. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. Fig. place the arrow in the groove. having the latter swing quite freely. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. or through the necessity of. in diameter. E. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. 8. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. Ill. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. 4. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. it lifts the spring up. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. wide at each end.

There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. from the ground. the bark lean-to is a . Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. C. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. Remove the bottom of the box. and nail it in position as shown at A. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. and replace as shown at B. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. The cut should be about 5 ft. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. make the frame of the wigwam. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. says Photo Era. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. The hinged cover E. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. Moreover. is used as a door. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. or only as a camp on a short excursion. respectively. apart. since the flame of the candle is above A. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. This lamp is safe. from the ground. it is the easiest camp to make. By chopping the trunk almost through. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. Remove one end. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. making lighting and trimming convenient.

The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. A piece of elm or hickory. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. makes a good pair of tongs. wide. Where bark is used. are a convenient size for camp construction. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. and when the camp is pitched. and cedar. long and 1-1/2 in. a 2-in. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. In the early summer. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. long and 2 or 3 ft. . shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. For a permanent camp. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. will dry flat. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. spruce. long. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. wide and 6 ft. thick. Sheets of bark. For a foot in the middle of the stick. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. selecting a site for a camp. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. 3 ft. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. deep and covered with blankets. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. and split the tops with an ax. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. make the best kind of a camp bed. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. Tongs are very useful in camp.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. 6 ft. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. nails are necessary to hold it in place. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. piled 2 or 3 ft. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way.

Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. or even a rough lock for the camp larder. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. and affording accommodation for several persons. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. hinges. . A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top.

Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. A. B.. I drove a small cork. --Contributed by James M. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. about 4 in. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. B. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. to another . 1. Pa. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. wide. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. changing the water both morning and night. the interior can. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. Kane. Fig. Doylestown. deep and 4 in. and provide a cover or door.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described.

Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. 3. The diagram. which project inside and outside of the tube. C. if necessary. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. for instance. a liquid. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg.glass tube. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. This makes . such as ether. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. fused into one side. E. until. 4 and 5). 2. Fig. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. to pass through an increasing resistance. The current is thus compelled. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. 2. limit. for instance. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw.

The bearing studs are now made. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. Then the field can be finished to these marks. screws. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. clamp the template. but merely discolored. thicker. as shown in Fig. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. After cleaning them with the solution. bent at right angles as shown. 3-3/8 in. which may be of any thickness so that. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. 3-3/8 in.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. Before removing the field from the lathe. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. which will make it uniform in size. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. larger than the dimensions given. and for the outside of the frame. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. to allow for finishing. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. in diameter. mark off a space. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. cannot be used so often. Alpena. between centers. thick. A 5/8in. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. brass or iron. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. assemble and rivet them solidly. by turning the lathe with the hand. After the template is marked out. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. tap. therefore. 3. 1. A. 4-1/2 in. If the thickness is sufficient. as shown in the left-hand sketch. they will make a frame 3/4 in. When the frame is finished so far. or even 1/16 in. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. brass. when several pieces are placed together. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. set at 1/8 in. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. drill the four rivet holes. thick. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. Fig. or pattern. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. two holes. 2. These holes are for the bearing studs. in diameter. on a lathe. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. is composed of wrought sheet iron. Michigan. making it 1/16 in. Fig. hole is . which are fitted on the studs in the frame.

is turned up from machine steel. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. When the bearings are located. brass rod is inserted. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. and build up the solder well. soldered into place. into which a piece of 5/8-in. The shaft of the armature. Fig. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . solder them to the supports. or otherwise finished. 4. file them out to make the proper adjustment.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports.

. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. Procure 12 strips of mica. Armature-Ring Core. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. to allow for finishing to size. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. then drill a 1/8-in. 6. After the pieces are cut out.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. wide. 8. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. as shown in Fig. 3. thick. hole and tap it for a pin. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. sheet fiber. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. 1/8 in. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. The pins are made of brass. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. deep and 7/16 in. as shown in Fig. 3/4 in. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. as shown in Fig. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. thick and 1/4 in. When annealed. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. 3. as shown in Fig. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. brass rod. and then they are soaked in warm water. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. After they . thick are cut like the pattern. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. holes through them for rivets. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. inside diameter. by 1-1/2 in. thick. Rivet them together. Find the centers of each segment at one end. 7. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. washers. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. as shown in Fig. or segments. 5. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. being formed for the ends. 3/4 in. When this is accomplished. threaded. The sides are also faced off and finished. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. wide. as shown m Fig. thick. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. 6. and held with a setscrew. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. 9. Make the core 3/4 in. 1-1/8 in.

being required. of the wire. they are glued to the core insulation. the two ends of the wire. wide and 1 in. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. The two ends are joined at B. Fig. The winding is started at A. until the 12 slots are filled. Fig. The source of current is connected to the terminals.have dried. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. long. 1. which will take 50 ft. and bring the end of the wire out at B. To connect the wires. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. sheet fiber. yet it shows a series of . thick. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. sheet fiber. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. 8 in. Run one end of the field wire. 5. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. After one coil. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. In starting to wind. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. by bending the end around one of the projections. of the end to protrude. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. or side. 1. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. about 100 ft. The field is wound with No. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. are soldered together. and wind on four layers. shown at A. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. When the glue is set. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. of No. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. All connections should be securely soldered. after the motor is on the stand. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. shown at B. 6 in. This winding is for a series motor. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal.

alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. which serves as the ground wire. and one. Nine wires run from the timer. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. as in the case of a spiral. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. one from each of the eight contacts. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. or. still more simply. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. is fastened to the metallic body. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. A 1/2-in.

45 deg. It should be . The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. Without this attachment. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. 6 in. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. of the dial. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. thus giving 16 different directions. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. circle. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. Covering these is a thin. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. board. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in.The Wind Vane. long.

Place the leather on some level. if not too high." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. Before tacking the fourth side. will answer the purpose just as well. Cut 3-in. will be sufficient. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. To make it. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. . or. also a piece of new carpet. making it heavy or light. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. Fill the box with any handy ballast. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. -Contributed by James L. 14 by 18 in. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. Buffalo. however. To work these outlines. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. and securely nail on the top of the box. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. Blackmer. N. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. though a special knife. long to give the best results.about 6 ft. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. is most satisfactory. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. called a chip carving knife. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. will be enough for the two sides. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. Y. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. high. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. thus making a universal joint. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. and about 6 in. according to who is going to use it. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in.

Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine. A good leather paste will be required. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. Paste the silk plush to the inner side. An ordinary sewing-machine . being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing.

--Contributed by Katharine D. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. and tie them together securely at the bottom. Syracuse. Morse. of common salt and 10 lb. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. square and tying a piece of . rather than the smooth side. as in cases of a sprained ankle. or a hip that has been wrenched. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. N. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. away from it. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. of water. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. B. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. If a fire breaks out. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. can be thrown away when no longer needed. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. and fasten the feathers inside of it. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C.will do if a good stout needle is used. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. Y. temporary lameness. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. a needle and some feathers.

syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. laying poisoned meat and meal. Gordon Dempsey. Wis. long. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. Albany. Y.. wide and 1/16 in. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. etc. . letting it go at arm's length. There is a 1-in. The strings should be about 15 in.J. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. Paterson. This not only keeps the rats out. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. The end is filed to an edge. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. Hellwig. The diaphragm C. wound on the head end. high. long. deep.string to each corner. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. which is the essential part of the instrument. F. is cut on the wood. The coil is 1 in. the corners being wired. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. thus helping the rats to enter. N. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. and tacked it to the boards. G. and the receiver is ready for use. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. Ashland. --Contributed by J. --Contributed by John A. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. A. cut to the length of the spool. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. commonly called tintype tin. board all around the bottom on the inside. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. setting traps. and a coil of wire. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. The body of the receiver. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. but not sharp. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. as shown. B. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. made up of four layers of No. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. One end is removed entirely. A small wooden or fiber end. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. E. N. 1/8 in.

and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. Take a piece of string or. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. wide. The vase is to have three supports. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. gold. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. begin with the smallest scrolls. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. A single line will be sufficient. better still. a piece of small wire. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. to . using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. and bend each strip in shape. To clean small articles.

Trace also the line around the purse. 3-1/2 in. from the lines EF on the piece. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. . wide when stitching up the purse.. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. About 1 in. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. using a duller point of the tool. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. from E to F.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. 4-1/4 in. 3-1/4 in. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. as shown in the sketch. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. through which to slip the fly AGH.. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber.which the supports are fastened with rivets. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. 6-3/8 in. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. Fold the leather on the line EF. sharp pencil. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. After taking off the pattern. Work down the outside line of the design. Press or model down the leather all around the design. thus raising it. and does not require coloring. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. from C to D.

1/2 in. and. as shown in Fig. 1 was cut. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. around the wheel. and cut out a wheel. Make the lug 1/4 in. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. and cut it out as shown in Fig. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. 2. being cast in wooden molds. with a compass saw. and which will be very interesting. square. as well as useful. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. and the projections B. Now take another piece of wood. the "open" side. then place the square piece out of which Fig. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. following the dotted lines. thick. It can be made without the use of a lathe. It is neat and efficient. Fit this to the two . all the way around. This also should be slightly beveled. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. When it is finished. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. deep. by 12 ft. with the open side down. Then nail the wheel down firmly. deep. with the largest side down. 3. b. leaving the lug a. long. First. then nail it. and a model for speed and power. with pins or small nails. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. Cut off six pieces 12 in. 1. and tack the other piece slightly.

holes through it. Now put mold No. and cut it out as shown in Fig. square pieces of wood. as shown by the . Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. hole 1/4 in. hole bored through its center. Take the mold apart. Now take another of the 12-in. 1. and boring a 3/8-in. one of which should have a 3/8-in. place it between two of the 12-in. and lay it away to dry. in the center of it. deep. then bolt it together. slightly beveled. 4. and bore six 1/4-in. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part.pieces just finished. square pieces of wood.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. After it is finished. as shown by the black dots in Fig. and clean all the shavings out of it. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. bolts. hole entirely through at the same place.

Using the Brace . 6. and drill it entirely through. d. holes. A piece of mild steel 5 in. as shown by the black dots in Fig. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting.black dots in Fig. only the one is left-handed. place the entire machine in a vise. and drill them in the same manner. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. so that it will turn easily. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. until it is full.2. in diameter must now be obtained. This will cast a paddle-wheel. and lay it away to dry. Find the center of the paddle-wheel.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. Fig. After it is fitted in. and the other in the base. 4. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. Let it stand for half an hour. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench.2. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. lay it on a level place. This is the same as Fig. true it up with a square. 6. Pour metal into mold No. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. over the defective part. see that the bolts are all tight. Now take mold No.1. as shown in illustration. instead of the right-handed piece. long. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. where the casting did not fill out. Put this together in mold No. B. b. 1. and the exhaust hole in projection b. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. and pouring metal in to fill it up. and pour babbitt metal into it. and two 1/4-in. one in the lug. Then bolt the castings together. take an ordinary brace. and run in babbitt metal again. and bore three 1/4-in. This is for a shaft. screw down. holes at d. with the flat p